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Sample records for clove caryophyllus aromaticus

  1. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-06-03

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  2. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP. PMID:27853710

  3. Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove essential oils to control spoilage microorganisms in pork under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena D'Amato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP. In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL, and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL. Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  4. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Severo de; Giani, Tania Santos; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: severodepaoli@gmail.com; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio) were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of blood constituents and the shape of red blood cells without modifying the perimeter/area ratio. The results indicate that clove extract presents chemical compounds that interfere with the radiolabeling of blood constituents and alter the morphology of red blood cells by oxidative/chelating actions or interacting with the cellular membrane structure. (author)

  5. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severo de Paoli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (pO cravo-da-índia (Caryophyllus aromaticus L. tem sido usado em tratamentos clínicos. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc são usados em medicina nuclear O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de um extrato de cravo-da-índia na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia das hemácias. Amostras de sangue foram incubadas com cravo-da-índia, cloreto estanoso e 99mTc. Plasma, células sangüíneas, frações insolúveis do plasma e das células sangüíneas foram separadas. A porcentagem de radioatividade incorporada (% ATI nestas frações foi calculada. Forma e relação perímetro/área das hemácias foram avaliadas. O extrato de cravo-da-índia alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos e qualitativamente a forma das hemácias. Não foram obtidas alterações na relação perímetro/área hemácias. Os resultados indicam que o extrato de cravo-da-índia apresenta compostos que interferem com a radiomarcação de constituintes sangüíneos e alteram a morfologia de células sangüíneas através de ações oxidativas/quelantes ou interagindo com a estrutura da membrana celular.

  6. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    OpenAIRE

    P.S.R Lucca; L.H.P. NÓBREGA; ALVES, L.F.A.; Cruz-Silva,C.T.A.; PACHECO,F. P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.). T...

  7. CLOVES syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jacob; Upton, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    A cohort of patients with overgrowth syndromes has been identified with congenital lipomatous overgrowth, dysregulated fat deposits, and mixed vascular malformations. The acronym CLOVES was given on a heuristic basis to stand for congenital lipomatous overgrowth (CLO), vascular malformation (V), epidermal nevi (E), and scoliosis and spinal deformities (S). These patients have upper limb anomalies with variable phenotypes. Although hand anomalies alone cannot make the diagnosis, the foot, truncal, cutaneous and spinal anomalies are particularly diagnostic. CLOVES syndrome has emerged as a distinct clinical entity diagnosed by clinical and radiographic examinations. The overgrowth pattern is now easily distinguished from other overgrowth syndromes.

  8. aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation

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    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability.

  9. The insecticidal potential of Foeniculum vulgareMill., Pimpinella anisum L. and Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control aphid on kale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. R. LUCCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe use of natural substances for pest control in agriculture is, economically, a viable option and has benefits for both the humanbeing and the environment, due to its low persistence and toxicity. Thus, this trial aimed on determining the insecticidal potential of the extracts and essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., anise (Pimpinella anisum L. and clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. to control Brevicoryne brassicae L. in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala DC.. The treatments were: fennel, anise, cloves extracts at 10%; fennel, anise, cloves oils at 1% and control with distilled water. The mortality tests were carried out with aphids in laboratory, with three replications, after 1, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. During laboratory trials , it was found out that fennel oil at 1% showed the best rate of mortality on aphid nymphs (70% at 72 h, followed by clove extract at 10% with 37% mortality. Tests in pots were only carried out only with cloves extracts at 10% and fennel oil at 1% treatment, in which such efficiency was alsoindicated on aphid nymphs.

  10. CLOVE: A CHAMPION SPICE

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    Parle Milind

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove may be looked upon as a champion of all the antioxidants known till date. The Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC test is a scale developed by U.S. Department of Agriculture for comparing anti-oxidant activity. The ORAC score, of clove is over 10 million. A drop of clove oil is 400 times more powerful as an anti-oxidant than wolf berries or blueberries. Health benefits from the use of clove have been known over the centuries. It is beneficial as a home remedy in curing several ailments / diseases. In addition to its culinary uses, the clove buds have an abundance of medicinal and recreational uses. The major part of the world’s consumption of the clove spice is in the home kitchens. However, commercial use of the clove is for the production of clove oil that contain active constituents, which possess antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent properties. Eugenol is the main constituent responsible for the medicinal properties of the clove bud. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on clove covering its, synonyms, chemical constituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.

  11. Eugenia caryophyllus Extract Exerts Hypocholesterolemic and Antioxidant Effects in High-Cholesterol-Fed Rats

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    Onyenibe Nwozo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Eugenia caryophyllus (clove is an important aromatic household spice. The plant is believed to possess medicinal properties and is commonly used in herbal preparations by traditional healers in the treatment of different ailments and diseases. Objectives We investigated the lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Eugenia caryophyllus on high-cholesterol-fed rats. Materials and Methods Cholesterol (40 mg/0.3 mL was administered to induce hypercholesterolemia in rats by oral gavage, and Eugenia caryophyllus (100 or 200 mg/kg and Questran (0.26 g/kg were administered five times a week for eight consecutive weeks. Serum lipid-profiles, lipid peroxidation (LPO, and antioxidant parameters were examined in liver and heart post mitochondrial fraction (PMF. Aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities and liver tissue histology were used to evaluate tissue toxicity. Results Hypercholesterolemia produced a noticeable decrease in serum HDL-c, whereas a concurrent elevation in serum LDL-c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides as well as serum ALT and AST was observed. Furthermore, hypercholesterolemia remarkably decreased antioxidant status, but LPO content was increased. These indices were significantly attenuated in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with E. caryophyllus extract (100 or 200 mg/kg of body weight. Specifically, reduced glutathione (GSH concentration was increased in a dose dependent manner in liver and heart PMF. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous extract of E. caryophyllus might be due to its ability to ameliorate lipid profiles, enhance antioxidant activities, and delay the lipid peroxidation process. This confirms the previously identified protective roles of E. caryophyllus in human health.

  12. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Gislene G. F.; Juliana Locatelli; Freitas,Paulo C.; Silva,Giuliana L.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  13. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Gislene G. F.; Locatelli,Juliana; Freitas,Paulo C.; Silva,Giuliana L.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Sa...

  14. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family:Cyperaceae) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh Kamiabi; Zairi Jaal; Chan Lai Keng

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods:The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results:Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex

  15. A new cyclopeptide from Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Li; Feng Mei Zhang; Ya Bin Yang; Xue Qiong Yang; Qiu E.Cao; Zhong Tao Ding

    2008-01-01

    A new cyclopeptide as well as a known cyclopeptide were isolated from the whole plants of Dianthus caryophyllus.Their structures were elucidated as cyclo (-Thr-Gly-Pro-Tyr-Pbe-)(1)and cyclo (-Ala-Gly-Ser-IIe-Phe-Phe-)(2)by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods including MS,ID and 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Cyclic malyl anthocyanins in Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Yoshida, H; Kan, Y; Fukui, Y; Koike, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-01

    3,5-Di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) pelargonidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate and a previously reported cyanidin equivalent, 3,5-di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) cyanidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate were identified from petals of deep pink and red-purple flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus, respectively.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1257 - Clove and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eugenol, CAS Reg. No. 97-53-0), oleoresins, and natural extractives obtained from clove buds, leaves, and stems. (b) Clove bud oil, clove leaf oil, clove stem oil, and eugenol meet the specifications of the... modifications: (1) The assay for phenols, as eugenol, by the “Food Chemicals Codex” test, 4th ed. (pp....

  18. PATHORCHUR (COLEUS AROMATICUS: A REVIEW OF THE MEDICINAL EVIDENCE FOR ITS PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY PROPERTIES

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    Om Prakash Rout

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Fam. Lamiaceae, syn. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Spreng or Plectranthus ambonicus Lour, is commonly known as Indian/ country borage and ‘Pathorchur’ in Hindi and Bengali. It is recorded in the Indian system of medicine as one of the sources of Pashanabheda. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. It is found throughout India, Ceylon and Moluccas. The leaves of the plant are bitter, acrid and were being widely used traditionally for various purposes. The plant has been worked out very well and isolated several chemical constituents and had shown various biological properties. This review is an effort to compile all the information reported on its macroscopic, microscopic features, nutritional content, phytochemistry, pharmacology and therapeutic uses.

  19. Clove

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during dental work, and for a complication of tooth extraction called “dry socket.” It is also applied to ... as effective for toothache pain. "Dry socket” following tooth extraction. Vomiting. Upset stomach. Nausea. Gas (flatulence). Diarrhea. Hernia. ...

  20. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum: a precious spice

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    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clove (Syzygium aromaticum is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

  1. Direction Identification System of Garlic Clove Based on Machine Vision

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    Gao Chi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the requirements of seeding direction of garlic cloves, the paper proposed a research method of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, it expounded the theory of garlic clove direction identification, stated the arithmetic of it, designed the direction identification device of it, then developed the control system of garlic clove direction identification based on machine vision, at last tested the garlic clove direction identification, and the result of the experiment certificated that the rate of garlic clove direction identification could reach to more than 97%, and it demonstrated that the research is of high feasibility and technological values.

  2. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of Coleus aromaticus root in Indian Adult Earthworm

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    Arshad Hussain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anthelmintic resistance creates a major hitch over the decades throughout the world. As per WHO only synthetic drugs are frequently used in the treatment of helminth infestations in human beings but these synthetic drugs are out of reach of millions of people and have a lot of side effects. In view of this, an attempt has been made to study the anthelmintic activity of herbal drug. Methods: All the prototypes and the standard drug solution were freshly prepared before commencement of the experiments. All the earthworms were washed in normal saline solution before they were released into 10 ml of respective formulation as follows, vehicle (2% v/v Tween 80 in normal saline, and Piperazine Citrate (10 mg/ml and prototypes (10, 20 and 50mg/ml. Results: All the investigational extract acquired the anthelmintic activity at minimal dose of 10 mg/ml. its significant activity (P<0.05 at 10 mg/ml for time taken to paralysis and death when compared to the standard drugs Piperzine citrate used at 10 mg/ml respectively. Conclusions: Herbal drugs and synthetic drugs have equally effective in helminth infestations but methanolic extract has the maximum anthelmintic activity potential than other root extract of Coleus aromaticus.

  3. A patient with clove oil intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyrbye, B.A.; Dubois, L.; Vink, R.; Horn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the case of a 67-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room because of inability to speak and confusion. His medical history revealed hypertension and alcohol abuse. His neurological symptoms and laboratory abnormalities are caused by intoxication with clove oil combine

  4. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%.

  5. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth regulators (PGRs) were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae) cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-n...

  6. Antifungal Activity of Clove Essential Oil and its Volatile Vapour Against Dermatophytic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essen...

  7. Composição e atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia, citronela e palmarosa Composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of clove, citronella and palmarosa essential oils

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    R. Scherer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas a ação antioxidante, ação antimicrobiana e a composição dos óleos essenciais de cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus e palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii. A ação antioxidante foi avaliada pelo método de DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazila, e a ação antimicrobiana determinada pelo método da microdiluição definindo-se a concentração inibitória mínima para os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Clostridium perfringens. A composição química dos óleos foi determinada por CG-DIC e a identificação dos compostos voláteis por CG-EM, em ambos os casos, utilizando uma coluna capilar DB-5. O óleo de cravo-da-índia apresentou uma forte atividade antioxidante e ação antimicrobiana moderada a forte, sendo o eugenol o componente majoritário do óleo de cravo-da-índia (83,7%. Por outro lado, as amostras de citronela e palmarosa apresentaram fraca ação antioxidante, porém a ação antimicrobiana foi moderada a forte.Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as the chemical composition of essential oils of clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L., citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus and palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii were studied. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method and the antimicrobial activity determined by the microdilution method. The minimal inhibitory concentration was defined against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Thyphimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Clostridium perfringens. The chemical composition of oils was determined by GC-FID and volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS, using a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. Clove essential oil showed very high antioxidant activity and moderate to high antimicrobial activity, and eugenol was its major compound (83.7%. On the other hand, citronella and palmarosa samples presented low

  8. In vitro propagation of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jose L; Olmos, Enrique; Piqueras, Abel

    2010-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the most popular ornamental plants worldwide and also among the most studied ones, mainly in cut flower postharvest physiology. Several protocols for the in vitro propagation of this species including nodal segment culture, somatic embryogenesis, and adventitious shoot induction are described in this chapter. The presence of hyperhydricity as an abnormality during micropropagation of carnation plants has also been the object of research for many years and different strategies to overcome this problem are also included in this study.

  9. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

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    Mina Kamkar Asl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1 Saline, (2-4 Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7 Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9 Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s.

  10. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum):a precious spice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Francisco Cortés-Rojas; Wanderley Pereira Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is one of the most valuable spices that has been used for centuries as food preservative and for many medicinal purposes. Clove is native of Indonesia but nowadays is cultured in several parts of the world including Brazil in the state of Bahia. This plant represents one of the richest source of phenolic compounds such as eugenol, eugenol acetate and gallic acid and posses great potential for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and agricultural applications. This review includes the main studies reporting the biological activities of clove and eugenol. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clove is higher than many fruits, vegetables and other spices and should deserve special attention. A new application of clove as larvicidal agent is an interesting strategy to combat dengue which is a serious health problem in Brazil and other tropical countries. Pharmacokinetics and toxicological studies were also mentioned. The different studies reviewed in this work confirm the traditional use of clove as food preservative and medicinal plant standing out the importance of this plant for different applications.

  11. CALLUS INDUCTION FROM 15 CARNATION (DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L. CULTIVARS

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    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth regulators (PGRs were used to induce callus in 15 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.; Caryophyllaceae cultivars: Orange Sherbert, Avalanche, Magenta, La France, Stripe Red, Marie, Concerto PVP, Snap, Lucky Pierot, Cinnamon Tea, White Love, Siberia, Magesta, Spark Bruno, and Honono no Estejo. Seeds were initially sown on autoclaved moistened filter paper and internodes of surface-sterilized seedlings were used as explants. Most callus was induced in the presence of 0.5 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid used together with 1 mg/L 6-benzyladenine or 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on basal Murashige and Skoog medium. Callus is not a desirable method to clonally propagate important germplasm but can serve as one possible way of deriving periclinal mutants as a result of somaclonal variation.

  12. Antifungal properties of clove oil (Eugenia caryophylata in sugar solution

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    Núñez Lidia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature, concentration and contact time on the fungicidal effect of clove oleoresin dispersed in a concentrated sugar solution at 21 and 37ºC, and clove oleoresin at 0.2 to 0.8% (v/v was studied. The test microorganisms were Candida albicans, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fungicidal effect was enhanced at 37ºC; at this temperature short contact times (e.g. 1 min. were enough to eliminate a microbial inoculum of 10(6 c.f.u./ml of C. albicans. Although clove oleoresin caused important lethal effect, P. citrinum and A. niger were more resistant. After 60 minutes, clove oleoresin dispersed (0.4% v/v in concentrated sugar solution caused a 99.6% reduction of the initial population (10(6 c.f.u./ml of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fungicidal activity of clove-sugar on C. albicans, after 2 min contact, was similar to that presented by disinfectants commonly used in hospitals, such as povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol.

  13. Change of Taste Sensitivity of Clove Cigarette Smokers in Medan

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    Marlina Simamora

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tongue has taste buds that contain taste receptor which affected by many factors, including smoking habit. Objective: To analyze the differences of sweet and bitter taste sensitivity in the pedicab driver clove cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers in Medan Padang Bulan. Methods: This study was conducted by placing the sweet taste strips and bitter taste strips on four taste receptors of the tongue, with increasing solution concentration in 74 subjects. This was a cross sectional study on pedicab driver population in Medan Padang Bulan. Results: There were differences between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on sweet taste examination (p<0.005. There was a difference between clove cigarette smokers and non-smokers on examination bitter taste receptors (p<0.005. On the clove cigarette smokers, there was no significant difference between sweet taste and bitter taste on the receptors itself. Conclusion: Non-smokers are more sensitive to sweet taste than the clove cigarette smokers. Bitter taste sensitivity is greater in cigarettes smokers than in non-smokers. Taste receptors on all location of the tongue could taste sweet and bitter substances, but a certain location of taste receptors were more sensitive compared to others.

  14. GC-MS analysis of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud essential oil from Java and Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, B.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U.; Sulistyoningrum, A. S.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The largest clove production contributors in Indonesia are mostly coming from Java and Manado. Different flavor among clove origins is caused by chemical constituents in clove oil. Unfortunately, scientific research and publications about flavor in clove from Indonesia's origin are still limited. The objective of this research is to determine significant differences of constituents in terms of flavor in clove oil originated from Java and Manado. The essential oils were isolated from cut clove bud samples by steam distillation method. The chemical constituents of clove bud oil were analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Constituents were then identified by comparing the results of the chromatogram and reference retention time using Wiley mass spectra library (Wiley W9N11). Thirty-six and thirty-four chemical constituents were identified based on GC-MS from clove oil collected from Java and Manado, respectively. Major classes of compounds are sesquiterpenes, phenyl propanoid, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and esters. Different compositions in major constituents were found between both origins. Clove Java contained eugenol (55.60 %), eugenyl acetate (20.54 %), caryophyllene (14.84 %), and α-humulene (2.75 %). While, in clove Manado, the composition were eugenol (74.64 %), caryophyllene (12.79 %), eugenyl acetate (8.70 %), and α-humulene (1.53 %). Moreover, minor constituents β-elemene (0.04 %), α-cadinene (0.05 %) and ledol (0.06 %) were existed only in clove Java, while clove Manado had some unique minor constituents which were not found in clove Java, i.e. β-gurjunene (0.04 %), γ-cadinene %), and humulene oxide (0.05 %). In conclusion, both clove oils from Java and Manado contained same major chemical constituents but different in their composition. In addition, some minor constituents existed only in specific origin.

  15. Microbicide activity of clove essential oil (Eugenia caryophyllata

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    L. Nuñez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Clove essential oil, used as an antiseptic in oral infections, inhibits Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeast. The influence of clove essential oil concentration, temperature and organic matter, in the antimicrobial activity of clove essential oil, was studied in this paper, through the determination of bacterial death kinetics. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the microorganisms selected for a biological test. To determine the temperature effect, they were assayed at 21° and 37° C. The concentration coefficient was determined with 0.4%, and 0.2% of essential oil. The influence of the presence of organic matter was determined with 0.4% of essential oil. The results obtained demonstrated that Escherichia coli were more sensitive even though the essential oil exerted a satisfactory action in three cases. In the three microbial species, 0.4% of essential oil at 21º C have reduced the bacterial population in 5 logarithmic orders. Organic matter reduces the antibacterial activity even though the bactericide efficacy was not lost. Clove essential oil can be considered as a potential antimicrobial agent for external use

  16. Perinatal clinical and imaging features of CLOVES syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel [Virgen del Rocio Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Seville (Spain); Fajardo, Manuel [Virgen del Rocio Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Seville (Spain); Chaudry, Gulraiz; Alomari, Ahmad I. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We report a neonate with antenatal imaging features suggestive of CLOVES syndrome. Postnatal clinical and imaging findings confirmed the diagnosis, with the constellation of truncal overgrowth, cutaneous capillary malformation, lymphatic and musculoskeletal anomalies. The clinical, radiological and histopathological findings noted in this particular phenotype help differentiate it from other overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  17. Mutation breeding in Dianthus caryophyllus for economic traits

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    Rajib Roychowdhury and Jagatpati Tah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus caryophyllus is a commercial season based floricultural crop which grows well in temperate climate all over the worldand popular as cut-flowers for its variegated petal’s colour. So, it has terrific market demands in international trading. In thismodern era, an agronomic demand of high yielding cultivar of this crop was noticed. Development of cultivars with moredesirable floral characteristics and higher productivity are also very important in this crop. Keeping this view in our mind, weundertook the venture of mutation breeding programme by selecting chemical mutagens, viz. Colchicine (Col, Ethyl MethaneSulphonate (EMS, and Maleic Hydrazide (MH at different concentrations, which were applied on the seeds and leaves. The firstmutation generation (M1 seeds of the crop were harvested properly and kept in dessicator for its proper restoring. Thereafter, thesecond mutation generation (M2 seeds were grown in the next season for availing M2 populations. Various biometricalcharacters viz. number of tillering per plant, total number of flowers, length (cm of flowers, length (cm of petals and weight (gof 1000 seeds were studied and the obtained raw data were analyzed following the ANOVA model.

  18. Sequence analysis of the genome of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Masafumi; Kosugi, Shunichi; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ohmiya, Akemi; Tanase, Koji; Harada, Taro; Kishimoto, Kyutaro; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ichimura, Kazuo; Onozaki, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Miyahara, Taira; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Noriko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Shusei; Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Akiko; Nakayama, Shinobu; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    The whole-genome sequence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. 'Francesco' was determined using a combination of different new-generation multiplex sequencing platforms. The total length of the non-redundant sequences was 568,887,315 bp, consisting of 45,088 scaffolds, which covered 91% of the 622 Mb carnation genome estimated by k-mer analysis. The N50 values of contigs and scaffolds were 16,644 bp and 60,737 bp, respectively, and the longest scaffold was 1,287,144 bp. The average GC content of the contig sequences was 36%. A total of 1050, 13, 92 and 143 genes for tRNAs, rRNAs, snoRNA and miRNA, respectively, were identified in the assembled genomic sequences. For protein-encoding genes, 43 266 complete and partial gene structures excluding those in transposable elements were deduced. Gene coverage was ∼ 98%, as deduced from the coverage of the core eukaryotic genes. Intensive characterization of the assigned carnation genes and comparison with those of other plant species revealed characteristic features of the carnation genome. The results of this study will serve as a valuable resource for fundamental and applied research of carnation, especially for breeding new carnation varieties. Further information on the genomic sequences is available at http://carnation.kazusa.or.jp.

  19. [Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Heping; Zhu, Yuanfeng; Wang, Bei; Sun, Jiangbing; Huang, Shengqin

    2014-11-01

    To use Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced hairy roots to create new germplasm of Dianthus caryophyllus, we transformed D. caryophyllus with A. rhizogenes by leaf disc for plant regeneration from hairy roots. The white hairy roots could be induced from the basal surface of leaf explants of D. caryophyllus 12 days after inoculation with A. rhizogenes ATCC15834. The percentage of the rooting leaf explants was about 90% 21 days after inoculation. The hairy roots could grow rapidly and autonomously in liquid or solid phytohormone-free MS medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of rol gene of Ri plasmid and silica gel thin-layer chromatography of opines from D. caryophyllus hairy roots. Hairy roots could form light green callus after cultured on MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L for 15 days. The optimum medium for adventitious shoots formation was MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.02 mg/L, where the rate of adventitious shoot induction was 100% after cultured for 6 weeks. The mean number of adventitious shoot per callus was 30-40. The adventitious shoots can form roots when cultured on phytohormone-free 1/2 MS or 1/2 MS +0.5 mg/L NAA for 10 days. When the rooted plantlets transplanted in the substrate mixed with perlite sand and peat (volume ratio of 1:2), the survival rate was above 95%.

  20. Ethylene biosynthesis genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and af

  1. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay.

  2. Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William H.; Smiley, Patricia M.

    2002-01-01

    This experiment describes the isolation and biological testing of eugenol and neutral compounds from commercially available clove oil. By coupling the chemical separation of the components of clove oil (an experiment described in many introductory organic laboratory textbooks) with a simple antibiotic test, the students "discover" the biologically active compound in clove oil. This experiment models one of the primary methods used in the discovery of new pharmaceutical agents.

  3. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Rochel

    2012-08-01

    Vector repellent is one element in the prevention of vector-borne diseases. Families that neglect protecting their children against vectors risk their children contracting illnesses such as West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, Lyme disease, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Southern tick-associated rash illness, ehrlichiosis, tick-borne relapsing fever, tularemia, and other insect and arthropod related diseases (CDC, 2011). Identification of families at risk includes screening of the underlying basis for reluctance to apply insect repellent. Nurses and physicians can participate in a positive role by assisting families to determine the proper prophylaxis by recommending insect repellent choices that are economical, safe, and easy to use. A holistic alternative might include the suggestion of clove oil in cases where families might have trepidations regarding the use of DEET on children. This article will explore the safety and effectiveness of clove oil and its use as an insect repellent.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Behavior of Clove Oil on Iron in Acidic Medium

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    Archana Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion behavior of iron in hydrochloric acid solution was studied using weight loss as well Scanning electron microscopy study without and with clove oil. The percentage inhibition efficiency increases with increasing clove oil concentration. All the data revel that the oil acts as an excellent inhibitor for the corrosion of iron in HCl solution. Thermodynamic, kinetic parameters and equilibrium constant for adsorption process were calculated from the experimental data. The adsorption of clove oil on experimental metals was found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm at all the concentration studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM, investigations also indicate that clove oil greatly lowers the dissolution currents.

  5. Identification of nonvolatile compounds in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathoni, A.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (clove) are native to Indonesia and have been widely used in food industry due to their flavor. Nonvolatile compounds contribute to flavor, mainly in their taste. Currently, there is very little information available about nonvolatile compounds in clove. Identification of nonvolatile compounds is important to improve clove's value. Compound extraction was conducted by maceration in ethanol. Fractionations of the extract were performed by using gravity column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS was operated in negative mode with 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by fragment analysis and compared to references. Several compounds had been identified and characterized asquinic acid, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, isobiflorin, biflorin, ellagic acid, hydroxygallic acid, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, dimethoxyluteolin, and rhamnetin. These compounds had two main flavor perceptions, i.e. astringent, and bitter.

  6. of Clove on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan-Based Films

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    Paola Reyes-Chaparro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan films prepared with essential oils of clove and functional extract were studied. The films made with functional extracts (esters E6 and E7 presented the significant increment of extensibility compared with the untreated chitosan films. In the case of punction test, the films made with the esters E6 and E7 resisted more the applied strength before tearing up compared with the chitosan control film (without any treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis values were determined for the chitosan control film and chitosan film treated with clove essential oil obtaining 112.17°C and 176.73°C, respectively. Atomic force microscopy (AFM was used to determine their morphology by analyzing their surfaces and phase arrangement; AFM was also used to observe the porosity in chitosan-based antimicrobial films and the chitosan films incorporating functional extracts. The water vapour permeability (WVP data showed that incorporating the functional extract to the formulation of films has a positive effect on water vapour barrier properties. In general, the incorporation of essential oils and functional extract of clove at 20% in chitosan films caused microstructural changes that were dependent on the different affinity of components.

  7. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  8. Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Gumnicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene saponins from the aerial parts of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus var. remontant Hort. have been studied. Three gypsogenic acid glycosides including 3-O-glucopyranoside, 3,28-O-di-glucopyranoside and 3-O-glucopyranosy1,28-0-[glucopyranosyl(1→6glucopyranoside] have been identified by means of LSI mass spectrometry and 1H and 13C NMR. Inhibitory activities of isolated compounds against growth of the fungus Trichoderma viride and the growth of the roots of Lepidium sativum and D. caryophyllus seedlings were measured. None of the isolated compounds showed pronounced activity in T. viride test. Seedling root growth was affected severely at the presence of gypsogenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside. Bidesmosidic form showed marginal stimulatory activity. The obtained data are discussed in relation to the activity of medicagenic acid 3-O-glucopyranoside, the compound differing just with 2-OH substitution from gypsogenic acid glycosides.

  9. Improvement of Quality of Carica papaya L. with Clove Oil as Preservative in Edible Coating Technology

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    Eny Kusrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied utilization of essential clove oil, extracted from clove buds by hydrodistillation, as preservative in edible packaging technology. Preservative of essential clove oil was applied on chopped papaya fruits by using two methods, namely spray and brush. The effects of concentration of clove oil from 0.05 to 0.20% on the preservation of papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. at room temperature (25 °C were also evaluated. Physicochemical and in vitro microbiological activities on the papaya fruits that were stored at 25 oC and 85-90% relative humidity were investigated in details. The results indicate that the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% suppressed the decay time, 10% weight loss, 0.03 g citric acid/100 g in acidity titration test, and 20% pH value from those of control sample of papaya fruits kept in a storage. The population of fungi and bacteria were efficiently reduced by 90% when the clove oil at concentration ≥0.10% was applied as preservative on papaya fruits. This finding suggested that the extracted essential clove oil acted as effective antifungal and antibacterial agents. Preservative by essential clove oil improved the quality of fruits to extend the product shelf life and to reduce the risk of microbial growth on fruits surface.

  10. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Xueli eWan; Qiao eZhou; Yuanyuan eWang; Wenen eWang; Manzhu eBao; Junwei eZhang

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this...

  11. Identification and dose assessment of irradiated cardamom and cloves by EPR spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshir, W. B.

    2014-03-01

    The use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to accurately distinguish irradiated from unirradiated cardamom and cloves and assesses the absorbed dose to radiation processed cardamom and cloves are examined. The results were successful for identifying both irradiated and unirradiated cardamom and cloves. Additive reirradiation of cardamom and cloves produces reproducible dose-response functions, which can be used to assess the initial dose by back-extrapolation. Third degree polynomial function was used to fit the EPR signal/dose curves. It was found that this 3rd degree polynomial function provides satisfactory results without correction of decay for free radicals. The stability of the radiation induced EPR signal of irradiated cardamom and cloves were studied over a storage period of almost 8 months.

  12. BIOEFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS AGAINST HOUSEFLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. CHINTALCHERE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect, associated with vectoring of various etiologicalagents. In order to search for effective control method, bioefficacy of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgarisand Clove leaf (Eugenia coryophyllus was studied against housefly. The LC (50 3.18ug/cm2 value of Clove leaf oilwas found highly effective as compared to LC (50 value 4.39ug/cm2 of Thyme essential oil for inducing mortalityof M. domestica larvae. The adulticidal activity of Thyme essential oil LC (50 32.71 mg/dm3 was toxic than Cloveleaf essential oil [LC (50 53.10 mg/dm3]. In Attractant / repellant Bioassay, Thyme essential oil revealed 90.21%repellency as compared to 80.68 % value of Clove leaf essential oil against adults of House fly. In fumigationbioassay, Thyme showed high Pupicidal activity than Clove leaf oil and in contact toxicity bioassay using topicalapplication both the oils showed 100 % pupicidal mortality. The data reveals that Clove and Thyme essential oilshave excellent potential for controlling M. domestica population as eco-friendly approach in IPM.

  13. PRO-CHOLINERGIC, HYPO-CHOLESTEROLEMIC AND MEMORY IMPROVING EFFECTS OF CLOVE

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Clove is found to possess useful medicinal properties, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) on cognitive functions in mice. Clove powder was administered orally along with diet in three doses (400, 800, 1600mg/kg) for seven successive days. 250 Swiss young mice divided in 50 groups and 100 aged mice divided in 20 groups were employed in the present study. The learni...

  14. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Olszowy, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antioxidant activities of some essential oils: thyme (Thymus vulgaris), basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), sage (Salvia hispanica) and lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) and of their main components (thymol or estragole or menthol or eugenol or carvacrol or camphor or limonene) estimated by using 2,2'-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and β-carotene bleaching assays. The obtained data show that the antioxidant properties of essential oil do not always depend on the antioxidant activity of its main component, and that they can be modulated by their other components. The conclusions concerning the interaction of essential oil components depend on the type of method applied for assessing the antioxidant activity. When comparing the antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components, the concepts of synergism, antagonism and additivity are very relevant.

  15. Comparative efficacy of Zataria multiflora Boiss., Origanum compactum and Eugenia caryophyllus essential oils against E. coli O157:H7, feline calicivirus and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby-leaf salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizkhani, Maryam; Elizaquível, Patricia; Sánchez, Gloria; Selma, María Victoria; Aznar, Rosa

    2013-09-02

    Ready-to-eat salads using baby-leaf and multi-leaf mixes are one of the most promising developments in the fresh-cut food industry. There is great interest in developing novel decontamination treatments, which are both safe for consumers and more efficient against foodborne pathogens. In this study, emulsions of essential oils (EOs) from Origanum compactum (oregano), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (zataria) were applied by spray (0.8 ml) after the sanitizing washing step. The aim was to investigate their ability to control the growth of potentially cross-contaminating pathogens and endogenous microbiota in commercial baby leaves, processed in a fresh-cut produce company. Zataria EO emulsions of 3%, 5% and 10% reduced Escherichia coli O157:H7 by 1.7, 2.2 and 3.5 log cfu/g in baby-leaf salads after 5 days of storage at 7°C. By contrast, reductions in E. coli O157:H7 counts remained the same when clove was applied at concentrations of 5% and 10% (2.5 log cfu/g reduction). Oregano (10%) reduced inoculated E. coli O157:H7 counts in baby-leaf salads by a maximum of 0.5 log cfu/g after 5 days of storage. Zataria showed strong antimicrobial efficacy against E. coli O157:H7 and also against the endogenous microbiota of baby-leaf salads stored for 9 days. Feline calicivirus (FCV), a norovirus surrogate, survived on inoculated baby-leaf salads during refrigerated storage (9 days at 7°C) regardless of treatment. Refrigeration temperatures completely annulled the effectiveness of the EOs against FCV inoculated in baby-leaf salads as occurred in FCV cultures. This study shows that EOs, and zataria in particular, have great potential use as an additional barrier to reduce contamination-related risks in baby-leaf salads. However, further research should be done into foodborne viruses in order to improve food safety.

  16. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  17. Visual discourse of the clove: An analysis on the Ottoman tile decoration art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Öncel Taskiran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In tile art, one of the world-famous Turkish Handicrafts, a wide variety of patterns are used on tile objects. The most common of these, after the tulip pattern, is the naturalist clove pattern. Different meanings were assigned to this pattern within the boundaries of form, color and design. Identification and perception of these meanings have a special place within the frame of the culture that they relay. In this present study the fields of meaning of the clove pattern frequently used in tile decoration arts among Turkish handicrafts were tried to be determined. By taking Greimas' Actantial Model as the theoretical model, in the study visual discourse analysis of the clove pattern will be made.Keywords: Clove Pattern, Ottoman Tile Art, Greimas, Visual Discourse.

  18. In vitro conservation of the cultivation of spanish carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. from mineral salts.

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    Liudmila Jiménez-Mariña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of the salts concentration described by Murashige and Skoog (MS in short term in vitro conservation of nodal segments of Spanish Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The investigation was developed in the Center of Vegetable Biotechnology Studies (CEBVEG, in the period 2012- 2013. The treatments consisted on the addition of MS salts (100; 75; 50; 25% and a control (100% + growing regulators in medium culture. Decreasing until 25% of salts concentration in culture medium reduced the growing speed, being able to conserve for six months under these conditions A survival and recovery of 91,3% was obtained.

  19. A minimal cost micropropagation protocol for Dianthus caryophyllus L.-- a commercially significant venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Manu

    2016-03-01

    In tissue culture, high production cost of the products restricts their reach. Though tissue culture is a major strength in floriculture it is marred by pricing issues. Hence, we developed a complete regeneration low cost micropropagation protocol for an economically important floriculture crop, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Successful regeneration of carnation from nodal explants on cost-efficient medium indicates that psyllium husk, sugar and RO water can effectively replace the conventional medium comprising agar, sucrose and distilled water. The protocol can contribute to increased carnation production at comparatively reduced cost, and there by encourage wide scale adoption by the common growers.

  20. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    OpenAIRE

    Taneesha Chawla; Nida Itrat Abbasi; Aishwarya Tandon; Suneetha V

    2014-01-01

    Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on...

  2. PRO-CHOLINERGIC, HYPO-CHOLESTEROLEMIC AND MEMORY IMPROVING EFFECTS OF CLOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Clove is found to possess useful medicinal properties, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove on cognitive functions in mice. Clove powder was administered orally along with diet in three doses (400, 800, 1600mg/kg for seven successive days. 250 Swiss young mice divided in 50 groups and 100 aged mice divided in 20 groups were employed in the present study. The learning and memory parameters were assessed using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance apparatus and Hebb-Williams maze. Clove showed significant improvement in the memory of young and aged animals as reflected by decreased TL as well as TRC and increased SDL values. It also reversed the amnesia caused by ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p. and diazepam (1mg/kg, i.p.. Furthermore, Clove reduced significantly the brain cholinesterase activity in young mice by 50.5 % and aged mice by 21.25 % at the dose of 800 mg/kg. Clove also showed remarkable reduction to the extent of 33% and 66.32 % in the total cholesterol levels of young and aged mice at the dose of 800 mg/kg. Diminished cholinergic transmission and high cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of dementia in Alzheimer patients. Since Clove powder enhanced Ach levels and lowered cholesterol levels in the present study; it appears to be a promising candidate for improving memory. Thus it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this spice (Clove clinically in the management of Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. The clove tree of Madagascar: a success story with an unpredictable future

    OpenAIRE

    Danthu, Pascal; Penot, Eric; Ranoarisoa, Karen Mahafaka; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostôme; Michel, Isabelle; Tiollier, Marine; Michels, Thierry; Normand, Frédéric; Razafimamonjison, Gaylor; Fawbush, Fanja; Jahiel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The clove tree was introduced to Madagascar from the Maluku Islands in Indonesia at the beginning of the 19th century. In spite of its sensitivity to hazards such as cyclones, a locally found pest known as andretra and year-on-year variability in the production of cloves, it has adapted surprisingly well to the ecological conditions on Madagascar’s East coast, particularly the Analanjirofo Region. The species was adopted very rapidly by farmers (some settlers but mostly native peasant farmers...

  4. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent.

  5. Cytotoxicity and Antiproliferative Activity Assay of Clove Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. Leaves Extracts

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    Vida Elsyana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clove mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. Miq. is a semiparasitic plant that belongs to Loranthaceae family. Clove mistletoe was traditionally used for cancer treatment in Indonesia. In the present study, we examined cytotoxicity of clove mistletoe leaves extracts against brine shrimps and conducted their antiproliferative activity on K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia and MCM-B2 (canine benign mixed mammary cancer cell lines in vitro. The tested samples were water extract, ethanol extract, ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and n-hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was screened using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. Antiproliferative activity was conducted using Trypan Blue Dye Method and cells were counted using haemocytometer. The results showed that n-hexane fraction exhibited significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 55.31 μg/mL. The n-hexane fraction was then considered for further examination. The n-hexane fraction of clove mistletoe could inhibit growth of K562 and MCM-B2 cancer cell lines in vitro. The inhibition activity of clove mistletoe n-hexane fraction at concentration of 125 μg/mL on K562 cancer cell lines was 38.69%, while on MCM-B2 it was 41.5%. Therefore, it was suggested that clove mistletoe had potential natural anticancer activity.

  6. Effect of Combined Cinnamon and Clove Oil Against Major Moulds Identified from Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis

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    Narumol MATAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activities of pure and combined cinnamon and clove oils in a ratio of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 against major mould found on rubberwood (Aspergillus niger WU001, Penicillium chrysogenum WU002, Penicillium sp. WU003 were investigated using a broth dilution method at a concentration of 10 - 100 μL/mL. The higher ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (3:1, 5:1 and 7:1 were stronger inhibitors than the lower ratios of cinnamon and clove oils (1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7 and the pure cinnamon or clove oil. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the combined cinnamon and clove oils at the ratio 5:1 was determined to be 50 μL/mL for all moulds. Antifungal activity of the combined cinnamon and clove oils (5:1 at a concentration of   50 μL/mL was further examined on rubberwood specimens under storage conditions of 30 °C and 100 %RH. It was found that all moulds on rubberwood specimens were completely inhibited for at least 12 weeks under the storage conditions examined.

  7. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  8. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Chacón

    Full Text Available Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  9. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  10. Controle da vitrificação do cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro Control of carnation vitrification (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F. Cuzzuol

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixos níveis de benziladenina (BAP, baixo potencial de água no meio e baixa umidade condicionada por tampas de algodão foram capazes de inibir a vitrificação de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cultivado In vitro, mas essas condições implicaram no baixo desenvolvimento das plantas e da taxa de propagação. Elevados níveis de NH4NO3 demonstraram serem altamente promotores da vitrifícação assinalada pelo alto conteúdo de proteína, enquanto relação inversa foi constatada para altos níveis de CaCl2, aos quais seguiu-se aumento na atividade da peroxidase. Os resultados permitiram estabelecer um protocolo para controle da vitrificação do cravo, constituído de 4,0 g/1 de "Gelrite", 0,5 mg/1 de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA, 0,05 mg/1 de BAP, doses normais das soluções salinas do meio MS e vedação do tipo tampas de algodão para cultivo de ápices meristemáticos. Para a fase de multiplicação, este protocolo deve ser alterado para 0,5 mg/1 de BAP, 10,3 mM de NH4NO3 e 12,0 mM de CaCl2.Low levels of benzyl adenine (BAP, low water potential of the growth medium and low humidity due to cotton covers, inhibited vitrification of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. in vitro. However, under these conditions, a low development of plants and a decrease in the multiplication ratio, were observed. High levels of amonium nitrate enhanced vitrification with an increase in the total soluble protein content. An inverse correlation was observed in the presence of high levels of calcium chloride. The latter was correlated to an increase in peroxidase activity. The results allowed the establishment of a protocol to control vitrification during carnation meristein growth, as follows: "Gelrite", 4 g/1; naphtalene acetic acid, 0.5 mg/l; BAP, 0.05 mg/l; normal dosis of MS salts; cotton covers. For in vitro multiplication the protocol should be altered to BAP, 0.5 mg/1; amoniuin nitrate 10.3 mM; calcium chloride 12.0 mM.

  11. PENGAMBILAN MINYAK ATSIRI BUNGA CENGKEH (Clove Oil MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT n-HEKSANA DAN BENZENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Minyak cengkeh merupakan salah satu jenis minyak atsiri yang dapat diperoleh dari bunga, tangkai atau gagang bunga dan daun cengkeh. Kandungan minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh mencapai 21,3% dengan kadar eugenol antara 78-95%, dari tangkai atau gagang bunga mencapai 6% dengan kadar eugenol antara 89-95%, dan dari daun cengkeh mencapai 2-3% dengan kadar eugenol antara 80-85%. Kandungan terbesar minyak cengkeh adalah eugenol, yang bermanfaat dalam pembuatan vanilin, eugenil metil eter, eugenil asetat, dll. Ektraksi dengan pelarut adalah salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk ekstraksi minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh. Pelarut yang digunakan dalam proses ekstraksi adalah n-heksana dan benzena. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui rendemen yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksana dan benzene serta mengetahui komponen-komponen minyak cengkeh yang terambil dengan pelarut n-heksana dan benzena. Tahapan penelitian diawali dengan mengeringkan bunga cengkeh dengan dijemur di bawah sinar matahari selama 1 minggu. Setelah itu, bu-nga cengkeh kering ditumbuk sampai halus. Bunga cengkeh diekstraksi menggunakan soxhlet dengan 100 mL pelarut pada suhu didihnya selama 15 siklus (+ 80 menit. Dari percobaan yang telah dilakukan dihasilkan rendemen ekstrak bunga cengkeh dengan pelarut n-heksana sebesar 17,61% dan kadar eugenol 65,02%. Sedangkan dengan pelarut benzene, rendemen ekstraks bunga cengkeh sebesar 18,90% dan kadar eugenol 8,81%. Oleh karena itu, ekstraksi minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh dengan menggunakan pelarut n-heksana relatif lebih baik karena memberikan kadar eugenol lebih besar daripada pelarut benzena. Clove oil is one of the essential oils obtained from the cloves, stalks or clove steam and clove leaf. The clove contains 21.3% of the essential oils with the eugenol content of 78-95%, the clove stalk contains 6% of the essential oils with the eugenol content of 89-95%, and the clove leaf contains 2-3% of the essential oils with the eugenol

  12. Development and Validation of a Cultural Method for the Detection and Isolation of Salmonella in Cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ali, Laila; Gill, Vikas; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Deng, Xiaohong; Hu, Lijun; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S

    2017-03-01

    Detection of Salmonella in some spices, such as cloves, remains a challenge due to their inherent antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective detection method for Salmonella from spices using cloves as a model. Two clove varieties, Ceylon and Madagascar, were used in the study. Cloves were inoculated with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotypes Montevideo, Typhimurium, or Weltevreden at about 1, 3, or 6 log CFU/25 g. Two test portion sizes, 10 and 25 g, were compared. After adding Trypticase soy broth (TSB) to the weighed cloves for preenrichment, three preenrichment methods were compared: cloves were left in the TSB for 24 h during preenrichment (PreE1), or the cloves-TSB mixture was shaken vigorously for 30 s (PreE2) or 60 s (PreE3), and the decanted material was transferred to a new bag for 24 h of preenrichment. The rest of the procedures were carried out according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM). At the low inoculation level (<1 log CFU/25 g), the detection rate was low across the three preenrichment methods, with the highest for PreE3 and lowest for PreE1. At the medium and high inoculation levels (3 and 6 log CFU/25 g), all samples from PreE2 and PreE3 were positive for Salmonella , whereas PreE1 produced only 12 positive samples from the 48 samples at the medium inoculation level and 38 positive samples from the 48 samples at the high inoculation level. Therefore, PreE3 with 25 g of cloves per sample was more effective than the other two tested methods. This newly designed method was then validated by comparing with the BAM method in six trials, with each trial consisting of 40 test samples. The results showed that PreE3 detected Salmonella from 88 of 120 inoculated test samples compared with only 31 positive from 120 test samples with the BAM method. Thus, our newly designed method PreE3 was more sensitive and easier to operate than the current BAM method for

  13. Genetic control of chalcone isomerase activity in flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Dangelmayr, B

    1980-06-01

    In flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), the gene I is concerned with a discrete step in flavonoid biosynthesis, Genotypes with recessive (ii) alleles produce yellow flowers, which contain the chalcone isosalipurposide (naringenin-chalcone-2'-glucoside) as the major petal pigment, but in genotypes with wild-type alleles flavonols and anthocyanins can be formed and the flowers are white or red. Enzymatic measurements on petal extracts of four strains with different flower coloration revealed a clear correlation between accumulation of chalcone in recessive genotypes and deficiency of chalcone isomerase (E.C. 5.5.1.6) activity. From the chemogenetic and enzymological evidence it can be concluded that naringenin-chalcone is the first product of the synthesis of the flavonoid skeleton and that only the conversion of naringenin-chalcone to naringenin furnishes the substrate for the further reactions to flavonol and anthocyanin.

  14. Plant regeneration from stem and petal of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, G; Wardley-Richardson, T; Lu, C Y

    1991-11-01

    Plants were regenerated via adventitious shoot initiation from petal explants of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars Crowley Sim, Ember Rose, Orchid Beauty, Red Sim, White Sim and from stem segments of Crowley Sim, Red Sim, White Sim. Differences in cultivar response were observed, with White Sim being the most responsive for both explant types. Plants were also regenerated from receptacles of this cultivar. The effect of different cytokinins on regeneration from petal and stem explants of cultivar White Sim was compared. Thidiazuron was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine or kinetin. In stem explants, morphogenic capacity was determined by the developmental stage of the explant. Highest percentage of shoot formation was observed in the youngest stem segments, on all the cytokinins tested. Stem-derived plants grew faster than petal or receptacle-derived plants and produced normal, flowering plants eight to ten months after culture.

  15. Dianthins, ribosome-damaging proteins with anti-viral properties from Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirpe, F; Williams, D G; Onyon, L J; Legg, R F; Stevens, W A

    1981-05-01

    1. Dianthin 30 and dianthin 32, two proteins isolated from the leaves of Diathus caryophyllus (carnation), were purified to homogeneity by chromatography on CM-cellulose. 2. The mol.wt. of dianthin 30 is 29 500 and that of dianthin 32 is 31 700. Both dianthins are glycoproteins containing mannose. 3. Dianthins inhibit protein synthesis in a lysate of rabbit reticulocytes, with an ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) of 9.15 ng/ml (dianthin 30) and 3.6 ng/ml (dianthin 32). They act by damaging ribosomes in a less-than-equimolar ratio. Protein synthesis by intact cells is partially inhibited by dianthins at a concentration of 100 microgram/ml. 4. Dianthins mixed with tobacco-mosaic virus strongly decrease the number of local lesions on leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of spices like cloves Cardamom and Cinnamon on Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneesha Chawla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spices have been used in our country cuisines since times immemorial. Their use was mainly due to health benefits as herbs and for the aroma they provided in the food. However, little did we know at that time that these spices also have antimicrobial activity. Today, they stand as giants in ayurvedic medicine with substances like turmeric, cloves and cardamom being used in every house-hold. This paper pertains to the antimicrobial activity of three such spices Cloves, Cinnamon and Cardamom on a gram positive and gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. It was found that clove is better with its antimicrobial activity with the zones of inhibition visible clearly on the Petri plates.

  17. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli eWan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colours and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42oC HS (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 h and 46oC HS (0.5, 1 and 2 h, and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment, 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42oC: duration 0.5, 2 or 12h delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  18. Identification of heat-responsive genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) by RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xue Li; Zhou, Qiao; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Wang, Wen En; Bao, Man Zhu; Zhang, Jun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is an important flower crop, having substantial commercial value as a cut-flower due to the long vase-life and wide array of flower colors and forms. Standard carnation varieties perform well under cool climates but are very susceptible to high temperatures which adversely affect the yield and the quality of the cut-flowers. Despite several studies of carnation contributing to the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), transcriptomic information of this species remains very limited, particularly regarding abiotic stress-related genes. Here, transcriptome analysis was performed to generate expression profiles of heat stress (HS)-responsive genes in carnation. We sequenced a cDNA library constructed with mixed RNA from carnation leaves subjected to 42°C HS (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h) and 46°C HS (0.5, 1, and 2 h), and obtained 45,604,882 high quality paired-end reads. After de novo assembly and quantitative assessment 99,255 contigs were generated with an average length of 1053 bp. We then obtained functional annotations by aligning contigs with public protein databases including NR, SwissProt, KEGG, and COG. Using the above carnation transcriptome as the reference, we compared the effects of high temperature treatments (42°C: duration 0.5, 2, or 12 h) delivered to aseptic carnation seedlings, relative to untreated controls, using the FPKM metric. Overall, 11,471 genes were identified which showed a significant response to one or more of the three HS treatment times. In addition, based on GO and metabolic pathway enrichment analyses, a series of candidate genes involved in thermo-tolerance responses were selected and characterized. This study represents the first expression profiling analysis of D. caryophyllus under heat stress treatments. Numerous genes were found to be induced in response to HS, the study of which may advance our understanding of heat response of carnation.

  19. Kaempferide triglycoside: a possible factor of resistance of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, P; Dolci, M; Lanzotti, V; Taglialatela-Scafati, O

    2001-04-01

    A kaempferide triglycoside has been found as a constitutive component in an uninfected carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) of the cultivar Novada. The chemical structure has been determined mainly by the use of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments. It showed a strong activity in restricting fungal parasite development, which could contribute to the known ability of carnation cv. Novada to resist to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi infection.

  20. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  1. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  2. Benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morato-Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis is a native species from Rio Grande do Sul, Uruguay and Argentina where it is of great economic importance for artisanal fishing. One difficulty in laboratory research with pejerrey is related to its sensitivity, as it presents higher basal cortisol levels than other freshwater species. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of benzocaine and clove oil as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings. Two experiments were done where fingerlings (57±7.8mm and 1.1±0.44g were exposed to benzocaine with concentrations between 40mgL-1 and 120mgL-1 and to clove oil with concentrations between 12mgL-1 and 75mgL-1. Survival, anesthesia induction time and recovery time for each pharmaceutics were evaluated. Both benzocaine and clove oil pharmaceutics showed efficiency as anesthetics for pejerrey fingerlings, with negative correlation between the dose of anesthetics and the anesthesia induction time. For benzocaine, the concentrations between 80mgL-1 and 100mgL-1 showed better results, as for clove oil the optimal concentrations were between 25mgL-1 and 50mgL-1. On the other hand, the anesthesia recovery time did not present significant variation on the different concentrations of the tested products. The tested products are highly metabolizable by pejerrey.

  3. VC对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜的影响%Effect of VC on Preservation of the Cut Flower of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林先; 车晶; 廉美兰; 高日

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探究抗坏血酸对康乃馨切花抗衰老的影响.[方法]以康乃馨切花为材料,不同浓度VC保鲜液进行瓶插试验,保鲜期间测定切花瓶插寿命、水分平衡、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量.[结果]VC能增强康乃馨吸收保鲜液的能力,增强CAT和POD活性,降低MDA含量,延缓其衰老.[结论]200 mg/L VC对康乃馨切花的保鲜效果最好.%[Objective] To study effects of antiscorbutic acid on anti senescence of cut flower of Dianthus caryophyllus.[Method] With the cut flower of D.caryophyllus as material,the preservation solution with different concentrations of VC was tested.The flower' s lift and water balance,activity of peroxidase(POD) and catalase (CAT),and malondiadehyd (MDA) content of cut flower of D.caryophyllus were tested.[Result] The VC could enhance the absorbency of cut flower of D.caryophyllus,increase the activity of CAT and POD,and decrease the content of MDA in the period of cut flower of D.caryophyllus in vase.VC could delay the aging of cut flower of D.caryophyllus.[Conclusion]The optimum concentration of VC in preservative solution was 200 mg/L.

  4. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles by natural precursor clove and their functionalization with amine group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashwani Kumar; Talat, Mahe [Banaras Hindu University, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Unit, Department of Physics (India); Singh, D. P. [Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Department of Physics (United States); Srivastava, O. N., E-mail: hepons@yahoo.co [Banaras Hindu University, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Unit, Department of Physics (India)

    2010-06-15

    We report a simple and cost effective way for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (Au and Ag) using natural precursor clove. Au and Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing the aqueous solution of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with clove extract. One interesting aspect here is that reduction time is quite small (few minutes instead of hours as compared to other natural precursors). We synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles of different shape and size by varying the ratio of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with respect to clove extract, where the dominant component is eugenol. The evolution of Au and Ag nanoparticles from the reduction of different ratios of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} with optimised concentration of the clove extract has been evaluated through monitoring of surface plasmon behaviour as a function of time. The reduction of AuCl{sub 4} and AgNO{sub 3} by eugenol is because of the inductive effect of methoxy and allyl groups which are present at ortho and para positions of proton releasing -OH group as two electrons are released from one molecule of eugenol. This is followed by the formation of resonating structure of the anionic form of eugenol. The presence of methoxy and allyl groups has been confirmed by FTIR. To the best of our knowledge, use of clove as reducing agent, the consequent very short time (minutes instead of hours and without any scavenger) and the elucidation of mechanism of reduction based on FTIR analysis has not been attempted earlier.

  5. ENRAIZAMENTO DE CRAVO (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN VITRO E EX VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.F CUZZUOL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus micropropagadas durante várias gerações pelo período de um ano, foram enraizadas in vitro com AIA, ANA e AIB nas concentrações de 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 e 1,0 mg/l, em fatorial do tipo 3 x 4, com todos os tratamentos promovendo a formação de raízes, mas não diferindo do controle. Foi confrontado em condição autotrófica, o desempenho entre plântulas enraizadas in vitro na presença e ausência do regulador AIA 0,5 mg/l e plântulas enraizadas ex vitro, sem nenhuma diferença quanto ao comprimento da parte aérea. Para a variável produção de massa de matéria seca os melhores resultados foram proporcionados pelas plantas que passaram pela fase de enraizamento in vitro, tendo o sistema radicular efeito sinergístico no crescimento da parte aérea.Plantlets of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. micropropagated through several generations during one year, were observed with respect to rooting in vitro, in the presence of IAA , NAA and IBA, at the following concentrations: 0,0; 0,25; 0,5 and 1,0 mg/l. All treatments promoted root formation, however no differences were detected in comparison to control. As far as the lenght of the aerial part is concerned no difference was observed between in vitro rooting. in the presence or absence of IAA 0,5 mg/l, and ex vitro rooting. Plantlets which were rooted in vitro conditions showed higher production of fresh matter then those rooted ex vitro. The root system had a synergistic effect on the growth of the aerial part.

  6. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate.

  7. Cytological, molecular mechanisms and temperature stress regulating production of diploid male gametes in Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuhong; Mo, Xijun; Gui, Min; Wu, Xuewei; Jiang, Yalian; Ma, Lulin; Shi, Ziming; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-12-01

    In plant evolution, because of its key role in sexual polyploidization or whole genome duplication events, diploid gamete formation is considered as an important component in diversification and speciation. Environmental stress often triggers unreduced gamete production. However, the molecular, cellular mechanisms and adverse temperature regulating diplogamete production in carnation remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the cytological basis for 2n male gamete formation and describe the isolation and characterization of the first gene, DcPS1 (Dianthus Caryophyllus Parallel Spindle 1). In addition, we analyze influence of temperature stress on diploid gamete formation and transcript levels of DcPS1. Cytological evidence indicated that 2n male gamete formation is attributable to abnormal spindle orientation at male meiosis II. DcPS1 protein is conserved throughout the plant kingdom and carries domains suggestive of a regulatory function. DcPS1 expression analysis show DcPS1 gene probably have a role in 2n pollen formation. Unreduced pollen formation in various cultivation was sensitive to high or low temperature which was probably regulated by the level of DcPS1 transcripts. In a broader perspective, these findings can have potential applications in fundamental polyploidization research and plant breeding programs.

  8. Fungitoxic phenols from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) effective against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Lanzotti, Virginia; De Cooman, Luc

    2003-01-01

    The phenol compositions of two cultivars of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) namely "Gloriana" and "Roland", which are partially and highly resistant, respectively, to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi have been investigated with the aim of determining if endogenous phenols could have an anti-fungal effect against the pathogen. Analyses were performed on healthy and F. oxysporum-inoculated in vitro tissues, and on in vivo plants. Two benzoic acid derivatives, protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid), were found within healthy and inoculated tissues of both cultivars, together with the flavonol glycoside peltatoside (3-[6-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] quercetin). These molecules proved to be only slightly inhibitory towards the pathogen. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid was detected in small amounts only in the inoculated cultivar "Gloriana", while the highly resistant cultivar "Roland" showed the presence of the flavone datiscetin (3,5,7,2'-tetrahydroxyflavone). The latter compound exhibited an appreciable fungitoxic activity towards F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

  9. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  10. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) by Ethylene: Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Vaadia, Y; Dilley, D R

    1977-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers were exposed to 2 mul/l ethylene and examined at intervals to determine the time course of wilting, decrease in water uptake, and increase in ionic leakage in response to ethylene. A rapid decrease in water uptake was observed about 4 hours after initiating treatment with ethylene. This was followed by wilting (in-rolling of petals) about 2 hours later. Carbon dioxide inhibited the decline in water uptake and wilting and this is typical of most ethylene-induced responses. Ethylene did not affect closure of stomates. Ethylene enhanced ionic leakage, as measured by efflux of (36)Cl from the vacuole. This was judged to coincide with the decrease in water uptake. Gassing flowers with propylene initiated autocatalytic ethylene production within 2.4 hours. Since the increase in ethylene production by carnations preceded the increase in ionic leakage and the decline in water uptake by several hours, it is apparent that the change in ionic leakage does not lead to the initial increase in ethylene production as reported (Hanson and Kende 1975 Plant Physiol 55:663-669) in morning glory but may explain the autocatalytic phase of ethylene production.

  11. Controlling hyperhydration of carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in a mist reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, M J; Wu, Y; Weathers, P J

    Carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) grown in vitro often develop physiological abnormalities such as hyperhydration. The amount of hyperhydration and growth was compared between carnations grown in mist reactors and conventional semisolid micropropagation systems (vented or unvented GA7 culture boxes). Plants grown in the mist reactor with long misting times (10 min h(-1)) produced more dry mass than those grown with <10 min h(-1); however, more misting also produced more hyperhydrated plants (70% hyperhydration). Control of hyperhydration in the mist reactor involved either reducing the overall nutrient mist supply or altering the mist supply throughout the culturing period. Stepped decreases in the mist supply throughout the 3-week period or an overall decrease in the duration of misting reduced hyperhydration to 13% and 5%, respectively. However, for both misting regimes, the biomass of normal (healthy) plants (fresh and dry weights) was limited. Further analysis suggested that, although normal plant biomass increased with longer mist exposure, hyperhydration levels also increased while the water content, based on percent dry weight, approached that of hyperhydrated plants. Sufficient normal plant development (fresh weight, leaf and shoot numbers, height, and rooting) with < 50% hyperhydration was obtained by weekly, stepped increases in the nutrient mist supply.

  12. Sites of ethylene production in the pollinated and unpollinated senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1977-01-01

    Production of endogenous ethylene from the styles, ovary and petals of pollinated and unpollinated flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. was measured. The rate of ethylene production of cut, unpollinated flowers aged in water at 18°C was low until the onset of petal wilting, when a rapid surge of ethylene occurred in all tissues. The flower ethylene production was evolved mostly from the styles and petals. The bases of petals from unpollinated, senescing flowers evolved ethylene faster and sometimes earlier than the upper parts. Treatment of cut flowers with propylene, an ethylene analogue, accelerated wilting of flower petals and promoted endogenous ethylene production in all flower tissues. Pollination of intact flowers also promoted endogenous ethylene production and caused accelerated petal wilting within 2-3 days from pollination. Although the data are consistent with the hypothesis that ethylene forms a link between pollination of the style and petal wilting, in the unpollinated flower the style and petals can evolve a surge of ethylene independently of each other, about the time when the petals irreversibly wilt. The results are discussed in relation to the role of ethylene in flower senescence.

  13. Enhancement of absorption and bioavailability of echinacoside by verapamil or clove oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen JY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Yang Shen,1,* Xiao-Lin Yang,2,* Zhong-Lin Yang,1 Jun-Ping Kou,1 Fei Li11State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Biological Marine Resources Research and Development of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: This present study investigated the absorption kinetics of echinacoside (ECH in situ and in vitro and its oral bioavailability in rats. Additional aim was to find an agent(s to promote ECH absorption and oral bioavailability among two efflux proteins and three absorption promoters.Methods: ECH absorption behaviors were investigated by everted gut sac model in vitro and single-pass intestinal perfusion model in situ. Pharmacokinetics study was performed to investigate the influences of verapamil and clove oil on ECH bioavailability in vivo. All samples were measured at different time intervals by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The results showed that the effective permeability coefficient (Peff and apparent permeability coefficient of ECH were 0.83×10-6–3.23×10-6 cm/s and 2.99×10-6–9.86×10-6 cm/s, respectively. The Peff among duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not statistically different, but they were higher than colon (P<0.01, which demonstrated that intestinal ECH absorption was poor and site dependent. Additionally, verapamil and clove oil significantly increased the jejunal Peff of ECH both in situ and in vitro. Moreover, the bioavailability of ECH in combination with verapamil and clove oil were increased by 1.37-fold (P<0.05 and 2.36-fold (P<0.001, respectively, when compared to ECH group. Overall, verapamil and clove oil facilitated ECH absorption and oral bioavailability.Conclusion: The absorption and bioavailability of ECH were enhanced by verapamil and clove oil, respectively, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently

  14. Protection capacity of mosquito repellent ink from citronella (Cymbopogon nardus L.) and clove leaf oils (Syzygium aromaticum) againts Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harismah, Kun; Vitasari, Denny; Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Fuadi, Ahmad Muhammad; Aryanto, Yanur Hendra

    2017-06-01

    The study of combination citronella and clove oils in mosquito repellent newspaper ink has been done. The background of this study was there prevalences of diseases such as malaria, zikka, and dengue fever that are carried by mosquitoes which hunt in the morning, at time while people usually read newspaper. Tests were undertaken in 3 (three) repetitions to determine the effectiveness of ink (as a control) and two types of mosquito repellent inks that consisted of ink and citronella-clove leaf oil with ratio of 4:1 and 1:1 of substances that were presumed to have insect repellent qualities. The results of this study indicated that the mixture of newspaper ink and citronella-clove oil with ratio of 1:4 and 1:1 offer limited protection against mosquitoes bite in the range of 1-5 hours. The efficacy of the citronella-clove leaf oi mixture as mosquito repellent was between 75.85 to 91.10%. Hece, a blend of citronella and clove leaf oil could be added to printing ink and could be commercial potential as a short-period mosquito repellent. However, it is important in disseminating public health messages to emphasize the greater effectiveness of citronella and clove oils-based repellents ink in areas with risks of mosquito-borne disease.

  15. The Research of Ornamental Characteristics Evaluation of Dianthus Caryophyllus%香石竹观赏性评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪方; 刘海霞; 金雅琴; 李冬林

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus caryophyllus is one of the four famous fresh cut flowers in the world because of its rich color and changeful patterns. In this study,we present a model to assess ornamental characteristics of D. caryophyllus. This model is based on an Analytic Hierchy Process( AHP). Using this model,we evaluated 14 different subspecies of D. caryophyllus including Master, Dallas and Tundra. The comprehensive score for each was calculated with correlation formula and standard score. Based on the comprehensive score, the 14 subspecies were divided into 4 classes: Cloud of butterflies, Moonshadow and Tundra were among the highest ranking,Prado and MoonDust etc. were in the second class,Seto bride and Master etc. in the third, Dallas and Omagh in the fourth. These results have some reference value in current cut flowers production of D. caryophyllus.%香石竹因其花色丰富、花型多变而成为世界著名四大切花之一.本文采用层次分析法建立了香石竹的观赏性状评价结构模型,并用该模型对Master、Dallas和Tundra等14个香石竹品种进行了评价研究.通过相关公式和评分标准计算出每个品种的综合评分值,以此将14个品种分为4个等级,选出了Cloud of butterflies、Moonshadow、Tundra 3个品种为Ⅰ级品种;Prado、MoonDust等5个品种为Ⅱ级品种;Seto bride、Master等4个品种为Ⅲ级品种;Dallas、Omagh 2个品种为Ⅳ级品种.该研究成果对目前的香石竹切花生产具有一定的参考意义.

  16. Nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legname, G; Bellosta, P; Gromo, G; Modena, D; Keen, J N; Roberts, L M; Lord, J M

    1991-08-27

    Rabbit antibodies raised against dianthin 30, a ribosome inactivating protein from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) leaves, were used to identify a full length dianthin precursor cDNA clone from a lambda gt11 expression library. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of purified dianthin 30 and dianthin 32 confirmed that the clone encoded dianthin 30. The cDNA was 1153 basepairs in length and encoded a precursor protein of 293 amino acid residues. The first 23 N-terminal amino acids of the precursor represented the signal sequence. The protein contained a carboxy-terminal region which, by analogy with barley lectin, may contain a vacuolar targeting signal.

  17. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajib Roychowdhury; Anuj Mamgain; Sunanda Ray; Jagatpati Tah

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3), Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm) of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC). Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate wer...

  18. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L. "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel David Dufoo-Hurtado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that seed bulbs from ‘Coreano’ variety conditioned at 5 °C for five weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic seed cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23 °C, and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5 °C for five weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic seed cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous

  19. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  20. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H2O2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG possesses more protective ability than MCG against CCl4-induced liver injury and might be an effective alternative medicine against acute oxidative liver toxicity.

  1. Antioxidant components and properties of dry heat treated clove in different extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikousaleh, Azadeh; Prakash, Jamuna

    2016-04-01

    The effects of heat treatment and extraction solvents (pure/aqueous acetone, ethanol, methanol) on antioxidant activity (AA) and components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) were studied. Clove was subjected to dry heat treatment (microwave and roasting) and the AA measured by free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), reducing power (RP), and phospho-molybdenum assay (TAA). Unheated samples served as controls. The antioxidant components estimated were total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Using RP and FRSA, highest AA was observed in 80 % acetone extract of all samples (1.778-1448 and 84.5-86.0 %). TAA showed higher value in 80 % methanolic extract for all samples in the range 303.595-307.941 mmol ascorbic acid/g. Heated samples exhibited higher AA in all assays. Highest amount of phenols and flavonoids were extracted in 80 % acetone (4053-4064 mg/100 g) and 80 % methanol (11,271-11,370 mg/100 g) respectively. For tannins, maximum extraction was in 80 % acetone (control, 16441 mg/100 g), 80 % ethanol (microwave, 19,558 mg/100 g), and pure methanol (roasted, 15,823 mg/100 g). Total phenol and flavonoid contents were positively associated with AA determined using RP and FRSA. In conclusion, clove exhibited powerful AA in different extraction solvents which increased on dry heat treatments and correlated positively with antioxidant components. Hence, clove can be used as a natural antioxidant in food systems.

  2. Effect of clove oil on the Albumen gland and reproductive potential of Achatina fulica

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    Yadnya A Parvate

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica is a pestiferous land snail causing extensive agri-horticultural damage across the globe including India. A hermaphroditic land snail Achatina fulica exhibits protandrous reproduction which is one of the major causes of its rapid population explosion. Albumen gland which is a part of the female reproductive organs of the snail enlarges in size during the breeding season and secretes the perivitelline fluid which nourishes the developing embryo. Its quality and quantity determines the number of eggs laid by the snail. This study aimed at exploring the effect of clove oil (essential oil of clove on the histology of albumen gland by subjecting the animals to its subacute doses (20% and 60% of LD 50 value/ 24 hr, by topical application, and comparing it with the control and vehicle treated group. The effect of these doses on the galactogen content, chief component of perivitelline fluid of albumen gland, was also determined by using the technique of immunohistochemistry. The reproductive efficiency of the snails, w.r.to their fecundity, hatchability and survivability of hatchlings up to 72 hrs were also studied across the controls and treated groups. The results revealed alterations in the cyto - architechture of albumen gland of the treated snails, substantial reduction in its galactogen content and also a marked reduction in their reproductive efficiency as compared to the control snails. Thus this study indicated that clove oil severely affects the reproductive potential of the snail and hence can be used as a potential molluscicide in its population control.

  3. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  4. Control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Infected Garlic Seed Cloves by Nonfumigant Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, P A; Greathead, A S

    1986-01-01

    Different rates of granular formulations ofaldicarb, carbofuran, ethoprop, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos were applied directly onto garlic seed cloves in the seed furrow in sandy clay loam, clay loam, and loam soils at planting to assess efficacy for control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in infected seed cloves. All treatments were compared to hotwater-formalin clove dip disinfection treatment and to nontreated infected controls. Aldicarb and phenamiphos at 2.52 and 5.04 kg a.i./ ha, but not at lower rates, effectively suppressed infection by D. dipsaci and increased yields. Although both nematicides slightly slowed the rate of plant emergence, normal stands were established. Trace levels of infection occurred in all treatments, including the hotwater-formalin dip. Carbofuran at 5.04 kg a.i./ha controlled the nematode but was phytotoxic. Ethoprop was phytotoxic. Fensulfothion did not control D. dipsaci even at the highest application rate, 8.90 kg a.i./ha. Single and multiple applications of oxamyl at 1.12-8.96 kg a.i./ha, applied as a surface spray or in furrow irrigation water, slowed the early progression of disease symptoms but failed to provide season-long nematode control.

  5. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  6. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  7. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  8. Effect of Gibberellic Acid, Kinetin and Indole 3-Acetic Acid on Seed Germination Performance of Dianthus caryophyllus (Carnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Roychowdhury

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken with an objective to investigate the effect of various concentrations of plant growth regulators, i.e., Gibberellic acid (GA3, Kinetin and Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA on seed germination of Dianthus caryophyllus. Dianthus seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0 ppm or control, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm and 40 ppm of each of GA3, Kinetin and IAA for 24 h at room temperature (25±2oC. Three replicates of each treatment with ten seeds per replicate were arranged for precise physiological analysis. Significant variation was found in all aspects after analysis of variance (ANOVA of each mean value. After two weeks of seed soaking, it was noted that germination percentages were significantly accelerated by lower concentrations (10 and 20 ppm of used hormones. Amongst the three potential growth regulators, 20 ppm was found most effective because it showed highest germination percentage for GA3 (87.46%, Kinetin (78.92% and IAA (75.35%. A great deal of information relating to seed germination practices shows that these plant growth regulators were efficient in overcoming dormancy leading to rapid seed germination. GA3 was selected as best hormone in this study, which showed highest seed germination (87.46%. These results could be useful in large scale cultivation of Dianthus caryophyllus plants to improve its floricultural impact worldwide.

  9. In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Clove and Ginger Aqueous Extracts against Feline Calicivirus, a Surrogate for Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A; Nauertz, Andrew; Luong, Nhungoc T; Agrawal, Shivani; El-Sohaimy, Sobhy A A; Youssef, Mohammed M; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus, are a concern for public health, especially in fresh vegetables and other minimally processed foods that may not undergo sufficient decontamination. It is necessary to explore novel nonthermal techniques for preventing foodborne viral contamination. In this study, aqueous extracts of six raw food materials (flower buds of clove, fenugreek seeds, garlic and onion bulbs, ginger rhizomes, and jalapeño peppers) were tested for antiviral activity against feline calicivirus (FCV) as a surrogate for human norovirus. The antiviral assay was performed using dilutions of the extracts below the maximum nontoxic concentrations of the extracts to the host cells of FCV, Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No antiviral effect was seen when the host cells were pretreated with any of the extracts. However, pretreatment of FCV with nondiluted clove and ginger extracts inactivated 6.0 and 2.7 log of the initial titer of the virus, respectively. Also, significant dosedependent inactivation of FCV was seen when host cells were treated with clove and ginger extracts at the time of infection or postinfection at concentrations equal to or lower than the maximum nontoxic concentrations. By comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol (29.5%) and R-(-)-1,2-propanediol (10.7%) were identified as the major components of clove and ginger extracts, respectively. The antiviral effect of the pure eugenol itself was tested; it showed antiviral activity similar to that of clove extract, albeit at a lower level, which indicates that some other clove extract constituents, along with eugenol, are responsible for inactivation of FCV. These results showed that the aqueous extracts of clove and ginger hold promise for prevention of foodborne viral contamination.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. based on next-generation sequencing technology

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    Tanase Koji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., in the family Caryophyllaceae, can be found in a wide range of colors and is a model system for studies of flower senescence. In addition, it is one of the most important flowers in the global floriculture industry. However, few genomics resources, such as sequences and markers are available for carnation or other members of the Caryophyllaceae. To increase our understanding of the genetic control of important characters in carnation, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST database for a carnation cultivar important in horticulture by high-throughput sequencing using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results We constructed a normalized cDNA library and a 3’-UTR library of carnation, obtaining a total of 1,162,126 high-quality reads. These reads were assembled into 300,740 unigenes consisting of 37,844 contigs and 262,896 singlets. The contigs were searched against an Arabidopsis sequence database, and 61.8% (23,380 of them had at least one BLASTX hit. These contigs were also annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and were found to cover a broad range of GO categories. Furthermore, we identified 17,362 potential simple sequence repeats (SSRs in 14,291 of the unigenes. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of flower color and ethylene biosynthesis. Transcripts were identified for almost every gene involved in flower chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolism and in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Transcripts were also identified for every step in the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. Conclusions We present the first large-scale sequence data set for carnation, generated using next-generation sequencing technology. The large EST database generated from these sequences is an informative resource for identifying genes involved in various biological processes in carnation and provides an EST resource for understanding the genetic diversity of this plant.

  11. Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, A; Woltering, E J

    1997-05-01

    Ethylene production and expression patterns of an 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase (CARAO1) and of two ACC synthase (EC 4.4.1.14) genes (CARACC3 and CARAS1) were studied in floral organs of cut carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cv. White Sim. During the vase life and after treatment of fresh flowers with ethylene, production of ethylene and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes first started in the ovary followed by the styles and the petals. ACC oxidase was expressed in all the floral organs whereas, during the vase life, tissue-specific expression of the two ACC synthase genes was observed. After treatment with a high ethylene concentration, tissue specificity of the two ACC synthase genes was lost and only a temporal difference in expression remained. In styles, poor correlation between ethylene production and ACC synthase (CARAS1) gene expression was observed suggesting that either activity is regulated at the translational level or that the CARAS1 gene product requires an additional factor for activity. Isolated petals showed no increase in ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes when excised from the flower before the increase in petal ethylene production (before day 7); showed rapid cessation of ethylene production and gene expression when excised during the early phase of petal ethylene production (day 7) and showed a pattern of ethylene production and gene expression similar to the pattern observed in the attached petals when isolated at day 8. The interorgan regulation of gene expression and ethylene as a signal molecule in flower senescence are discussed.

  12. Endoglycanase-Catalyzed Degradation of Hemicelluloses during Development of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vetten, N C; Huber, D J; Gross, K C

    1991-03-01

    Large molecular-size hemicelluloses, including xyloglucan, decreased in quantity during development of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv White Sim) petals, along with a relative increase in polymers with an average size of 10 kilodaltons. An enzyme extract from senescing petal tissue depolymerized the large molecular-size hemicelluloses in a pattern similar to that occurring in vivo during petal development. The products generated in vitro were composed of polymeric and monomeric components, the latter consisting primarily of xylose, galactose, and glucose. The 10 kilodalton hemicelluloses were resistant to in vitro enzymic hydrolysis. Glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size polymers provided evidence for the presence of xyloglucan with smaller amounts of arabinoxylan and arabinan. The 10 kilodalton polymers were enriched in mannosyl and 4-linked glucosyl residues, presumably derived from glucomannan. During petal development or enzymic hydrolysis, no change was observed in the relative glycosyl-linkage composition of the large molecular-size hemicelluloses. The in vitro activity of carnation petal enzymes active toward native hemicelluloses increased threefold at the onset of senescence and declined slightly thereafter. Gel chromatography revealed 23 and 12 kilodalton proteins with hemicellulase activity. The enzymes hydrolyzed the large molecular-size hemicelluloses extensively and without formation of monomers. Endoxylanase activity was detected in the partially purified enzyme preparation. Xyloglucan was depolymerized in the absence of cellulase activity, suggesting the presence of a xyloglucan-specific glucanase. These data indicate that the hemicellulose molecular-size changes observed during development of carnation petals are due, in part, to the enzymic depolymerization of large molecular-size hemicelluloses.

  13. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  14. Antibacterial activity of vegetal extracts against serovars of Salmonella Atividade antibacteriana de extratos vegetais sobre sorovares de Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Voss-Rech

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available in vitro antibacterial activity of 21 hydroethanolic vegetal extracts was assessed against 20 serovars of Salmonella. Regarding the tested extracts, 85.7% of them presented antibacterial activity. The six active extracts which showed activity on the largest number of serovars and the extract of Eucalyptus sp. were submitted to the determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. Of these, six extracts showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity with MIC and MBC for Punica granatum (pomegranate from 20 and 60mg mL-1, for Eugenia jambolana (rose apple from 40 and 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (surinam cherry from 80 and 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove from 10 and 60mg mL-1, Psidium araca from 30 and 320mg mL-1 and Eucalyptus sp. from 40 and 160mg mL-1. Achyrocline satureioides (macela presented only bacteriostatic potential and MIC from 160mg mL-1. Caryophyllus aromaticus, Eucalyptus sp., and Psidium araca presented the best results for bactericidal activity, inhibiting, respectively, 84.2%, 42.1%, and 17.6% of Salmonella's serovars. The activity of each extract varied for different serovars; S. London presented resistance to the six extracts in MBC, while S. Pullorum was the most susceptible serovar.A atividade antibacteriana de 21 extratos hidroetanólicos vegetais foi avaliada in vitro frente a 20 sorovares de Salmonella. Dos extratos testados, 85,7% apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Os seis extratos que evidenciaram atividade sobre o maior número de sorovares e Eucalyptus sp. foram submetidos à determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM e Concentração Bactericida Mínima (CBM. Destes, seis extratos apresentaram atividade bacteriostática e bactericida com MIC para Punica granatum (romã a partir de 20 e 60mg mL-1, Eugenia jambolana (jambolão de 40 e 240mg mL-1, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga de 80 e 240mg mL-1, Caryophyllus aromaticus (cravo de 10 e 60mg mL-1

  15. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Bud Extract

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    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum, shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‑hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract, swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract, pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract. This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  16. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash.

  17. Determination of extra and intracellular content from some lytic enzymes related with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. root cell wall

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    Sixta Tulia Martínez Peralta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of some enzymes related to cell wall (polygalacturonase, the pectate lyase, protease and xylanase in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. roots as well as the activity levels were determined. These levels were analyzed in different cellular places: the intercellular fluid that is part of apoplast, the symplast, and the total level (apoplast and symplast in carnation roots. Two methods were tested to extract the intercellular fluid. To obtain the intracellular content (symplast and total extract (apoplast+symplast, three methods were tested, using as extracting solution  i phosphate buffer, ii phosphate buffer + PVPP,  iii before the extraction with phosphate buffer, the carnation roots were washed with acetone.  The results showed the effect of different extracting solutions in the enzymatic activities and in the protein content. A new only one step method is proposed to extract the four enzymes and make the comparative analysis of enzymatic activity.

  18. Protein extraction and gel-based separation methods to analyze responses to pathogens in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Harold Duban; Fernández, Raquel González; Higuera, Blanca Ligia; Redondo, Inmaculada; Martínez, Sixta Tulia

    2014-01-01

    We are currently using a 2-DE-based proteomics approach to study plant responses to pathogenic fungi by using the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L)-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi pathosystem. It is clear that the protocols for the first stages of a standard proteomics workflow must be optimized to each biological system and objectives of the research. The optimization procedure for the extraction and separation of proteins by 1-DE and 2-DE in the indicated system is reported. This strategy can be extrapolated to other plant-pathogen interaction systems in order to perform an evaluation of the changes in the host protein profile caused by the pathogen and to identify proteins which, at early stages, are involved or implicated in the plant defense response.

  19. 香石竹新品种‘云蝶衣’%A New Dianthus caryophyllus Cultivar 'Yundieyi'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂敏; 陈敏; 卢珍红; 周旭红; 龙江; 宋杰; 莫锡君

    2011-01-01

    香石竹新品种‘云蝶衣’是由‘兰贵人’(Rendiz-Vors)ב欧地诺’(Odino)杂交选育而成的极早生品种。花较大,花形好,深黄色底粉红色花边,有香味。枝条直立,较长,粗细均匀。繁殖系数高,容易栽培,抗病性强,耐运输,瓶插寿命长。%'Yundieyi'is a new Dianthus caryophyllus cultivar derived from'Rendiz-Vors'×'Odino'.The flower is big,with novel and pure color,good flower shape and fragrance.The long branches stand erect.The propagation coefficient is high.'Yundieyi'has resistance to transport and long vase-life.

  20. Exploitation de la variabilité somaclonale pour la recherche d'oeillet (Dianthus caryophyllus L. tolérant à la salinité

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    Haouala, F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of Somaclonal Variability for Research of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. Tolerant to Salinity. Callogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. 'Légion d'Honneur' is possible from internodes in a medium containing 0.1 mg.l-1 NAA and 0.1 mg.l-1 TDZ. Regeneration from callus needs 2 mg.l-1 BA. Shoots rooting is obtained on a medium containing 0.5 mg.l-1 IBA. Callus growth is reduced and regeneration rate is very affected in presence of NaCl 100 mM. Shoot rooting is better without NaCl. Regenerated plants present somaclonal variation and those obtained under salt stress have a better relative tolerance to salinity than plants regenerated without salt.

  1. Comparative studies on cellular behaviour of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) grown in vivo and in vitro for early detection of somaclonal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09  μm² to 35.66 ± 0.10  μm² and 142.90 ± 0.59  μm² to 165.05 ± 0.58  μm², respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  2. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

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    Jamilah Syafawati Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI, chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content, mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n=2x=30 throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period.

  3. Water extracts of cinnamon and clove exhibits potent inhibition of protein glycation and anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo hypolipidemic activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seori; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. Aqueous extracts of ground pepper, cinnamon, rosemary, ginger, and clove were analyzed and tested for anti-atherosclerotic activity in vitro and in vivo using hypercholesterolemic zebrafish. Cinnamon and clove extracts (at final 10 μg/mL) had the strongest anti-glycation and antioxidant activity in this study. Cinnamon and clove had the strongest inhibition of activity against copper-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and LDL phagocytosis by macrophages. Cinnamon or clove extracts had potent cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner. They exhibited hypolipidemic activity in a hypercholesterolemic zebrafish model; the clove extract-treated group had a 68% and 80% decrease in serum cholesterol and TG levels, respectively. The clove extract-fed group had the smallest increase in body weight and height and the strongest antioxidant activity following a 5-week high cholesterol diet. Hydrophilic ingredients of cinnamon and clove showed potent activities to suppress the incidence of atherosclerosis and diabetes via strong antioxidant potential, prevention of apoA-I glycation and LDL-phagocytosis, inhibition of CETP, and hypolipidemic activity. These results suggest the potential to develop a new functional dietary agent to treat chronic metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes.

  4. Influence of clove oil on certain quorum-sensing-regulated functions and biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fohad Mabood Husain; Iqbal Ahmad; Mohammad Asif; Qudsia Tahseen

    2013-12-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This signalling pathway is considered as novel and promising target for anti-infective agents. In the present investigation, effect of the Sub-MICs of clove oil on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1 and Aeromonas hydrophila WAF-38 strain. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of the clove oil demonstrated statistically significant reduction of las- and rhl-regulated virulence factors such as LasB, total protease, chitinase and pyocyanin production, swimming motility and exopolysaccharide production. The biofilm forming capability of PAO1 and A. hydrophila WAF-38 was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at all tested sub-MIC values. Further, the PAO1-preinfected Caenorhabditis elegans displayed an enhanced survival when treated with 1.6% v/v of clove oil. The above findings highlight the promising anti-QS-dependent therapeutic function of clove oil against P. aeruginosa.

  5. Effects of Allspice, Cinnamon, and Clove Bud Essential Oils in Edible Apple Films on Physical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of the present study show that allspice, cinnamon and clove bud essential oils can be used to prepare apple-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. Application of the a...

  6. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

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    Hujaz Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1 were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST. Results: It showed significantly (p0.05 differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails.

  7. New Edible Bionanocomposite Prepared by Pectin and Clove Essential Oil Nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ronaldo S; Mattoso, Luiz H C; de Moura, Márcia Regina

    2016-06-01

    Nanocomposites are being extremely investigated to provide packaging with interesting characteristics for packages. Because of essential oils' natural occurrence and antibacterial activity, they are considered as an alternative for synthetic additives in the food industry. In this paper, we studied an edible bionanocomposite film made up of pectin and clove essential oil nanoemulsion for application as edible package. Mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and antibacterial activity were analyzed. From mechanical and WVP analyses, we noticed an interesting improvement in film properties. In the antibacterial activity test, disk diffusion was used to assess the inhibition zones of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. With these results, we concluded that the most interesting results were promoted by smaller nanodroplets (diameter of approximately 142 nm).

  8. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment.

  9. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

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    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  10. Molecular characterization of ongoing enzymatic reactions in raw garlic cloves using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-03

    Characterization of enzymatic reactions occurring in untreated biological samples is of increasing interest. Herein, the chemical conversion of alliin to allicin, catalyzed by allinase, in raw garlic cloves has been followed in vivo by internal extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (iEESI-MS). Both precursors and products of the enzymatic reaction were instantaneously extracted by infused solution running throughout the tissue and directly electrospray ionized on the edge of the bulk sample for online MS analysis. Compared to the room-temperature (+25 °C) scenario, the alliin conversion in garlic cloves decreased by (7.2 ± 1.4) times upon heating to +80 °C and by (5.9 ± 0.8) times upon cooling to -16 °C. Exposure of garlic to gentle ultrasound irradiation for 3 h accelerated the reaction by (1.2 ± 0.1) times. A 10 s microwave irradiation promoted alliin conversion by (1.6 ± 0.4) times, but longer exposure to microwave irradiation (90 s) slowed the reaction by (28.5 ± 7.5) times compared to the reference analysis. This method has been further employed to monitor the germination process of garlic. These data revealed that over a 2 day garlic sprouting, the allicin/alliin ratio increased by (2.2 ± 0.5) times, and the averaged degree of polymerization for the detected oligosaccharides/polysaccharides decreased from 11.6 to 9.4. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of iEESI-MS for in vivo studies of enzymatic reactions in native biological matrices.

  11. The role of silver nano-particles and silver thiosulfate on the longevity of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silver nano-particles (SNP) and silver thiosulfate (STS) in extending the vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. 'Tempo') flowers. Pulse treatments of SNP @ 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg l(-1) and STS @ 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM were administered to carnation flowers for 24 hr. The longest vase life (16.1 days) was observed in flowers treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP + 0.2 mM STS. The least chlorophyll was destroyed in flowers treated with 15 mg I(-1) of SNP + 0.3 mM STS. Our findings showed that the 15 mg l(-1) SNP treatment inhibited bacterial growth in the preservative solution. The control flowers bloomed faster than the treated flowers. The maximum peroxidase activity and the minimum lipid peroxidation were obtained in cut flowers that were treated with 15 mg l(-1) of SNP and 0.3 mM STS. Overall, results of the study revealed that SNP and STS treatment extended the longevity of cut carnation 'Tempo' flowers by reducing oxidative stress, improving anti-oxidant system, reducing bacterial populations and delaying flowering.

  12. Morphological architecture of foliar stomata in M2 Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. genotypes using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM

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    Rajib Roychowdhury*, Parveen Sultana and Jagatpati Tah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus caryophyllus is an important floricultural crop in temperate climates and worldwide popular as cut-flowers for itsvariegated petal’s colour. The development of this cultivar with more desirable floral characteristics and higher productivity arealso very much important. Their identifications as well as taxonomy had been studied in the literatures using different laboratorymethods. Both morphological and/or genetical characteristics were considered in the reported studies. However, to the best of ourknowledge, there does not exist any study involving an image analysis based approach. For this, we undertook the mutationbreeding programme with selected chemical mutagens, viz. Colchicine (COL, Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS and MaleicHydrazide (MH with different concentrations. These mutagens were applied on the young leaves of M2 plants of Dianthuscultivar. The results of the present study on peculiar morphological architectures of leaf stomata in Dianthus at differentconcentrations of three potent chemical mutagens were analyzed on the basis of their Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEMimages which is more informative than the classical approach. Number of stomata and its shape, aperture length and itsdimension, characteristics of guard cells in both dorsal and ventral surfaces of leaf also varied from treatment to treatment.

  13. ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA METODOLOGÍA PARA EL CONTEO DE CROMOSOMAS EN EL CLAVEL ESPAÑOL (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

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    Yanelis Castilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización citogenética de una especie vegetal encierra un valor alto, desde el punto de vista taxonómico, así como una gran importancia para el mejoramiento genético y la detección de variabilidad genética en el cultivo in vitro. Pero resulta imposible realizar un análisis citogenético, si previamente no ha sido establecido un procedimiento que permita distinguir y contar los cromosomas de una especie, por lo que el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar un método, que permita la adecuada visualización y el conteo de los cromosomas de claveles españoles (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var. Chabaud Red. Se tomaron al azar 20 raíces de plantas germinadas en cámara húmeda y se sometieron a distintos pretratamientos, diferentes tiempos de hidrólisis en HCl 1N y de coloración en hematoxilina. Se contaron los cromosomas de 20 células por cada preparación, con el empleo de un microscopio óptico Motic conectado a una computadora. Fue posible determinar un método de visualización y conteo de cromosomas para los claveles españoles, así como comprobar el número cromosómico de esta especie.

  14. Short-term effects of carbon dioxide on carnation callus cell respiration. [Dianthus Caryophyllus L. ; Elodea canadensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palet, A.; Ribas-Carbo, M.; Argiles, J.M.; Azcon-Bieto, J. (Univ. de Barcelona (Spain))

    1991-06-01

    The addition of potassium bicarbonate to the electrode cuvette immediately stimulated the rate of dark O{sub 2} uptake of photomixotrophic and heterotrophic carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) callus, of Elodea canadensis (Minchx) leaves, and of other plant tissues. This phenomenon occurred at pH values lower than 7.2 to 7.8, and the stimulation depended on the concentration of gaseous CO{sub 2} in the solution. These stimulatory responses lasted several minutes and then decreased, but additional bicarbonate or gaseous CO{sub 2} again stimulated respiration, suggesting a reversible effect. Carbonic anhydrase in the solution increased the stimulatory effect of potassium bicarbonate. The CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate dependent stimulation of respiration did not occur in animal tissues such as rat diaphragm and isolated hepatocytes, and was inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid in carnation callus cells and E. canadensis leaves. This suggested that the alternative oxidase was engaged during the stimulation in plant tissues. The cytochrome pathway was severely inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate either in the absence or in the presence of the uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase of callus tissue homogenates was also inhibited by CO{sub 2}/bicarbonate. The results suggested that high carbon dioxide levels (mainly free CO{sub 2}) partially inhibited the cytochrome pathway (apparently at the oxidase level), and this block in electron transport elicited a large transient engagement of the alternative oxidase when present uninhibited.

  15. Enzymatic conversion of dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-diols using flower extracts of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, K; Eidenberger, T; Wurst, F; Forkmann, G

    1992-04-01

    Flavonoid analysis and supplementation experiments with dihydroflavonols and leucocyanidin on two cyanic, two acyanic and one white/red-variegated flowering strain of Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) showed that in the acyanic strains recessive alleles (aa) of the gene A interrupt the anthocyanin pathway between dihydroflavonols and leucoanthocyanidins. The instability in the variegated strain involves the same step and is obviously caused by the multiple allele a (var) . In confirmation of these results, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity could be demonstrated in enzyme extracts from cyanic flowers and cyanic parts of variegated flowers but not in preparations from acyanic flowers or acyanic parts. The enzyme catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of (+)dihydrokaempferol to (+)-3,4-leucopelargonidin with NADPH as cofactor. A pH optimum around 7.0 and a temperature optimum at 30° C was determined, but the reduction reaction also proceeded at low temperatures. (+)Dihydroquercetin and (+)dihydromyricetin were also reduced to the respective flavan-3,4-cis-diols by the enzyme preparations from carnation flowers, and were even better substrates than dihydrokaempferol.

  16. Isozymes of Superoxide Dismutase in Mitochondria and Peroxisomes Isolated from Petals of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) during Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droillard, M J; Paulin, A

    1990-11-01

    The balance between reactions involving free radicals and processes which ameliorate their effect plays an important role in the regulation of plant senescence. In this study a method was developed to isolate peroxisomes and mitochondria from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv Ember) petals. Based on electron microscopy and marker enzyme levels, the proportion of peroxisomes to mitochondria increases during senescence. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) content of these fractions was examined. Mitochondria and peroxisomes were shown to contain two electrophoretically distinct SODs, a manganese-, and an ironcontaining SOD. The Mn- and Fe-SOD were found to have relative molecular weights of 75,000 and 48,000 and isoelectric points of 4.85 and 5.00, respectively. The presence of a Fe-SOD in mitochondria and peroxisomes is unique because this enzyme is usually located in chloroplasts. The activity of these two isoenzymes decreased during senescence in mitochondria but remained high in peroxisomes from senescent tissue. It is suggested that peroxisomes play a particular role in the process of senescence.

  17. Chalcone synthesis and hydroxylation of flavonoids in 3'-position with enzyme preparations from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spribille, R; Forkmann, G

    1982-07-01

    Chalcone synthase activity was demonstrated in enzyme preparations from flowers of defined genotypes of Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation). In the absence of chalcone isomerase activity, which could be completely excluded by genetic methods, the first product formed from malonyl-CoA and 4-coumaroyl-CoA proved to be naringenin chalcone, followed by formation of naringenin as a result of chemical cyclization. In the presence of chalcone isomerase activity, however, naringenin was the only product of the synthase reaction. In vitro, both 4-coumaryl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA were found to be used as substrates for the condensation reaction with respective pH optima of 8.0 and 7.0. The results of chemogenetic and enzymatic studies, however, showed that in vivo only 4-coumaroyl-CoA serves as substrate for the formation of the flavonoid skeleton. In confirmation of these results, an NADPH-dependent microsomal 3'-hydroxylase activity could be demonstrated, catalyzing hydroxylation of naringenin and dihydrokaempferol in 3'-position. Furthermore, a strict correlation was found between 3'-hydroxylase activity and the gene r which is known to control the formation of 3', 4'-hydroxylated flavonoid compounds.

  18. Effects of Glucose Feeding on Respiration and Photosynthesis in Photoautotrophic Dianthus caryophyllus Cells: Mass Spectrometric Determination of Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelange, M H; Sarrey, F; Rébillé, F

    1990-11-01

    When glucose (20 millimolar) was added to photoautotrophic cell suspension cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus, there was during the first 10 hours an accumulation of carbohydrates and phosphorylated compounds. These biochemical changes were accompanied by a progressive decrease of net photosynthesis and a twofold increase of the dark respiratory rate. The rise of respiration was associated with a rise of fumarase and cytochrome c oxidase activities, two mitochondrial markers. Gas exchange of illuminated cells were performed with a mass spectrometry technique and clearly established that during the first hours of glucose feeding, the decrease of net photosynthesis was essentially due to an increase of respiration in light, whereas the photosynthetic processes (gross O(2) evolution and gross CO(2) fixation) were almost not affected. However, after 24 hours of experiment, O(2) evolution and CO(2) fixation started to decline in turn. While ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity was little affected during the first 48 hours of the experiment, the maximal light-induced phosphoribulokinase activity dramatically decreased with time and represented after 48 hours only 30% of its initial activity. It is postulated that the decrease in phosphoribulokinase activity was at least partially responsible for the decrease of CO(2) fixation and the metabolic events involved in this regulation are discussed.

  19. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents.

  20. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) “seed” cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D.; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á.; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that “seed” bulbs from “Coreano” variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic “seed” cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic “seed” cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies

  1. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element

    OpenAIRE

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar ‘Daisy’ carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant ‘Daisy-V...

  2. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah; Shyamkumar Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiberofficinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods: The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results: Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions: Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  3. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of clove has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities and is widely used in the medicine, fragrance and flavoring industries. In this work, 22 components of the essential oil obtained from clove buds were identified. Eugenol was the major component (76.23%. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 0.625 mg/mL, and the antibacterial effects depended on its concentration and action time. Kill-time assays also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus. We hypothesized that the essential oil may interact with the cell wall and membrane first. On the one hand it destroys cell wall and membranes, next causing the losses of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. Besides, essential oil penetrates to the cytoplasmic membrane or enters inside the cell after destruction of cell structure, and then inhibits the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. These results suggested that the effects of the clove essential oil on the growth inhibition of S. aureus may be at the molecular level rather than only physical damage.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Guo; Liu, Ting; Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming

    2016-09-08

    The essential oil of clove has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities and is widely used in the medicine, fragrance and flavoring industries. In this work, 22 components of the essential oil obtained from clove buds were identified. Eugenol was the major component (76.23%). The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.625 mg/mL, and the antibacterial effects depended on its concentration and action time. Kill-time assays also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus. We hypothesized that the essential oil may interact with the cell wall and membrane first. On the one hand it destroys cell wall and membranes, next causing the losses of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. Besides, essential oil penetrates to the cytoplasmic membrane or enters inside the cell after destruction of cell structure, and then inhibits the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. These results suggested that the effects of the clove essential oil on the growth inhibition of S. aureus may be at the molecular level rather than only physical damage.

  5. Evaluation of Three Real-Time PCR Methods for Detection of Salmonella from Cloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatavarthy, Aparna; Ali, Laila; Gill, Vikas; Hu, Lijun; Deng, Xiaohong; Adachi, Yoko; Rand, Hugh; Hammack, Thomas; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate three real-time PCR platforms for rapid detection of Salmonella from cloves and to compare three different DNA extraction methods. Six trials were conducted with two clove cultivars, Ceylon and Madagascar, and three Salmonella serotypes, Montevideo, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden. Each trial consisted of 20 test portions. The preenrichment cultures were used to perform PCR for comparison of the effectiveness of U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Pacific Regional Laboratory Southwest (FDA-PRLSW), Applied Biosystems Inc. (ABI) MicroSEQ, and GeneDisc platforms for detection of Salmonella. Three DNA extraction methods were used: standard extraction method for each PCR platform, boil preparation, and LyseNow food pathogen DNA extraction cards. The results from real-time PCR correlated well with FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual culture assay results, with a wide range of cycle threshold (CT) values among the three PCR platforms for intended positive samples. The mean CT values for MicroSEQ (16.36 ± 2.78) were significantly lower than for PRLSW (20.37 ± 3.45) and GeneDisc (23.88 ± 2.90) (P < 0.0001). Pairwise comparisons between PCR platforms using different DNA extraction methods indicate that the CT values are inversely proportional to the relative DNA quantity (RDQ) yields by different platform-extraction combinations. The pairing of MicroSEQ and boil preparation generated the highest RDQ of 120 and the lowest average CT value of 14.48, whereas the pairing of GeneDisc and LyseNow generated the lowest RDQ of 0.18 and the highest average CT of 25.97. Boil preparation yielded higher RDQ than the other extraction methods for all three PCR platforms. Although the MicroSEQ platform generated the lowest CT values, its sensitivity was compromised by narrow separations between the positive and negative samples. The PRLSW platform generated the best segregation between positive and negative groups and is less likely to produce false

  6. Tratamento de matrizes de cravo (Dianthus caryophyllus L., Caryophyllaceae com nitrogênio e calogênese in vitro Nitrogen treatment of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus l., Caryophyllaceae and in vitro calogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Kazumi Hayashi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Indução de calogênese eficiente e multiplicação celular rápida são pré-requisitos fundamentais em biotecnologia de plantas. Sucesso na calogênese é dependente dos componentes do meio de cultura e da qualidade dos explantes. Neste trabalho é relatada a influência do tratamento de matrizes de Dianthus caryophyllus L. com nitrogênio na indução de calogênese in vitro. Mudas de cravo cultivadas em vasos contendo areia foram tratadas com soluções nutritivas contendo 5 níveis de nitrogênio. Explantes folha, entrenós e nó foram coletados aos 30, 45 e 60 dias após início dos tratamentos e inoculados em meio de cultura contendo os sais básicos e vitaminas de Murashige & Skoog (1962, suplementado com 1 g L-1 de caseína hidrolizada, 2 mimol L-1 de cinetina e 3 mimol L-1 de 2,4-D para indução da calogênese. Ao longo dos 60 dias de tratamento com as soluções nutritivas, as matrizes de cravo não apresentaram sintomas visíveis de deficiência ou de excesso do nutriente nitrogênio. O tratamento com nitrogênio afetou a calogênese avaliada em massa de matéria fresca e seca. A produção da massa de matéria fresca de calos foi proporcional ao tratamento com nitrogênio até concentração de 267 mg L-1 para explantes folha por durante 30 dias. Tratamentos mais prolongados (45 e 60 dias afetaram negativamente a calogênese e foram inversamente proporcionais a concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva.Efficient calogenesis induction and rapid cell multiplication are fundamental requirements in plant biotechnology. The success of calogenesis is dependent on the growth medium components and the quality of explants. This work is referred to the influence of Dianthus caryophyllus L. nitrogen treatment on calogenesis induction in vitro. Carnation cuts rooted in sand pots were treated with nutrient solutions containing 5 nitrogen levels. Leaves, internodes and node explants were collected and inoculated on callus induction

  7. Podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Agentes causales y su patogenicidad potencial sobre Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae Basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata (Caryophyllaceae: Causal agents and its potential pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia María Wolcan

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron identificar a los agentes causales de las podredumbres basales de Gypsophila paniculata en la Argentina y probar su posible patogenicidad sobre Dianthus caryophyllus . A partir de plantas con síntomas de «podredumbre de la corona» (la más importante se aislaron en orden decreciente: Fusarium solani , F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticillioides, F. equiseti y Pythium sp. y de plantas con «podredumbre basal del tallo» F. graminearum , F. oxysporum y F. solani . Con distintas cepas de cada hongo se hicieron pruebas de patogenicidad mediante la infestación del suelo y el depósito de inóculo en heridas producidas en los tallos. En la «podredumbre de la corona» fueron patógenos P. nicotianae causando decaimiento rápido de la parte aérea y podredumbre blanda de la corona y R. solani causando una pudrición más lenta y tejidos desintegrados. F. graminearum fue el patógeno de la «podredumbre basal del tallo» de gipsofila, que se describe por primera vez en este hospedante , comprobando que el hongo penetra sólo por heridas del tallo. En condiciones de inoculación se confirmó que algunas cepas de R. solani y de F. graminearum aisladas de gipsofila pueden ser patógenas de clavel mientras que sólo algunas de P. nicotianae resultaron patógenas débiles.The aims of the paper were to determine the causal agents of basal rots of Gypsophila paniculata in Argentina, and to evaluate its possible pathogenicity on Dianthus caryophyllus. Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum , Phytophthora nicotianae , Rhizoctonia solani , F. graminearum , F. verticilloides, F. equiseti and Pythium sp. were isolated in decreasing order from plants with symptoms of «crown rot» (the major basal rot. F. graminearum , F. oxysporum and F. solani were isolated from plants with «basal stem rot». Inoculations of gypsophila were performed by soil infestation and by placing inoculum on

  8. Molecular cloning of the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase gene (FHT) from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and analysis of stable and unstable FHT mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedio, J; Saedler, H; Forkmann, G

    1995-04-01

    Using a cDNA encoding the flavanone 3β-hydroxylase (FHT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) as a probe, we isolated the FHT gene from a genomic library. Sequence analysis revealed that the FHT gene consists of three exons and two introns. Two putative light-regulated elements were identified in the promoter region by sequence comparison. Southern blot analysis indicated that a single copy of the FHT gene is in the plant genome. Furthermore, a stable and an unstable FHT mutant of D. caryophyllus, both showing almost no FHT activity, were analyzed by Southern, Northern and Western blotting. It turned out that the FHT gene is present in both mutants, but no protein was detectable in the mutant flowers. FHT mRNA in amounts comparable to that found in the wildtype is present in flowers of the stable mutant, indicating a block in translation, but not in flowers of the unstable mutant, indicating a block in transcription. The translational block of the FHT mRNA of the stable mutant was demonstrated by in vitro translation of total flower mRNA followed by the specific measurement of FHT activity.

  9. Metal Removal and Antimicrobial Properties of Watermelon rind modified with clove

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current rapid development of industrial activity indirectly discharged pollutant into the local water stream. One of the harmful industrial wastes that enter public drainage is heavy metal owing to its toxic, non-biodegradable and persistent in nature. Improper treatment of domestic waste also will discharged high amount of microbial. Various types of technology were developed for removing pollutant in wastewater, but most of the technology employed to address on removing organic content in wastewater. Other pollutant namely, heavy metals and microbial indirectly treated at low concentration of pollutant loading. Among various available technologies for water treatment adsorption process is considered a promising technology as compared to other methods because of convenience, easy operational and low cost of treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate potential used of local fruit rind modified with herb as adsorbent material. The rind present strong potential due to its high content of cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin as active binding sites for metal sorption. Modified rind improves absorption by having anti microbial properties to kill pathogenic organisms. The concentration of heavy metal ions was analysed using ICP-MS. E. coli and total colifrm were plated out using chromocult agar. The results showed significant reductions of heavy metals and microbial concentration after wastewater was treated with clove modified rind.

  10. Bactericidal action mechanism of negatively charged food grade clove oil nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Liu, Fei; Hategekimana, Joseph; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Qi, Jing; Ali, Barkat; Bian, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jianguo; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhong, Fang

    2016-04-15

    Clove oil (CO) anionic nanoemulsions were prepared with varying ratios of CO to canola oil (CA), emulsified and stabilized with purity gum ultra (PGU), a newly developed succinylated waxy maize starch. Interfacial tension measurements showed that CO acted as a co-surfactant and there was a gradual decrease in interfacial tension which favored the formation of small droplet sizes on homogenization until a critical limit (5:5% v/v CO:CA) was reached. Antimicrobial activity of the negatively charged CO nanoemulsion was determined against Gram positive GPB (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative GNB (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a time kill dynamic method. Negatively charged PGU emulsified CO nanoemulsion showed prolonged antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacterial strains. We concluded that negatively charged CO nanoemulsion droplets self-assemble with GPB cell membrane, and facilitated interaction with cellular components of bacteria. Moreover, no electrostatic interaction existed between negatively charged droplets and the GPB membrane.

  11. Bioactive lipids, radical scavenging potential, and antimicrobial properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Adel Mohamad Ali; Hassanien, Mohamed F R

    2013-11-01

    Health promoting cold pressed oils may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. It is hard to find any research concerning the composition and functional properties of cold pressed clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil (CO). Cold pressed CO was evaluated for its lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and tocol contents. In addition, antiradical and antimicrobial properties of CO were evaluated. The amounts of neutral lipids in CO was the highest (∼94.7% of total lipids), followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The main fatty acids in CO were linoleic and oleic, which comprise together ∼80% of total fatty acids. Stearic and palmitic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. α- and γ-tocopherols and δ-tocotrienol were the main detected tocols. CO had higher antiradical action against DPPH• and galvinoxyl radicals than virgin olive oil. The results of antimicrobial properties revealed that CO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. CO had a drastic effect on the biosynthesis of proteins and lipids in cells of Bacillus subtilis. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the composition and functional properties of CO is of major importance.

  12. Effects of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures on rheology of gum tragacanth - possible application for surfactant action on mucus gel simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, R; Puniyani, R R

    2000-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effectiveness of specialised biomaterials consisting of clove oil- phospholipid mixtures as possible substitute surfactants in diseases of altered mucus viscosity by studying their effect on the viscosity of mucus gel simulants in vitro. Test surfactants consisting of phospholipid-clove oil mixtures in the ratio of 1 part of oil to 9 parts of phospholipid were prepared. The phospholipids used were dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and binary mixtures of PC: PE and PC: PG in the ratio of 2 parts of PC to 3 parts of PE or PG. The effects of the phospholipid-clove oil mixtures on the viscosity of mucus gel simulant (MGS: a polymeric gel consisting predominantly of gum tragacanth and simulating respiratory mucus), was studied by application of steady shear rates ranging from 0.512 to 51.2/s in a concentric cylinder viscometer at 37 degrees C. The change in MGS viscosity, after incubation with surfactants, was found to have a non-Newtonian character and to follow the power law model with R2 values >0.8. The addition of clove oil-phospholipid mixtures caused a decrease in the MGS viscosity when compared with the effect of the phospholipid alone at low shear rates in case of PC, PG and PCPG. The combination of PC : PG with clove oil caused ratios of change in MGS viscosity rheology.

  13. APPLICATION OF LASER TREATMENT WITH RADIATION STIMULATION IN ANNUAL SPECIES OF SEED GERMINATION DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS - VAR CHABAUD AND PETUNIA HYBRIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Niculita

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Additional illumination with red light produced by laser diodes in continuous and different exposure times, was applied to seeds from two species of annual flowers: Garofita Dianthus caryophyllus - var. CHABAUD; FEUER KONING and romanian Petunia hybrid variety "WHITE CASCADE. The experimental results presented in the present study are a continuation of research initiated in 2009 ((P. Niculita , S. Danaila-Guidea, O. Livadariu , M. Ristici, J. Ristici si F. Burnichi, 2009 and were aimed at testing the germination of seeds and development morphology induced by treatment effect based on laser radiation fields in the early stages of development of seeds under the effect of intensity light in the spectral range 640 nm - 660nm. Sets of seeds were irradiated once mounted on the first day of the experiment at different energy doses by changing exposure time. Thus the experiences of dry seeds were irradiated with different doses four lots in 2009 and 2010 corresponding variants V1-V4 (5-20 minutes. The experimental results were analyzed in parallel with a control group of seeds that did not apply to treatment of red laser diodes. In all the seeds analyzed from the two flower species studied germination capacity and that the growth of seedlings, determining germination percentages every two days for 3 weeks. Results have shown a percentage of germination higher than control group of seeds (75% for all repetitions of variant V4 (95%, with exposure time of 20 minutes (1.53 joules / cm ² to treatment with red light produced by laser modulated at audio frequency.

  14. Comparison of mRNA levels of three ethylene receptors in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kenichi; Nagata, Masayasu; Tanikawa, Natsu; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Three ethylene receptor genes, DC-ERS1, DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1, were previously identified in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). Here, the presence of mRNAs for respective genes in flower tissues and their changes during flower senescence are investigated by Northern blot analysis. DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs were present in considerable amounts in petals, ovaries and styles of the flower at the full-opening stage. In the petals the level of DC-ERS2 mRNA showed a decreasing trend toward the late stage of flower senescence, whereas it increased slightly in ovaries and was unchanged in styles throughout the senescence period. However, DC-ETR1 mRNA showed no or little changes in any of the tissues during senescence. Exogenously applied ethylene did not affect the levels of DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 mRNAs in petals. Ethylene production in the flowers was blocked by treatment with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulphonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS), but the mRNA levels for DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 decreased in the petals. DC-ERS1 mRNA was not detected in any cases. These results indicate that DC-ERS2 and DC-ETR1 are ethylene receptor genes responsible for ethylene perception and that their expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner and independently of ethylene in carnation flowers during senescence.

  15. Low-temperature conditioning of "seed" cloves enhances the expression of phenolic metabolism related genes and anthocyanin content in 'Coreano' garlic (Allium sativum) during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Zavala-Gutiérrez, Karla G; Cao, Cong-Mei; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Guevara-González, Ramón G; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2013-11-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves accelerated the development of the crop cycle, decreased plant growth, and increased the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins in the outer scale leaves of the bulbs at harvest time, leading to 3-fold content increase compared with those conditioned at room temperature. Cold conditioning of "seed" cloves also altered the anthocyanin profile during bulb development and at harvest. Two new anthocyanins are reported for the first time in garlic. The high phenolics and anthocyanin contents in bulbs of plants generated from "seed" cloves conditioned at 5 °C for 5 weeks were preceded by overexpression of some putative genes of the phenolic metabolism [6-fold for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] and anthocyanin synthesis [1-fold for UDP-sugar:flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferase (UFGT)] compared with those conditioned at room temperature.

  16. CLOVE Syndrome (Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, and Epidermal Nevi): CNS Malformations and Seizures may be a Component of this Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucev, Zoran S.; Tasic, Velibor; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Konstantinova, Marina Krstevska; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Trajkovski, Zoran; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2010-01-01

    A newborn girl was found to have a massive lymphatic truncal vascular malformation with overlying cutaneous venous anomaly associated with overgrown feet and splayed toes. These manifestations comprise the recently described CLOVE syndrome. She also had cranial asymmetry and developed generalized seizures, which were treated with anticonvulsants. Cranial CT showed encephalomalacia, widening of the ventricles and the sulci, hemimegalencephaly (predominantly white matter) and partial agenesis of corpus callosum. Review of the literature identified several other patients with CLOVE syndrome, some of whom were misdiagnosed as having Proteus syndrome, with strikingly similar manifestations. We conclude that CNS manifestations including hemimegalencephaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, neuronal migration defects, and the consequent seizures, may be a more common manifestation of CLOVE syndrome than is presently appreciated. PMID:18816642

  17. The effect of different cooking methods on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of n-3 fatty acids fortified tilapia meat with or without clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Romano, Nicholas; Goh, Yong-Meng; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ehteshami, Fariborz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Tilapia farmers are increasingly relying on dietary fish oil alternatives which substantially reduces health beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tilapia products.? This may be further exacerbated depending on the cooking method.? This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of tilapia minced meat after prior fish oil fortifications with or without clove essential oil. Results showed that frying tilapia in either sunflower or palm oil significantly increased the saturated fatty acid and linoleic acid content, respectively, of tilapia. However, fish oil fortifications significantly increased the n-3 PUFA content, but tended to decrease oxidative stability, particularly when microwaving. This was mitigated by clove essential oil, which significantly improved oxidative stability after cooking. Results indicate that n-3 PUFA and clove essential oil fortifications is an effective method to deliver and protect these beneficial fatty acids for human consumers. ?

  18. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

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    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  19. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  20. In vitro anti-proliferative activity of clove extract on human gastric carcinoma

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    A. Karimi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cancer cell resistance to common chemotherapy agents is on rise. Plants are considered valuable sources of herbal drugs for cancer therapy. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and apoptosis-inducing properties of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. extract in human gastric carcinoma (AGS. Methods: Crude ethanol extract of S. aromaticum dried buds was prepared and  in vitro anti-proliferative effects of the extract on AGS and normal Human dermal fibroblasts (HDF cell lines were studied by MTT assay. To examine apoptosis induction, AGS cells were incubated with IC50 concentrations of the extract, stained with propidium iodide (PI and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics and flavonoids contents were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Results: The IC50 of DPPH and total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the extract were 10.05±1.93 μg/mL, 225.6±40 mg GAE/g, and 29.30±2.35 mgRUT/g, respectively. The IC50 of the extract against HDFs was 649 µg/mL, higher than AGS cells, which was 118.7 g/mL at 48 h after treatment. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the extract induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Crude ethanol S. aromaticum extract had high total phenolics content, and suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells, likely due to apoptosis induction. Further studies should be conducted to determine the mechanisms of its anticancer effects.

  1. Cryopreservation of Dianthus caryophyllus Linn Germplasm by Vitrification%玻璃化法超低温保存香石竹种质资源的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭红; 何艳; 欧阳德爱; 桂敏; 李绅崇; 曹桦; 杨春梅; 卢珍红; 莫锡君

    2011-01-01

    Shoot tipa from Dianthus caryophyllus Linn cultivara ‘ YunLianDie ’ .were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification method. Orthogonal dasign waa used to analyze the effects of dominant parameten on survival rates of shoot tipa . including sucroae concentration of preculture medium. duration of preculture,duration of loading and duration of exposure to PVS2. The reault showed that the highest ahoot tip survival rate was: preculture 1 days,0.5 mol/L sucrose,losding time 40 minutes, PVS2 treatment in 40 minutes, liquid nitrogen treated 1d and throwing in 40 ℃ water, the survival rate was up to 44. 13 % . The regenerated plantlets Bhowed no more difference than the normal plantlets in physiological and biochemical characters. This test set up successfully a cryopresevation by vitrification system technique for Dian tlus caryophyllus Linn gennplasm, which provided an effective way for long-lasting conservation in vitro of Diaruhus caryophyllus Linn germplasm resources.%以香石竹"云恋蝶"离体茎尖为试材,研究玻璃化法对香石竹茎尖的高体超低温保存.通过正交设计试验对影响存活率的主要因素(预培养培养基中蔗糖浓度、预培养时间、装载时间和PVS2处理时间)进行分析,结果表明,预培养1 d,预培养基中蔗糖浓度为0.5 mol/L,装载40 min,PVS2液处理40 min,液氮处理1 d,在40℃水浴化冻后的香石竹茎尖,成活率达44.13%,且超低温再生苗与其常温苗的生理生化指标无显著差异.本试验成功地建立了香石竹种质资源玻璃化法超低温保存的技术,为香石竹种质资源的长期保存提供了一条有效途径.

  2. Headspace Hanging Drop Liquid Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Flavors from Clove Buds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Mi Jin; Shin, Yeon Jae; Oh, Se Yeon; Kim, Nam Sun; Kim, Kun; Lee, Dong Sun [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    A novel sample pretreatment technique, headspace hanging drop liquid phase microextraction (HS-LPME) was studied and applied to the determination of flavors from solid clove buds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several parameters affecting on HS-LPME such as organic solvent drop volume, extraction time, extraction temperature and phase ratio were investigated. 1-Octanol was selected as the extracting solvent, drop size was fixed to 0.6 μL. 60 min extraction time at 25 .deg. C was chosen. HS-LPME has the good efficiency demonstrated by the higher partition equilibrium constant (K{sub lh}) values and concentration factor (CF) values. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.5-3.2 ng. The amounts of eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenol acetate from the clove bud sample were 1.90 mg/g, 1.47 mg/g and 7.0 mg/g, respectively. This hanging drop based method is a simple, fast and easy sample enrichment technique using minimal solvent. HSLPME is an alternative sample preparation method for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds by GC-MS.

  3. Research on Dianthus caryophyllus Stem-tip Culture%香石竹茎尖分生组织培养的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振雷; 魏健; 李秀岩

    2006-01-01

    对香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)进行了茎尖分生组织快速繁殖培养及其影响因素的研究.结果表明,大花香石竹比散枝香石竹接种成活率高,且以顶芽为外植体,在MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.4 mg/L上培养的丛芽分化率最高,达到87.5%.将顶芽、带腋芽的茎节、不带腋芽的茎节或茎段分别接种在MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.4 mg/L上培养,顶芽分化的芽数最多.光照12 h/d对香石竹丛芽生长有利.

  4. NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of NAA and BA on Callus Induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王允威; 刁毅

    2012-01-01

    In the paper, effects of NAA and BA on callus induction of Dianthus Caryophyllus was studied to provide the theoretical basis for tissue culture of Dianthus Cao'ophyllus. As a result, the media with NAA or BA was in favor of the induction of callu, while media adding NAA 0.2 mg/L and BA 2 mg/L was the best hormone combination, induction rate was best, and callus grew well.%文章主要研究了NAA与BA对康乃馨愈伤组织诱导的影响,结果表明:单独使用NAA或BA时,能够诱导出愈伤组织;NAA浓度为0.2mg/L,BA浓度为2mg/L时,产生愈伤组织比例最高,生长状态最好。

  5. Estudio de algunos géneros bacterianos asociados a la rizosfera de los cultivos de gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii y clavel (Dianthus barbatus, Dianthus caryophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Hernández

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó la caracterización de algunos géneros bacterianos presentes en la rizosfera de los cultivos de gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii y clavel (Dianthus barbatus y Dianthus caryophyllus, en un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado de San José de las Lajas. También se estudió la quimioatracción de los exudados radicales de estos cultivos hacia diferentes rizobacterias (Pseudomonas (Burkholderia cepacia, P. fluorescens y Azospirillum brasilense. En ambos casos se utilizó el Modelo Espermosférico. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que Pseudomonas constituye una población dominante en relación con Azospirillum, Bacillus y Streptomyces. Pseudomonas (Burkholderia cepacia fue la cepa más fuertemente atraída por los exudados radicales de gerbera y clavel, a los 14 días y 40 minutos de exposición

  6. Resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var Eolo) apical and axillary shoot tips excised from different aged in vitro plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre, J; Fabre, J; Bassaglia, C

    1988-05-01

    The ability of shoot tips from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L., var. Eolo) cultured in vitro to develop resistance to freezing in liquid nitrogen depends on the physiological state of the cell material and the pretreatment conditions. Regrowth rates close to 100% have been obtained with apical shoot tips isolated from 2 month-old stems, precultured on medium supplemented with sucrose (0.75M) and treated with dimethylsulfoxide (5% or more). Resistance of axillary shoot tips decreased progressively as a funtion of their distance from the apical shoot tip. During the development of the stem from axillary buds (obtained by cutting), progressive increases in the regrowth rate of frozen apices were noted, from 30% before cutting (axillary buds) to 98% after 3 weeks of culture.

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Crude Garlic (Allium sativum) Clove Extract on Selected Probiotic Bifidobacterium Species as Revealed by SEM, TEM, and SDS-PAGE Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.

  8. Use of eugenol-lean clove extract as a flavoring agent and natural antioxidant in mayonnaise: product characterization and storage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipan; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-08-01

    Eugenol-lean fraction (98 % lower eugenol content than eugenol-rich fraction) having appreciable phytochemical properties was selectively isolated from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction at 40 °C and pressure of 25 MPa with static and dynamic time of 120 and 30 min respectively using ground clove powder which was previously subjected to steam distillation. The extract was used as a flavor ingredient (replacing mustard in classical formulation) and also as a source of natural antioxidant in formulating a new mayonnaise product to improve its nutraceutical value and shelf-life. This product was found to be comparable to the mustard formulated sample (experimental control) organoleptically. The sample did not have typical pungency of clove and had improved physical properties such as increased color tonality with higher chroma values, lower thermal and non-thermal creaming, homogenous and compact microstructure and higher consistency index vis-à-vis the control and standard market samples, even at the end of the storage period of 6 months. Mayonnaise formulated with eugenol-lean clove extract had significantly higher antioxidant activity (IC50 = 10.85 mg/mL), phenolic content (1.89 mg gallic acid equivalent/g mayonnaise) and reducing power (11.29 mg BHT equivalent/g mayonnaise) than mustard-formulated mayonnaise and the market sample. While, the antioxidant activity and phytochemical properties tend to decrease after 30 days for the reference market sample and after 90 days for the experimental control sample, the mayonnaise formulated with eugenol-lean clove extract was found to be stable beyond 6 months.

  9. Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) improved blood and hepatic antioxidant indices in laying hens receiving low n-6 to n-3 ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Alizadeh, M; Mahdavi, A H; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, E

    2017-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) powder and vitamin E on serum lipid profile, enzyme activities and antioxidant indices, as well as hepatic biochemical and histological alterations in laying hens receiving different n-6 to n-3 ratios. A total of 160 laying hens, 43 weeks of age, were allotted to 8 experimental diets with 5 cages of 4 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of two ratios of n-6 to n-3 (16.71 and 2.35), three levels of clove bud (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg) and a high vitamin E level (200 mg/kg, as a positive control in each level of n-6 to n-3 ratio) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement during 70 days of the experiment. Results showed that a decline in the n-6 to n-3 ratio led to a reduction in serum cholesterol concentration (p n-6 to n-3 ratio and increasing clove bud level caused a remarkable decline in serum aspartate aminotransferase (p n-6 to n-3 ratio diets (LRD) and clove bud powder respectively. Decreasing the n-6 to n-3 ratio lowered hepatic lipid (p n-6 to n-3 ratio. Likewise, antioxidant indices were improved by administration of dietary clove bud powder although feeding fish oil was observed to elevate the susceptibility of blood and hepatocytes to lipid peroxidation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Fresh-keeping effect of hydroquinone to cut-flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus 'Master'%对苯二酚对香石竹切花品种“马斯特”的保鲜效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣华; 郑兴峰; 徐小林; 王红燕

    2012-01-01

    By taking 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate, sucrose as the basic liquid and adding hydroquinone of different concentrations to constitute the antistaling agent, the vase planting test has been conducted. The fresh weight, lift-time and diameter of flower of D. caryophyllus 'Master' were measured, the caudex vessels of the cut flowers were observed with light and scan electron microscopy. The results show that hydroquinone could limit blockage of stem caudex vessels, delay unbalance of water, increase flower diameter, and extend vase life-time of D. caryophyllus; Stem caudex vessel blockage of vase planting D. caryophyllus formed during vase life, and the blockages often were gums or mucilage, and a few of that were rod-shaped bacteria; the xylem vessel blockages is not the only cause to terminate vase life-time of cut flower D. caryophyllus. The most optimum formula of the antistaling agent for D. caryophyllus cut flower is 150 mg/L 8-HQC +2% sucrose+lmmol hydroquinone.%以8-羟基喹啉柠檬酸盐和蔗糖为基础液,添加不同浓度对苯二酚组成保鲜剂,对香石竹切花品种“马斯特”进行瓶插处理.实验测定了切花的鲜重、寿命、花径等指标,同时对切花茎基部导管进行了光镜和电镜观察.结果表明,对苯二酚能延缓香石竹切花茎基部堵塞,延迟水分失衡,增大花径,保持切花鲜艳,延迟切花寿命;香石竹切花茎基部导管在瓶插期间形成堵塞,堵塞物质多为不定型物质如粘液或树胶,少量为定型杆菌;堵塞物质并不是影响香石竹切花寿命的唯一因素;150 mg/L 8-HQC +2%蔗糖+1 mmlo对苯二酚的保鲜剂是香石竹切花保鲜的最优配方.

  11. The effects of clove oil on the enzyme activity of Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Arachnida: Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor, a key biotic threat to the Western honey bee, has played a major role in colony losses over the past few years worldwide. Overuse of traditional acaricides, such as tau-fluvalinate and flumethrin, on V. destructor has only increased its tolerance to them. Therefore, the application of essential oils in place of traditional pesticides is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by its high efficiency, lack of residue and tolerance resistance. To study the acaricidal activity of essential oils, we used clove oil (Syzygium aromaticum L., a typical essential oil with a wide range of field applications, and examined its effects on the enzyme activities of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD and its effects on the water-soluble protein content of V. destructor body extracts after exposure to 0.1 μl and 1.0 μl of clove oil for 30 min. Our results showed that the water-soluble protein content significantly decreased after the treatments, indicating that the metabolism of the mites was adversely affected. The bioactivity of GSTs increased significantly after a low dosage (0.1 μl exposure but decreased at a higher dosage (1.0 μl, while the activities of SOD and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase were significantly elevated after treatments. These results suggest that the protective enzyme SOD and detoxifying enzymes Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and GST contributed to the stress reaction of V. destructor to the essential oils and that the detoxification ability of V. destructor via GST was inhibited at higher dosages. Our findings are conducive to understanding the physiological reactions of V. destructor to treatment with essential oils and the underlying mechanisms behind the acaricidal activities of these natural products.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of three EIN3-like genes of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Improved White Sim) during flower development and upon wounding, pollination, and ethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordachescu, Mihaela; Verlinden, Sven

    2005-08-01

    Using a combination of approaches, three EIN3-like (EIL) genes DC-EIL1/2 (AY728191), DC-EIL3 (AY728192), and DC-EIL4 (AY728193) were isolated from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) petals. DC-EIL1/2 deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% identity with the previously cloned and characterized carnation DC-EIL1 (AF261654), 62% identity with DC-EIL3, and 60% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL3 deduced amino acid sequence shares 100% identity with a previously cloned carnation gene fragment, Dc106 (CF259543), 61% identity with Dianthus caryophyllus DC-EIL1 (AF261654), and 59% identity with DC-EIL4. DC-EIL4 shared 60% identity with DC-EIL1 (AF261654). Expression analyses performed on vegetative and flower tissues (petals, ovaries, and styles) during growth and development and senescence (natural and ethylene-induced) indicated that the mRNA accumulation of the DC-EIL family of genes in carnation is regulated developmentally and by ethylene. DC-EIL3 mRNA showed significant accumulation upon ethylene exposure, during flower development, and upon pollination in petals and styles. Interestingly, decreasing levels of DC-EIL3 mRNA were found in wounded leaves and ovaries of senescing flowers whenever ethylene levels increased. Flowers treated with sucrose showed a 2 d delay in the accumulation of DC-EIL3 transcripts when compared with control flowers. These observations suggest an important role for DC-EIL3 during growth and development. Changes in DC-EIL1/2 and DC-EIL4 mRNA levels during flower development, and upon ethylene exposure and pollination were very similar. mRNA levels of the DC-EILs in styles of pollinated flowers showed a positive correlation with ethylene production after pollination. The cloning and characterization of the EIN3-like genes in the present study showed their transcriptional regulation not previously observed for EILs.

  13. A chitosan-based coating with or without clove oil extends the shelf life of cooked pork sausages in refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekjing, Somwang

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan coatings, with and without clove oil, were investigated for effects on quality and shelf life of cooked pork sausages stored at a refrigerated temperature (4±2°C). The various treatments of cooked pork sausages were: untreated (control), coating with 2% chitosan (CS), and coating with a mixture having 2% chitosan and 1.5% clove oil (CS+CO). Various microbiological, physical, chemical and sensory properties were monitored over 25 days of storage. The total viable count, the psychrotrophic bacteria count, the L* value, peroxide value and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased, while the a* value, the b* value, the pH and the sensory scores decreased with storage time, across all treatments. However, these changes were slowest with the CS+CO treatment. Based on sensory evaluation and microbiological quality, the shelf lives were 14 days for control, 20 days for CS, and 20 days for CS+CO treated samples, under refrigerated storage.

  14. THE RISKS OF SMOKING FILTERED AND NON-FILTERED CLOVE CIGARETTE ON THE PERIODONTAL DISEASE AMONG TANJONG PRIOK HARBOR WORKERS IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies reported that tobacco negatively affect periodontal tissue, although some authors have failed to demonstrate such relationship. Those studies were done mostly with subjects smoking white cigarette. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and type of kretek smokers and the risk between filtered and non-filtered smokers on the periodontal diseases. Smokers subjects were 227 healthy man smokers aged 20 – 27 years, who lived in the condominium of Cilinicing. Cross sectional study was designed using questionnaire. A pressure-controlled periodontal probe for assessing the Plaque Index (PI, Bleeding on Probing (BOP, Probing Attachment Level (PAL and Pocket Depth (PD for each tooth (6 sites per tooth except the third molar. The periodontal disease was defined as PAL > 6mm. The results showed that there was no significant differences between filtered smoking and non-filtered smoking with clove cigarette on the periodontal disease measured by BOP (p=0.265. The Prevalence Ration of the clove cigarette and periodontal disease was 1.28 (95% CI, which means that smoking clove cigarette with or without filtered bith have risk to periodontal disease.

  15. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  16. 试探丁香与郁金的合用及单用%Combined and Single Test of Clove and Turmeric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭梅珍

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical utility of chove with turmeric and their use. Methods: Through the observation of clinical application:The combination of the two drug in decoction,the two drug to fine combination and the two drugs are used in the treatment of decoction treatment of related diseases in. Results :①Clove and turmeric and did not fing any side effect. ②Clove with curcumae treatment of stomachache has good effect. Conclusion: Clove and turmeric in combination with single function has wide.%目的:探析丁香配伍郁金及其各自单用的临床效果.方法:通过临床应用观察两药合用于汤剂、两药为细末合用及两药分别应用于治疗相关病证的汤剂中的疗效.结果:①丁香与郁金合用未发现任何不良反应;②丁香配郁金治疗胃脘痛有良效;③丁香与郁金单用临床各有新用.结论:丁香与郁金合用与单用均有广泛的功用.

  17. Purification and properties of a new S-adenosyl-L-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curir, Paolo; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Dolci, Paola; Pasini, Carlo; Tollin, Gordon

    2003-08-01

    A new enzyme, S-adenosyl-l-methionine:flavonoid 4'-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.-) (F 4'-OMT), has been purified 1 399-fold from the tissues of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L). The enzyme, with a molecular mass of 43-45 kDa and a pI of 4.15, specifically methylates the hydroxy substituent in 4'-position of the flavones, flavanones and isoflavones in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. A high affinity for the flavone kaempferol was observed (Km = 1.7 micro m; Vmax = 95.2 micro mol.min-1.mg-1), while other 4'-hydroxylated flavonoids proved likewise to be suitable substrates. Enzyme activity had no apparent Mg++ requirement but was inhibited by SH-group reagents. The optimum pH value for F 4'-OMT activity was found to be around neutrality. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme bi-substrate reaction indicates a Ping-Pong mechanism and excludes the formation of a ternary complex. The F 4'-OMT activity was increased, in both in vitro and in vivo carnation tissues, by the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The enzyme did not display activity towards hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, some of which are involved, as methylated monolignols, in lignin biosynthesis; the role of this enzyme could be therefore mainly defensive, rather than structural, although its precise function still needs to be ascertained.

  18. Inhibition of in vitro growth and arrest in the G0/G1 phase of HCT8 line human colon cancer cells by kaempferide triglycoside from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineti, Valentina; Tognarini, Isabella; Azzari, Chiara; Carbonell Sala, Silvia; Clematis, Francesca; Dolci, Marcello; Lanzotti, Virginia; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Curir, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    The effects of phytoestrogens have been studied in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and in various non-gonadal targets. Epidemiologic and experimental evidence indicates a protective effect of phytoestrogens also in colorectal cancer. The mechanism through which estrogenic molecules control colorectal cancer tumorigenesis could possibly involve estrogen receptor beta, the predominantly expressed estrogen receptor subtype in colon mucosa.To validate this hypothesis, we therefore used an engineered human colon cancer cell line induced to overexpress estrogen receptor beta, beside its native cell line, expressing very low levels of ERbeta and not expressing ERalpha; as a phytoestrogenic molecule, we used kaempferide triglycoside, a glycosylated flavonol from a Dianthus caryophyllus cultivar. The inhibitory properties of this molecule toward vegetal cell growth have been previously demonstrated: however, no data on its activity on animal cell or information about the mechanism of this activity are available. Kaempferide triglycoside proved to inhibit the proliferation of native and estrogen receptor beta overexpressing colon cancer cells through a mechanism not mediated by ligand binding dependent estrogen receptor activation. It affected HCT8 cell cycle progression by increasing the G(0)/G(1) cell fraction and in estrogen receptor beta overexpressing cells increased two antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, the biological effects of this kaempferide triglycoside were strengthened by the presence of high levels of estrogen receptor beta.Pleiotropic molecular effects of phytoestrogens may explain their protective activity against colorectal cancer and may represent an interesting area for future investigation with potential clinical applications.

  19. 香石竹(康乃馨)红花色素稳定性研究%The study on stability of D.caryophyllus L.red pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继; 黄玉龙; 姚健; 杨永利; 杨洋; 杨邵华

    2004-01-01

    对香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)红花色素的性能作了测试与分析,研究了其稳定性.结果表明,pH值对香石竹红花色素的影响明显,在酸性条件下该色素较稳定.金属离子Ca2+、Cu2+对色素有增色作用.色素耐光性良好,耐热性较差,只能在50℃以下受热.H2O2、Na2SO3、苯甲酸钠对其有严重的破坏作用,食品中常有的NaCl、蔗糖对其也有一定影响:低浓度(<1%)有增色作用,高浓度(>1%)则有明显的降解作用.

  20. The biosynthesis of phytoalexins in Dianthus caryophyllus L. cell cultures: induction of benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K; Matern, U

    1989-11-15

    It has been shown that cell cultures of Dianthus caryophyllus L. c.v. Eleganz accumulate N-benzoyl-4-methoxyanthranilic acid, previously identified as the phytoalexin methoxydianthramide B, in response to treatment either with a crude elicitor isolated from the cell walls of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea or with a commercial yeast extract. Cell-free extracts from the induced cells efficiently catalyzed the N-benzoylation of anthranilate in the presence of benzoyl-CoA. The partially purified transferase was shown to be specific for anthranilate with almost no activity toward 4-hydroxyanthranilate, whereas acyl donors other than benzoyl-CoA such as salicyloyl-, cinnamoyl-, or 4-coumaroyl-CoA were also accepted. Elicitor treatment of the cells additionally induced an S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilate 4-O-methyltransferase activity. We propose, therefore, that methoxydianthramide B is derived from N-benzoylanthranilic acid via N-benzoyl-4-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Dark-grown cells contained little N-benzoyltransferase activity (approx 8 mu kat/kg), which increased roughly ninefold within 6 h following the addition of the elicitor. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of the cells increased about twofold under these conditions to a maximum (approx 40 mu kat/kg) at 5 h. The rapid induction of both enzyme activities suggests that the shikimate pathway is of crucial importance in the disease resistance response of carnation cells.

  1. Inhibition by 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate of the activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase obtained from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Y; Oyamada, N; Satoh, S; Yoshioka, T; Onodera, E; Yamada, Y

    1997-03-01

    We partially purified 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) oxidase from senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Nora) flowers and investigated its general characteristics, and, in particular, the inhibition of its activity by ACC analogs. The enzyme had an optimum pH at 7-7.5 and required Fe2+, ascorbate and NaHCO3 for its maximal activity. The Km for ACC was calculated as 111-125 microM in the presence of NaHCO3. Its M(r) was estimated to be 35 and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography on HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively, indicating that the enzyme exists in a monomeric form. These properties were in agreement with those reported previously with ACC oxidases from different plant tissues including senescing carnation petals. Among six ACC analogs tested, 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylate (ACBC) inhibited most severely the activity of ACC oxidase from carnation petals. ACBC acted as a competitive inhibitor with the Ki of 20-30 microM. The comparison between the Km for ACC and the Ki for ACBC indicated that ACBC had an affinity which was ca. 5-fold higher than that of ACC. Whereas ACC inactivated carnation ACC oxidase in a time-dependent manner during incubation, ACBC did not cause the inactivation of the enzyme. Preliminary experiments showed that ACBC and its N-substituted derivatives delayed the onset of senescence in cut carnation flowers.

  2. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  3. Allspice and Clove As Source of Triterpene Acids Activating the G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ladurner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5. This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY. The aim of this study was (i to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of CDCA to lithocholic acid resulting in a distinct increase in TGR5 activity. Based on a traditional Tibetan formula, 19 plant extracts were selected and investigated for TGR5 activation. Extracts from the commonly used spices Syzygium aromaticum (SaroE, clove, Pimenta dioica (PdioE, allspice, and Kaempferia galanga (KgalE, aromatic ginger significantly increased TGR5 activity. After biotransformation, only KgalE showed significant differences in its metabolite profile, which, however, did not alter its TGR5 activity compared to non-transformed KgalE. UHPLC-HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis revealed triterpene acids (TTAs as the main constituents of the extracts SaroE and PdioE. Identification and quantification of TTAs in these two extracts as well as comparison of their TGR5 activity with reconstituted TTA mixtures allowed the attribution of the TGR5 activity to TTAs. EC50s were determined for the main TTAs, i.e., oleanolic acid (2.2 ± 1.6

  4. Allspice and Clove As Source of Triterpene Acids Activating the G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor TGR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Angela; Zehl, Martin; Grienke, Ulrike; Hofstadler, Christoph; Faur, Nadina; Pereira, Fátima C; Berry, David; Dirsch, Verena M; Rollinger, Judith M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have reached epidemic proportions. A major regulator of metabolic processes that gained interest in recent years is the bile acid receptor TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). This G protein-coupled membrane receptor can be found predominantly in the intestine, where it is mainly responsible for the secretion of the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). The aim of this study was (i) to identify plant extracts with TGR5-activating potential, (ii) to narrow down their activity to the responsible constituents, and (iii) to assess whether the intestinal microbiota produces transformed metabolites with a different activity profile. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) served as positive control for both, the applied cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay for TGR5 activity and the biotransformation assay using mouse fecal slurry. The suitability of the workflow was demonstrated by the biotransformation of CDCA to lithocholic acid resulting in a distinct increase in TGR5 activity. Based on a traditional Tibetan formula, 19 plant extracts were selected and investigated for TGR5 activation. Extracts from the commonly used spices Syzygium aromaticum (SaroE, clove), Pimenta dioica (PdioE, allspice), and Kaempferia galanga (KgalE, aromatic ginger) significantly increased TGR5 activity. After biotransformation, only KgalE showed significant differences in its metabolite profile, which, however, did not alter its TGR5 activity compared to non-transformed KgalE. UHPLC-HRMS (high-resolution mass spectrometry) analysis revealed triterpene acids (TTAs) as the main constituents of the extracts SaroE and PdioE. Identification and quantification of TTAs in these two extracts as well as comparison of their TGR5 activity with reconstituted TTA mixtures allowed the attribution of the TGR5 activity to TTAs. EC50s were determined for the main TTAs, i.e., oleanolic acid (2.2 ± 1.6 μM), ursolic

  5. Study on the antioxidant capacity of clove polyphenols in cell%丁香多酚细胞抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芸; 申云翔; 任国艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:A study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of clove polyphenols extracts on RBL caused by the damage of H2O2 and its protective mechanism.Method:Oxidative damage was induced by H2O2,and cell viability was measured by the MTT assay.The influence of clove polyphenols extracts on H2O2 induced RBL injury was assessed by measuring the superoxide dismutase(SOD),catalase(CAT),and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px)activities and the malondialdehyde(MDA)content.Result:The results demonstrated that RBL cells were damaged by incubation with 100μmol/L H2O2 for 24h,and the viability of RBL cells reduced to 24.64%.The addition of clove polyphenols extracts(0.1,0.5,2 and 10mg/L)into the RBL cell suspensions prior to the exposure to 100μmol/L of H2O2 resulted in a greater survival rate of the cells.In particular,the cell viability reached 59.18% after treating with 10mg/L clove polyphenols extracts.Moreover,at elevated concentrations,clove polyphenols extracts exhibited increased repairing capability for injured RBL as well as increased protection of SOD,CAT and GSH-PX while reduced MDA formation.Conclusion:The clove polyphenols extracts possessed protective effects on RBL cell injuries induced by H2O2,and this may be related to the antioxidative activity of clove polyphenols.%目的:研究丁香多酚对由H2O2引起的人肝细胞RBL氧化损伤的保护作用。方法:采用H2O2诱导建立细胞氧化损伤模型,通过测定细胞存活率、细胞抗氧化酶活性、丙二醛等指标,分析探讨丁香多酚对细胞损伤的保护作用。结果:结果表明,100μmol/L H2O2孵育24h可显著诱导RBL细胞损伤,使细胞存活力下降到24.64%,细胞经不同浓度的丁香多酚(0.1、0.5、2、10mg/L)与H2O2共孵育后,特别是10mg/L丁香多酚可使细胞存活率达到59.18%。丁香多酚可通过提高SOD、CAT、GSH-Px酶活性,降低MDA含量,促进受损的RBL细胞修复。结论:丁香多酚对H2O2诱导氧化损伤

  6. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Moonkyoo Kong,1 Deok-Sang Hwang,2 Seong Woo Yoon,3 Jinsung Kim4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 2Department of Korean Medicine Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 3Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Korean Medicine Cancer Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 4Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clove-based herbal mouthwash in ameliorating radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The patients of the experimental group swished their mouths with a clove-based herbal mouthwash during radiotherapy (RT, while the patients of the control group swished with clear water. The primary end point of this study was incidence of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The secondary end points were time to onset of radiation-induced oral mucositis, duration of radiation-induced oral mucositis, incidence of supplemental nutrition through feeding tube, maximum pain score, body weight loss, incidence of RT interruption, and duration of RT interruption. Results: The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash shortened the duration of grade ≥2 mucositis (24.3 days vs 37.1 days, P=0.044 and reduced body weight loss during RT (3.1% vs 7.4%, P=0.023 compared with clear water. The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash also reduced the incidence of grade 3 mucositis (28.6% vs 57.1%, supplemental nutrition (0% vs 28.6%, and RT interruption (14.3% vs 28.6%, and reduced the duration of grade 3 mucositis (5.1 days vs 17.7 days and RT interruption (1 days vs 8.5 days. In addition, clove-based herbal mouthwash

  7. Inclusion phenomena of clove oil with alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L X; Xu, P; Wang, H M; Yang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion interactions of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) as hosts with clove oil (an impure eugenol, I-Eug) as guest in aqueous solution were investigated by fluorescence emission spectra. The binding constants of different hosts to I-Eug in aqueous solution decreased in the order: gamma- > beta- > DMbeta- > alpha-CD. Two solid supramolecular inclusion complexes, I-Eug-beta-CD and I-Eug-gamma-CD, were prepared and characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All the results proved the formation of I-Eug-CD. The inclusion differences between I-Eug and pure eugenol were discussed. The relative contents of the main component eugenol (Eug), second component (eugenol acetate, Eua) and others in I-Eug were found to be fairly different before and after being included by beta-CD, according to the data obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. This could be a practical method to extract the effective components (Eug and Eua) from I-Eug.

  8. Self-emulsification of alkaline-dissolved clove bud oil by whey protein, gum arabic, lecithin, and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Zhang, Yue; Pan, Kang; Critzer, Faith; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2014-05-14

    Low-cost emulsification technologies using food ingredients are critical to various applications. In the present study, a novel self-emulsification technique was studied to prepare clove bud oil (CBO) emulsions, without specialized equipment or organic solvents. CBO was first dissolved in hot alkaline solutions, added at 1% v/v into neutral solutions with 1% w/v emulsifier composed of whey protein concentrate (WPC), gum arabic, lecithin, or their equal mass mixtures, and adjusted to pH 7.0. The self-emulsification process did not affect UV-vis absorption spectrum, reversed-phase HPLC chromatogram, or antimicrobial activity of CBO against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, and Salmonella Enteritidis. The entrapment efficiency after extraction by petroleum ether was determined to be about 80%. Most emulsions were stable during 7 days of storage. Emulsions prepared with WPC had smaller particles, whereas emulsions prepared with emulsifier mixtures had more stable particle dimensions. The studied self-emulsification technique may find numerous applications in the preparation of low-cost food emulsions.

  9. Effects of clove essential oil and eugenol on quality and browning control of fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangning; Ren, Lupei; Li, Menglin; Qian, Jia; Fan, Junfeng; Du, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study confirmed the inhibitory effects of clove essential oil (CEO) and eugenol (EUG) on the browning and relevant enzymes of fresh-cut lettuce, and examined associated mechanisms by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis. Fresh-cut lettuce was treated with 0.05% CEO and 0.05% EUG solutions, resulting in inhibition of the deterioration of texture quality and browning of the lettuce surface and interior. Compared with the controls, CEO and EUG significantly inhibited the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD, all p<0.05). EUG suppressed PAL, PPO, and POD in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 5.4±0.9, 29.5±3.5, and 61.9±6.7mM, respectively. The binding and inhibition effects of EUG on PAL, PPO, and POD, determined by inhibition kinetics and computational docking analysis, established EUG as a competitive inhibitor of these browning-relevant enzymes.

  10. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu M. Marya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29% and eugenyl acetate (19.10%. Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Data were analyzed using student t-test (<0.05. CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy.

  11. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2012-01-01

    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  12. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria Atividade de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos sobre bactérias resistentes a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene G. F. Nascimento

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow, Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove, Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm, Ocimun basilucum (basil, Psidium guajava (guava, Punica granatum (pomegranate, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Salvia officinalis (sage, Syzygyum joabolanum (jambolan and Thymus vulgaris (thyme. The phytochemicals benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and farnesol were also utilized. The highest antimicrobial potentials were observed for the extracts of Caryophyllus aromaticus and Syzygyum joabolanum, which inhibited 64.2 and 57.1% of the tested microorganisms, respectively, with higher activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria (83.3%. Sage and yarrow extracts did not present any antimicrobial activity. Association of antibiotics and plant extracts showed synergistic antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The results obtained with Pseudomonas aeruginosa was particularly interesting, since it was inhibited by clove, jambolan, pomegranate and thyme extracts. This inhibition was observed with the individual extracts and when they were used in lower concentrations with ineffective antibiotics.Foi avaliada a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais e fitofármacos frente a microrganismos sensíveis e resistentes a antibióticos, bem como observado o possível efeito sinérgico da associação entre antibióticos e extratos vegetais. Foram utilizados os extratos de plantas cujo nomes populares são: tomilho, alecrim, cravo-da-Índia, jambolão, erva cidreira, romã, goiaba, sálvia, manjericão e mil-folhas, e ainda os fitofármacos, ácido benzóico, ácido cinâmico, eugenol e farnesol. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana através do m

  13. Evaluación de la distribución poblacional del Acaro Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Segura Diego Marino

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important ecological topics about Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval. (Acari: Tetranychidae pest management was studied in a comercial crop of carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L. in greenhouse in Suba - Cundinamarca. Population of mites was evaluated on 3 thirds and 9 ages of plants during rainy and dry season. 34.8334.61% were found on the up third and 27.84% were found on the lower third of plants. Mite population reached equilibrium state, de life cycle was 37.19C% for egg;
    20.50% for larva; 24.37% ninfal stages and 17.54% for adults. Trifolium repens L.; Stellaris media (L. Cyrill; Pos annua L.; Veronica persica Poir; Holcus lanatus L. and
    Oxslis corniculata L. were found as secondary hosts for T. cinneberinus during this studv, In laboratory conditions, 300C and 85 ± 5% R.H., the life cycle of Tetrsnychuscinnabarinus
    (Boisduval. on Triototium repens L. Was shorter than the life cycle on carnation (Disnthus csryopbvtlu. L..El trabajo se desarrolló bajo condiciones de cultivo comercial (Municipio de Suba, Cundinamarca, abordó interrogantes
    de interés específico para el manejo de ácaros en clavel, como son principalmente: dinámica de población y efecto
    del ciclo de vida. Bajo invernadero, se evaluó la distribución vertical de poblaciones teniendo en cuenta: tres estratos, nueve edades de planta y dos épocas (lluviosa y seca; además se buscaron hospedantes secundarios del ácaro. Las mayores poblaciones de arañita se presentaron en plantas de 19, 20 y 21 meses de edad, con un 34.83% del total. Al tener en cuenta distribución vertical se observó que el estrato medio contiene la mayor población, el 37.55% y la menor, el
    estrato inferior con el 27.84%. Al comparar los diferentes estados del ciclo de vida del ácaro se pudo ver la condición de equilibrio estable de su poblaci

  14. Reverted glutathione S-transferase-like genes that influence flower color intensity of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) originated from excision of a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Masaki; Itoh, Yoshio; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    A glutathione S-transferase-like gene, DcGSTF2, is responsible for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower color intensity. Two defective genes, DcGSTF2mu with a nonsense mutation and DcGSTF2-dTac1 containing a transposable element dTac1, have been characterized in detail in this report. dTac1 is an active element that produces reverted functional genes by excision of the element. A pale-pink cultivar 'Daisy' carries both defective genes, whereas a spontaneous deep-colored mutant 'Daisy-VPR' lost the element from DcGSTF2-dTac1. This finding confirmed that dTac1 is active and that the resulting reverted gene, DcGSTF2rev1, missing the element is responsible for this color change. Crosses between the pale-colored cultivar '06-LA' and a deep-colored cultivar 'Spectrum' produced segregating progeny. Only the deep-colored progeny had DcGSTF2rev2 derived from the 'Spectrum' parent, whereas progeny with pale-colored flowers had defective forms from both parents, DcGSTF2mu and DcGSTF2-dTac1. Thus, DcGSTF2rev2 had functional activity and likely originated from excision of dTac1 since there was a footprint sequence at the vacated site of the dTac1 insertion. Characterizing the DcGSTF2 genes in several cultivars revealed that the two functional genes, DcGSTF2rev1 and DcGSTF2rev2, have been used for some time in carnation breeding with the latter in use for more than half a century.

  15. Establishment of regeneration system from leaf explant of Dianthus caryophyllus%香石竹叶片离体再生体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英; 王光萍; 诸葛强; 蔡有铭; 黄敏仁; 王明庥

    2005-01-01

    以香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.)无菌苗叶片为外植体,从不同细胞分裂素及其他激素配合使用等方面进行筛选,建立香石竹叶片离体再生体系.结果表明,不同的细胞分裂素影响叶片不定芽分化频率,其中较低浓度的6-BA(0.5 mg·L-1)和TDZ(0.001 mg·L-1)配合使用能有效诱导香石竹叶片不定芽分化;添加一定浓度的PP333(4 mg·L-1)可提高叶片不定芽分化频率和平均芽数.香石竹叶片不定芽分化的适宜培养基为:MS+0.002mg·L-1TDZ+0.5 mg·L-16-BA+0.2 mg·L-1IAA+4 mg·L-1PP333;壮苗培养基为:MS+0.2 mg·L-1 6-BA+0.2 mg·L-1IAA;生根培养基为:1/2 MS.不定芽诱导频率达到42.61%,平均芽数为4.53个.

  16. Diversity of function in the isocitrate lyase enzyme superfamily: the Dianthus caryophyllus petal death protein cleaves alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhibing; Feng, Xiaohua; Song, Ling; Han, Ying; Kim, Alexander; Herzberg, Osnat; Woodson, William R; Martin, Brian M; Mariano, Patrick S; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2005-12-20

    The work described in this paper was carried out to define the chemical function a new member of the isocitrate lyase enzyme family derived from the flowering plant Dianthus caryophyllus. This protein (Swiss-Prot entry Q05957) is synthesized in the senescent flower petals and is named the "petal death protein" or "PDP". On the basis of an analysis of the structural contexts of sequence markers common to the C-C bond lyases of the isocitrate lyase/phosphoenolpyruvate mutase superfamily, a substrate screen that employed a (2R)-malate core structure was designed. Accordingly, stereochemically defined C(2)- and C(3)-substituted malates were synthesized and tested as substrates for PDP-catalyzed cleavage of the C(2)-C(3) bond. The screen identified (2R)-ethyl, (3S)-methylmalate, and oxaloacetate [likely to bind as the hydrate, C(2)(OH)(2) gem-diol] as the most active substrates (for each, k(cat)/K(m) = 2 x 10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). In contrast to the stringent substrate specificities previously observed for the Escherichia coli isocitrate and 2-methylisocitrate lyases, the PDP tolerated hydrogen, methyl, and to a much lesser extent acetate substituents at the C(3) position (S configuration only) and hydoxyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, and to a much lesser extent isobutyl substituents at C(2) (R configuration only). It is hypothesized that PDP functions in oxalate production in Ca(2+) sequestering and/or in carbon scavenging from alpha-hydroxycarboxylate catabolites during the biochemical transition accompanying petal senescence.

  17. Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oil-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-05-15

    In this study the performance, emission and economic evaluation of using the clove stem oil (CSO)-diesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engine have been carried out. Experiments were performed to evaluate the impact of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine performance and emissions. The societal life cycle cost (LCC) was chosen as an important indicator for comparing alternative fuel operating modes. The LCC using the pure diesel fuel, 25% CSO and 50% CSO-diesel blended fuels in diesel engine are analysed. These costs include the vehicle first cost, fuel cost and exhaust emissions cost. A complete macroeconomic assessment of the effect of introducing the CSO-diesel blended fuels to the diesel engine is not included in the study. Engine tests show that performance parameters of the CSO-diesel blended fuels do not differ greatly from those of the pure diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in fuel consumption, were experienced with the CSO-diesel blended fuels. This is due to the low heating value of the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Emissions of CO and HC are low for the CSO-diesel blended fuels. NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel operation mode. A remarkable reduction in the exhaust smoke emissions can be achieved when operating on the CSO-diesel blended fuels. Based on the LCC analysis, the CSO-diesel blended fuels would not be competitive with the pure diesel fuel, even though the environmental impact of emission is valued monetarily. This is due to the high price of the CSO. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the community structure of a rockpool fish assemblage from Peniche (Portugal using clove oil as an anesthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mattioli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to provide the first scientific data of the intertidal ichthyofauna community of Peniche. In order to have an accurate assessment, anesthetics were used, since this method is more effective than visual census. Therefore, the ideal concentration of clove oil to be used as anesthetics for local rock pool fish was tested. Through laboratory experiments with some of the most common species in the area, the concentration 30 mg.L-1was considered ideal. A total of 4 rockpools were sampled between May and July 2012, in two different locations (2 in Praia da Gamboa and 2 in Portinho da Areia Norte, in Peniche (West of Portugal. A total of 508 fishes belonging to 17 different species were registered. Fish abundance, occurrence frequencies and sizes were registered and compared for the two beaches and for the respective tide pools. The most abundant species was Gobius n.sp. while the most frequent was Gobius paganellus. These two species represent 59.1% of all captured species. Praia da Gamboa was the location with the highest abundance of individuals while Portinho da Areia Norte was the location where larger individuals were collected. It was observed that the size of rockpools affects abundance and density of individuals. Substrate, number and type of shelters also affect density, abundance and the mean size of individuals. Considering the studies focusing on intertidal ichthyofauna worldwide are relatively scarce, and being this ecosystem absolutely crucial both for biological but also socio-economic reasons worldwide, a better understanding of this unique ecosystem is mandatory, so it is possible to understand it, in order to preserve it.

  19. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides.

  20. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarker for potato tuber stored by two essential oils from Caraway and Clove and its main component carvone and eugenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Amina A Aly; Abeer E El-Ansary

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate two essential oils from Caraway and Clove and its main component carvone and eugenol as sprout inhibitors on germination of potato tubers. Methods: The enzymes activities: catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase, in addition to lipid peroxidation level were tested in potato tubers stored for 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Essential oils; Caraway, Clove, carvone and eugenol with three concentration (100, 200 and 300 ppm) were used to control germination process of potato tubers. Results: The results of enzyme activities varied depending on the function of enzymes involved. As general trend the activities of the enzymes recorded are significantly found on the range of enzyme control or less, which prevent of potato tuber from germination. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased after treatment with essential oils and the activity of enzyme reached (23.3±5.15) (100 ppm) for Caraway, (18.8±0.00) (100 ppm) for carvone, (10.4±0.00) (100 ppm) for colve, and (14.1±0.0) (100 ppm) for eugenol respectively compared to control (7.86±3.26). Conclusions:Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity increased in its activity and recovered to the level of control after treatment with essential oils which maintain potato tuber for 9 weeks. The pure essential oils especially carvone have more potent as suppressor of potato tuber germination.

  1. Hexane extracts of garlic cloves induce apoptosis through the generation of reactive oxygen species in Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi Young; Choi, Young-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) compounds have recently received increasing attention due to their cancer chemopreventive properties, and their anticancer activities are extensively reported in many cancer cell lines. However, the anticancer activity and the signaling pathway associated with the induction of apoptosis by extracts of garlic cloves have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the effects of hexane extracts of garlic cloves (HEGCs) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the association of these effects with apoptotic cell death, using a Hep3B human hepatocarcinoma cell line in vitro. The results demonstrated that HEGCs mediate ROS production, and that this mediation is followed by a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm), the downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. HEGCs also promoted the activation of caspase-8 and the downregulation of Bid, a BH3-only pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2. However, the apoptotic phenomena displayed by HEGCs were significantly diminished by the presence of z-VAD-fmk (non-selective caspase inhibitor). Moreover, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a widely used ROS scavenger, effectively blocked the HEGC-induced apoptotic effects via the inhibition of ROS production and MMP collapse. These observations clearly indicate that HEGC-induced ROS are key mediators of MMP collapse, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, followed by caspase activation.

  2. Influence of cinnamon and clove essential oils on the D- and z-values of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, K P; McKellar, R C

    2007-09-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has become a concern within the apple cider industry. The purpose of this study was to screen several essential oils and isolated components for antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 in tryptic soy broth at neutral and acidic pH and to assess the effect of these additives on the D-value of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider in combination with mild heat treatments. Cinnamon oil and clove oil strongly inhibited the growth of E. coli O157:H7 at neutral and acidic pH, (R)-(-)-carvone and (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde were moderately inhibitory at both pH 7.2 and pH 4.5, and citral and geraniol displayed moderate activity at pH 4.5 only. Lemon oil, methyl jasmonate, and p-anisaldehyde displayed little or no antibacterial activity. A synergistic effect between the essential oils and the lower pH of the growth medium was evident by consistently lower MICs at pH 4.5. Cinnamon and clove oils (0.01%, vol/vol) were further tested in apple cider in combination with mild heat treatments for the practical control of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider. The addition of either essential oil resulted in lower D-values than those for cider alone, suggesting a synergistic effect and the potential efficacy of a mild heat treatment for apple cider.

  3. Colorimetric Assay and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton, Silk, and Wool Fabrics Dyed with Peony, Pomegranate, Clove, Coptis chinenis and Gallnut Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Hee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the antibacterial functionality of natural colorant extracts, five kinds of natural dying aqueous solutions were obtained by extraction from peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut using water at 90 °C for 90 min with a liquor ratio (solid natural colorant material/water, weight ratio of 1:10. The colorimetric assay and antibacterial activity of cotton, silk, and wool fabrics dyed with these natural colorant extracts were examined. It was found that these properties were significantly dependent on the structure of colorant and the kind of fabrics. The hues (H of all fabrics dyed with these natural colorants were in the range of 6.05YR -1.95Y. The order of value (V was wool, silk and cotton. The chroma (C of all samples was found to be at very low levels indicating the natural tone. All the fabrics dyed with the five natural colorants (peony, pomegranate, clove, Coptis chinensis and gallnut extracts displayed excellent antibacterial activity (reduction rate: 96.8 - 99.9% against Staphylococcus aureus. However, in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae, the antibacterial activity was found to depend on the kind of natural colorant extract used.

  4. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils on the morphology and mortality of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn

    2016-04-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oils were evaluated to determine mortality rates, morphological aberrations, and persistence when used against third and fourth larval instars of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles dirus. The oils were evaluated at 1, 5, and 10 % concentrations in mixtures with soybean oil. Persistence of higher concentrations was measured over a period of 10 days. For Ae. aegypti, both plant oils caused various morphological aberrations to include deformed larvae, incomplete eclosion, white pupae, deformed pupae, dead normal pupae, and incomplete pupal eclosion. All of these aberrations led to larval mortality. In Ae. aegypti larvae, there were no significant differences in mortality at days 1, 5, and 10 or between third and fourth larval instar exposure. In An. dirus, morphological aberrations were rare and S. aromaticum oil was more effective in causing mortality among all larval stages. Both oils were equally effective at producing mortality on days 1, 5, and 10. Both oils had slightly increased LT50 rates from day 1 to day 10. In conclusion, both lemongrass and clove oils have significant effects on the immature stages of Ae. aegypti and An. dirus and could potentially be developed for use as larvicides.

  5. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-08-31

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P < 0.0001); however, the essential oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of antibiotic may be considered as a pronounced stress factor in the fish even when it used in the prophylactic dose. In conclusion, medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems.

  6. Effects of eugenol-reduced clove extract on glycogen phosphorylase b and the development of diabetes in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, Fujiko; Kamiyama, Ogusa; Ikeda-Obatake, Kyoko; Higashi, Yasuhiko; Asano, Naoki; Adachi, Isao; Kato, Atsushi

    2014-02-01

    We found that the 50% aqueous EtOH extract of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) had potent dose-dependent inhibitory activity toward glycogen phosphorylase b and glucagon-stimulated glucose production in primary rat hepatocytes. Among the components, eugeniin inhibited glycogen phosphorylase b and glucagon-stimulated glucose production in primary rat hepatocytes, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 4.7 μM, respectively. In sharp contrast, eugenol showed no significant inhibition toward glycogen phosphorylase b, even at a concentration of 400 μM. Eugenol-reduced clove extracts (erCE) were prepared and when fed to a db/db mouse they clearly suppressed the blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Furthermore, plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels in 5% and 10% erCE-fed db/db mice were significantly lowered, compared with control db/db mice without erCE supplementation. These results suggested that dietary supplementation with the erCE could beneficially modify glucose and lipid metabolism and contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome.

  7. DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTABILIDAD GENÉTICA EN VITROPLANTAS DE CLAVEL ESPAÑOL (Dianthus caryophyllus L., MICROPROPAGADAS CON BIOBRAS-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Castilla Valdés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El clavel español ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. se encuentra entre las especies de flores y plantas ornamentales más solicitadas por la población cubana. Su propagación in vitro con el empleo del análogo de brasinoesteroide Biobras-16, producido en Cuba, permite obtener un elevado coeficiente de multiplicación. Sin embargo, algunas de las técnicas del cultivo in vitro y algunos de los biorreguladores empleados en estas, pueden introducir alteraciones en el material hereditario, por lo que resulta importante determinar si se mantuvo estable genéticamente. En el presente trabajo nos propusimos el objetivo de estudiar la estabilidad genética a través del empleo de marcadores bioquímicos, en vitroplantas de clavel español micropropagadas con diferentes concentraciones de Biobras-16 como sustituto de la citoquinina. El material vegetal fue obtenido a partir del cultivo de meristemos en medios con Biobras-16 como sustituto de la Kinetina, a las concentraciones de 0,1; 0,01 y 0,001 mg.L -1 . Las plantas crecidas en cada uno de estos tratamientos a los tres meses fueron multiplicadas por esquejes durante dos subcultivos, sin el empleo de este análogo de brasinoesteroide. Para la preparación de las muestras del estudio isoenzimático, fueron tomadas hojas de plantas de los diferentes tratamientos del cultivo de meristemos y las propagaciones por esquejes, y fueron analizados los sistemas isoenzimáticos Peroxidasas, Fosfatasas Ácidas, Malato Deshidrogenasas y Esterasas. Las electroforesis se realizaron en geles de poliacrilamida (PAGE en lámina vertical. Como resultado, aunque el sistema isoenzimático Fosfatasas Ácidas resultó polimórfico, de manera general se determinó que se mantuvo la estabilidad genética de las plántulas regeneradas.

  8. Presencia del elemento genético transponible dTdic1 en Dianthus caryophyllus con flores variegadas y no variegadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rocío López Castro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Presence of the transposable genetic element  dTdic1 in Dianthus caryophyllus with  variegated and no variegated flowers Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo era la búsqueda del  EGT (Elemento Genético Transponible dTdic1 que ha sido asociado con la variegación del color de las flores de clavel y su relación con dos genes que codifican para enzimas involucradas en la biosíntesis de antocianinas,  Chalcona isomerasa (CHI y Dihidroflavonol reductasa (DFR.  Su presencia y expresión se evaluó en siete genotipos con flores variegadas (líneas híbridas y en cuatro genotipos de flores no variegadas (una línea híbrida y tres cultivares comerciales.  Un alto número (indefinido de copias del elemento dTdic1 se detectó en todas las líneas variegadas y no variegadas.  En consecuencia, la sola presencia de este EGT no pudo asociarse directamente con la variegación de los pigmentos florales de flores de clavel.  Adicionalmente, dTdic1 se encontró interrumpiendo el gen CHI en cuatro genotipos variegados y uno no variegado. No se observó evidencia de inserción de dTdic1 en el gen DFR en ninguno de los genotipos. Palabras clave: Transposones; chalcona isomerasa; antocianinas Abstract: The objective of this work was to search for the EGT (Transposable Genetic Element dTdic1 that has been associated with color variegation of carnation flowers and its relationship with two genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of anthocyanins, Chalcona isomerase (CHI and Dihidroflavonol reductase (DFR. Its presence and expression was evaluated in seven genotypes of variegated flowers and four no variegated flower genotypes (one hybrid line and three commercial cultivars. A high number of copies (undefined of copies of the dTdic1 element was detected in variegaated and no variegated lines. Therefore, the main presence of this EGT was not associated directly with variegation of floral pigments. Additionally, dTdic1 was

  9. Characterization and heterologous expression of hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from elicited cell cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Reinhard, K; Schiltz, E; Matern, U

    1997-12-01

    Benzoyl-CoA:anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase catalyzes the first committed reaction of phytoalexin biosynthesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), and the product N-benzoylanthranilate is the precursor of several sets of dianthramides. The transferase activity is constitutively expressed in suspension-cultured carnation cells and can be rapidly induced by the addition of yeast extract. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from yeast-induced carnation cells and shown to consist of a single polypeptide chain of 53 kDa. Roughly 20% of the sequence was identified by micro-sequencing of tryptic peptides, and some of these sequences differed in a few amino acid residues only suggesting the presence of isoenzymes. A specific 0.8 kb cDNA probe was generated by RT-PCR, employing degenerated oligonucleotide primers complementary to two of the tryptic peptides and using poly(A)+ RNA from elicited carnation cells. Five distinct benzoyltransferase clones were isolated from a cDNA library, and three cDNAs, pchcbt1-3, were sequenced and shown to encode full-size N-benzoyltransferases. The translated peptide sequences revealed more than 95% identity among these three clones. The additional two clones harbored insert sequences mostly homologous with pchcbt 1 but differing in the 3'-flanking regions due to variable usage of poly(A) addition sites. The identity of the clones was confirmed by matching the translated polypeptides with the tryptic enzyme sequences as well as by the activity of the benzoyltransferase expressed in Escherichia coli. Therefore, carnation encodes a small family of anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase genes. In vitro, the benzoyltransferases exhibited narrow substrate specificity for anthranilate but accepted a variety of aromatic acyl-CoAs. Catalytic rates with cinnamoyl- or 4-coumaroyl-CoA exceeded those observed with benzoyl-CoA, although the corresponding dianthramides did not accumulate in vivo. Thus the cDNAs described represent also the first

  10. Protective effect of clove oil and eugenol microemulsions on fatty liver and dyslipidemia as components of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Okbi, Sahar Y; Mohamed, Doha A; Hamed, Thanaa E; Edris, Amr E

    2014-07-01

    In the present research, the effect of clove essential oil (CO) and its major constituent, eugenol, formulated in water-based microemulsions, was studied on fatty liver and dyslipidemia in high-fructose-fed rats. Plasma and liver lipids, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarker, and liver function were the assessed criteria. CO dispersed in water as conventional cloudy emulsion was also subjected to the same biological evaluations for comparison with the microemulsified form of this oil. Results showed that the particle size of CO microemulsion (COM) and eugenol microemulsion (EM) was 8.0 nm and 8.9 nm, respectively. Excess dilution and incubation of these microemulsions in 1.2 N HCl, that mimic stomach juice (without lipase), for 5 hours at 37 °C lead to the establishment of second population of larger particles with average diameter>100.0 nm. Biological evaluation revealed that rats of high fructose control group exhibited significant dyslipidemia, high plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, and elevated malondialdehyde. The same group of rats showed significant high liver total fat, triglycerides and cholesterol, and liver dysfunction compared to control normal rats fed balanced diet. Daily oral administration of CO conventional emulsion, COM, and EM produced significant improvement of all studied parameters. No significant change in all biochemical parameters was noticed when the groups given the different formulations were compared with each other. The study concluded that administration of CO conventional emulsion, COM, or EM produced significant improvement in fatty liver and dyslipidemia with consequent expected protection from cardiovascular diseases and other complications of fatty liver. Formulation of CO in microemulsion having particle size ∼ 8.0 nm did not enhance the protective effect compared with the same dose of CO dispersed in water as conventional macroemulsion, probably due to the ease of absorption of these bioactives in their native states

  11. Study on Differentiation of Clumpy Buds in Fragrant Pink(Dianthus caryophyllus) Tissue Culture%香石竹组织培养丛生芽分化的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进; 钟利华

    2004-01-01

    对香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)组织培养丛生芽分化的几个影响因素进行了研究.结果表明,以顶芽为外植体,在不同浓度激素的培养基上培养,在培养基MS+6-BA 2 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L上培养的丛芽分化率最高,达到87.5%.将顶芽、带腋芽的茎节、不带茎节的茎段分别接种在同一培养基MS+NAA 0.1 mg/L+6-BA 1.0 mg/L上培养,顶芽分化的芽数最多.同时,光照12 h/d对香石竹丛芽生长有利.

  12. 西花蓟马在康乃馨不同品种上的田间分布%Distribution of Frankliniella occidentalis on different varieties of Dianthus caryophyllus in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李江涛; 邓建华; 段登晓; 李正跃; 丁元明; 刘忠善; 肖春

    2009-01-01

    调查西花蓟马Frankliniella oceidentalis(Pergande)在10个康乃馨(Dianthns caryophyllus)品种上的发生与分布,比较花朵颜色与气味对西花蓟马寄主选择性的影响.结果表明,花朵上的西花蓟马数量在不同品种间存在显著差异.花朵颜色是影响西花蓟马寄主选择的主要原因,而花朵气味也能影响西花蓟马对寄主的选择性.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of a Polyphenoloxidase Related with Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Resistence to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 Aislamiento y caracterización de una polifenoloxidasa relacionada con la tolerancia del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus a Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roquesa Mayorga Viana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenoloxidase (PPO was isolated and purified from stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L after the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (FOD2 of a tolerant variety. Purification was performed using column chromatography of ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction and molecular exclusion. With these successive steps, a factor of 314 fold purification was achieved. The SDS-PAGE analysis
    showed one band of 40 kDa. The purified enzyme was partially characterized using cathecol as substrate and determined the optimal temperature as 45ºC and 7.5 as optimal pH. The enzyme showed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic with Km of 249 mM and Vmax 322 U/min. The IP was 5.0 indicating the acidic character of this protein. Using the purified enzyme and its reaction products, in vitro fungitoxic assays were realized
    indicating an important inhibitory activity against FOD2 of 57% at 24 hours. Then, it is possible to postulate that this enzyme is activated as a part of the defense mechanismsin this interaction model.Se purificó y caracterizó bioquímicamente la enzima polifenoloxidasa (PFO inducida en tallos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L de variedad tolerante por inoculación con
    el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 (FOD2, causante del marchitamiento vascular. La purificación se logró a través de procesos sucesivos de cromatografía en columna de intercambio iónico, de interacción hidrofóbica y de exclusión
    molecular. A través de éstos se logró un factor de purificación de 314 veces con respecto al extracto inicial. La proteína purificada mostró actividad PFO y una única banda en SDS-PAGE correspondiente a 40 kDa. Usando catecol como sustrato, se determinó su temperatura óptima en 45 ºC y su pH óptimo en 7,5. La enzima presentó una cinética tipo Michaelis-Menten con un valor Km de 249 mM y Vmáx 322 U/min. El punto isoeléctrico (PI= 5,0 permitió establecer que se trata de una

  14. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE UNA POLIFENOLOXIDASA RELACIONADA CON LA TOLERANCIA DEL CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus A Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 Isolation and Characterization of a Polyphenoloxidase Related with Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Resistence to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIANA ROQUESA MAYORGA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Se purificó y caracterizó bioquímicamente la enzima polifenoloxidasa (PFO inducida en tallos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L de variedad tolerante por inoculación con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2 (FOD2, causante del marchitamiento vascular. La purificación se logró a través de procesos sucesivos de cromatografía en columna de intercambio iónico, de interacción hidrofóbica y de exclusión molecular. A través de éstos se logró un factor de purificación de 314 veces con respecto al extracto inicial. La proteína purificada mostró actividad PFO y una única banda en SDSPAGE correspondiente a 40 kDa. Usando catecol como sustrato, se determinó su temperatura óptima en 45 ºC y su pH óptimo en 7,5. La enzima presentó una cinética tipo MichaelisMenten con un valor Km de 249 mM y Vmáx 322 U/min. El punto isoeléctrico (PI= 5,0 permitió establecer que se trata de una proteína de tipo ácido. Con la enzima purificada se realizaron ensayos in vitro de actividad fungitóxica, usando sus productos de reacción enfrentados al hongo FOD2, encontrándose una actividad inhibitoria importante de cerca del 57% a las 24 horas, lo que permite postular su papel en los mecanismos de defensa del clavel contra este patógeno vascularPolyphenoloxidase (PPO was isolated and purified from stems of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L after the inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (FOD2 of a tolerant variety. Purification was performed using column chromatography of ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction and molecular exclusion. With these successive steps, a factor of 314 fold purification was achieved. The SDSPAGE analysis showed one band of 40 kDa. The purified enzyme was partially characterized using cathecol as substrate and determined the optimal temperature as 45ºC and 7.5 as optimal pH. The enzyme showed a MichaelisMenten kinetic with Km of 249 mM and Vmax 322 U/min. The IP was 5.0 indicating

  15. 复凝聚法制备丁香油微囊的工艺研究%Preparation of Clove Oil Microcapsules Process of Composite Coacervation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 李红燕; 刘薇; 徐延昭

    2013-01-01

    目的:对丁香油进行微囊化,并对其成囊、固化条件进行考察.方法:以丁香油为囊心物,以阿拉伯胶和明胶为囊材,采用复凝聚法制备丁香油微囊,考察温度、pH、阿拉伯胶与明胶比例对成囊的影响;考察固化剂用量、搅拌速度和搅拌时间对固化的影响,以微囊的外观形状,粒径和均匀度为考察指标.结果:在温度35℃、pH3.5以下时壁材凝聚过度;在45℃、pH4.5以上时,壁材不能凝聚.结论:在40℃、阿拉伯胶与明胶1∶1、pH4.3时,成裳情况最佳;在固化剂用量2mL/g,转速900n/min、固化时间90min时固化程度较理想.%Objective: Microencapsulation of clove oil, and to inspect the conditions of formation and curing. Methods: Clove oil as a microencapsulated core, gum arabic and gelatin as the capsule material, using a complex coacervation method to product the clove oil microcapsules. Investigated temperature, pH value, gum arabic and gelatin ratio of generated microcapsules. Investigated the amount of coagulator, stirring speed and stirring time on curing. To microcapsules appearance of the shape, size and uniformity as the indexes. Result: At temperatures below 35℃ , pH values lower than 3.5, the wall material condensed excessive; at the conditions of the temperature was higher than 45℃ and the pH value was greater than 4.5, the wall material cannot be condensed. Conclusion: At the 40℃, the ratio of gum arabic and gelatin is 1:1, pH value was 4.3, the microcapsules had the best generated condition; at the curing agent was 2mL/g, the stirring speed was 900n/min, curing time was 90min,the degree of curing of the microcapsules were better.

  16. Clove, Kalonji and Taramira

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... sources including plants and plant based products. (Mandal et al., 2010). ... 27% of protein (Flanders and Abdul Karim, 1985). It resists drought .... of Taramira oil. In the early experiments, we also used rice bran in order to ...

  17. The Effect of Clove Bud, Nigella, Salix Alba and Olive Oil on Wart Treatment in Comparison with Conventional Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    roghaye Jebraili

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Jebraili R1, Rezaei K2, Matourianpour H3, Moradi L4, Meshkaat MH5, Tarrahi MJ6 1. Assistant professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University of Tehran 2. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 4. BSc. Nurse, Haaj Seddiq Health and Treatment Center, Khorramabad 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Lorestan University 6. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Wart is a common and contagious viral disease of the skin caused by papilloma viruses which leads to aesthetic and psychological problems, and if occurred in touching and pressured parts of the body causes pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Clove bud, Nigella, Salix alba and Olive oil which have wound disinfectant, anesthetic, analgesic and wound healing properties on wart treatment in comparison with the conventional treatment. Materials and methods: This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 291 female students selected form guidance and high schools in Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran, during the year 2007. The diagnosis of wart was confirmed by a dermatologist according to the diagnosis criteria. The cases fulfilling the inclusion criteria were assigned in 3 study groups randomly. The first group was treated with the conventional treatment (Salicylic acid 16.7%, lactic acid 16.7% in Collodione body, the second group with herbal medicine without acid in olive oil, and the third group with herbal medicine alongside salicylic acid 1% and lactic acid 1% in olive oil. Each group was administered the drugs for 6 weeks. The effects of drugs on lesions were assessed after 4 and 6 weeks and compared among 3

  18. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  19. Large-scale preparation of clove essential oil and eugenol-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor and a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Charcosset, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Based on our previous study where optimal conditions were defined to encapsulate clove essential oil (CEO) into liposomes at laboratory scale, we scaled-up the preparation of CEO and eugenol (Eug)-loaded liposomes using a membrane contactor (600 mL) and a pilot plant (3 L) based on the principle of ethanol injection method, both equipped with a Shirasu Porous Glass membrane for injection of the organic phase into the aqueous phase. Homogenous, stable, nanometric-sized and multilamellar liposomes with high phospholipid, Eug loading rates and encapsulation efficiency of CEO components were obtained. Saturation of phospholipids and drug concentration in the organic phase may control the liposome stability. Liposomes loaded with other hydrophobic volatile compounds could be prepared at large scale using the ethanol injection method and a membrane for injection.

  20. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  1. Evaluation of Clove Oil, Icaridin, and Transfluthrin for Spatial Repellent Effects in Three Tests Systems Against the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, G; Frohberger, S; Sonneck, R

    2017-01-01

    One essential oil (clove oil), one skin repellent (icaridin), and one insecticide (transfluthrin) were tested for spatial repellent effects against non-blood-fed female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. The compounds were tested in acetone dilution series using a Y-olfactometer, a double cage system, and a double room system. All compounds exhibited spatial repellent effects at certain concentrations. Clove oil required relative high dosages to cause high effects (Y-olfactometer 6 mg, double cage 60 mg, and double room 1,200 mg). The dosages to achieve comparable results with icaridin were lower (Y-olfactometer and double cage 1 mg, and double room 150 mg). For transfluthrin, the equivalent dosages were lower again (Y-olfactometer 0.003 mg, double cage 0.03 mg, and double room 0.1 mg). Furthermore, these results reveal a correlation between the size of the test system and the effective dosage. Averaged for the three compounds, the quantity for the double room was 21-fold higher than for the double cage, which required again a 9-fold higher dosage than the Y-olfactometer. An establishment of a screening cascade is discussed starting with the Y-olfactometer (high throughput rate), followed by the double cage system and ending with the double room system as the most nearest to practical conditions. Furthermore, the testing of existing repellent products to validate the double room test, the role of sublethal dosages concerning insecticides including possible upcoming of resistance after exposure, the delayed action and impact on blood feeding and oviposition are exemplified.

  2. 公丁香提取物抑制CFTR氯离子通道的发现与研究%The extract of clove inhibits CFTR chloride channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾剑; 张耀方; 杨红

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride chan‐nel .In recent years ,the blockers of CFTR become the new hot spot in the treatment of secretory di‐arrhea .The aim of this research is using high‐throughput screening techniques screened blockers of CFTR chloride channel from traditional Chinese medicine .In this study ,after 40000 fractions of Chi‐nese herbal medicine have been screened ,clove extract was found .In cell‐based fluorescence assays and voltage clamp experiments ,the best active fraction‐E06 significantly blocks CFTR chloride chan‐nel .Therefore ,clove extract screened from traditional Chinese medicine blocks CFTR chloride chan‐nel and provides a theoretical basis for the in‐depth study of anti‐diarrheal drugs .%囊性纤维化跨膜电导调节因子(CFTR)是一种上皮细胞顶膜中表达的氯离子通道,是近年来治疗分泌型腹泻的新热点。利用高通量筛选技术,自中国传统中药中筛选能够抑制CFTR氯离子通道的中药组分。结果显示,自500种中草药的40000种中药组分中筛选到公丁香。经细胞荧光实验和电压膜片钳实验验证公丁香最佳活性孔———E06对CFTR具有明显的抑制作用,IC50=103 mg/L 。本研究结果为深入探讨公丁香的抗泻药物研发提供理论依据。

  3. 几种中药材仓贮害虫对丁香的嗅觉行为反应%Olfactory response of storage insect pest of Chinese medicinal materials to clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩群鑫; 黄寿山

    2012-01-01

    The volatile components of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) llower powder were anaiyzea ny combined technique solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography and mass spectrome- try (GC-MS), and the olfactory response of several insect pests of stored Chinese medicines materials to the clove flower powder and eugenol were tested by using the four-armed olfactometer. The results showed that major volatile constituents of clove flower powder were eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, and that the eugenol and beta-caryophyllene had repellent effects to Alphitobius diaperinus, but had attraction to Lasio- derma serricorne. Eugenol was the main chemical constituent which had significant taxi to L. serricorne and A. diaperinus. The clove flower powder had repellent effects to Tribolium castaneum.%采用固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱联用技术对丁香(Syzygium aromaticum)花蕾粉末的化学成分进行了分析,并应用四臂嗅觉仪测试了丁香花蕾粉末及其主要成份丁香酚对几种中药材仓贮害虫的嗅觉行为反应.结果表明,丁香花蕾粉末的主要化学成分为丁香酚和反-石竹烯(反-丁香烯);丁香花蕾粉末和丁香酚对黑菌虫(Alphitobius diaperinus)有驱避作用,而对烟草甲(Lasioderma serricorne)有引诱作用,且丁香酚是丁香中对黑菌虫和烟草甲产生趋性作用的主要化学成分;丁香对赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum)有驱避作用.

  4. STUDY ON ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY AND TOXICITY OF CLOVE ETHANOL EXTRACT ON CLINICALLY ISOLATED MICROORGANISM STRAINS%丁香乙醇提取液对临床分离菌株的抗菌作用及毒性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文静

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究丁香乙醇提取液的体外抗菌作用和毒性.方法 采用抑菌试验和动物试验方法,观察了丁香乙醇提取液对结核分枝杆菌、蜡状芽孢杆菌、肺炎克雷伯菌等临床分离菌株和大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌等标准菌株的抑菌环直径均大于7 mm.在40 mg/ml的浓度下对细胞无毒性伤害.小鼠急性毒理试验LD50值大于5 000mg/kg,长期毒理试验LD50值大于5 000 mg/kg.结论 丁香乙醇提取液具有良好的体外抗临床菌株作用,毒性低,具有开发成消毒液的前景.%Objective To investigate the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of the ethanol extract from clove. Methods Antibacterial method and animal test were used to observe the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract from clove. Results The diameters of bacterial inhibition zones of clinically isolated microorganism strains including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus suhtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and standard microorganism strains including Escherkhia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the clove ethanol extract were > 7 mm. The mouse acute oral LD50 was >5 000 mg/kg, the mouse long - time toxicity LD50 was > 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusion The clove ethanol extract has good clinically antimicrobial efficacy and low toxicity. It can be developed as a disinfectant in the future.

  5. 不同采收期对香石竹切花寿命的影响%Effects of different harvest stage on vaselife of cut dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑成淑; 石铁源; 吴春花; 张淑梅; 全雪丽

    2001-01-01

    把香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)采收期分为4个阶段,对不同时期采收的香石竹进行切花寿命比较试验,结果表明:采收期为第三阶段(外围花瓣2~3片向外倾斜与水平轴成80°角)的切花寿命最长为12.8 d,而且与其它阶段采收的比较来看,随着时间的推移花径一直持续增加,到了第3.5 d时,才有下降趋势.而其它阶段采收的花朵花径到了第2.1 d有所下降,而第四阶段采收的花径到第2.1 d时已有萎蔫现象出现.

  6. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankhadip Bose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic (Allium sativum L. has been accepted universally to be applied in food, spice and traditional medicine. The medicinal and other beneficial properties of garlic are attributed to organosulfur compounds. Objective: As of today no simultaneous analysis has been performed; hence the transformation of allicin to its degraded products during cultivation and storage is open into doubt. Materials and Methods: In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-acoustic waves and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves. Results: The process revealed the effect of different radiation techniques on fresh garlic retains the principle component, allicin in its pure form and generated higher yield than the conventional way of extraction. Conclusion: Therefore, materializing these techniques in the pharmaceutical industry will definitely be proved beneficial in term of time as well as money. Most interestingly, the methods ruled out possibilities of degradation of organosulfur compounds as well.

  7. The effect of clove oil and diesel fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a compression-ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarawa, Makame [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2010-11-15

    Diesel engines provide the major power source for transportation in the world and contribute to the prosperity of the worldwide economy. However, recent concerns over the environment, increasing fuel prices and the scarcity of fuel supplies have promoted considerable interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum based fuels. Based on this background, the main purpose of this investigation is to evaluate clove stem oil (CSO) as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. To this end, an experimental investigation was performed on a four-stroke, four-cylinder water-cooled direct injection diesel engine to study the performance and emissions of an engine operated using the CSO-diesel blended fuels. The effects of the CSO-diesel blended fuels on the engine brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), specific energy consumption (SEC), exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust emissions were investigated. The experimental results reveal that the engine brake thermal efficiency and BSFC of the CSO-diesel blended fuels were higher than the pure diesel fuel while at the same time they exhibited a lower SEC than the latter over the entire engine load range. The variations in exhaust gas temperatures between the tested fuels were significant only at medium speed operating conditions. Furthermore, the HC emissions were lower for the CSO-diesel blended fuels than the pure diesel fuel whereas the NO{sub x} emissions were increased remarkably when the engine was fuelled with the 50% CSO-diesel blended fuel. (author)

  8. THE EFFECT OF CLOVE STEM OIL (Oleum caryophylli ON THE GROWTH OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM NATIVE CHICKEN, CATTLE AND PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Poeloengan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Clove Stem Oil (Oleum caryophylli orCSO extracts on the growth of Escherichia coli. A 4 x 3 Factorial Design was applied in this study. Thefirst factor was 4 types of E. coli isolates that collected from native chicken (C, young cattle (A, piglet(B1 and pig (B2, while the second factor was 3 concentrations of CSO extract, that was 50.00, 25.00and 12.50 percents. Fifteen micro liters of CSO extract was dropped in sterile paper disks. These diskwere laid on the MEU agar media previously inoculated with each of the four isolates and wereincubated overnight at 370C. The bacterial growth inhibition zones were observed and measured. Theresults demonstrated that the higher concentration of the CSO extracts, the higher bacterial growthinhibition effects obtained. Fhe growth inhibition effects of the CSO extracts on E. coli isolates C, A, B1and B2 were significantly different at P<0.05. It could be concluded that the CSO extracts were effectiveto control the E. coli growth.

  9. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  10. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiwale, Shaila V.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Gandhi, Megha; Sohoni, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO), clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO) mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA) Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU) were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16), PI (0.57), and PMA (0.02) scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy. PMID:25024544

  12. Effect of xantham gum, steviosides, clove, and cinnamon essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemmo, María F; Montagnani, María A; Schelegueda, Laura I; González, Malena M; Campos, Carmen A

    2016-03-01

    The partial or total decrease of sugar content in the formulation of jams affects their physical, chemical and microbiological stability. In order to minimize these technological problems, we studied the effect of xanthan gum (XG), steviosides, cinnamon (CO), and clove (CLO) essential oils on the sensory and microbiological quality of a low sugar tomato jam. Levels of 0.250 g/100 g steviosides and 0.450 g/100 g XG showed maximum score of overall acceptability of jam. The combination of essential oils produced synergistic and additive effects in vitro on growth of Z. bailii and Z. rouxii, respectively. However, in the jam, CO was more effective and CLO did not modify the CO action. Cell surface was one of the sites of action of CO since a decrease in yeast cell surface hydrophobicity was observed. From the microbiological and sensory points of view, 0.0060 g/100 g CO showed the maximum score of jam overall acceptability and did not cause yeast inactivation but it could be useful as an additional stress factor against yeast post--process contamination. The adequate levels of XG, steviosides, and CO can improve the quality of a low sugar jam formulation.

  13. Influence of Browning and Anti-oxidative Activity of Garlic Cloves with Coating%涂膜处理对蒜米贮藏品质及抗氧化性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利华; 秦卫东; 陈学红; 田力

    2012-01-01

    为了保持蒜米的品质及抗氧化性,延长其货架期,试验以蒜米为原料,研究了复合涂膜剂对蒜米涂膜处理后,5℃下贮藏期间的失重率、多糖含量、POD活性、MDA含量及抗氧化性的影响。结果表明:壳聚糖1.5%+黄原胶1.0%+海藻酸钠0.8%涂膜后,可明显降低蒜米的失重率、POD酶活性及MDA含量,有效防止了蒜米中多糖的消耗,延缓了衰老的进程,保持了蒜米的抗氧化能力。%In order to preserve the quality and anti-oxidative activity of garlic cloves and extend its shelf life,complex films treatment was studied.The effects of compound-coating on weight loss rate,amylose content,PODenzyme activity,MDA content and anti-oxidative activity during storage at 5℃ were investigated.The results showed that 1.5% chitosan+1.0% xanthan gum+0.8% sodium alginate reduced the weight loss rate and MDA content,inhibited PPO activities of garlic cloves,effectually prevented to amylase lose,and preserve anti-oxidative activity of garlic cloves during storage.

  14. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  15. 丁香挥发油β-环糊精包合物的制备研究%Study on the preparation of the complex of β-cyclodextrin inclusion oil isolated from clove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩林; 张艳侠

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究β-环糊精包合丁香挥发油的制备工艺.方法 以挥发油与β-环糊精的比例、包合温度、包合时间为考察因素,包合率和收率为考察指标,进行正交实验,对丁香挥发油与β-环糊精的制备工艺进行优选.结果 最佳工艺:丁香挥发油与β-环糊精的比例为1∶7,包合温度为50 ℃,包合时间为2 h.结论 优选的最佳工艺合理,收率和包合率高,可用于丁香挥发油β-环糊精包合物的制备%Objective To study the preparation process of the complex of β-cyclodextrin inclusion volatile oil from clove. Methods With the volatile oil and β-cyclodextrin ratio, inclusion of temperature, time of inclusion as factors, with encapsulation efficiency and yield of clove oil as the indexes,the study was carried out with an orthogonal experiment to optimize the inclusion processing conditions. Results The opitimized conditions were as follows: volatile oil and β-CD ratio of 1 : 7, inclusion temperature 50 ℃ , inclusion time of 2 h. Conclusion Optimized preparation procedure could be used for clove essential oil β-cyclodextrin complex preparation.

  16. Extraction of Antioxidants from Clove and Effect of Artificial Gastrointestinal Juice Immersion on Its Antioxidant Properties%丁香抗氧化活性物质提取及人工胃肠液对其活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慎华; 蔡志鹏; 廖亮; 上官新晨; 徐明生; 沈勇根

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidants of clove were extracted by water bath shaking, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) , microwave-assisted extraction ( MAE ) and ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction ( UMAE) , the effective fraction of clove were immersed in the artificial gastrointestinal juice. The results showed that the total polyphenols and flavonoids recoveries were highest, and the antioxidant capacities were strongest for the extracted liquids by MAE and UMAE. However, the extraction time of UMAE was only half of that of MAE. The extraction efficiency of UMAE was the highest. The antioxidant capacities of the effective fraction of clove were significantly improved after immersed by the artificial gastric juice ( P < 0. 001) , while its antioxidant capacities were significantly reduced after immersed by the artificial intestinal juice ( P < 0. 001) .%采用水浴振荡、超声、微波和超声-微波协同对丁香抗氧化活性物质进行了提取,并用人工胃、肠液对有效部位进行了处理.结果表明,在4种提取方法中,协同提取和微波提取总多酚、总黄酮得率以及抗氧化能力要优于另外2种方法,协同提取时间仅为微波提取的1/2,协同提取效率最高.人工胃液处理后,丁香有效部位抗氧化活性得到显著提高(P<0.001),而人工肠液处理后,其抗氧化活性却显著性降低(P <0.001).

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oils from Clove%丁香挥发油化学成分与抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨曦; 梁逸曾; 李晓宁

    2006-01-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oils from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry (Clove) was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with chemometrics method. Forty-six compounds were identified unambiguously,of which 41 in fruit oil represented 94. 154% and 30 in bud oil represented 98. 418% of the total essential oils, respectively. 2,3,4-Trimethoxyacetophenone and 2-methoxy-4- [ 2-propenyl ] phenol acetate were the first time. identified in clove. The content of two main bioactive compounds, eugenol and caryophyllene was 22.667% and 7.147% in fruit essential oil, whereas 57.133% and 14.408% in bud essential oil, respectively. The two kinds of essential oil were very susceptive to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans , and susceptive to Escherichia coli and Bacillius subtilis . Because of its higher contents of eugenol and caryophyllene, the bud essential oil exhibited much more susceptibility to all the tested microorganisms than fruit essential oil.%利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)法结合化学计量学方法对丁香挥发油化学成分进行了分析研究.得益于化学计量学分辨方法,从丁香花蕾与丁香果实中共鉴定了46种化合物.其中从丁香果实挥发油中鉴定了41种化合物,占挥发油总量的94.154%;从丁香花蕾挥发油中鉴定出30种化合物,占其挥发油总量的98.418%.2,3,4-trimethoxyacetophenone和2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate为首次从丁香挥发油中鉴定得到.两种已经确认具有生物活性的化合物丁子香酚和石竹烯在丁香果挥发油分别为22.667%和7.147%,而在丁香花蕾挥发油中含量分别为和57.133%和14.408%,二者在相对含量上差异较大.体外抗菌试验结果表明,这两种挥发油对金黄色葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌十分敏感,对大肠杆菌和枯草杆菌敏感.而丁香花蕾挥发油对所有试验菌株都比丁香果挥发油表现出更强的抗菌活性,我们认为这可能是前者

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and the Chemical Composition of the Volatile Oil Blend from Allium sativum (Garlic Clove and Citrus reticulata (Tangerine Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OO Johnson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect in the antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil blend from Garlic clove (Allium sativum and tangerine fruits (Citrus reticulata were investigated and compared to antimicrobial activity when the individual volatile oils were used alone. The volatile oils were extracted by steam distillation using Clevenger hydrodistillator apparatus and each oil was tested for antimicrobial activity, while equal volume of these oils were blended and tested for antimicrobial activity. The microorganisms used include, Staphylococcus aureus isolate, Escherichia coli isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans isolate, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans ATCC 90028. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs ranged from 9.31×10-13 – 7.88 mg/ml for garlic oil, 0.16 – 2.66 mg/ml for tangerine oil and 5.95×10-31 – 1.24 mg/ml for the essential oil blend. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated that the Garlic oil and Tangerine oil blend was better at inhibiting the tested microorganisms than the individual oils except for Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (30.32% as the major component in the garlic oil extract and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha 4-trimethyl (33.38% in the tangerine oil. While the equal volume of the oil blend also revealed Trisulphide, di-2-propenyl (15.92% and 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha.4-trimethyl (12.02% as the major constituents though in lower concentrations. Hence, the more potent antimicrobial properties demonstrated by the oil blend can be exploited further with a view to generate new effective antimicrobial compounds.

  19. 添加适量丁香精油提高大豆分离蛋白膜性能%Characteristics of isolate soy protein films incorporated with clove essential oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芸; 郭新宇; 康怀彬; 段续

    2014-01-01

    In this study, clove essential oil (CEO) concentrations ranging from 0 to 2.0%, incorporated in a soy protein isolate (SPI) film were used. Antibacterial activity, physical, mechanical, barrier, and antioxidant properties of SPI films were evaluated. The addition of clove essential oil to the film-forming emulsion led to an increase in the thickness of the films, which ranged between 47.37µm and 49.59µm. However, this effect was only significant at the highest level of CEO used (2%). Thus, clove essential oil might contribute to the formation of a loose film matrix with increased thickness. In general, the moisture content value increased as CEO was incorporated into the SPI film, which is attributed to the breakup of the film network. The addition of CEO at a level of 2%(v/v) decreased the moisture content value significantly (P<0.05), which is attributed to an increase in the hydrophobicity of films. The incorporation of clove essential oil decreased the water solubility of SPI films with respect to control. The addition of CEO at a level of 2% (v/v) decreased the water solubility value significantly (P<0.05). In our study, a lower moisture content with minimum solubility was achieved for films formulated with 2% clove essential oil. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of CEO incorporated films were slightly increased from 13.5 to 19.07 g.mm/(m2·d·kPa) as the concentrations of CEO (P<0.05). Film without clove essential oil had a tensile strength of 22.48MPa. Tensile strengths were weaker for films containing CEO than for the control film, significantly (P<0.05) decreasing as the oil concentration increased. Conversely, the elongation at break of SPI films increased significantly (P<0.05) from 25.50% to 36.68%. Additionally, CEO incorporated films became darker and showed a higher green value. The antioxidant activity of SPI films with and without incorporated clove essential oil was determined. The results showed that 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical

  20. Effects of clove oil on the stress response of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus subjected to transport Efeito do óleo de cravo na resposta de estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus submetido ao transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fish transport is one of the most stressful procedures in aquaculture facilities. The present work evaluated the stress response of matrinxã to transportation procedures, and the use of clove oil as an alternative to reduce the stress response to transport in matrinxã (Brycon cephalus. Clove oil solutions were tested in concentrations of 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/L during matrinxã transportation in plastic bags, supplied with water and oxygen as the usual field procedures in Brazil. Clove oil reduced some of the physiological stress responses (plasma cortisol, glucose and ions that we measured. The high energetic cost to matrinxã cope with the transport stress was clear by the decrease of liver glycogen after transport. Our results suggest that clove oil (5 mg/l can mitigate the stress response in matrinxã subjected to transport.O transporte de peixes vivos é certamente um dos principais estímulos adversos à homeostase dos peixes nas condições de criação em cativeiro. O presente trabalho mensurou o estresse do matrinxã (Brycon cephalus, quando submetido ao transporte em sacos plásticos, bem como avaliou os efeitos do uso do anestésico óleo de cravo nessa etapa do manejo. Foram testadas as concentrações de 0, 1, 5 e 10 mg/L de óleo de cravo em bolsas plásticas preenchidas com água e oxigênio, de acordo com as práticas comumente utilizadas no Brasil. O óleo de cravo reduziu algumas das principais respostas ao estresse (cortisol, glicose plasmática e íons mensuradas. O alto gasto de energia para o matrinxã tolerar o transporte foi evidenciado pela diminuição dos valores de glicogênio hepático. Os resultados sugerem que o óleo de cravo em concentração de 5 mg/L pode atenuar as principais respostas de estresse do matrinxã durante o transporte.

  1. Condiciones para el análisis electrofóretico de proteínas apoplásticas de tallos y raíces de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L para estudios proteómicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patricia Martinez Gonzalez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se describe un flujo de trabajo que puede ser aplicado a diferentes especies vegetales, con el fin de obtener extractos apoplásticos que puedan ser usados para análisis proteómicos. Para ello, usando tallos y raíces de clavel, se evaluaron parámetros claves para la extracción de estas proteínas. Se determinó que para esta especie (Dianthus caryophyllus L se debe usar la solución amortiguadora fosfato de sodio 0,1 M pH 6,5, cloruro de sodio 50 mM y 0,1% β-mercaptoetanol para la infiltración; con tres tiempos de vacío de 20 s a 70 kPa y centrifugación a 1000 x g durante 20 min a 4 ºC, seguido de precipitación y concentración de proteínas con el método (TCA-Ácido tricloroacético/acetona. Bajo estas condiciones, se obtienen extractos que permiten análisis electroforéticos en 2D de proteínas de apoplasto, usando para el isolectroenfoque tiras con gradientes de pH 5-8 para raíz y pH 3-10 para tallo. Las condiciones descritas permitirán profundizar sobre el papel de las proteínas apoplásticas en diversidad de fenómenos biológicos que involucren esta especie vegetal.

  2. Analysis of genomic DNA of DcACS1, a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene, expressed in senescing petals of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and its orthologous genes in D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Taro; Murakoshi, Yuino; Torii, Yuka; Tanase, Koji; Onozaki, Takashi; Morita, Shigeto; Masumura, Takehiro; Satoh, Shigeru

    2011-04-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers exhibit climacteric ethylene production followed by petal wilting, a senescence symptom. DcACS1, which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), is a gene involved in this phenomenon. We determined the genomic DNA structure of DcACS1 by genomic PCR. In the genome of 'Light Pink Barbara', we found two distinct nucleotide sequences: one corresponding to the gene previously shown as DcACS1, designated here as DcACS1a, and the other novel one designated as DcACS1b. It was revealed that both DcACS1a and DcACS1b have five exons and four introns. These two genes had almost identical nucleotide sequences in exons, but not in some introns and 3'-UTR. Analysis of transcript accumulation revealed that DcACS1b is expressed in senescing petals as well as DcACS1a. Genomic PCR analysis of 32 carnation cultivars showed that most cultivars have only DcACS1a and some have both DcACS1a and DcACS1b. Moreover, we found two DcACS1 orthologous genes with different nucleotide sequences from D. superbus var. longicalycinus, and designated them as DsuACS1a and DsuACS1b. Petals of D. superbus var. longicalycinus produced ethylene in response to exogenous ethylene, accompanying accumulation of DsuACS1 transcripts. These data suggest that climacteric ethylene production in flowers was genetically established before the cultivation of carnation.

  3. 自由基清除剂对香石竹切花瓶插寿命及生理效应的影响%Preliminary Research on Effects of Free Radical Scavenging Agents on Vase Life of Dianthus caryophyllus Cut-flower and Its Physiological Action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙斌; 廖梅英

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨自由基清除剂对香石竹切花瓶插寿命及生理效应的影响.[方法]以高温季节的香石竹切花为试材,以8-HQ和蔗糖为基础保鲜物质,分别添加2种自由基清除剂(MA和SBN)和外源活性氧ST,设置4个处理,以蒸馏水为对照,探讨自由基清除剂用在香石竹切花瓶插过程中SOD、CAT及O等生理指标的变化规律.[结果]各处理的香石竹瓶插寿命均比对照长,其中MA处理最为明显,比对照延长了6.5 d;MA和SBN处理对O达到峰值的时间分别比对照推迟6.0和8.0 d,对SOD达到峰值的时间比对照延长2.0d,对CAT达到峰值的时间分别比对照延长8.0和6.0 d.[结论]2种自由基清除剂的处理在香石竹切花瓶插过程中对抑制O的水平及促进SOD和CAT的合成具有明显效果,并能明显减缓SOD和CAT活性下降的速率.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effects of free radical scavenging agents on the vase life of Dianthus caryophyllus cut-flowers and its physiological action. [ Method] With D. caryophyllus cut-flower in the high temperature season as the tested materials, 8-HQ and sucrose were taken as the basic preservation material and 2 kinds of free radical scavenging agents ( MA and SBN ) and the exogenous active oxygen ST were added in them to set up the 4 treatments with the distilled water as the CK, thus to discuss the change rule of physiological indexes such as SOD, CAT, and O2 - in the vase process of D. caryophyllus cut-flowers by using free radical scavenging agents. [ Result]The vase life of D.caryophyllus in each treatment was longer than CK, in which the MA treatment extended the vase life by 6. 5 d than CK. As for MA and SBN treatment compared with CK, the time of O2 - reaching peak value was delayed by 6.0 and 8.0 d resp. , the time of SOD reaching peak value was delayed by 2.0 d and the time of CAT reaching peak value was delayed by 8.0 and 6.0 d resp. [ Conclusion ] In the vase process of D. caryophyllus

  4. In vitro inhibition activity of polyphenol-rich extracts from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry (Clove) buds against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha; Ganiyu Oboh

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the inhibitory properties of free and bound phenolic extracts of clove bud against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase & alpha-glucosidase) and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Methods: The free phenolics were extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone, while bound phenolics were extracted from the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. Then, the interaction of the extracts with alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase was subsequently assessed. Thereafter, the total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined. Results: The result revealed that both extracts inhibited alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. However, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the extracts were significantly (P<0.05) higher than their alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. The free phenolics (31.67 mg/g) and flavonoid (17.28 mg/g) contents were significantly (P<0.05) higher than bound phenolic (23.52 mg/g) and flavonoid (13.70 mg/g) contents. Both extracts also exhibited high antioxidant activities as typified by their high reducing power, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging abilities, as well as inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. Conclusions: This study provides a biochemical rationale by which clove elicits therapeutic effect on type 2 diabetes.

  5. REGULACIÓN ESPACIO-TEMPORAL DE FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L. DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL PATÓGENO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la regulación espacio-temporalde la actividad enzimática y de los nivelestranscripcionales de la enzima fenilalaninaamonio liasa (PAL por sus siglas en inglésen clavel (Dianthus caryophyllusL. inoculado con el patógeno causal delmarchitamiento vascular. Se inocularoncon Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthiesquejes de dos variedades con diferenciasen los niveles de tolerancia a la enfermedad–Kiss (tolerante y Uconn (susceptible–y se realizaron muestreos posinoculacióna diferentes horas, tanto en eltallo como en la raíz, con el fin de evaluarlos parámetros en estudio. Se determinóque durante la infección con el patógeno,la variedad tolerante presentó inducciónde la actividad PAL en la raíz a las 48 horasde la inoculación. Esto indica que eneste órgano de la planta se estimula la rutafenilpropanoide, responsable de la generaciónde metabolitos fenólicos presentesen una alta diversidad de fenómenos asociadosa resistencia vegetal. Considerandoque durante la evaluación de los nivelesde transcripción en este órgano de laplanta mediante la técnica semicuantitativade transcripción reversa y la posteriorreacción en cadena de la polimerasa(RT-PCR por su nombre en inglés no sepresentó aumento importante en los niveles de mRNApara esta enzima, se evidenciala participación de mecanismos de regulaciónpostranscripcional que determinanla generación de la enzima activa. Enel tallo no se presentaron cambios en laactividad enzimática ni en los nivelestranscripcionales, lo cual indica que la regulaciónde la respuesta de defensa de laplanta está determinada por el órgano involucradoen el proceso de infección.

  6. Effect of Epibrassinolide on Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) Flowers%表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花衰老的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳; 陈严平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花瓶插期间某些生理指标的影响,为香石竹切花的保鲜提供参考.[方法]用3种浓度(0.05 mg/L、0.10 mg/L和1.00 mg/L)的表油菜素内酯处理香石竹切花,以清水处理为对照,研究表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花的花瓣含水量水分、游离脯氧酸含量、蛋白质含量、还原糖含量、SOD活性和质膜相对透性等生理特性的影响.[结果]表油菜素内酯有效缓解水分对香石竹切花的胁迫,促进切花体内水分平衡的改善和还原糖含量的增加,抑制花瓣溶质外渗和可溶性蛋白含量下降,并且延缓SOD酶活下降从而延缓切花衰老.但农度过高则无保鲜效果.[结论]3种处理中以0.10 mg/L表油菜素内酯的处理对香石竹切花的保鲜处理效果最佳.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effect of epibrassinolide on some physiological indexes and provide the reference for fresh-keeping of cut carnation ( Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) flower. [ Method] With clear water as CK ,the cut carnation flowers were treated by different concentration of epibrassinolide (0.05,0. 10, 1.00 mg/L). We study the effect of epibrassinolide treatment on some physiological indexes such as water,contents of reducing sugar, soluble protein and proline, SOD activity and relative membrane permeability. [ Result] The epibrassinolide treatment could relieve the water stress and promote the water balance, improve the content of reducing sugar, inhibit the increased range of relative membrane permeability and the declined soluble protein content and SOD activity during the vase life. But if the concentration is too high, the treatment has little effect. [ Conclusion] Among 3 treatments, 0. 10 mg/L epibrassinolide treatment could get optimum fresh-keeping effect on cut carnation .

  7. 外源乙烯对香石竹切花开放的影响%Effects of Exogenous Ethylene on Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.) During the Blossoming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄虹心

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了探手简便安全的方法使香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)切花在短时间内盛开,以减短存货期并随时满足用花需求.[方法]采用乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝、将乙烯利加入瓶插液以及将乙烯利放在花枝旁边3组处理方法.[结果]适宜的乙烯浓度(环境中乙烯浓度为8.65×10-6 mol/L左右)可促使香石竹切花提前4~5d盛开,观赏期达7d,处理的花枝花色正常,最大花径和花枝重有所提高.但是高浓度乙烯、乙烯利溶液喷撒花枝和将乙烯利加入瓶插液均对香石竹产生明显伤害,造成花瓣变色、坏死,花朵不能完全开展.[结论]超过浓度阀值的外源乙烯能使香石竹切花迅速开放,在花枝旁边放置适量乙烯利溶液可有效地促进花朵盛开.%[ Objective ] The purpose was to find out the safe method that made the fresh cut carnation bloom, to shorten the stock turnover and filled the requirements at any time. [ Method] 3 methods were chose, including spraying ethephon on the carnation, injecting the ethephon into vase solution and laying up the ethephon near by the flower. [ Result] The suitable ethylene concentration (8.65 × 10-6 mol/L in the environment ) promoted the fresh cut carnation bloom 4-5 days ahead of time, florescence extended by 7 days, it retained the flower color and increased the max diameter and the weight. But the high ethylene concentration or wrong treatment damaged the carnation, it caused petal color changing and necrosis, even withered the flower. [Conclusion] The ethylene that exceeds the threshold can promote the fresh cut carnation bloom quickly, and the effective treatment is laying up the ethephon near by the flower.

  8. Effects of Epibrassinolide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Cut Carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) Flowers%表油菜素内酯对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The study aimed to discuss the effect of epibrassinolide on active oxygen metabolism and provide the reference for fresh-keeping of cut carnation (Dianthous caryophyllus L. ) flower. [ Method ] With clear water as CK, the cut flowers were treated by epibrassinolide and active oxygen scavengers (mannitol). We study the effect of two different treatments on some physiological indexes of active oxygen metabolism. [ Result] The results showed that the level of active oxygen metabolism during the senescence of cut carnation flower was high. The effects of epibrassinolide treatment were better than them of the mannitol treatment. It could inhibit the increased range of relative membrane permeability, MDA and H2O2 content, the rate of, promote the increasing SOD activity and CAT activity during the vase life.[ Conclusion ] The epibrassinolide treatment could inhibit the composition and accumulation of active oxygen, promote the ability of eliminating active oxygen so that it could prolong the vase life.%[目的]探讨表油莱素内酯对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响,为香石竹切花保鲜提供参考.[方法]用表油菜素内酯和活性氧清除剂甘露醇处理切花,以清水为对照,比较其对香石竹切花活性氧代谢的影响.[结果]与甘露醇相比,表油菜素内酯能有效地增大花径,提高超氧化物酶、过氧化氮酶活性,延缓O2-·产生速率,H2O2含量、MDA含量和膜相对透性上升的幅度.[结论]表油菜素内酯能有效缓解切花活性氧的产生与积累,提高活性氧清除能力,从而延长瓶播寿命.

  9. Induction and in vitro culture of hairy roots of Dianthus caryophyllus and its plant regeneration%香石竹毛状根诱导、离体培养及其植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施和平; 朱远锋; 王蓓; 孙蒋兵; 黄胜琴

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨利用发根农杆菌遗传转化所产生的毛状根来创新香石竹种质的可能性,本文采用叶盘法,建立了发根农杆菌Agrobacterium rhizogenes对香石竹Dianthus caryophyllus L.叶片外植体的遗传转化及其植株再生体系.结果表明,发根农杆菌ATCC15834感染香石竹幼嫩叶片外植体12 d后,从叶片外植体切口中脉处产生白色毛状根,21 d后约90%的叶片外植体产生毛状根.所获得的无菌毛状根能在无外源激素的MS固体和液体培养基中快速自主生长.PCR扩增和硅胶薄层层析结果显示发根农杆菌Ri质粒的rolB和rol C基因以及冠瘿碱合成酶基因已在香石竹毛状根基因组中整合并得到表达.将毛状根置于MS+6-BA 1.0-3.0 mg/L+NAA 0.1-0.2 mg/L中培养15 d后产生淡黄绿色的疏松愈伤组织.愈伤组织不定芽分化的最适培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.02 mg/L,培养6周后不定芽分化率为100%;平均每个愈伤组织产生30-40个不定芽;将不定芽转至1/2MS或1/2 MS+0.5 mg/L NAA的培养基中10d后产生不定根,发育成再生植株.再生植株移植于栽培基质中20 d后,成活率达95%以上.

  10. Determination of free and glucosidically-bound volatiles in plants. Two case studies: L-menthol in peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and eugenol in clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Pagani, Alberto; Sganzerla, Marla; Boggia, Lorenzo; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    This study arises from both the today's trend towards exploiting plant resources exhaustively, and the wide quantitative discrepancy between the amounts of commercially-valuable markers in aromatic plants and those recovered from the related essential oil. The study addresses the determination of both the qualitative composition and the exhaustive distribution of free and glucosidically-bound L-menthol in peppermint aerial parts (Mentha x piperita L., Lamiaceae) and of eugenol in dried cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.Perry, Myrtaceae), two plants known to provide widely ranging essential oil yields. The two markers were investigated in essential oils and residual hydrodistillation waters, before and after enzymatic hydrolysis. Their amounts were related to those in the headspace taken as reference. The results showed that the difference between marker compound in headspace and in essential oil amounted to 22.8% for L-menthol in peppermint, and 16.5% for eugenol in cloves. The aglycones solubilised in the residual hydrodistillation waters were 7.2% of the headspace reference amount for L-menthol, and 13.3% for eugenol, respectively representing 9.3% and 15.9% of their amounts in the essential oil. The amount of L-menthol from its glucoside in residual hydrodistillation waters was 20.6% of that in the related essential oil, while eugenol from its glucoside accounted for 7.7% of the amount in clove essential oil. The yield of L-menthol, after submitting the plant material to enzymatic hydrolysis before hydrodistillation, increased by 23.1%, and for eugenol the increase was 8.1%, compared to the amount in the respective conventional essential oils. This study also aimed to evaluate the reliability of recently-introduced techniques that are little applied, if at all, in this field. The simultaneous use of high-concentration-capacity sample preparation techniques (SBSE, and HS-SPME and in-solution SPME) to run quali-quantitative analysis without sample

  11. 肉桂、丁香、连翘挥发油联合抑菌作用研究%Study on Combined Antiseptic Effects of Cinnamon, Cloves and Forsythia Suspense Volatile Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涵年; 阙斐

    2016-01-01

    Spices volatile oils of cinnamon, cloves and forsythia suspense were extracted by steam distillation. The inhibition zone diameters, minimum inhibition concentrations ( MICs) and the antimicrobial activities of two volatile oils compound on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined and evaluated. The results showed that the tested microorganisms were highly sensitive to three kinds of volatile oils, all with a dose effect. The antimicrobial activities were decreased with the decrease of concentration of the volatile oils. The combined use of cinnamon (2 times efficiency) and cloves volatile oils ( 2 times efficiency ) , cinnamon ( 2 times efficiency ) and forsythia suspense ( 4 times efficiency ) volatile oils both had additive effects on Escherichia coli, and synergic effects on Staphylococcus aureus ( all 4 times efficiency) , and the combined use of cloves and forsythia suspense volatile oils showed indifferent effects on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.%水蒸气蒸馏提取肉桂、丁香、连翘三种香辛料挥发油,测定与评价三种挥发油对大肠杆菌与金黄色葡萄球菌的抑菌圈直径、最低抑菌浓度( MIC)以及挥发油两两复配联用的抑菌活性。结果显示,供试菌对三种挥发油均高度敏感,且存在剂量效应,随着挥发油浓度的降低而降低。另外,肉桂(增效2倍)和丁香(增效2倍)、肉桂(增效2倍)和连翘(增效4倍)挥发油复配后对大肠杆菌表现出相加作用,对金黄色葡萄球菌表现出协同作用(均增效4倍);而丁香和连翘挥发油复配后对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌,则表现出无关作用。

  12. Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869 Óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antônio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been used as anaesthetics in fish farms and fish biology laboratories to keep the fish immobilized during handling procedures and to prevent accidents and animal stress. In Brazil, tricaine methane sulfonate (MS 222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and phenoxyethanol are the most common fish anaesthetics used to prevent fish stress during handling, but many side effects such as body and gill irritations, corneal damage and general risks of intoxication have been reported. Clove oil is a natural product proposed as an alternative fish anaesthetic by many researchers and it has been used in many countries with great economic advantages and no apparent toxic properties. In this work, we assessed the suitability of clove oil to anaesthetize matrinxã. Sixty-three juveniles of matrinxã were exposed to seven anaesthetic batches of clove oil (pharmaceutical grade namely 18, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mg/L. The times to reach total loss of equilibrium and to recover the upright position were measured. Clove oil concentration about 40 mg/L was enough to anaesthetize the fish in approximately one minute and the recovery time was independent in regard to anaesthetic concentration.Diversos produtos químicos têm sido empregados como anestésicos para peixes nas estações de piscicultura e laboratórios de biologia de peixes para a devida imobilização dos organismos, afim de se prevenir acidentes e ferimentos na superfície do corpo dos próprios peixes, que podem ficar susceptíveis a patógenos e taxas altas de mortalidade. A tricaina metano sulfonato (MS 222, a quinaldina, a benzocaina e o phenoxyethanol têm sido amplamente utilizados no Brasil, mas alguns efeitos colaterais são observados como perda de muco, irritação nas brânquias e olhos, e também alguns incômodos aos trabalhadores como a necessidade do uso de luvas. Dessa forma, o óleo de cravo é proposto como um anestésico alternativo por ser um produto natural de

  13. Modelado de la Extracción de Aceite de Clavo de Olor mediante Elementos Finitos usando ALGOR Windows Modeling of the Extraction of Clove Oil by Finite Elements using ALGOR Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Valderrama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha aplicado el software Algor Windows, al proceso de extracción del aceite de clavo de olor, para determinar el coeficiente de difusión de materia. Se realiza una analogía entre transferencia de calor para lo que está diseñado Algor y transferencia de materia, que se requiere para determinar el coeficiente de difusión, asociando las distintas variables involucradas en las ecuaciones de balance. Se han obtenido de la literatura (Zapata, 1998 algunas propiedades requeridas por la simulación, tal como la concentración en función de la posición en la columna, y se han introducido suposiciones físicamente razonables para formular el modelo y las condiciones iniciales y de contorno requeridas. El estudio muestra que el programa Algor, diseñado para otros fines, permite realizar aplicaciones en el campo de la transferencia de materia, como es la extracción del aceite del clavo de olorThe software Algor Windows has been applied to the extraction process of clove oil to determine the mass diffusion coefficient in the extraction column. An analogy between heat transfer problems, for which Algor is designed, and mass transfer, which is required to determine the diffusion coefficient, has been done to associate the different variables involved in the balance equations. Properties required for the simulation, such as the concentration as a function of position in the column, has been obtained from the literature (Zapata, 1998 and reasonable assumptions have been introduce to formulate the model and the required initial and boundary conditions. The study shows that the program Algor, although designed for other purposes can be used in the field of mass transfer, such as the extraction of clove oil at high pressure

  14. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  15. Principal Component Analysis of Soil Soluble Salt Contents of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Facilities Cultivation%香石竹设施栽培土壤可溶性盐分主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官会林; 孙世中; 郭云周; 杨泮川; 洪丽芳

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand soil salt damage prevention and control technique for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) facilities cultivation, principal component analysis (PCA) of soil soluble salt contents was taken. The results showed that soil soluble salts could be divided into principal component 1 (SO42-, NO-3, Ca2+, Cl+, K+) and principal component 2 (CO2-3, HCO-3). SO2-4, NO-3 and Ca2+ in principal component 1 showed higher degree of cubic model plot fit (R2 =0.850 **), and showed different degrees of positive correlation with soil EC value. Soil EC value was significantly positively correlated (r = 0.99 ") with soil total salt content and was near linear relationship (linear model R2 = 0.976 **, R2 of cubic model = 0.984 **). Soil EC values could be used as an effective indicator to indicate soil salinization and the changes of soil soluble salts, especially SO2-4, NO-3" and Ca2+, thus salt damage prevention and treatment should focus on SO2-4, NO-3 and Ca2+. This study is of important in guiding the management and sustainable use of carnation facilities cultivation soil.%为探索香石竹设施栽培土壤盐害的防治方法与技术途径,对香石竹设施栽培土壤可溶性盐分进行了主成分分析.结果表明:土壤中可溶性盐分可分为主成分1(SO42-、NO-3、Ca2+、Cl-、K+)和主成分2 (CO32-、HCO3-)两个成分,主成分1中SO42-、NO3-、Ca2+与土壤EC值三次模型拟合度较高(R2>0.850**),并与土壤EC值呈不同强度的正相关性;土壤EC值与全盐量呈强正相关性(r=0.99**),并接近线性关系(线性模型R2=0.976**,三次模型R2=0.984**);土壤EC值可作为一个有效指标,反映土壤盐渍化及土壤可溶性盐分,特别是反映SO42-、NO-3、Ca2+的变动情况,盐害防治重点在于SO42-、NO3-、Ca2+.研究对指导香石竹设施栽培土壤管理与持续利用具有重要意义.

  16. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. = Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-1, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed among 20, 30, 40 and 60 mg L-1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentrati on did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  17. Germination and vigor of clove basil seeds (Ocimum gratissimum L. submitted to accelerated aging/ Germinação e vigor de sementes de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. submetidas ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Mieko Takaki Bellettini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to verify the effect of treatment with fungicide on the germination and vigor of four lots of clove basil seeds, submitted to the traditional aging and with saturated salt solution, for periods of 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours, at 42ºC. After these periods, the seeds were evaluated by the germination test, using the first count of the number of normal seedlings as vigor indicative. The vigor and the germination of the seeds decreased as increased the time of aging. In the use of saturated salt solution, the seeds water content was lower and more uniform. The fungicide treatment increased the percentage average of germination, without provoking significant modifications in the contrasts among the lots. The periods of 36 and 48 hours were efficient in evaluating of the physiologic quality of the clove basil seeds.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do período de exposição, tipos de solução e tratamento com fungicida sobre a germinação e o vigor de quatro lotes de sementes de alfavaca-cravo, submetidas ao teste de envelhecimento acelerado tradicional e com uso de solução saturada de NaCl, por períodos de 36, 48, 60 e 72 horas na temperatura de 42ºC. Após estes períodos, as sementes foram avaliadas pelo teste de germinação, utilizando-se a primeira contagem do teste de germinação como indicativo de vigor. Tanto o vigor quanto a germinação das sementes analisadas, diminuíram conforme se aumentou o tempo de envelhecimento. Na utilização de solução salina, o teor e a variabilidade de água das sementes foram menores. O tratamento fungicida aumentou a média percentual de germinação, mas não provocou modificações acentuadas nos contrastes entre os lotes. Os períodos de 36 e 48 horas foram eficientes na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes de alfavaca-cravo.

  18. 肉桂丁香精油复合抑菌效果及在香肠中的应用%Research on the Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon and Clove Compound Essential Oils and Its Appl ication in Sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 陈宇飞

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial effects of cinnamon, clove and their compound essential oils and its application in sausages are studied in the paper.The antibacterial test of the combination of three essential oils on Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae,the effect test of essential oil action time on antibacterial effect,the effect test of added ratios of essential oils on the total number of colonies and pH in sausages are conducted.The result shows that the antibacterial effect of cinnamon and clove (1∶1)is better.With the increase of action time,the antibacterial effect is obvious.The comparative test between the sausage of adding essential oil and ordinary sausage indicates the total number of colonies and pH are relatively low.All of that provides a theoretical basis for the application of compound essential oils as food bacteriostat.%研究肉桂、丁香及其复配精油的抑菌效果及在香肠中的应用。做了3种精油组合对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、酿酒酵母的抑菌试验,精油作用时间对抑菌效果的影响试验,精油添加在香肠中对菌落总数、pH 的影响试验。结果显示:肉桂、丁香精油按1∶1复配抑菌效果较好,作用时间增长,抑菌效果明显,添加精油后的香肠与普通香肠比,菌落总数和 pH 均较低。为复配精油作为食品抑菌剂提供了理论依据。

  19. 反相高效液相色谱法测定丁香挥发油中丁香酚含量%Determination of eugenol in essential oil from Clove by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京; 孙世光; 李秀敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立反相高效液相色谱法,测定丁香挥发油中丁香酚的含量.方法 采用Lichrospher C18色谱柱(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(64:36),柱温25℃,流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长280 nm,以外标法峰面积定量.结果 丁香酚与挥发油中其他成分的分离效果良好,在0.11~ 110.00 mg/L浓度范围内呈良好的线性关系,回归方程为:Y=17.74 C+1.518(r=0.9999,n=5);平均回收率为100.06%,相对标准偏差为0.16%.结论 本方法简便、准确,可快速测定丁香挥发油中丁香酚的含量,可为质量控制提供依据.%Objective To establish a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC) for simultaneous determination of eugenol in the essential oil from Clove.Method The mobile phase was carbinolwater(64:36) and the flow rate was about 1.0 ml/min.Lichrospher C18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm) column was used and the detective wavelength was 280 nm.Results The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.11-110.00 mg/L for eugenol.The regression equation was Y=17.74 C + 1.518 (r =0.9999,n =5),the average recovery was 100.06% and the relative standard deviations was 0.16%.Conclusion Our established method is simple,quick and accurate for the simultaneous separation and determination of eugenol in the essential oil from Clove.

  20. Assessing the antibiotic potential of essential oils against Haemophilus ducreyi

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Zachary; Waggoner, Molly; Batdorff, Audra; Tricia L Humphreys

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemophilus ducreyi is the bacterium responsible for the genital ulcer disease chancroid, a cofactor for the transmission of HIV, and it is resistant to many antibiotics. With the goal of exploring possible alternative treatments, we tested essential oils (EOs) for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents against H. ducreyi. Methods We determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon), Eugenia caryophyllus (clove) and Thymus satureioides (thyme) oil ...

  1. Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816, submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.485 Induction and recovery time for dourados Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 submitted to different concentrations of clove oil Eugenia sp - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Raphael Costa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis de dourado em cinco diferentes concentrações (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 mg L-¹, utilizando como critério para determinação da concentração ideal os tempos de indução e de recuperação ao efeito do anestésico. Em relação aos tempos de indução, verificou-se diferença significativa (p The present study evaluated five different concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg L-1 of clove oil as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles, using induction and recovery time to determine the ideal concentration. Significant difference (p -1 levels of clove oil. However, 50 mg L-1 concentration did not show significant difference in comparison to 40 and 60 mg L-1. Regarding recovery time, the shortest time was verified in the concentration of 20 mg L-1. Clove oil is effective and safe as an anesthetic for dourado juveniles in levels between 40 and 60 mg L-1.

  2. Detecção de Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. e observações sobre sua ocorrência Detection of Aethalion reticulatum (L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and observations of its occurrence

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    J.S.S Rando

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da cigarrinha Aethalionidae em alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L. no município de Bandeirantes-PR. Plantas com cerca de dois anos, na fase reprodutiva, com inflorescências, flores, frutos e sementes, serviram como fonte para a coleta de ninfas e adultos das cigarrinhas. Registrou-se em alfavaca-cravo a espécie Aethalion reticulatum e a interação com as formigas Camponotus rufipes e C. crassus.The aim of this work was to report the occurrence of the leafhopper Aethalionidae in clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum in Bandeirantes Municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Plants around two years old, in the reproductive phase, presenting inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds, were used as source for collection of leafhopper nymphs and adults. In clove basil, the species Aethalion reticulatum was recorded, in addition to its interaction with the ants Camponotus rufipes and C. crassus.

  3. Study on the effects of low temperature and salicylic acid on the fresh-keeping of cut flower of Dianthus caryophyllus L.%低温和水杨酸对香石竹切花保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莉

    2009-01-01

    研究了低温和水杨酸(SA)对香石竹切花保鲜效果的影响,以丰富香石竹保鲜的理论和实践研究.以香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)为试验材料,采用2%蔗糖(CK)、2%蔗糖+低温处理(5 ℃,24 h)(TR1)、2%蔗糖+2 mmol/L SA(TR2)和2%蔗糖+低温处理(5 ℃,24 h)+2 mmol/L SA(TR3)4种保鲜液,探讨了低温和SA对香石竹切花的保鲜效果.结果表明:低温和SA处理可以增加香石竹的切花直径,有利于保持香石竹切花瓶插期间的吸水量,延长瓶插寿命.尤其是SA处理对于阻止瓶插期间花枝失水,维持切花稳定的蒸腾作用,保持鲜重,延缓细胞膜透性增加具有重要意义,还可以提高切花质量.试验证明TR3的保鲜效果最好,建议作为生产上香石竹切花保鲜的配方.

  4. 丁香、大黄中草药保鲜剂对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜效果的应用研究%Preservative effect of cloves and rhubarb formula on fresh cut carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童红梅

    2013-01-01

    以康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’‘凯旋’为试验材料,选用95%乙醇超声波提取丁香、大黄等10种市售中草药中的抑菌成分,通过对致病菌黑曲霉、灰绿青霉的抑菌试验筛选适宜康乃馨鲜切花‘黄莺’与‘凯旋’保鲜用的中草药配方。结果表明:中草药丁香、大黄的抑菌效果与对照多菌灵相当。以中草药丁香和大黄浸提液、蔗糖、氯化钙、水扬酸4种成分经正交试验筛选出了两种中草药保鲜剂,其中保鲜剂1号对康乃馨‘黄莺’保鲜效果好,而保鲜剂2号更适宜于康乃馨‘凯旋’的保鲜。两种保鲜剂均可延长康乃馨鲜切花寿命6~8 d,保鲜效果显著。%Taking 1 0 kinds of chinese herbal medicine 9 5% ethanol ultrasonic extracts as antibacterial ingredient,the chinese herbal medicine formula to Aspergillusniger and Peniciliumglaucus were screened on fresh cut carnation ‘Hongying’and ‘Kaixuan’.The cloves and rhubarb formula showed the same anti-bacterial effect as carbendazim.The 2 kinds of chinese herbal medicine preservative formula were screened by orthogonal test.No.1 preservative had better effect to ‘Huangying’carnation,while No.2 preservative was suitable to ‘Kaixuan’carnation.Both No.1 preservative and No.2 preservative could prolong life of fresh cut carnation 6 to 8 days and showed a good preservative effect.

  5. 云南白药与丁香油牙周塞治剂辅助手术治疗牙周病的对照研究%Clinical Contrast Study of Yunnan Baiyao and Clove Oil Periodontal Dressings to Assist in Periodontal Operation for Treating Periodontal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎琳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨并比较云南白药与丁香油牙周塞治剂辅助牙周手术治疗牙周病的临床效果.方法 选取医院口腔科2010年3月至2012年10月收治的行牙周手术治疗牙周病患者160例,采用随机数字表法分为丁香油组和云南白药组,每组80例.丁香油组采用丁香油牙周塞治剂辅助治疗,云南白药组采用云南白药牙周塞治剂辅助治疗.比较两组患者创面愈合、术后镇痛、止血总有效率以及治疗后牙龈指数(GI)、牙周袋深度(PD)、牙菌斑指数(PLI)等.结果 云南白药组患者创面愈合总有效率为95.00%,明显高于丁香油组的88.75% (P <0.05);云南白药组患者术后镇痛总有效率为97.50%,明显高于丁香油组的78.75% (P <0.05);云南白药组患者止血总有效率为92.50%,明显高于丁香油组的66.25% (P<0.05);云南白药组患者治疗后GI(1.22±0.37),PD(2.28±1.10)及PLI(0.93±0.24)指标均明显优于丁香油组(P<0.05).结论 与丁香油相比,云南白药牙周塞治剂辅助牙周手术治疗牙周病的效果确切,可有效促进创面愈合、缓解疼痛、减少术后出血、改善口腔环境,具有临床推广价值.%Objective To investigate and compare the clinical effects of Yunnan Baiyao and the clove oil periodontal dressings to assist in periodontal operation for treating periodontal disease.Methods 160 patients with periodontal disease undergoing periodontal surgery in the stomatological department of this hospital from March 2010 to October 2012 were chosen and randomly divided into two groups by the random number table method.The clove oil group(80 cases)was treated by the assisted therapy of the clove oil periodontal dressing and the Yunnan Baiyao group(80 cases)was treated by the assisted therapy of the Yunnan Baiyao periodontal dressing.The wound healing,postoperative analgesia,total effective rate of hemostasis,gingival index(GI),peridantal pocket deep(PD)and dental plaque index

  6. Efeito de preparações de produtos naturais (cravo da índia e tomate) e de um produto sintético na marcação de constituintes sangüineos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de hemácias isoladas de sangue de ratos wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli,Severo de

    2007-01-01

    Existe um grande interesse na avaliação dos efeitos biológicos de produtos naturais e sintéticos. Constituintes sangüíneos marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc) são usados em medicina nuclear. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do Cravo da índia (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) e do Óxido de Zinco Eugenol (OZE) (preparação usada em Ciências da Saúde) na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e na morfologia de células vermelhas do sangue (CVS) e a ação de um extrato de tomate...

  7. Comparación del efecto anestésico del aceite de clavo, solución salina y solución coloidal en juveniles de Chirostoma jordani (Woolman, 1894 Comparison of anaesthetic effect of clove oil, saline solution and colloidal solution in juvenile Chirostoma jordani (Woolman, 1894

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    G Vázquez

    2013-01-01

    disease and high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to compare the anaesthetic effects of clove oil, saline solution and colloidal solution (Pentabiocare on juvenile Chirostoma jordani. 18 C. jordani specimens aged two months old were used for each treatment. Treatments consisted on clove oil at four concentrations (5, 8, 13 and 25 µL/L, saline solution at 7 g/L and colloidal solution at 5 mL/L. The anaesthesia stages and recovery time of fish were recorded during a six hour period. High concentrations of clove oil and prolonged exposure to it were associated with deep stages of anaesthesia. Clove oil in a concentration of 25 µL/L induced fish to stage three and after three hours of being exposed they entered stage five, while those sedated with saline and colloidal solutions were induced to stage one and showed the longest sedation times (six hours. Recovery time in juveniles when using 25 µL/L clove oil concentration was extended to 3,006.0 ± 5.3 seconds, while fish exposed to saline and colloidal solution showed a recovery of opercular rhythm, responsiveness to external stimuli and active swimming within 60 to 180 seconds. The results indicated that colloidal and saline solution kept the C. jordani juveniles in a state of light sedation during a six hours period with brief intervals of recovery. The use of clove oil at 5 and 13 µL/L doses induced juveniles to light and deep anaesthesia stages, respectively, with a recovery time under 420 seconds.

  8. Compostos funcionais presentes em bulbilhos de alhos armazenados sob refrigeração, provenientes de cultivos no Brasil e na China Functional compounds present in garlic cloves stored under refrigeration from crops in Brazil and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Yoshie Yosino da Silva

    2010-12-01

    was to determine the content of functional compounds in garlic cloves of two Brazilian cultivars ('Caçador' and 'Peruano' one Chinese cultivar ('Jinxiang', during the postharvest storage up to 60 days. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme 3x5 (3 cultivars; 5 samplings times with 3 replicates. Experimental unit was comprised by 10 garlic bulbs. Garlic bulbs were stored at 22±1°C and 70±2% RH and analyzed, every 15 days for allicin, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity using the -carotene/linoleic acid method. In general, it was observed that functional compounds were altered in the garlic cultivars studied. The profile of the levels of allicin was not changed during the period of storage for the variety 'Caçador'. However, the profile was of bioactive degradation at 45 and 15 days of storage for 'Peruano' and 'Jinxiang' cultivars, respectively. The antioxidant potential measured by the system ?-carotene/ linoleic acid for cultivars 'Caçador' and 'Jinxiang' were higher than the 'Peruano' cultivar, at the beginning of the evaluation. The profile for all cultivars was of reduction of potential, and after 30 days these differences were no observed. Regarding the content of phenolic compounds it was observed that 'Jinxiang' showed higher levels than in the cultivars 'Peruano' and 'Caçador', at the beginning of the evaluation. All cultivars showed a significant increase from 15 days evaluation. Therefore, the garlic cultivars evaluated had antioxidant activity of compounds derived from organosulfur and phenolic compounds, which was modified with storage under refrigeration.

  9. 柑橘采后腐烂主要致病菌的分离鉴定及丁香精油对其抑制作用研究%Isolation and identification of dominant pathogen on citrus fruit and the antifungal effect of clove oil on these fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解淑慧; 邵兴锋; 王可; 张兴龙; 王鸿飞

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Six strains of fungi were isolated from rotten citrus in Ninghai, Zhejiang province. [Method]Based on the traditional morphological identification method and rDNA -Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis, [Resultjthese strains were identified as Penicillium digitatum, Alternaria citri, Cladosporium cladosporioides , Aspergillus sydowii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and Pichia coribbica. Especially , P. digitatum and C. dados porioides were the main fungi, which caused the disease of fruit after harvest. Meanwhile, the antifungal effect of clove oil on those was studied in vitro. Clove oil showed obvious antifungal effect on P. digitatum and C. dadosporioides. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (EC50) were 2.51 mL·L-1 and 0.57 mL·L-1 respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 6 rnL·L-1 and 3 mL·L-1 respectively. [Conclusion]The results suggested that clove oil could be used to control the postharvest pathogens on citrus fruit.%[目的]为了确定浙江宁海本地柑橘优势腐败菌及丁香精油对其的抑菌效果,[方法]从自然腐烂的柑橘上分离优势菌,采用传统真菌形态学鉴定方法结合rDNA-ITS序列分析方法进行鉴定,并采用体外试验研究丁香精油对优势菌的抑菌效果.[结果]结果表明,浙江宁海本地柑橘分离所得6株真菌分别为指状青霉(Penicillium digitatum)、柑橘链格孢(Alternariac itri)、枝孢样枝孢霉(Cladosporium cladosporioides)、聚多曲霉[Aspergillus sydowii)、近玫色锁掷孢酵母(Sporidiobolus pararoseus)和卡利比克毕赤酵母(Pichiacaribbica);其中P.digitatum和C.cladosporioides是优势腐败菌;体外抑菌试验表明,丁香精油对P.digitatum和C.cladosporioides有较好的抑菌效果,抑制中浓度(EC50)分别为2.51 mL·L-1和0.57 mL·L-1;最小抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为6 mL· L-1和3 mL·L-1.[结论]丁香精油可以抑制柑橘采后主要病原菌的生长.

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, garlic, clove and lemon against pathogenic bacteria isolated from Anomalocardia brasilianaAtividade antimicrobiana in vitro dos óleos essenciais de orégano, alho, cravo e limão sobre bactérias patogênicas isoladas de vôngole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Fraga Barros

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural preservative substances are an efficient and economic alternative, because the aromatical plants and rich spices in essential oils characterized by a notable are gotten from antimicrobial activity, and for this reason, its derived products can be used to delay or to inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils of clove, limon, oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum and garlic several species of bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated of vongole (Anomalocardia Brasiliana and bacteria standard ATCC (American Type Culture Collection: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella cholerasuis, through diffusion test and after it was determinate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study it was observed that the garlic essential oil presented antibacterial activity front the S. aureus and the S. cholerasuis.; already the oils of clove and oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. Hirtum had presented activity front to all the analyzed bacteria, however the oregano oil presented the bigger bacterial inhibition, 26.7mm e 29,3mm for E. coli e S. aureus respectively. The essential oil of lemon did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. In such a way the oregano and clove essential oils that they had presented antibacterial activity appeared to be the most preferable agent for future research.Antimicrobianos de origem natural são alternativas eficazes e econômicas, pois são obtidos a partir das plantas aromáticas e especiarias ricas em óleos essenciais caracterizados por uma notável atividade antimicrobiana, e por esta razão, seus produtos derivados podem ser usados para retardar ou inibir a multiplicação microbiana. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de cravo, limão, orégano e alho sobre as cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isolados do v

  11. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  12. Acúmulo de matéria seca e exigências nutricionais de plantas de alho provenientes de cultura de tecidos e de propagação convencional Dry matter accumulation and nutritional requirements of garlic planted with cloves obtained by tissue culture or produced directly on the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vilela Resende

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar comparativamente a exigência nutricional de plantas de alho provenientes de cultura de tecidos e multiplicadas de forma convencional, foi conduzido um experimento sob condições de campo, no Setor de Olericultura da Universidade Federal de Lavras (MG. O experimento foi montado em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e esquema de parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por plantas provenientes de cultura de tecidos (cultura de meristemas e multiplicadas de forma convencional e sete épocas de avaliação: 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130, e 150 dias após o plantio. Em cada época foram coletadas seis plantas/parcela, avaliado o peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e do bulbo e determinadas as quantidades acumuladas de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Cu, Mn e Fe em cada parte. De maneira geral a absorção de nutrientes acompanhou o crescimento da planta, em ambas as formas de multiplicação, sendo que o acúmulo foi mais intenso entre 70 e 110 dias na parte aérea e 90 e 150 dias no bulbo. Diferenças significativas no acúmulo de nutrientes entre as formas de multiplicação foram verificadas somente na fase que coincidiu com o máximo desenvolvimento da parte aérea e do bulbo. As plantas multiplicadas por via convencional mostraram maior exigência por nitrogênio, em relação ao potássio, que plantas provenientes de cultura de tecidos. As plantas obtidas por cultura de tecidos acumularam quantidades significativamente maiores de nutrientes do que as obtidas de forma convencional e as diferenças percentuais na época da colheita foram da seguinte magnitude: Ca - 83,2%, K - 77,8%, S - 70,0%, Mg - 62,7%, P - 55,5%, N - 16,0%, Fe - 116,6%, Mn - 94,5%, Cu - 64,7%, Zn - 62,7%, B - 57,3%.An experiment was conducted under field conditions with the objective of studying differences on nutrient uptake and dry matter accumulation, between garlic plants produced from cloves obtained

  13. Response of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) cultivars to different postharvest preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Biniam; Belew, Derbew; Kassa, Negussie

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of selected pulsing solutions on the days to flower bud shrinkage, leaf wilting and petal edge drying occurrence of carnation cultivars (Green-Go and Galy). The pulsing solutions used for this investigation were Silver Thiosulfate (STS) (0.2, 0.6, 1 mM) and also ethanol (6, 8, 10%), both received equal amount of sucrose (10%). Besides, to simulate the actual practice of the farm (0.4 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 0.3 mM T.O.G) was used as a standard control. Senescence symptoms such as flower bud shrinkage, petal edge drying and leaf wilting were monitored. The results obtained showed that 1 mM STS plus 25 g sucrose achieved rapid petal edge drying for Green-Go cultivar. On the other hand, positive effects were also observed in days to flower bud shrinkage extended by 6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and being in par with 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose for Green-Go cultivar. Subsequently, the standard control, 0.6 mM Silver Thiosulfate (STS) plus 25 g sucrose and 8% ethanol plus 25 g sucrose attended comparable increment on the days to leaf wilting occurrences.

  14. O uso do óleo de cravo como anestésico em juvenis avançados de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus=The use of clove oil as an anesthetic for advanced juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Carvalho Gomes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A inevitável manipulação de peixes vivos em piscicultura causa uma série de reações fisiológicas adversas, o que exige o uso de anestésicos. O objetivo foi avaliar a eficiência do óleo de cravo como anestésico para juvenis avançados (aproximadamente 55 g e 13 cm de tilápia do Nilo durante o manejo. No primeiro experimento, os peixes foram expostos a banhos anestésicos em seis diferentes concentrações (80; 100; 150; 200; 250 e 300 mg L-1 e foi avaliado o tempo de indução aos diferentes estágios de anestesia. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os diferentes tempos de exposição à anestesia, sendo verificada a margem de segurança do anestésico. Por último, avaliaram-se as respostas de estresse após a anestesia em 250 mg L-1. Os parâmetros avaliados foram cortisol, glicose, hematócrito, hemoglobina e níveis plasmáticos de sódio e potássio. A concentração 250 mg L-1 de óleo de cravo foi a mais adequada para indução de anestesia cirúrgica. Para a anestesia voltada para biometria e breve manejo, a concentração mais adequada foi 150 mg L-1. A exposição à concentração ideal de óleo de cravo por 10 min., não causou estresse severo, ocorrendo alterações após a anestesia somente nos níveis de glicose e hematócrito.Handling of live fish is inevitable in fish farms and causes a number of adverse physiological reactions, thus requiring the use of anesthetics. The main goal of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of clove oil as an anesthetic for juvenile tilapia (approximately 55 g and 13 cm during handling. In the first experiment, fishes were exposed to an anesthetic bath at six concentrations (80, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mg L-1. Subsequently, the induction time was assessed for different stages of anesthesia. In the second experiment, different times of exposure to anesthesia were tested, aiming to assess the safety margin of the anesthetic. Finally, we evaluated the responses to stress

  15. 响应面法优化超临界CO2萃取丁香酚的工艺研究%Optimization of supercritical CO2 extraction of eugenol from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb) bud by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莹莹; 王志祥; 史益强; 丁朝中

    2013-01-01

    Objective To optimize the supercritical CO2 extraction process of cugcnol from colve(Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb). Method On the basis of single factors, using extraction rate as reference, extraction conditions of cugcnol from clove (Eugenia car yo phyllala Thunb) bud with supercritical CO2 extraction was optimized with response surface analysis. Results The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: power 25 Mpa, temperature 55 ℃ , time 1 h, volume fraction of alcohol 90%, and flow of modifier 0.04 mL · min-1 ,particle size 100 mesh. Under these conditions cugenol extraction rate could reach to 17. 41 %. Conclusion The optimized process conditions arc stable and practicable in manufacture.%目的 优选丁香中丁香酚的超临界CO2萃取工艺.方法 以丁香酚得率为考察指标,在单因素实验的基础上,采用响应面法对超临界CO2萃取丁香酚的工艺条件进行优化.结果 得到优选萃取条件为:萃取压力25 MPa,萃取温度55 ℃,萃取时间1 h,夹带剂体积分数90%乙醇,夹带剂流量0.04 mL·min-1,原料粒径100目,在此条件下丁香酚得率可达到17.41%.结论 优选的萃取工艺稳定、可行.

  16. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de produtos vegetais em otite externa aguda In vitro antimicrobial activity of plants in Acute Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a inflamação do conduto auditivo externo, e plantas medicinais podem ser utilizadas, na cultura popular, para seu tratamento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de Aleolanthus suaveolens, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Cymbopogon citratus, Matricaria chamomila, Pithecellobium avaremotemo, Plectranthus amboinicus e Ruta graveolens sobre agentes etiológicos de otite externa. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: A concentração inibitória mínima de extratos e óleos destas plantas foi obtida em amostras de otite externa. RESULTADOS: Staphylococcus aureus em 10 culturas, Pseudomonas aeruginosa em 8, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Staphylococcus aureus, em associação, em 5 culturas e Candida albicans e Candida krusei em 4 culturas. P. aeruginosa foi resistente a todos os extratos e óleos essenciais testados; os extratos de A. suaveolens, P. avaremotemo e de R. graveolens foram inativos, o óleo essencial de C. aromaticus e M. chamomila foram ativos contra 3 cepas de S. aureus e as cepas de Candida; Sete das cepas de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao extrato de P. amboinicus, mas o óleo não mostrou atividade, 4 cepas de S.aureus e as cepas de Candida foram sensíveis ao óleo essencial de R. graveolens. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas plantas apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, dependendo do agente etiológico, porém se faz necessário estudos mais detalhados, para melhorar o aproveitamento destas plantas.Acute Otitis Externa is an inflammation of the outer auditory meatus, and according to popular saying, medicinal plant extracts can be used in its treatment. AIM: to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the following plants: Aleolanthus suaveolens; Caryophyllus aromaticus; Cymbopogon citratus; Matricaria chamomila; Pithecellobium avaremotemo; Plectranthus amboinicus and Ruta graveolens on the germs that cause otitis externa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts and oils from these plants was

  17. In vitro antibacterial and chemical properties of essential oils including native plants from Brazil against pathogenic and resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella da Silva; Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Alves, Fernanda Cristina Bérgamo; Albano, Mariana; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza; Doyama, Julio Toshimi; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobials products from plants have increased in importance due to the therapeutic potential in the treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, we aimed to examine the chemical characterisation (GC-MS) of essential oils (EO) from seven plants and measure antibacterial activities against bacterial strains isolated from clinical human specimens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium) and foods (Salmonella Enteritidis). Assays were performed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and MIC90%) (mg/mL) by agar dilution and time kill curve methods (log CFU/mL) to aiming synergism between EO. EO chemical analysis showed a predominance of terpenes and its derivatives. The highest antibacterial activities were with Cinnamomun zeylanicum (0.25 mg/mL on almost bacteria tested) and Caryophyllus aromaticus EO (2.40 mg/mL on Salmonella Enteritidis), and the lowest activity was with Eugenia uniflora (from 50.80 mg/mL against MSSA to 92.40 mg/mL against both Salmonella sources and P. aeruginosa) EO. The time kill curve assays revealed the occurrence of bactericide synergism in combinations of C. aromaticus and C. zeylanicum with Rosmarinus. officinalis. Thus, the antibacterial activities of the EO were large and this can also be explained by complex chemical composition of the oils tested in this study and the synergistic effect of these EO, yet requires further investigation because these interactions between the various chemical compounds can increase or reduce (antagonism effect) the inhibitory effect of essential oils against bacterial strains.

  18. Quantitative determination of alliin in dried garlic cloves and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, the parameters suggested by International Conference on. Harmonization for analytical ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ..... Journal of AOAC International 2005; 88(5):.

  19. Comparative studies of antimycotic potential of thyme and clove oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Many plant extracts called essential oils possess antimi- crobial properties and ... preservatives especially for cosmetic products and as a. *Corresponding ..... recommend them as substitutes based on their work conducted on ...

  20. Efficacy of clove ( Syzygium aromaticum (l.) Merr and perry) powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Vol 11, No 6 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Unprotected kernels were kept as control and costs of applying the treatments were estimated. ... Kernel lots stored without Syzygium powder served as control.

  1. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  2. AH plus与氧化锌丁香油糊剂根尖封闭性能对比的Meta分析%Performance comparison of AH plus and zinc oxide clove oil paste root tip seal:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩妹; 李秀娥; 张琳; 严红; 刘玲; 吴君

    2016-01-01

    目的:对比评价根管充填糊剂AH plus和氧化锌丁香油的根管封闭性能。方法计算机检索PubMed、CNKI及Cochrane图书馆临床对照试验数据库等,查找符合纳入标准的随机对照试验,文献检索时间均从建库截至2014年10月20日。并按Cochrane系统评价手册的文献质量评价办法评价纳入研究的方法学质量,而后提取相关数据用RevMan 5.1软件进行Meta分析。结果最终纳入23篇随机对照试验,共4104个患牙。 AH plus糊剂组的治疗后疼痛发生率低于对照组,两组比较差异有统计意义[OR=0.32,95%CI(0.26,0.39),P<0.01]。干预1~2年后,AH plus糊剂组的治愈率高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义[OR=2.61,95%CI(2.03,3.35),P<0.01]。树脂类根管充填糊剂AH plus的根尖微渗漏长度优于对照组,差异有统计学意义[MD=-1.28,95%CI(-1.48,-1.08),P<0.01];印度墨水溶液染色法测量患牙的渗透长度,差异有统计学意义[MD=-0.82,95%CI(-0.90,-0.74),P<0.01]。结论 AH plus糊剂在根管治疗中可以缓解患者疼痛,远期疗效好,生物相容性较好,是理想的根管充填材料。由于纳入分析的研究质量差异较大,因此有必要进一步开展大样本、多中心、随机、双盲的对照试验。%Objective To comparative evaluation of root canal filling paste AH-plus and zinc oxide root canal of clove oil seal performance. Methods By computer, we retrieved PubMed, CNKI and controlled clinical trial databases to find out the standard randomised controlled trial, and literature retrieval time from building library until October 20, 2014. According to the Cochrane literature quality evaluation method of system for the evaluating methodlogical quality of the study, and then we extracted the relevant data and analyzed by Rev Man 5. 1 software for Meta analysis. Results Eventually the study included in 23 articles of randomized controlled trials, and a total of 4104 teeth. The results showed the pain

  3. Evaluación de nuevos genotipos de clavel ( Dianthus caryophyllus L. obtenidos mediante hibridación varietal Phenotypic evaluation of new carnation hybrids (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuellar Sonia

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la floricultura representa un renglón importante de las exportaciones, lo que hace fundamental el desarrollo de estudios básicos tendientes a la producción de variedades de clavel adaptadas a las condiciones nacionales. En el análisis de germinación y desarrollo de 10 cruzamientos entre variedades comerciales de clavel se encontró: que las sernillas híbridas de clavel no presentan problemas de viabilidad, que es posible obtener en las progenies plantas de desarrollo y floración más precoz que el de sus progenitores. De la misma forma se puede obtener mejoramiento en la producción de esquejes. En cuanto a las características de la flor se evaluaron parámetros importantes para la comercialización del clavel encontrándose que: es posible obtener mejoramiento en longitud y fortaleza del tallo, diámetro de la flor y número de pétalos, aunque es necesario hacer seguimiento a generaciones posteriores del cultivo para estar seguros de que las características deseadas se mantienen. Parámetros importantes en la comercialización de la flor como la forma de la corola, la forma y la coloración de las hojas, mostraron depender del ambiente (condiciones del cultivo más que de las características genéticas.

    The flower production in Colombia is important for the country exports. Therefore research in flower breeding, especially carnation is essential. Analyzing germination and development of 1a crosses between commercial cultivars we found what hybrid seeds do not have viability problems, and offspring plants with flowering and development most precocious than their parents were found. In same way, is possible to improve cuttings production. Flower features are important parameters for carnation commercialization. Stem length, stem strength, flower diameter and petal number can be improved, but is important to follow the next generations to make sure of the best characters are stable. Other parameters commercially important like corollas shape, color and leave shape, show environment more than genetic dependence.

  4. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin).

  5. Efecto de Luz Adicional en la Floración de Claveles (Dianthus caryophyllus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Henao Luz Marina

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la influencia de diferentes fotoperíodos en clavel, se llevó a cabo una investigación, en la cual fueron utilizadas tres variedades de tipo miniatura. El experimento se adelantó en el Oriente Antioqueño, en la plantación comercial "F lores del Caribe". Durante el tiempo en el cual se adelantó la investigación, las plantas fueron sometidas 8 condiciones normales de cultivo, en lo que hace relación a fertilizaciones, densidad de siembra, "pinch" o "cape", control de plagas y enfermedades y demás prácticas culturales. Solamente se hizo variar la iluminación. Para el efecto fueron usadas distintas horas de iluminación en la noche a saber: una, dos, cuatro y cero horas de interrupción de la noche. Se utilizaron bombillas de tipo incandescente, colocadas a 2 m. de distancia entre ellas y a una altura de 1 m. para una iluminación promedia de 13 a 17 pies candela. Se observaron 20 semanas las producciones de las distintas variedades. Se encontró un efecto debido a variedad en los parámetros longitud de tallos, número de entrenudos, peso fresco y producción total. Al igual pudieron observarse diferencias altamente significativas, debidas a los distintos tratamientos para el número de entrenudos y producción total. En todos los casos se observó que los picos de producción fueron anticipados con los diferentes tratamientos de interrupción de la noche. Resulta benéfico en el sentido de acelerar la cosecha, el uso de la iluminación. El floricultor deberá tener en cuenta el costo de la iluminación y el beneficio que le reporte tal práctica para que ella sea instaurada o no en las plantaciones comerciales de claveles.

  6. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S. H.; K. S. Lgu

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and hi...

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin. Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water. The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  9. Quantification of major flavonoids in carnation tissues (Dianthus caryophyllus) as a tool for cultivar discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Francesco; Barile, Elisa; Lanzotti, Virginia; Dolci, Marcello; Curir, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    One flavone-C-glycoside and two flavonol-O-glycosides were recognized and isolated as the main flavonoidal components in nine different carnation cultivars, and their chemical structures have been determined by spectroscopic methods, including UV detection, MS and NMR. The distribution of these three compounds in flowers, leaves, stems, young sprouts, and roots of each cultivar was evaluated by a simple HPLC-UV method: the graphic representation of their content in the different tissues allows to identify and characterize unambiguously each considered carnation cultivar. The presented method could be an easy, inexpensive and reliable tool for carnation cultivar discrimination.

  10. Induction of Embryogenic Callus and Plant Regeneration in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Karami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is achieved in four cultivars of carnation (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse. Embryogenic calli were induced on petal explants only, all the calli established on leaf, sepal, receptacle and style explants were not embryogenic. Embryogenic calli were obtained on Morashige and Skoog basal medium (1962 containing sucrose 9%, 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, 0.2 mg L-1 6-benzyladenine (BA. After transfer of embryogenic calli to growth regulator free MS medium or medium containing low amount of 2, 4-D (0.2-0.4 mm L-1 resulted in successful somatic embryogenesis. A high frequency (80-85% of Somatic embryo germination and development into normal plantlets was observed on half-strength MS medium supplement with 3% sucrose without growth regulator. About 95% of somatic embryo-derived plantlets were acclimatized in the greenhouse conditions.

  11. Analysis of gene expression during the transition to climacteric phase in carnation flowers (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Byung-Chun; Binder, Brad M; Falbel, Tanya G; Patterson, Sara E

    2013-11-01

    It has been generally thought that in ethylene-sensitive plants such as carnations, senescence proceeds irreversibly once the tissues have entered the climacteric phase. While pre-climacteric petal tissues have a lower sensitivity to ethylene, these tissues are converted to the climacteric phase at a critical point during flower development. In this study, it is demonstrated that the senescence process initiated by exogenous ethylene is reversible in carnation petals. Petals treated with ethylene for 12h showed sustained inrolling and senescence, while petals treated with ethylene for 10h showed inrolling followed by recovery from inrolling. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and ethylene signalling between 10h and 12h ethylene treatment. Ethylene treatment at or beyond 12h (threshold time) decreased the mRNA levels of the receptor genes (DcETR1, DcERS1, and DcERS2) and DcCTR genes, and increased the ethylene biosynthesis genes DcACS1 and DcACO1. In contrast, ethylene treatment under the threshold time caused a transient decrease in the receptor genes and DcCTR genes, and a transient increase in DcACS1 and DcACO1. Sustained DcACS1 accumulation is correlated with decreases in DcCTR genes and increase in DcEIL3 and indicates that tissues have entered the climacteric phase and that senescence proceeds irreversibly. Inhibition of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase) prior to 12h ethylene exposure was not able to prevent reduction in transcripts of DcCTR genes, yet suppressed transcript of DcACS1 and DcACO1. This leads to the recovery from inrolling of the petals, indicating that DcACS1 may act as a signalling molecule in senescence of flowers.

  12. The role of N-lauroylethanolamine in the regulation of senescence of cut carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Guo, Wei-ming; Chen, Su-mei; Han, Liang; Li, Zheng-ming

    2007-08-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipid mediators that play important roles in mammals, but not much is known about their precise function in plants. In this work, we analyzed the possible involvement of N-lauroylethanolamine [NAE(12:0)] in the regulation of cut-flower senescence. In cut carnation flowers of cv. Red Barbara, the pulse treatment with 5 microM NAE(12:0) slowed senescence by delaying the onset of initial wilting. Ion leakage, which is a reliable indicator of membrane integrity, was postponed in NAE(12:0)-treated flowers. The lipid peroxidation increased in carnation petals with time, in parallel to the development in activity of lipoxygenase and superoxide anion production rate, and these increases were both delayed by NAE(12:0) supplementation. The activities of four enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase) that are implicated in antioxidant defense were also upregulated in the cut carnations that had been treated with NAE(12:0). These data indicate that NAE(12:0)-induced delays in cut-carnation senescence involve the protection of the integrity of membranes via suppressing oxidative damage and enhancing antioxidant defense. We propose that the stage from the end of blooming to the onset of wilting is a critical period for NAE(12:0) action.

  13. Effect of inorganic salts on the senescence of Dianthus caryophyllus flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayak, S.; Kofranek, A.M.; Tirosh, T.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic salts like KNO/sub 3/, KCl, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ extend longevity of cut carnation flowers. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ was studied in some detail. There is an osmotic adjustment in response to KNO/sub 3/ treatment. The osmotic concentration change occurred in the external as well as in the internal compartments. The osmotic concentration change in the external compartment is well correlated with extension of longevity. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ on the sensitivity to ethylene, and its significance in delaying senescence is discussed. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Characterization and translational regulation of the arginine decarboxylase gene in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K S; Lee, S H; Hwang, S B; Park, K Y

    2000-10-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis in plants. We characterized a carnation genomic clone, gDcADC8, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.7 kDa. The unusually long 5'-UTR that contained a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) of seven amino acids (MQKSLHI) was predicted to form an extensive secondary structure (free energy of approximately -117 kcal mol-1) using the Zuker m-fold algorithm. The result that an ADC antibody detected two bands of 45 and 33 kDa in a petal extract suggested the full length of the 78 kDa polypeptide precursor converted into two polypeptides in the processing reaction. To investigate the role of the transcript leader in translation, in vitro transcription/translation reactions with various constructs of deletion and mutation were performed using wheat germ extract. The ADC transcript leader affected positively downstream translation in both wheatgerm extract and primary transformant overexpressing ADC gene. It was demonstrated that heptapeptide (8.6 kDa) encoded by the ADC uORF was synthesized in vitro. Both uORF peptide, and the synthetic heptapeptide MQKSLHI of the uORF, repressed the translation of downstream ORF. Mutation of the uORF ATG codon alleviated the inhibitory effect. ORF translation was not affected by either a frame-shift mutation in uORF or a random peptide. To our knowledge, this is the first report to provide evidence that a uORF may inhibit the translation of a downstream ORF, not only in cis but also in trans, and that the leader sequence of the ADC gene is important for efficient translation.

  15. Role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, K; Yoshioka, T; Hashiba, T; Satoh, S

    2000-12-01

    Although the role of the gynoecium in natural senescence of the carnation flower has long been suggested, it has remained a matter of dispute because petal senescence in the cut carnation flower was not delayed by the removal of gynoecium. In this study, the gynoecium was snapped off by hand, in contrast to previous investigations where removal was achieved by forceps or scissors. The removal of the gynoecium by hand prevented the onset of ethylene production and prolonged the vase life of the flower, demonstrating a decisive role of the gynoecium in controlling natural senescence of the carnation flower. Abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which induced ethylene production and accelerated petal senescence in carnation flowers, did not stimulate ethylene production in the flowers with gynoecia removed (-Gyn flowers). Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), the ethylene precursor, induced substantial ethylene production and petal wilting in the flowers with gynoecia left intact, but was less effective at stimulating ethylene production in the -Gyn flowers and negligible petal in-rolling was observed. Exogenous ethylene induced autocatalytic production of the gas and petal wilting in the -Gyn flowers. These results indicated that ethylene generated in the gynoecium triggers the onset of ethylene production in the petals of carnation during natural senescence.

  16. Development and characterization of collagen films with added essential oil of clove india

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailim Yuki Nakashima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This objective of this study was to develop and characterized films based on collagen and analyze the effects of concentrations of clay, plasticizer and essential oil on its characteristics. The solutions were prepared according to an experimental design of 2³ with 3 central points. The films were produced by the "casting" technique, which consists on surface drying, and were characterized by the color, opacity, tensile strength, solubility, water vapor permeability and thickness. Lightness values ranged between 66.76 and 96.03, the brightness decreased with increasing the concentrations of clay, oil and glycerol. The opacity values showed an increase with the addition of glycerol, ranging from 1.96 to 44.24%. The values of tensile strength ranged from 5 to 14 MPa, and the solubility values, from 2.14 to 7.97%. In the 5% level, solubility and tensile strength analyzes were not significant. The water vapor permeability (WVP ranged from 0.77 to 2.51 (g.mm/KPa.m2.d. The most influent factors on the permeability to water vapor in the films are the glycerol and essential oil concentrations, which increases the permeability as these variables increase. In relation to the thickness, the concentration of montmorillonite clay interfered in the range from 0.02 to 0.04mm, and as higher its concentration, greater the thickness. It was concluded that the collagen films obtained good mechanical properties, adequate visual appearance, easy handing and low permeability to water vapor and low water solubility. The essential oil was effective in the structure of the film, since that it improves the look and easier handling.

  17. Efficacy of antibacterial activity of garlic cloves from Tamil Nadu and Jowai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Thus our study reveals that garlic not only makes the food more spicy and edible with its flavour but can also be used as an effective antibacterial agents against MDR gram positive and gram negative bacteria. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 434-438

  18. Cravo, canela, bala e favela Clove and cinnamon, guns and slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da discussão sobre o lugar do corpo feminino subalterno, palco de conflitos onde se desdobram as tensões resultantes das relações desiguais de gênero, raça e classe no Brasil, este artigo se propõe a realizar uma leitura de textos ficcionais recentes - nomeadamente os romances As mulheres de Tijucopapo, de Marilene Felinto, e Ponciá Vicêncio, de Conceição Evaristo, e o filme O céu de Suely, de Karim Aïnouz -, inserindo-os no debate de um projeto de tradução da agenda pós-colonial para o português. Decorrentes dessa abordagem, temas como a viagem, o deslocamento e o exílio farão parte da experiência subjetiva ficcionalizada que se irá enfocar, e serão, portanto, também objeto de interpretaçãoBased on the discussion about the subaltern woman's body as a stage of conflicts where the tensions resulting from Brazil's unequal gender, class and race relations unfold, this article intends to analyze recent fictional works - specifically the novels: Marilene Felinto's As mulheres de Tijucopapapo and Conceição Evaristo's Ponciá Vicêncio, as well as the film O céu de Suely, by Karim Aïnouz - in order to place them within the debate of translation of the post-colonial agenda into Portuguese. Focusing the subjective experience represented in these fictional narratives, themes like travel, dislocation and exile will also be analyzed

  19. (Coffea arabica L) blended with cloves or cardamom in high-fat diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tissue samples were taken to evaluate various parameters, including lipid peroxidation markers and .... light/12 h dark cycle in the animal house at the. College of Medicine ..... wall cell co-cultures. ... Olfat NM, Norah M, Qahiz Al, Mohamed SI.

  20. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. flowers under ethylene stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA, benzyladenine (BA and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP. Then, ethephon (as stress treatment was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively in both studied cultivars (‘Silver pink’ and ‘Lilac on purple’ was related to 30 mg/L ethephon. Maximum flower longevity (11.5 days was related to ‘Lilac on purple’ cultivar. The 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP treatment, in both cultivars, was the most effective treatment in inhibition of ethephon on reduction of flowers longevity. Also, the lowest amount of ethylene production and the highest enzyme activity was observed when the flowers were pretreated by 0.6 µL/L of 1-MCP before the stress is applied. The highest proline accumulation was related to 30 mg/L ethephon treatment. Maximum α-amylase activity occurred in 30 mg/L ethephon, 10 and 20 mg/L BA and 50 mg/L AOA pretreatments.

  1. Study of enzymatic activity and proline change in potted mini carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers under ethylene stress

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the role of ethylene stress, ethylene inhibitors and action treatments on longevity of potted-carnation flowers. For this purpose, first, potted-carnation flowers were pretreated with different concentrations of amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA), benzyladenine (BA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Then, ethephon (as stress treatment) was sprayed on the pretreated flowers. Results showed that the lowest longevity of carnation flowers (5 and 6 days, respectively) ...

  2. Modelo de aparición de nudos en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Delphi cultivado en sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López M. Miguel Ángel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Los modelos fenológicos son herramientas diseñadas para conocer y predecir el desarrollo de las plantas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la temperatura base (Tb para la aparición de nudos y en función de este parámetro generar un modelo fenológico para tallos florales de clavel estándar cv. Delphi a primer pico de producción. El ensayo se estableció en un invernadero, en el SENA ubicado en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca, Colombia. Se sembraron esquejes en tres tipos de sustrato (100% cascarilla de arroz quemada; mezcla de 65% de cascarilla de arroz quemada y 35% de fibra de coco; mezcla de 35% de cascarilla de arroz quemada y 65% de fibra de coco. La Tb se estimó mediante el ajuste de un modelo exponencial entre la tasa de aparición de nudos y la temperatura acumulada. Se usó el método de Euler para la simulación de nudos y el desarrollo fenológico de la planta se determinó a través del tiempo térmico. El tipo de sustrato no influenció la tasa promedio de aparición de nudos (0,102 nudos/día. El valor estimado de la Tb fue de 0,12°C. A partir del pinch, y hasta la aparición del botón floral se acumularon 1.363,2 grados día (gdd; y el pico de cosecha se alcanzó a los 2.226,5 gdd. La aparición de nudos fue un proceso acelerado en los primeros estadios de desarrollo, que disminuyó paulatinamente luego de la aparición del botón floral. El máximo número de nudos observado fue 16,18 y el máximo estimado por el modelo fue 16,89. El modelo se ajusta de manera satisfactoria para las condiciones evaluadas y presenta un bajo índice de raíz cuadrada del cuadrado medio del error (RSME = 0,28.

  3. Is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor involved in the regulation of petal wilting in senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hiroaki; Shibuya, Kenichi; Yoshioka, Toshihito; Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2002-03-01

    Senescence of carnation petals is accompanied by autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting of the petals; the former is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes and the latter is related to the expression of a cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. CPase is probably responsible for the degradation of proteins, leading to the decomposition of cell components and resultant cell death during the senescence of petals. The carnation plant also has a gene for the CPase inhibitor (DC-CPIn) that is expressed abundantly in petals at the full opening stage of flowers. In the present study, DC-CPIn cDNA was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant DC-CPIn protein completely inhibited the activities of a proteinase (CPase) extracted from carnation petals and papain. Northern blot analysis showed that the mRNA for CPase (DC-CP1) accumulated in large amounts, whereas that for DC-CPIn disappeared, corresponding to the onset of petal wilting in flowers undergoing natural senescence and exogenous ethylene-induced senescence. Based on these findings, a role of DC-CPIn in the regulation of petal wilting is suggested; DC-CPIn acts as a suppressor of petal wilting, which probably functions to fine-tune petal wilting in contrast to coarse tuning, the up-regulation of CPase activity by gene expression.

  4. Detection of 1-O-malylglucose: pelargonidin 3-O-glucose-6''-O-malyltransferase activity in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Tera, Masayuki; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Okamura, Masachika; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Momose, Masaki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2008-09-05

    Carnations have anthocyanins acylated with malate. Although anthocyanin acyltransferases have been reported in several plant species, anthocyanin malyltransferase (AMalT) activity in carnation has not been identified. Here, an acyl donor substance of AMalT, 1-O-beta-D-malylglucose, was extracted and partially purified from the petals of carnation. This was synthesized chemically to analyze AMalT activity in a crude extract from carnation. Changes in the AMalT activity showed close correlation to the accumulation of pelargonidin 3-malylglucoside (Pel 3-malGlc) during the development of red petals of carnation, but neither AMalT activity nor Pel 3-malGlc accumulation was detectable in roots, stems and leaves.

  5. Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder

    2010-06-01

    Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms tested. On the basis of in vitro antagonistic activities, the best strains were selected and used in field trial to study the influence of these strains on the growth of carnation. Results have shown marked effect on growth parameters and disease incidence has also been reduced significantly.

  6. Antimicrobial activities of rhizobacterial strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus strains isolated from rhizosphere soil of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Sunrise)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sapna; Kaur, Mohinder

    2010-01-01

    Under the present study, an attempt was made to characterize rhizobacteria i.e. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species isolated from rhizosphere of carnation to evaluate their growth promoting effect on carnation so as to select and develop more efficient indigenous plant growth promoting and disease suppressing bioagents of specific soil type and specific plant type. Maximum strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus sp. showed significant antimicrobial activities against most of the microorganisms teste...

  7. Cell enlargement and sugar accumulation in the gynaecium of the glasshouse carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) induced by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, R

    1976-01-01

    Histological examination of the ovary walls from ethylene-treated cut flowering stems of the carnation showed that the cells had enlarged and this appeared to account for the increased growth of the ovary which follows ethylene treatment of this flower. Sugar analyses of the flower parts indicated that growth of the ovary was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of sucrose to reducing sugars in the petals and ovary, and a net increase in sugars in the ovary. A sugar, tentatively identified as xylose, increased in the petals after ethylene treatment. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the ovary also increased after the ethylene treatment. The results, consistent with the hypothesis that sucrose is translocated in response to ethylene, are discussed in relation to previous work relating to the involvement of ethylene in flower senescence.

  8. 香石竹雌蕊特征新发现%New discovery on pistil traits in Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何聪聪

    2003-01-01

    对于香石竹雌蕊心皮数目,不同植物志说法略有不同,目前尚无定论.本文对不同花色的香石竹雌蕊心皮数目及形态特征进行观察,发现香石竹的心皮数目随品种变化而异.在两种基本的花形态中,心皮数目存在不同的变异程度.文章讨论了其可能的形成机理,为进一步深入了解提供参考.

  9. 香石竹红色素的提取研究%Extracting Study on Red Pigment of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彦杰

    2005-01-01

    本文研究了香石竹红色素的树脂法提取工艺.通过4种树脂对香石竹红色素的吸附及不同洗脱剂对香石竹红色素解吸的比较研究,结果表明,AB-8树脂对香石竹红色素具有较高的吸附量,用50%乙醇为洗脱剂得到的产品质量好,色价高,且AB-8树脂重复使用20次后吸附率仅降低1.95%;该色素溶于极性溶剂,在酸性条件下,呈鲜红色,其耐光、热性较好.

  10. Study on Pollen Viability of Dianthus caryophyllus%香石竹花粉生活力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旭红; 桂敏; 莫锡君

    2008-01-01

    采用离体萌发法和TTC染色法对香石竹多头类型品种粉恋、迷恋、皇族,单头品种兰贵人的花粉生活力进行了测定,同时对花粉生活力测定方法进行了比较研究.结果表明:在0.15%硼酸+lo%蔗糖+1%琼脂培养基上,花粉萌发率最高;4个品种中,迷恋的花粉萌发率最高,粉恋和皇族其次,兰贵人最低;TTC染色法测定的花粉生活力比萌发法高.

  11. Expression of genes responsible for ethylene production and wilting are differently regulated in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi; Shibuya; Tsuruno; Iwazaki; Mochizuki; Yoshioka; Hashiba; Satoh

    2000-09-01

    Carnation petals exhibit autocatalytic ethylene production and wilting during senescence. The autocatalytic ethylene production is caused by the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase genes, whereas the wilting of petals is related to the expression of the cysteine proteinase (CPase) gene. So far, it has been believed that the ethylene production and wilting are regulated in concert in senescing carnation petals, since the two events occurred closely in parallel with time. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these genes in petals of a transgenic carnation harboring a sense ACC oxidase transgene and in petals of carnation flowers treated with 1,1-dimethyl-4-(phenylsulfonyl)semicarbazide (DPSS). In petals of the transgenic carnation flowers, treatment with exogenous ethylene caused accumulation of the transcript for CPase and in-rolling (wilting), whereas it caused no or little accumulation of the transcripts for ACC oxidase and ACC synthase and negligible ethylene production. In petals of the flowers treated with DPSS, the transcripts for ACC synthase and ACC oxidase were accumulated, but no significant change in the level of the transcript for CPase was observed. These results suggest that the expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase genes, which leads to ethylene production, is differentially regulated from the expression of CPase, which leads to wilting, in carnation petals.

  12. Dianthin 30 and 32 from Dianthus caryophyllus: two inhibitors of plant protein synthesis and their tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, R R; Bruland, O

    1983-07-15

    The ability of dianthin 30 and 32 to inhibit translation in reticulocyte lysates and wheat germ extracts has been studied. The dianthins, like the A chains of the toxins abrin and ricin, inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte lysates by inactivating the 60S ribosomal subunit. They also inhibited, at concentrations of 10 ng/ml, a protein-synthesizing system from wheat germ and inactivated isolated wheat germ ribosomes. The concentration of the dianthins in different tissues of the plant was determined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis and by the dianthin's ability to inhibit protein synthesis. Dianthin 32 was found only in the leaves and in growing shoots, while dianthin 30 was present throughout the plant. In the older parts of the plant, the dianthins constituted between 1 and 3% of the total extractable protein whereas much less was found in the younger parts.

  13. Study on Rapid Propagation Techniques of Dianthus caryophyllus%香石竹快速繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宛淑艳; 包秀凤

    2012-01-01

    以中花散枝香石竹“红芭芭拉”的茎段为外植体,探讨不同培养基对香石竹的诱芽萌动、继代增殖和生根培养的影响.结果表明:外植体切取部位的诱导芽萌动率从高至低排序为:顶芽>带腋芽的茎段>不带腋芽的茎段;当培养基为MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L时,对香石竹带腋芽的茎段芽萌动最好;在培养基为1/2 MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L时,继代增殖长芽的效果最好;在培养基为1/2 MS+6-BA 0.2 mg/L+NAA 0.5mg/L时,诱导不定根效果最好.

  14. Regulation of Senescence in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus): Effect of Abscisic Acid and Carbon Dioxide on Ethylene Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayak, S; Dilley, D R

    1976-11-01

    Abscisic acid hastened senescence of carnation flowers and this was preceded by stimulation of accelerated ethylene production. Carbon dioxide delayed the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production in flowers regardless of treatment with abscisic acid. Flowers exhibited a low and transient climacteric of ethylene production without wilting while in 4% carbon dioxide and underwent accelerated ethylene production culminating in wilting when removed from carbon dioxide. Hypobaric ventilation, which lowers ethylene to hyponormal levels within tissues, extended flower longevity and largely negated enhancement of senescence by abscisic acid. Supplementing hypobarically ventilated flowers with ethylene hastened senescence irrespective of abscisic acid treatment. Collectively, the data indicate that abscisic acid hastens senescence of carnations largely as a result of advancing the onset of autocatalytic ethylene production.

  15. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponmurugan Karuppiah

    2012-08-01

    Conclusions: Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary.

  16. The production and activity test of cellulases using bagasse substrate on Aspergillus niger isolated from Clove field, Kare, Madiun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhi, Muh. Waskito; Sulistyarsi, Ani; Pujiati

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillus sp is a microorganism which has a high ability to produce cellulase enzymes. In producing Cellulase enzymes requires appropriate concentration and incubation time to obtain optimum enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of inoculum concentration and incubation time towards production and activity of cellulases from Aspergillus sp substrate bagasse. This research used experiments method; completely randomized design with 2 factorial repeated 2 times. The treatment study include differences inoculum (K) 5% (K1), 15% (K2) 25%, (K3) and incubation time (F) that is 3 days (F1), 6 days (F2), 9 days (F3), 12 days (F4). The data taken from the treatment are glucose reduction and protein levels of crude cellulase enzyme activity that use Nelson Somogyi and Biuret methods. Analysis of variance ANOVA data used two paths with significance level of 5% then continued with LSD test. The results showed that: Fhit>Ftab. Thus, there is effect of inoculum concentrations and incubation time toward activity of crude cellulases of Aspergillus sp. The highest glucose reduction of treatment is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with 12 days incubation time) amount 12.834 g / ml and the highest protein content is K3F4 (concentration of inoculum is 25% with with 12 days incubation time) amount 0.740 g / ml.

  17. Antibacterial activity of the essential oils extracted from cassia bark, bay fruits and cloves against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spices are added into foods mainly for enhancing the organoleptic quality of the food. The application of spices and their derivatives in foods as preservatives has been investigated for years. In this study, we determined the antibacterial activity of the essential oils of three spices, cassia bark...

  18. The effect of the weight of cloves on the growth and the yield of fall-planted garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nurzyńska-Wierdak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In three years trials (1990-1993 the effect of diameter of bulbilson growth and yield of local garlic ecotype R was studied. Nine size classes of bulbils were investigated. Significant effect of diameter of bulbils on biometric propeities and yield of local garlic was found out. The plants grown from big bulbils gave higher and better quality yield then those grown from smaller bulbils. There was no difference in yield of plants grown from big and medium bulbils.

  19. Environ: E00315 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00315 Clove fruit Crude drug Syzygium aromaticum [TAX:219868] Myrtaceae (myrtle family) Clove fruit... Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Myrtaceae (myrtle family) E00315 Clove fruit ...

  20. Desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón floral en clavel estándar (Dianthus caryophyllus L. var. Nelson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arévalo Gabriel Alexander

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los mayores costos de producción del clavel estándar se asocian con la mano de obra que se utiliza en las labores del cultivo; el desbotone es una de las actividades que demanda mayor uso de mano de obra y tiempo. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón principal, sobre la producción y calidad en poscosecha del clavel estándar variedad Nelson en el primer pico de cosecha. Se evaluaron los estadios conocidos popularmente como botón ‘arveja’, ‘garbanzo’, ‘barril’, ‘estrella’, ‘bala’ y ‘punto de corte’. Las variables medidas incluyeron producción total a primera cosecha, grados de calidad y algunos criterios de clasificación en poscosecha. Se concluyó que el desbotone en los estadios evaluados no influye significativamente en la producción total del clavel en la primera cosecha. Sin embargo, en la clasificación por grados de calidad, se encontraron diferencias significativas: el desbotone en botón arveja’, ‘garbanzo’ y ‘barril’ mostró mayores promedios en el número de tallos grado ‘select’, mientras que el desbotone en botón ‘estrella’, ‘bala’ y ‘punto de corte’ reflejó mayores promedios para los grados ‘fancy’ estándar y nacional. El desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón principal afectó el número de tallos torcidos, sin aumentar significativamente el número de tallos débiles. El ensayo permitió definir que la etapa crítica para el desbotone son los estadios de desarrollo del botón principal previos al estadio ‘barril’, pues pasado este punto disminuye la calidad del producto.

  1. Desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón floral en clavel estándar (dianthus caryophyllus l.) var. nelson

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo, Gabriel Alexander; Ibarra, Daniel Alberto; Flórez, Víctor Julio

    2010-01-01

    Los mayores costos de producción del clavel estándar se asocian con la mano de obra que se utiliza en las labores del cultivo; el desbotone es una de las actividades que demanda mayor uso de mano de obra y tiempo. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el efecto del desbotone en diferentes estadios de desarrollo del botón principal, sobre la producción y calidad en poscosecha del clavel estándar variedad Nelson en el primer pico de cosecha. Se evaluaron los estadios conocidos popularmen...

  2. Excision of transposable elements from the chalcone isomerase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes may contribute to the variegation of the yellow-flowered carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshio; Higeta, Daisuke; Suzuki, Akane; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2002-05-01

    In the "Rhapsody" cultivar of the carnation, which bears white flowers variegated with red flecks and sectors, a transposable element, dTdic1, belonging to the Ac/Ds superfamily, was found within the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene. The red flecks and sectors of "Rhapsody" may be attributable to a reversion to DFR activity after the excision of dTdic1. The yellow color of the carnation petals is attributed to the synthesis and accumulation of chalcone 2'-glucoside. In several of the carnation cultivars that bear yellow flowers variegated with white flecks and sectors, both the chalcone isomerase (CHI) and DFR genes are disrupted by dTdic1.

  3. 香石竹种质离体保存研究进展%Research Progress on in vitro Conservation of Carnation(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)Germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓宁; 陈晓玲; 卢新雄; 徐有明; 张金梅; 辛霞; 张志娥

    2012-01-01

    香石竹是世界四大切花之一,具有重要的观赏价值.其种质资源主要依靠田间种质圃和离体库进行保存.离体保存包括试管苗保存和超低温保存,这两种方法作为田间种质圃保存的补充可以分别对种质资源进行短中期和长期保存.本文对香石竹离体保存的相关研究进行了概括总结,旨在为香石竹种质资源的保存提供参考.%Carnation is one of the world's four cut flowers with important ornamental value. Its germplasm resources are mainly conserved in field genebanlcs and in vitro genebanks, which including tissue culture and cryopreser-vation. As complementary to conservation in field genebanks,ire vitro genebanks can conserve the germplasms in short, medium and long-term. In this paper,the related researches in the carnation germplasms in vitro conservation were studied summarily, aims at providing references to carnation germplasm conservation.

  4. INDUCCIÓN DE LA ACTIVIDAD DE LA ENZIMA FENILALANINA AMONIO LIASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L POR ELICITORES DEL HONGO Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Ardila

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento a nivel del tallo de la enzima fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL, por su nombre en inglés phenylalanine ammonia liase, durante la interacción clavel-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi raza 2, se seleccionaron las condiciones para su extracción y cuantificación de la actividad. Para la extracción a partir de tallos y raíces se seleccionó un tratamiento previo del material vegetal con acetona y posterior extracción con buffer borato pH 8,8 con EDTA 2mMy -mercaptoetanol 18 mM. Para su cuantificación a nivel del tallo se debe realizar un ensayo discontinuo por 10 min, a 37 oC, pH 8,0 y a una concentración de sustrato de 35 mM. Adicionalmente se muestra mediante un ensayo in vivo el efecto que tiene, como inductor de esta enzima, la aplicación de un extracto crudo del patógeno. Los resultados observados indican que esta enzima se induce significativamente en tallos de claveles de la variedad tolerante “Kiss” durante el tratamiento por aspersión con el extracto crudo del patógeno, mientras que dicha inducción fue inexistente para la infección directamente con el patógeno. La inducción en esta variedad indica que en este extracto del patógeno se presentan elicitores potenciales para la inducción de esta enzima y por ende de la ruta fenilpropanoide.

  5. Rhizobium leguminosarum COMO ORGANISMO BIOCONTROLADOR DE LA INTERACCIÓN HOSPEDERO-PATÓGENO: CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus – Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Woo Lee Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de biocontrol de Rhizobium leguminosarum (R. leguminosarum cepa B, contra Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.dianthi (FOD raza 2, en la interacción Clavel - FOD. Se utilizó la raza 2 de FOD por ser la de mayor patogenicidad y distribución en las fincas de cultivo de clavel en Colombia. Para ello se establecieron las condiciones de inoculación de FOD sobre cultivos establecidos de R . leguminosarum, variando la concentración in vitro de la bacteria. Se encontró una reducción en el número de microconidias hasta un 90% y una inhibición en el crecimiento radial del patógeno de hasta un 71 %. En el ensayo de microcultivo dual se detectó fraccionamiento de las hifas después de 48 horas de incubación con R . leguminosarum En el ensayo in vivo, los esquejes de clavel Raggio di solé, variedad susceptible al patógeno, fueron inoculados con 45.0 x 10 células de R. leguminosarum por matero, mostrando una severidad inferior al 5%, una incidencia menor del 20% y una reducción del índice de la enfermedad hasta de un 92% en presencia del patógeno.

  6. Research Advances of the Fresh-keeping Techneque in Dianthus caryophyllus L.%香石竹保鲜技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯莹; 潘东明

    2011-01-01

    从水分代谢、呼吸代谢、植物生长调节剂等几个方面分析香石竹采后衰老的原因,总结出目前香石竹采后保鲜所采用的方法,并提出香石竹保鲜技术的未来发展方向,以期为香石竹的切花保鲜研究提供参考.

  7. 地被香石竹花粉形态和生物学特性%Pollen morphologic and biological characteristics of the Dianthus caryophyllus × Dianthus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强

    2014-01-01

    运用TTC检测法、联苯胺-过氧化氢法、电镜扫描等方法,对地被香石竹‘春之歌’的花粉形态、花粉活力、花粉萌发、柱头可授性进行观察测定.结果表明:花粉外形为近圆球形,直径约为32 ~ 45 μm,具10多个萌发孔,外壁纹饰为颗粒状.散粉期的花粉生活力为49.5%,离体萌发率可达28.7%,花粉管不完全是单一萌发,柱头在绒毛1/3 ~ 3/4时可授性最强.为利用该品种进行香石竹杂交育种提供参考.

  8. Research Review on the Propagation Techniques of Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.%香石竹繁殖技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 桂敏; 龙江; 陈敏

    2010-01-01

    系统分析了国内外香石竹组织培养和扦插繁殖等研究进程,对国内外香石竹研究现状进行了概述,提出了今后研究的方向:深入对香石竹组培快繁方面的研究,特别是其脱毒方面的研究;加强香石竹扦插方面的研究;建立香石竹良种繁育技术体系.

  9. 大花香石竹多倍体育种研究%Polyploid Breeding Studying of Standard Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫锡君; 桂敏; 瞿素萍; 熊丽; 杨明

    2005-01-01

    对102个大花香石竹品种的染色体倍性进行鉴定,二倍体、三倍体和四倍体品种分别占77%、6%和17%,当前生产上的主栽品种马斯特、达拉斯和卡曼(具有大花苞性状)都是二倍体品种,71%的四倍体品种为花边复色类型.初步认为部分香石竹四倍体栽培品种是远缘杂交的后代.通过用秋水仙碱处理香石竹品种马斯特的试管苗,获得两株四倍体植株,其花蕾直径增大,而节间变短.

  10. 不同品种康乃馨引种栽培试验%Introduction and cultivation experiment of different varieties of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 齐霞

    2007-01-01

    引进不同品种的康乃馨,在宁夏银川日光温室进行栽培试验.根据产量、切花质量、抗病虫害等各项指标,对不同品种的表现差异进行分析.结果表明:康乃馨6个品系8个品种均适应日光温室栽培,其性状从高到低依次为达拉斯、卡蔓、自由、绿夫人、粉佳人、佳农、兰贵人、白雪公主.在该实验条件下,各品种生长发育正常,品质较好,产量较高.

  11. 香石竹离体组织培养特性的研究%Study on Tissue Culture for Dianthus caryophyllus in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳洲

    2005-01-01

    本实验以香石竹当年生带腋芽的茎段为外植体,研究它的诱导分化、继代增殖、生根培养各阶段离体培养的特性.结果表明:附加1.5mg/LBA和0.1 mg/LNAA的MS培养基适合腋芽的萌发诱导,诱导率达100%;附加0.5mg/LBA和0.1 mg/L NAA的培养基适合香石竹的增殖,增殖率达340%;附加1.0mg/L NAA的培养基为适宜的生根培养基.

  12. Selection on Medium for Dianthus caryophyllus .L Test - tube Seedling Transplantation%香石竹试管苗移栽基质的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宁东; 唐蓉; 韦梅琴; 唐道城

    2002-01-01

    @@ 试管苗的移栽驯化是快繁过程中的关键一步,其中移栽基质是影响试管苗驯化成活的重要因素之一,只有选取适宜的移栽基质,创造良好的环境条件,才能培育出优质苗[1].目前,我国已对许多植物试管苗的移栽进行了研究,并以蛭石、珍珠岩等作为较理想的育苗基质[2~5].

  13. Preserved Effects of Preservative on Cut Flowers in Dianthus caryophyllus%保鲜剂对香石竹切花的保鲜效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁晓艳

    2007-01-01

    研究了保鲜剂(4%蔗糖+200 mg/L8-HQ+50 mg/L6-BA及4%蔗糖+0.1%明矾+0.02%尿素+0.02%NaCl)对香石竹切花的保鲜效应.结果表明,保鲜剂4%蔗糖+200 mg/L8-HQ+50 mg/L6-BA能明显地缓解切花水分胁迫,改善体内水分平衡,延缓切花衰老,延长切花的寿命.

  14. 贵阳地区大棚香石竹品比试验%Comparative Test of Dianthus caryophyllus Varieties in Guiyang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜希齐

    2007-01-01

    香石竹又名康乃馨,原产于地中海地区,是世界上最畅销的四大切花之一。因其花色丰富、娇艳,花期及保鲜期长,有较好的市场前景。为立足本地市场,筛选出高产、优质、抗病及销售较好的品种,2005年贵阳国家农业科技园区引进香石竹品种进行了比较试验。

  15. Study on Rooting of in vitro Shoots of Dianthus caryophyllus%康乃馨试管苗生根的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣双; 肖显华

    2000-01-01

    初步研究了不同培养方式和不同培养基对康乃馨试管苗生根的影响.结果表明,液体培养诱导生根效果优于固体培养,表现为根分化早、生长快、生根率高、生根所需时间短,从而可缩短生产周期;液体培养条件下3种培养基即1/2MS,1/2MS大量元素和全量MS (均含质量分数为2%的白糖,不加肌醇)的生根效果相近,生根率均达100%,移栽成活率均在90%以上,因此可采用1/2MS,以节约试剂、降低成本.

  16. Effects of Temperature on the Buds of Dianthus Caryophyllus Maternal Plant%温度对香石竹种苗芽生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘远智

    2004-01-01

    试验表明,温度影响香石竹芽的生长发育速度,在一定的温度范围内,随着温度升高,香石竹种苗芽有加快生长的趋势;香石竹种苗的出叶速度在"线性温度区间"内与温度成正比:香石竹不同品种对温度的敏感程度不同;昼夜温度变化对香石竹种苗芽的生长速度也有一定程度的影响.

  17. 康乃馨的组织培养及快速繁殖研究%Tissue Culture and the Rapid Propagation of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳玉莲

    2004-01-01

    通过顶芽和侧芽培养实现了康乃馨的组织培养和快速繁殖.实验表明,以MS为基本培养基,附加BA 1.0mg/L+IAA 0.05mg/L适于芽的诱导与增殖;附加BA 0.5~2.0mg/L+IAA 0.2~1.0mg/L适于愈伤组织的诱导;附加Ms+BA 1.0~2.0mg/L+IAA 0.05~0.1mg/L适于愈伤组织的分化.幼芽在1/2MS+NAA0.075mg/L+0.1%活性炭的生根培养基中生根率达到100%.

  18. Dyeing Effects of Edible Pigments on Dianthus Caryophyllus%7种食用色素对香石竹的染色效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉平; 刘武; 朱运美

    2008-01-01

    探讨了7种食用色素对香石竹的染色效应.结果表明:香石竹对日落黄和柠檬黄适应性较好;其次为亮蓝、胭脂红和苋菜红,对鸡蛋黄和果绿适应性较差.不同食用色素适宜的染色浓度和染色时间分别为日落黄12g/L、3h,柠檬黄6g/L、3h,亮蓝9g/L、4h,胭脂红9g/L、4h,苋菜红3g/L、4h,鸡蛋黄6g/L、6h,果绿12g/L、6h,适宜的pH值分别为8.0、8.9、6.6、8.9、9.2、8.3和7.6.切花开放程度大时染色速度快,花枝去叶与否对染色效果影响不明显.染色后的香石竹瓶插寿命显著缩短,但能达到切花所要求的4~6d的观赏期.

  19. Dianthus caryophyllus L.cv Hongyishaonv plant chromosome ploidy identification%“红衣少女”香石竹植株倍性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶; 高秀梅; 马怀林; 田志来

    2015-01-01

    本研究以“红衣少女”香石竹组培苗为材料,通过根尖压片实验对“红衣少女”香石竹染色体计数方法进行探索,确定“红衣少女”香石竹染色体制片的最佳技术参数,从而对其倍性进行鉴定.本实验结果表明:以早上8;30用8-羟基喹啉处理1.5h为最佳,酸解时间以6-8min为宜.染色体压片结果显示:“红衣少女”香石竹染色体数为27条,鉴定其为3倍体.

  20. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  1. Isolation of ~richoderma sp. and Actinomycetes from Camation tDianthus caryophyllus Soil and Evaluation in vitro of their Antagonic Activity against Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. dianthi Aislamiento de Trichoderma sp. y actinomycetes a partir de suelos de clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus y evaluación de su capacidad antagónica in vitro sobre Fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. Dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Marcela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los problemas más limitantes en el cultivo de clavel en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Foxd el método empleado actualmente para controlar y/o prevenir esta enfermedad es la aplicación de fungicidas, los cuáles no son tan efectivos como se espera y al emplearse en exceso causan daños al medio ambiente. Por lo tanto el uso de poblaciones microbianas nativas para controlar esta enfermedad se perfila corno una alternativa importante en los programas de erradicación de la enfermedad. Algunas especies de Trichoderma y de Actinomycetes, se han estudiado, por la capacidad de producir sustancias inhibitorias del crecimiento y/o la actividad de este fitopatógeno. En este estudio se aislaron diversas cepas de estos microorganismos controladores y se evaluó in vitro su actividad antagónica.
    Se aislaron seis cepas de Trichoderma y treinta de Actinomycetes a partir de la rizósfera de diferentes
    cultivos de clavel de la Sabana de Bogotá; la inhibición del crecimiento de Foxd fue evaluada in vitro por medio de la interacción hongo-hongo y actinomycete-hongo al medir el porcentaje de inhibición micelial (%MI y la formación de un halo de inhibición alrededor del crecimiento de Foxd. Los aislamientos de Trichoderma sp y Actinomycetes mostraron un %MI mayor al 50%. El aislamiento VI de Trichoderma sp (T-VI presentó un %MI del 89% mientras que el aislamiento VII de Actinomycetes (A-VII, identificado como Streptomyces
    sp alcanzó un %MI del 91%, un halo de inhibición mayor a 1cm. Posteriormente, fue imposible determinar la actividad antagónica en asociación entre los aislamientos T-VI y A-VII debido al efecto inhibitorio de Streptomyces sp sobre  Trichoderma sp.
    One of the major problems of the carnation crop in
    Colombia is the vascular wilt disease caused by Fusarium
    oxysporum f.. sp. dianthi (Foxd. Since the only method currently used to control andlor prevent the disease is the application offungicides, which are not as effective as expected and when used in excess causing asevere environmental damage, the alternative of using native microbiaJ populations for the control is a very interesting perspective. Among these biological agents, Trichoderma sp. and some actinomycetes have been studied due to their ability to produce substances that inhibit the growth andlor activity ofthis phytopathogen. In this study several strains of both kinds of biological agents were isolated and tested for antagonistic activity in vitro. Six Trichoderma sp strains and thirty different actinomycetes were isolated from soils of three carnation crops farms of the Bogota Plateau. Inhibition of Foxd growth was evaluated in vitro by measuring the mycelium inhibition rate (%MI and the inhibition zone of
    Foxd growing in contact with the putative antagonists in fungi-fungi and fungi-actinomycete interactions. We found that al! Trichoderma sp and actinomycetes isolates exhibited an %MI greater than 50%. Isolate VI of Trichoderma sp (TVI reached an %MI as high as 89% while isolate VII of actinomycetes (AVII, later identified as Streptomyces sp reached an %MI of 91% with an inhibition zone greater than 1 cm. Furthermore, it was impossible to determine the
    associated antagonistic activity ofTVI and AVII isolates
    cultured together because the latter inhibited the growth
    of the former.

  2. Polyphenoloxidase and β-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 Inducción diferencial de polifenoloxidasa y β -1,3-glucanasa en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus durante la infección por fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. Dianthi raza 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Harold

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and β-1,3- glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculatedwith the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using "laminarina digitata" at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation's cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness
    resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y b-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al  marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinación de actividad de dichas enzimas. Las condiciones que proporcionaron los mejores resultados de extracción fueron: obtención de polvos de acetona previa al tratamiento con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 con 3% de PVPP para PFO y con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 para Glu. La cuantificación de PFO se llevó a cabo usando catecol a pH 7,0 y 37 ºC y midiendo los productos de reacción a 420 nm, y la de Glu usando laminarina digitata a 37 ºC y pH 5,5. Una vez establecidos los métodos, esquejes de clavel de una variedad altamente tolerante
    (Carolina y de una susceptible (Uconn fueron inoculados con el patógeno y sometidos al análisis de las enzimas a diferentes tiempos post-inoculación. Mientras que en la variedad susceptible la actividad PFO no se vio afectada, en la tolerante se presentó una importante y significativa inducción de esta enzima a las 12 h y 24 h, indicando que puede desempeñar un papel clave en la defensa de la planta, en fenómenos metabólicos probablemente relacionados con lignificación y síntesis de fenólicos. La enzima Glu presentó inducción en ambas variedades, aunque a diferentes tiempos, lo cual hace parte de una respuesta metabólica inespecífica, no relacionada con mecanismos de defensa activa del clavel contra el patógeno causal del marchitamiento vascular.

  3. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE POLIFENOLOXIDASA Y beta-1,3-GLUCANASA EN CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus DURANTE LA INFECCIÓN POR Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi RAZA 2 Polyphenoloxidase and beta-1,3-Glucanase Differential Induction in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Infectedby Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA LIGIA HIGUERA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el cambio en el comportamiento de las enzimas polifenoloxidasa (PFO y beta-1,3-glucanasa (Glu en tallos de plantas de clavel inoculadas con el patógeno Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta defensiva y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Se evaluaron parámetros para la extracción y determinación de actividad de dichas enzimas. Las condiciones que proporcionaron los mejores resultados de extracción fueron: obtención de polvos de acetona previa al tratamiento con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 con 3% de PVPP para PFO y con buffer de fosfatos pH 6,5 para Glu. La cuantificación de PFO se llevó a cabo usando catecol a pH 7,0 y 37 ºC y midiendo los productos de reacción a 420 nm, y la de Glu usando laminarina digitata a 37 ºC y pH 5,5. Una vez establecidos los métodos, esquejes de clavel de una variedad altamente tolerante (Carolina y de una susceptible (Uconn fueron inoculados con el patógeno y sometidos al análisis de las enzimas a diferentes tiempos post-inoculación. Mientras que en la variedad susceptible la actividad PFO no se vio afectada, en la tolerante se presentó una importante y significativa inducción de esta enzima a las 12 h y 24 h, indicando que puede desempeñar un papel clave en la defensa de la planta, en fenómenos metabólicos probablemente relacionados con lignificación y síntesis de fenólicos. La enzima Glu presentó inducción en ambas variedades, aunque a diferentes tiempos, lo cual hace parte de una respuesta metabólica inespecífica, no relacionada con mecanismos de defensa activa del clavel contra el patógeno causal del marchitamiento vascular.We evaluated the changes on the dynamics of polyphenoloxidase (PFO and beta-1,3-glucanase (Glu enzymes in carnation steems, which had been previously inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi race 2 (Fod. We established the experimental conditions in order to obtain the extract of the enzymes from the carnation steems with the aim to evaluate their enzymatic activity. The best results for PFO were obtained when acetone powder formation, before the extraction with phosphate buffer pH 6,5 aditionated with 3% PVPP, was used, and for Glu, phosphate buffer pH 6.5. The PFO activity quantification was done using catecol at pH 7.0, 37 ºC and measuring the products on 420 nm and, for Glu activity using “laminarina digitata” at 37 ºC and pH 5.5. Then, carnation’s cutting from a highly tolerant variety (Carolina and a susceptible (Uconn to Fod race 2, were inoculated with the pathogen, then submitted to the enzymes analysis at different post-inoculation time-lapses. For the susceptible variety, the PFO activity was not affected, whereas in the highly illness resistant variety, there was an important inducement 12 h and 24 h post-inoculation, meaning that this enzyme could be playing a significant rol in the defense response, in metabolisms related with the lignification and synthesis of phenolic precursors. Alternatively, the Glu enzyme showed activity inducement in both varieties which seems to comprise a fraction of a non-specific response, uncorrelated with the active defense mechanisms of the carnation against this pathogen.

  4. Efecto de inhibidores de etileno en la longevidad floral del clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. como probables sustitutos del tiosulfato de plata (STS Effect of ethylene inhibitors in extending the vase life of camation iDianthus caryophyllus L. cut flowers as substitutes of silver thiosulfate (STS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos Eliberto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia el sector de flores de corte para exportación se
    ha constituido en un renglón de gran importancia económica.
    Sin embargo, los altos costos de producción y los bajos precios han hecho que la rentabilidad de esta industria haya
    decaído en los últimos años. El tiosulfato de plata (STS es
    uno de los productos más empleados en poscosecha de flores, pero en la actualidad es visto como un posible contaminante ambiental. Con el objetivo de comparar la respuesta de productos tradicionales en poscosecha, cuyo ingrediente principal es el ion Ag", con otros de mayor degradabilidad, se llevó a cabo un ensayo con clavel estándar de la variedad 'Nelson '. Los tallos florales fueron cosechados en cultivo bajo condiciones de invernadero en una finca comercial de la Sabana de Bogotá, seleccionados y sometidos a diferentes soluciones de poscosecha para prolongar la vida en florero. Posteriormente, se les realizó la simulación de transporte durante un periodo de diez días y, en seguida, llevados al laboratorio de Fisiología de Cultivos de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, en donde, se monto el ensayo para realizar las respectivas mediciones. En el laboratorio, los tallos se mantuvieron hidratados en agua destilada, en condiciones de 12 h de fotoperiodo (luz artificial de 6 a.m. a 6 p.m. y con ventilación de 30 min en las horas de la mañana para evitar la acumulación del etileno. Las condiciones ambientales promedio del laboratorio fueron de 19°C y H. R. de 75%. Los productos comerciales empleados fueron Tiosulfato de Plata (STS elaborado en la finca, l-Metilciclopropano (1-MCP, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal EVB, Florissima 125, Florissima 135 y Florissant 100. Los mejores resultados en longevidad floral se obtuvieron con la combinación de 1-MCP + Florissima 135 (22 días, Florissima 125 (21, 7 días y STS finca (21 ,5 días. Se comprobó que algunos productos que no contienen el ion Ag (Florissima 135 y Chrysal EVB presentaron resultados similares a los compuestos que contenían dicho ion y, por lo tanto, pueden ser eficientes en el reemplazo del STS, que es potencialmente un contaminante ambiental.
    In Colombia the sector of cut flower exportation has great
    economic importance. However, high production costs and low
    prices have reduced the profitability off flowers in the last years. With the objective of compared the response of traditional products in postharvest, whose main ingredient is the Ag+ ion, with other products of more degradability, a research was carried out with standard carnation variety 'Nelson'. The floral stalks were harvested in a crop under greenhouse conditions in a commercial production farm ofthe Bogotá plateau. Flowers were graded and treated with different postharvest solutions in order to pro long vase life. Later on, they were kept in simulated transport conditions during a period of ten days; then, postharvest measurements were made in the Laboratory of Plant Physiology of the National University of Colombia, Bogotá. In the laboratory stems were kept in distilled water, under photoperiod conditions of 12 h (artificial light from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. and with ventilation of 30 min in the morning hours to avoid ethylene accumulation. Environmental conditions of the laboratory were 19°C and relative humidity of 75%. The commercial preservative products used were: Silver Thiosulfate (STS elaborated in the farm, 1- Methylcyclopropene (I-MCP, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal EVB,
    Florissima 125, Florissima 135 and Florissant 100. The best
    results in florallongevity were obtained with the combination
    of l-MCP + Florissima 135 (22 days, Florissima 125 (21,7 days and STS (21,5 days. It was proven that sorne products that not contain the Ag ' ion (Florissima 135 and Chrysal EVB
    presented similar results as compared to the compounds that
    contained the Ag+ ion. Therefore, Florissima 135 and Chrysal
    EVB can be efficient in the substitutio

  5. Quantification of allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post-ultrasonic sound and microwave radiation on fresh garlic cloves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bose, Sankhadip; Laha, Bibek; Banerjee, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    .... In our present work, we have tried to develop a sensitive and reproducible analytical method to measure allicin by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis with effect of post...

  6. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Moonkyoo Kong,1 Deok-Sang Hwang,2 Seong Woo Yoon,3 Jinsung Kim4 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 2Department of Korean Medicine Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 3Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Korean Medicine Cancer Center, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, 4Department of Korean Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, College of Korean Medicin...

  7. A comparative study on the effects of clove oil, 2-phenoxy ethanol, and MS- 222 upon some enzymatic and hormonal activities in juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmotruttacaspius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bahr Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of threeanesthetics namelyclove oil(CO, 2-phenoxy ethanol(2-PE, and MS-222 were examined on blood enzymes including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartateaminotransferase (AST, protein, albumin, glucose, and cortisol levels in the Caspianbrowntrout (salmotruttacaspius. The biochemical composition of blood and cortisol levels were analyzed in fish anesthetized with CO (30 mg/l, 2-PE (0.3 ml/l and MS-222 (100 mg/l and acontrol group received no anesthetic agent. The long term stressing effect of 2-PEwas detected to belesser than those found for both MS-222 and CO. MS-222, however, revealedliver tissue damage in long run indicating that it would be inappropriate for aquaculturespecies. After all, since no stressful effect of MS-222 was noticed on the Caspianbrown trout in short term, it can be effectively usedin conditions when itbecomes important to reduce severe instantaneous stress such as surgery and broodstock spawning.

  8. Effects of commercial doses of {gamma}-irradiation on DVI (Dormancy overcoming Visual Index) of red garlic clove (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, C.N.; Mujica, M.B.; Orioli, G.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Dept. de Agronomia; Croci, C.A. [Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Lab. de Radioisotopos

    1995-12-31

    The growth inhibitor effect of commercial doses of gamma rays was analyzed on the DVI evolution during garlic post-harvest storage. The DVI behaviour of irradiated and non-irradiated samples was identical throughout the rest period (90 d.p.h.) and the beginning of sprouting (120 d.p.h.). At 180 d.p.h. non-irradiated samples showed a sharp increase of DVI, reaching the maximum value at 240 d.p.h. At the same time irradiated samples only showed a slight index increase, hardly reaching 60%. These results are discussed in relation to the use of DVI as a possible indicator of irradiation treatment on garlic bulbs. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs.

  9. Action mechanism of small and large molecule surfactant-based clove oil nanoemulsions against food-borne pathogens and real-time detection of their subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Antoniou, John; Shoemaker, Charles F; Fang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry exactly discriminated three subpopulations, i.e., viable, damage and sublethal cells of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli when treated at their MIC values. Purity gum ultra (PGU) a large molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion exerted significant impact on cellular subpopulations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, with more membrane-damaged cells. On the other hand, when compared with bulk CO the results showed minimum membrane damage and more viable cells, whereas PGU CO nanoemulsion showed minimum effect on cellular subpopulation and represented more viable than damaged cells in case of E. coli. Similarly, Tween 80 a small molecule surfactant-based CO nanoemulsion showed limited overall activity against three tested microorganisms with more viable cells. We conclude that it was due to sequestration of CO constituents in interfaces, less availability in aqueous phase and finally inhibit bactericidal activity. Moreover, both CO and CO nanoemulsions showed membrane damage as primary inactivation mechanism of tested bacterial cells.

  10. Allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contaminati...

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud (Clove) against fish systemic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongwei LEE; Musa NAJIAH; Wee WENDY; Musa NADIRAH

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum against Vibrio spp. (n=6), Edwardsiella spp. (n=21), Aeromonas spp. (n=2), Escherichia coli (n=2), Flavobacterium spp. (n=1), Salmonella spp. (n=2), Streptococcus spp. (n=1) and Pseudomonas spp. (n=1) isolated from aquaculture sites as well as seven reference strains of bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Citrobacter freundii (ATCC 8090), Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 49140), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 35032), Streptococcus agalactiae (ATCC13813), Edwardsiella tarda (ATCC 15947) and Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 23715). Nowadays, most antibiotics are no longer effective in controlling diseases in aquaculture, especially fish systemic bacterial diseases, due to increasing incidences of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, many countries have banned antibiotics in aquaculture use due to public health concerns and environmental hazards. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the potential of the essential oil of S. aromaticum as an alternate commercial antibiotic to antimicrobial agents against fish systemic bacteria in aquaculture. The essential oil of S. aromaticum was prepared using a steam distillation method, and the chemical composition was analysed using Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the essential oils against the tested bacteria were determined using the broth two fold micro dilution method, with kanamycin and eugenol as positive controls. The MIC values of the essential oil of S. aromaticum ranged from 0.015 μg·mL-1 to 0.062 μg·mL-1 against the tested bacterial isolates. A total of nine chemical compounds were detected in the essential oil, with eugenol (49.0%) and caryophyllene (7.5%) being the major compounds. The results of the present study indicate that the essential oil of S. aromati- cum shows a huge potential to substitute commercial antibiotics as antimicrobial agents for aquaculture use.

  12. Allspice, cinnamon and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodbrone pathogens Escherichia coli Ol57:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contamination...

  13. Drug: D04861 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04861 Mixture, Drug Cresol - formalin - clove oil - zinc oxide mixt; Palpack V (TN...preparations 275 Pulp capping agents 2750 Pulp capping agents D04861 Cresol - formalin - clove oil - zinc oxide mixt PubChem: 17398199 ...

  14. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE LA ENZIMA PEROXIDASA Y SU RELACIÓN CON LIGNIFICACIÓN EN LOS MECANISMOS DE DEFENSA DEL CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L. DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cuervo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad enzimática peroxidada (POD y el contenido de lignina en tallos de esquejes de clavel (Dianthus cayophyllus L. inoculados con el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi (Fod raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta de defensa y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Inicialmente se seleccionaron las condiciones para la extracción y determinación de la actividad enzimática. Se encontró que el tratamiento con buffer citrato 100 mM pH 5,0 con 3% de PVPP presentó los mejores resultados de actividad peroxidasa para la extracción de la enzima a partir de tallos de clavel. Se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la medida de actividad enzimática POD a través de la reacción de oxidación de o-dianisidina con H2O2 seguida a 460 nm. Una mezcla de reacción con una concentración 0,6 mM de o-dianisidina y 2,0 mM de H2O2 en buffer citrato 100 mM a pH 5,5 y 45ºC, presentó los mejores resultados para la cuantificación de la enzima. Una vez establecidas las condiciones, esquejes de clavel de una variedad tolerante y una susceptible al marchitamiento vascular fueron inoculados con el patógeno y se evaluaron los niveles de actividad de POD y de acumulación de lignina a diferentes tiempos pos-inoculación. La variedad tolerante (Bárbara, presentó inducción de dicha enzima a las 8 y 48 h pos inoculación y aumento en el contenido de lignina a 48 y 72 h.Asu vez, en la variedad susceptible (Delphi no se encontraron cambios significativos en los niveles de POD ni en el contenido de lignina. Se estableció, por tanto, que la inducción de la actividad POD está asociada a la lignificación, que a nivel del tallo, hace parte de los mecanismos asociados a defensa en el modelo clavel-Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi.

  15. Study on the Technology of Preservation of Cut Flowers of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) with AgNO3 in the Vase%AgN03对切花康乃馨保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏晶晖

    2009-01-01

    以5%蔗糖+200mg/L的8-HQ为基本保鲜成分,添加不同浓度AgN03(分别为25,50,75,100mg/L)作为保鲜液,通过外部形态观察和生理指标测定,结果表明:处理D(5%,蔗糖+200 mg/L8 HQ+100 mg/LAgNO3)能明显缓解切花衰老,比对照延长瓶插寿命5 d.

  16. Aislamiento de trichoderma sp. y actinomycetes a partir de suelos de clavel (dianthus caryophyllus) y evaluación de su capacidad antagónica in vitro sobre fusarium oxysporum. f. sp. dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, Marcela; Martínez, María Mercedes; Franco, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Uno de los problemas más limitantes en el cultivo de clavel en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular causado por Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Foxd) el método empleado actualmente para controlar y/o prevenir esta enfermedad es la aplicación de fungicidas, los cuáles no son tan efectivos como se espera y al emplearse en exceso causan daños al medio ambiente. Por lo tanto el uso de poblaciones microbianas nativas para controlar esta enfermedad se perfila corno una alternativa importante e...

  17. Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Water Pretreatment on Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Cut Flowers%富氢水预处理对香石竹切花瓶插寿命的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杜红梅

    2015-01-01

    采后衰老是影响香石竹切花瓶插寿命及观赏价值的主要因素.试验以香石竹为试材,研究1%、10%、25%、50%、100%浓度的富氢水预处理对香石竹切花瓶插寿命的影响.结果表明,10%的富氢水可显著延长香石竹的瓶插寿命,减缓瓶插后期切花鲜重的下降和花瓣萎蔫的速度.分析10%的富氢水预处理对香石竹切花盛开率和萎蔫率的影响,发现富氢水预处理在香石竹切花保鲜上的作用可能主要在于延长香石竹的盛开期,从而减缓衰老进程.研究结果对富氢水在切花保鲜上的应用做了有益尝试,具有重要应用价值.

  18. 克服香石竹组织培养中玻璃苗的研究%A study on decrease in vitrification shoots of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. ) in tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳岭; 刘志强; 邢红华; 赵强; 华金荣

    2005-01-01

    香石竹试管苗玻璃化现象给试管苗的应用带来困难,采用强光照10000-20000 LX,在培养基中提高蔗糖和琼脂浓度,降低激素用量,对克服香石竹试管苗玻璃化有明显效果.青霉素对克服香石竹试管苗玻璃化无明显效果,但对生根有促进作用,其作用机制有待进一步研究.

  19. 活性炭对香石竹试管苗继代培养的影响%Effects of Active Carbon on Multiplication Culture for Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈宁东; 郭辉; 韦梅琴

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究活性炭对香石竹试管苗继代培养的影响,寻求最适香石竹试管苗增殖的活性炭用量,为组培苗培养基的改良提供一些有益的参考.[方法]将材料分别转接在活性炭浓度为0、2、4、6 g/L的培养基中,观察不同浓度活性炭对香石竹试管苗芽增殖数量和速度、株高、节间距及玻化率的影响.[结果]当活性炭浓度在2~4 g/L时,能显著提高试管苗的芽数、芽的增殖速率和株高,但对茎节段数的增加无明显作用.在培养基中加入活性炭可显著地降低试管苗的玻化率.[结论]活性炭对香石竹试管苗的增殖和降低玻璃苗有一定的作用.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Dianthus chinensis L. and D. caryophyllus L. with RAPD%利用RAPD分子标记研究石竹与香石竹的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武雯; 蔡友铭; 邹惠渝; 黄敏仁

    2003-01-01

    利用RAPD分析技术,选取10个碱基长度的随机引物28个,对5种石竹、2种香石竹栽培品种和8个香石竹大花切花品种以及17个香石竹小花切花品种进行随机扩增,共获得242条多态性谱带,并利用最短距离法(Single法)对扩增数据进行聚类分析.结果表明,利用RAPD技术可以很好地区分种间关系.32个变种及石竹品种可分为石竹和香石竹两大类.另外,石竹野生种和人工栽培品种、香石竹盆栽品种和切花品种及香石竹大花型品种和小花型品种均可依此技术区分.

  1. Callus Induction and Plantlet Regeneration of Stem Segments of Dianthus caryophyllus%康乃馨茎段愈伤组织诱导及植株再生(简报)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小维; 黄海泉; 刘飞虎

    2005-01-01

    以康乃馨无菌苗茎段为外植体,在MS+6-BA0.5mg/L+NAA0.2mg/L培养基上诱导产生愈伤组织,愈伤组织在MS+6-BA0.5mg/L+NAA0.2mg/L培养基上诱导芽效果较好,芽苗在1/2MS+NAA0.1mg/L培养基上可诱导生根.

  2. Effect of Different Keeping Freshness Liquid on Dianthus caryophyllus Cut Flowers%不同保鲜剂对香石竹切花保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 罗灯涛; 刘久东

    2010-01-01

    用5种保鲜剂对香石竹切花进行了处理,测定其瓶插寿命、鲜重变化和花径等综合指标.结果表明:配方为50 g/L蔗糖+150 mg/L柠檬酸+50 mg/L硝酸银的保鲜效果最好.

  3. Discussion on how to make seedling management of Dianthus caryophyllus L.Into excellent development%试论我国香石竹种苗经营的良性发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫锡君; 赵培飞; 桂敏; 龙江

    2004-01-01

    鲜切花产业是云南省的特色产业,而香石竹在其中起着极其重要的作用,种植面积占切花总面积的三分之一,其种苗经营是整个产业链中的一个热点。本文试图在对香石竹产业的国内外状况和存在问题进行分析的基础之上,提出解决问题的几点对策。

  4. The Effect of Different Cnnepntratian-a of Calcium Nitrate on the Preservation of Dianthus caryophyllus%硝酸钙对香石竹切花保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海英; 张雪平

    2011-01-01

    研究不同浓度的Ca(NO3)2对香石竹保鲜效果的影响.结果表明:瓶插液中含适宜浓度的Ca(NCO3)2能够增大切花最大花径、增加花枝鲜重、提高叶绿素、可溶性糖和花色素苷含量并能减缓质膜透性增加的速度.其中以配方为3%蔗糖+300 mg/L 8-HQS+500 mg/L柠檬酸+1.0 g/L Ca(NO3)2的瓶插液保鲜效果较好.

  5. Effect of STS on Preservation of Cutting Dianthus caryophyllus%硫代硫酸银对康乃馨鲜切花保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 谢振财; 樊磊

    2013-01-01

    以“马斯特”康乃馨为试材,研究了4种不同浓度硫代硫酸银(STS)处理对康乃馨切花瓶插寿命、水分平衡、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性和过氧化物酶(POD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量的影响.结果表明:STS能增强康乃馨吸收保鲜液的能力,增强POD活性和CAT活性,降低康乃馨瓶插期间的MDA含量,延缓其衰老,其中以0.6 mg/L STS处理的鲜切康乃馨保鲜效果最好.

  6. 香石竹切花自制家用保鲜液配方的筛选%Selection of Home-made Fresh-keeping Agent for Dianthus caryophyllus Cut Flowers Fitting for Household

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯慧敏; 刘晓东; 胡媛秋

    2008-01-01

    应用家庭常备生活用品食糖、食盐、白酒(50度)、去痛片和维生素C丸配制保鲜液,筛选出适合用于香石竹切花家庭保鲜的配方.实验结果表明:质量浓度为50 g/L的食糖、600 mg/L的维生素C、质量分数为3.5%的白酒保鲜液保鲜效果均较好,可以作为香石竹切花自制家用保鲜液的配方.

  7. 香石竹花蕾和侧芽中营养元素的测定%Determination of nutrient elements in bud and lateral bud of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少平; 彭兴芝; 曹娓

    2012-01-01

    采用湿法消解处理香石竹的花蕾和侧芽,ICP-AES法分别测定K、Ca、Mg、B、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn的含量,探讨香石竹的营养物质利用规律.结果表明:试样5中K、B的含量最高,试样3中Ca的含量最高,试样4中Mg、Fe、Cu、Mn、Zn含量最高.试验结果为香石竹切花的栽培管理奠定理论基础.

  8. EFFECTS OF N FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON THE GROWTH, FLOWERING AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.%供氮水平对香石竹生长发育和养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵正雄; 关文灵

    2006-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了4种供氮水平对香石竹的切花品质和养分吸收的影响.结果表明:适当的氮肥可以明显促进香石竹株高、生物产量及养分含量的增加;每10 d每株施N肥0.25 g对香石竹切花生产最佳.

  9. Effects of Salicylic Acid on the Metabolism of Saccharide in Cut Flower of Dianthus caryophyllus Senescence%水杨酸对香石竹切花衰老过程中糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍越; 江涓

    2013-01-01

    以红色香石竹为试材,研究了不同浓度水杨酸对香石竹瓶插期间糖代谢的影响.结果表明:水杨酸能提高瓶插期间香石竹异柠檬酸裂解酶活性和可溶性糖的含量,促进糖异生作用,使乙醇酸氧化酶显著增强,提高细胞的氧化状态,延缓香石竹切花的衰老.

  10. NAA BA KT对麝香石竹不定芽形成的影响%The Effect of NAA BA KT on the Forming of the Adventitious Bud of Dianthus Caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新祥

    2001-01-01

    研究NAA,BA,KT对麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽形成的影响.结果表明它们都能有效地诱导麝香石竹茎段外植体不定芽的形成,其中以BA诱导的芽的分化频率最高,生长素和细胞分裂素配合能进一步提高芽的分化频率.BA在高频率诱导不定芽形成的同时,对分化芽的伸长生长、鲜干重的增长、干重百分率的提高和叶绿素水平的增加均有明显的促进作用,而KT,NAA则不然.

  11. Physiological Effects of 6-BA and KT on Senescence of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Flowers%6-苄基腺嘌呤和激动素对香石竹切花衰老的生理效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑翠萍; 吴迪; 李玲; 程聪; 罗红艺

    2008-01-01

    6-苄基腺嘌呤(6-BA)和激动素(KT)均能改善香石竹切花体内的水分平衡,增加切花的鲜重,增大花径,提高过氧化物酶(POD)活性,延缓可溶性蛋白质含量下降以及丙二醛(MDA)含量和O-2生成速率的增加,延长切花瓶插寿命2~3 d.

  12. Studies on the Color Protection Methods of the Red Pigment of the Dried Dianthus caryophyllus%红色康乃馨干燥保色方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 朱振亚

    2011-01-01

    以红色康乃馨为材料,采用不同的有机酸、Mg及蔗糖的浓度梯度设置对红色康乃馨花瓣进行处理,经过干燥、破坏性试验后比较、选择确定出最佳干燥花保色方法.实验结果表明,有机酸对红色康乃馨干燥花保色效果较为显著,其中保色效果较好的酸的先后顺序为:酒石酸>柠檬酸>苹果酸,并筛选出保色效果较好的处理方法为:7.5%酒石酸浸泡处理15h;10%酒石酸处理10h或15h.金属离子Mg与蔗糖处理对红色康乃馨干燥花保色无显著效果.

  13. 不同保鲜剂对香石竹切花的保鲜效应%Effect of different antistaling agents on fresh keeping cutting flower of Dianthus caryophyllus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉平; 周丽丹; 刘桂英; 李桂霞; 黄运凤

    2004-01-01

    进行8种保鲜剂对瓶插香石竹切花的寿命、观赏品质影响的试验结果表明:处理3(T3):30g·L-1Suc+250 mg·L-18-HQC+1mmol·L-1STS+5 mg·L-16-BA的保鲜效果最佳,可显著延长瓶插香石竹切花寿命;T3处理有利于切花吸收水分、维持水分平衡、减缓花青素下降的幅度和花瓣组织膜相对透性上升的幅度,从而延长瓶插切花寿命.

  14. Population Dynamics of Frankliniella occidentalis on Ranunculus asiaticus and Dianthus caryophyllus%西花蓟马在花毛茛和康乃馨上的种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国琴; 兰建强; 吴国星; 李江涛; 李正跃; 肖春

    2009-01-01

    调查了西花蓟马在花毛茛和康乃馨不同品种上的种群动态.结果显示,红色与粉色花毛茛上的虫口密度显著高于黄色与白色品种,红色康乃馨上的虫口密度显著低于黄色、粉色和白色品种.西花蓟马在花毛茛和康乃馨上的种群密度变化与两种植物的花期变化一致.

  15. INDUCCIÓN DIFERENCIAL DE LA ENZIMA PEROXIDASA Y SU RELACIÓN CON LIGNIFICACIÓN EN LOS MECANISMOS DE DEFENSA DEL CLAVEL (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) DURANTE SU INTERACCIÓN CON Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad enzimática peroxidada (POD) y el contenido de lignina en tallos de esquejes de clavel (Dianthus cayophyllus L.) inoculados con el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi (Fod) raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta de defensa y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Inicialmente se seleccionaron las condiciones para la extracción y determinación de la actividad enzimática. Se encontró que el tratamiento con buffer ci...

  16. Comparative pharmacognosy of Pashanbhed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pashanbhed is a commercially available diuretic and lithotropic drug, used to treat renal problems. It is a controversial name as it is assigned to various plants such as Bergenia ligulata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Coleus aromaticus and Rotula aquatica. Objective: To perform the comparative preliminary phytochemical screening, diuretic activity, and thin layer chromatography (TLC finger printing profile of three plants (B. ligulata, C. aromaticus, and K. pinnata, most commonly used as Pashanbhed. Materials and Methods: Diuretic potential of methanolic extract (ME of three plants were evaluated at two dose levels (500 and 1,000 mg/kg p.o., using normal Wistar rats (Lipschitz method. Furosemide (20 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard drug. The effect on urine output and electrolyte changes were measured for 24 h and compared. All MEs were screened preliminarily for their constituents and their TLC finger printing profiles were prepared. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s multiple comparison test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The MEs of all three plants have shown diuresis in normal rats. However, in intercomparison of the ME C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. produced more significant diuresis (P < 0.05 and electrolyte excretion compared to other test groups, the effect was at par with furosemide. The ME of these plants showed presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Conclusion: The ME of C. aromaticus (1,000 mg/kg p.o. has showed highest diuretic action (4.2 among the tested extracts. This suggests the use of C. aromaticus leaves as "Pashanbhed"; the most effective diuretic drug.

  17. Main: ERELEE4 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t) of tomato (L.e.) E4 and carnation GST1 genes; GST1 is related to senescence; Found in the 5'-LTR region o...; tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum); carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus); Lycopersicon chilense; AWTTCAAA ...

  18. Patogeniczność wybranych form specjalnych Fusarium oxysporum względem goździków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Werner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out on the pathogenicity of 8 formae speciales of F. oxysporum towards Dianthus caryophyllus, D. barhatus, D. chinensis and D. caryophyllus x semperflorens. The wilting was neither observed on plants growing in soil infested with F. oxyspotum f. sp. lupini nor on plants inoculated with an isolate obtained from Pinus sylvestris. However these isolates were reisolated occasionally from D. barbatus, less frequently from D. chinensis and D. caryophyllus and never from D. caryophyllus semperflorens. Only F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi and in less degree F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi caused always the wilting off all studied carnations, while the others were responsible for occasional wilting of some plants.

  19. [WTO Case Review Series No. 5] United States—Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (DS406):The Relationship between Article 2.1 of TBT Agreement and GATT Article III:4 (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    NAIKI Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    There have been very few World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement cases based on the Agreement of the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement). While the rulings of the European Communities-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos and European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines are well-known, there were no rulings which addressed the core obligations of the TBT Agreement, namely Articles 2.1 and 2.2. The case of United States - Measures Affecting the Pr...

  20. Effect of Soaking Time on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Garlic Cloves%浸泡对大蒜种瓣物理机械特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉秋; 路春泽; 辛明金; 邬立岩; 孔爱菊; 任文涛

    2014-01-01

    为探明浸泡时间对大蒜种瓣物理机械性质的影响规律,以东北白皮蒜为研究对象,分别测定浸泡不同时间大蒜种瓣的尺寸、体积、密度、千粒重、摩擦角、休止角等物理参数,并分析浸泡时间对这些参数的影响规律;利用Instron3344系列电子万能材料物理试验机进行大蒜种瓣静压力学特性试验,得出大蒜种瓣在3个方向上分别受力后的破裂形式,分析力——变形曲线,得出未浸泡种瓣的弹性模量和抗破坏强度平均值.结果表明:大蒜种瓣长度方向压缩比达到23%~36.2%时,靠近鳞芽处出现断裂,破坏压缩比低于宽度和高度方向加压的值;长度、高度、宽度方向的弹性模量分别为8.04,23.82,26.09MPa,抗破坏强度平均值分别为106.2,105.92,182.4N,浸泡后,长度、宽度方向抗破坏强度有所降低,高度方向有所提高.

  1. Clove Recipe Fumigation Treatment of Heel Pain Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Observation%丁香组方熏洗治疗跟痛症随机双盲对照观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程智强

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察丁香浴组方治疗跟痛症的疗效.[方法]采用随机、双盲、对照的方法.将80例患者随机分为两组,治疗组40例采用丁香组方熏洗治疗,对照组40例温水浸泡治疗.两组均以20d为1个疗程,休息1周,进行下个疗程,治疗3个疗程随访6个月判定疗效.[结果]治疗组总有效率90.00%,对照组总有效率30.00%,总有效率治疗组优于对照组.[结论]丁香浴组方熏洗治疗跟痛症疗效满意.

  2. Determination and correlation of solubilities of clove oil components in supercritical carbon dioxide%丁香油主要成分在超临界CO2中的溶解度测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关文强; 李淑芬; 侯彩霞; 阎瑞香; 马骏

    2007-01-01

    @@ 引言 丁香(Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.)的干燥花蕾是我国传统的调味品和中草药,具有温中降逆、补肾助阳之功效,用于治疗脾胃虚寒、呃逆呕吐、食少吐泻、心腹冷痛等,对治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛及胆汁反流性胃炎均有显著疗效.

  3. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and national sovereignty: an appraisal of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa; Patrick C Osode

    2014-01-01

    Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and tr...

  4. 丁香精油对金黄色葡萄球菌生物膜的抑制作用研究%Inhibition effects of clove oil on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海英; 周慧; 刘延涛; 丛镜郦; 姜萍; 林琳

    2015-01-01

    金黄色葡萄球菌能在物体表面形成耐药性强的生物膜,给食品等领域带来严重的安全隐患.本实验研究的丁香精油对浮游细菌有较好的杀菌性能,但是对生物膜的抑制作用研究甚少.本实验着重研究了丁香精油对金黄色葡萄球菌生物膜的抑制作用.从实验结果表明,丁香精油对金黄色葡萄球菌生物膜有较好的抑制和清除作用.从实验结果可知,0.1%丁香精油对生物膜的抑制率达到99.73%,清除率达到99.93%.本实验通过激光共聚焦显微镜、环境扫描电子显微镜直接观察了丁香精油对生物膜的清除情况.从结果图可以直观地看出,0.1%的丁香精油对生物膜有较好的清除作用.

  5. Recent Trends in Indian Traditional Herbs Syzygium Aromaticum and its Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjit bhowmik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloves (Syzygium Aromaticum, many medicinal uses have been most famously applied to toothache, and for mouth and throat inflammation. The dove has been used in India and China, for over 2,000 years, as a spice to check both tooth decay and counter halitosis that is bad breath. In Persia and China, it was considered to have aphrodisiac properties. Cloves have historically been used in Indian cuisine (both North Indian and South Indian. In the north Indian cuisine, it is used in almost every sauce or side dish made, mostly ground up along with other spices. More than just a counterirritant though, the German Commission E Monographs list cloves as having antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties One of the main constituents of clove oil (eugenol exhibits broad antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive, Gram-negative and acid-fact bacteria, as well as fungi Cloves are well known also for their antiemetic (relieves nausea and vomiting and carminative properties (The oldest apparent medicinal use of cloves was in China, where it is reported that they were taken for various ailments as early as 240BC. Cloves were taken over the centuries for diarrhea, most liver, stomach and bowel ailments, and as a stimulant for the nerves Traditionally cloves have been used to treat flatulence, nausea and vomiting .In tropical Asia cloves have been given to treat such diverse infections as malaria, cholera and tuberculosis, as well as scabies traditional uses in America include treating worms, viruses, candida, various bacterial and protozoan infections Laboratory tests on cloves identify eugenol as being the possible reason for the antimicrobial actions, and confirm cloves’ effectiveness in inhibiting food-borne pathogens as well as other bacteria and fungi The volatile oil of cloves (about 85-92% eugenol was highly active against a range of test microorganisms, being classified as bactericidal in nature. Along with the recreational

  6. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  7. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Kimia Minyak Atsiri Dari Daun Jinten (Coleus Aromatikus Benth) Dengan GC – MS Dan Uji Anti Bakteri

    OpenAIRE

    Sinulingga, Bagus

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted whit the scale of laboratore. The object ofthis research was fresh leave jinten. The treatment done was to isolatethe essential oil of leave jinten (Coleus Aromaticus Benth) though water distillation . To analyzed chemical components was done with mass Spectrometry – gas Cromatography. The reuslt of gas cromatography showed 15 apexes meaning that the essensial oil of the leave jinten. Based on analysis with spectrometry mass inducted that chemical compound in...

  8. Study on Sensory Quality, Antioxidant Properties, and Maillard Reaction Products Formation in Rye-Buckwheat Cakes Enhanced with Selected Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Przygodzka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of selected spices included in the recipe of rye-buckwheat cakes on sensory quality, nutritional value, and Maillard reaction (MR products formation was addressed in this study. The cakes with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix addition revealed the highest overall quality values. Cakes enriched with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest rutin content and almost threefold higher available lysine contents whereas cakes enhanced with mix, cloves, and cinnamon were the richest source of phenolic compounds. The highest antioxidant capacity showed cakes with cloves and spice mix. The furosine, a marker of early stage of MR, was decreased in cakes with cloves, allspice, spice mix, and vanilla whereas fluorescent intermediatory compounds were reduced in cakes enhanced with cloves, allspice, and cinnamon. In contrast, browning index was increased as compared to cakes without spices. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix addition. The presence of cloves, allspice, and vanilla in cake formula was the most efficient in acrylamide strategy. It can be suggested that cloves, allspice, and vanilla might be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  9. Drug: D03570 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03570 Crude, Drug Clove (JP16); Powdered clove (JP16); Clove (TN) Eugenol [CPD:C10453], Acetyleugen...], Humulene [CPD:C09684], Stigmasterol [CPD:C05442], Sitosterol [CPD:C01753], Campesterol glucoside, Eugenoside I, II, Eugen...iin [CPD:C10224], 1-Desgalloyleugeniin [CPD:C10241], 2-Desgalloyleugen...48], Tannin, wax, Furfural [CPD:C14279], Vanillin [CPD:C00755], Isoeugenitin, Isoeugenitol, Carophylla-4(12)... Myrtaceae (myrtle family) Clove flower bud Major component: Eugeniin [CPD:C10224] Therapeutic category of d

  10. The freezing and supercooling of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Christian; Seignemartin, Violaine; James, Stephen J. [Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, Churchill Building, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    This work shows that peeled garlic cloves demonstrate significant supercooling during freezing under standard conditions and can be stored at temperatures well below their freezing point (-2.7 C) without freezing. The nucleation point or 'metastable limit temperature' (the point at which ice crystal nucleation is initiated) of peeled garlic cloves was found to be between -7.7 and -14.6 C. Peeled garlic cloves were stored under static air conditions at temperatures between -6 and -9 C for up to 69 h without freezing, and unpeeled whole garlic bulbs and cloves were stored for 1 week at -6 C without freezing. (author)

  11. Evaluation Of Tolerance And Sensitivity Of Selected Plant Species With Special Reference To Gasoline Exhaust Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav Garg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emissions from motor vehicle exhausts have been shown to have deleterious effects on the physiology of plant species. Our present study focuses on evaluating the tolerance and sensitivity of selected plant species viz. Dracaena deremensis good absorber of VOCs and Dianthus caryophyllus susceptible to ethylene and formaldehyde VOCs at selected sites which are differentiated on the basis of high gasoline exhaust emission source Site I and less gasoline exhaust emission source Site II amp III. For this Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI and selected physiological parameters were taken into account i.e. total chlorophyll ascorbic acid pH relative water content total protein and Nitrate reductase NR. The results showed that D. deremensis have high chlorophyll content ascorbic acid content protein content with high NR activity as compared to D. caryophyllus at all the selected sites. As per Air Pollution Tolerance Index APTI D. deremensis has value of 60.60 55.25 amp 55.93 at Site I II amp III respectively which comes under tolerant range and D . caryophyllus has value of 14.82 15.41 amp 15.93 at Site I II amp III respectively which comes under sensitive range. Thus study ends up with the conclusion that D. deremensis was found to be more tolerant than D. caryophyllus at all sites and thus D. deremensis can be used as a tool in mitigation of gasoline exhaust pollution and D. caryophyllus can be used as an bioindicator for indicating gasoline exhaust pollution.

  12. An Anesthetic Drug Demonstration and an Introductory Antioxidant Activity Experiment with "Eugene, the Sleepy Fish"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan

    2016-01-01

    Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…

  13. A noninvasive monitoring device for anesthetics in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Deborah M.; Fuentes, Juan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    M) initially caused hyperactivity, but within five minutes all activity ceased and the fish failed to recover. In contrast, clove oil (67 µg/L) added to water at 22oC reduced activity by 22.8% ± 8.9% (P = 0.038) after 125 ± 19 sec, a sedative effect that was totally reversible. Cinnamon oil compared with clove...

  14. Savory and Crisp Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A force-fed duck (fat and tender), cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine peel, spice, soy sauce, cooking wine. Directions: 1. Clean the duck, take out the internal organs. 2. Soak the duck in a marinade of cloves, cinnamon, dried tangerine and spice, then add soy sauce and cooking wine to the marinade and let stand for three hours.

  15. Protoplast culture and plant regeneration of several species in the genus Dianthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M; Mii, M

    1992-06-01

    Seventeen cultivars belonging to the genus Dianthus were examined for protoplast isolation, culture and shoot regeneration under the same conditions. These included D. caryophyllus, D. chinensis, D. barbatus, D. plumarius, D. superbus and D. japonicus as well as interspecific hybrid cultivars (D. caryophyllus x D. chinensis and D. chinensis x D. barbatus). In all cultivars, viable protoplasts were isolated at high yields from leaves of axenic shoot cultures and some of these protoplasts divided and formed colonies. However, shoot regeneration frequencies were markedly different among the species. High frequency shoot regeneration was obtained from D. chinensis and interspecific hybrid cultivars, while only low frequency or no shoot regeneration was obtained from other species.

  16. SNS ønsker DMUs eventuelle bemærkninger til de nye oplysninger i sagen. Dianthus caryophyllus (123.2.38/ 123.2.2). Nyt materiale til Nellike-sagen. Modtaget 26-05-2005, deadline 26-06-2005, svar 27-05-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2005-01-01

    "Mail: Som svar på spørgsmålene fra den svenske CA har ansøgeren kommet med uddybende bemærkninger vedr. fremgangsmåder, der styrker overvågningsplanen. Således er der nærmere beskrevet antal nødvendige eksperter/botanikere, testprocedurer, specifikke landområder inkl. forslag til velegnet overvå...

  17. Inducción diferencial de la enzima peroxidasa y su relación con lignificación en los mecanismos de defensa del clavel (dianthus caryophyllus l.) durante su interacción con fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó la actividad enzimática peroxidada (POD) y el contenido de lignina en tallos de esquejes de clavel (Dianthus cayophyllus L.) inoculados con el hongo Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi (Fod) raza 2, con el fin de determinar su posible participación en la respuesta de defensa y en la resistencia de la planta al marchitamiento vascular. Inicialmente se seleccionaron las condiciones para la extracción y determinación de la actividad enzimática. Se encontró que el tratamiento con buffer ci...

  18. SNS ønsker DMUs (eventuelle) bemærkninger til de nye oplysninger i sagen. Dianthus caryophyllus (123.2.38/ 123.2.2). Supplerende materiale til Nellike-sagen. Modtaget 23-09-2005, deadline 13-10-2005, svar 13-10-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    bl.a. af manglen på forvildede nellikearter i dyrkningsområderne i Sydeuropa. 3. Risiko for genspredning ved krydsninger. Det anføres at der kan ske genspredning fra Florigene-nelliken ved krydsninger med dyrkede D. sylvestris i fx Sydeuropa. DMU er, som det også fremgår af vores tidligere...... derfor ingen indsigelser mod markedsføringen i EU af Florigene nelliken som afskårne blomster. "...

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFH636 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available map CIC11A04, complete sequence. 54 0.005 1 AW697837 |AW697837.1 EST0020 carnation flower specific cDNA lib...697825 |AW697825.1 EST0008 carnation flower specific cDNA library Dianthus caryophyllus cDNA clone HM008 5'

  20. Dicty_cDB: SFI612 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.003 1 AW697837 |AW697837.1 EST0020 carnation flower specific cDNA library Diant...hus caryophyllus cDNA clone HM020 5' similar to hypothetical protein, mRNA sequence. 54 0.003 1 AW697825 |AW697825.1 EST0008 carnatio

  1. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  2. Growth and cation accumulation in spray carnations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithorst, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Spray carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Exquisite’), planted as potted cuttings in December, had a maximum dry-matter production in summer of 22 g m−2 day−1, calculated for the net surface area completely covered by the crop. This value is fairly similar to the maxima established for outdoor crops

  3. Microsatellite genotyping of carnation varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Noordijk, Y.; Rus-Kortekaas, W.; Bredemeijer, G.M.M.; Vosman, B.

    2003-01-01

    A set of 11 sequence-tagged microsatellite markers for carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) was developed using a DNA library enriched for microsatellites. Supplemented with three markers derived from sequence database entries, these were used to genotype carnation varieties using a semi-automated fluo

  4. MS-222、丁香油、苯唑卡因对养殖美洲鲥幼鱼的麻醉效果%Anaesthetic effects of MS -222, clove oil and benzocaine on cultured American shad Alosa sapidissima finglings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜浩; 危起伟; 杨德国; 刘鉴毅; 甘芳; 陈细华; 沈丽

    2007-01-01

    研究了MS-222、丁香油、苯唑卡因3种麻醉剂对美洲鲥Alosa sapidissima幼鱼的麻醉效果,并运用该3种麻醉剂的适宜剂量对美洲鲥幼鱼进行了运输试验.麻醉试验结果表明:在较高麻醉浓度(MS-222为75 mg/L以上,丁香油为20 mg/L以上,苯唑卡因为40 mg/L以上)下,鱼很快(30 min内)停止鳃盖张合运动,且停止鳃盖运动的鱼在空气中暴露一定时间(10 min内)后也能够复苏;在适宜的麻醉浓度(MS-222为20~30 mg/L,丁香油为8~10 mg/L;苯唑卡因为20~30 mg/L)下,鱼能够进入麻醉状态,且能保持很长时间(12 h);麻醉效果随着水温的升高而增强;在20 mg/L MS-222麻醉剂下,小规格鱼较大规格鱼更容易进入麻醉状态,而在10 mg/L丁香油和20 mg/L苯唑卡因麻醉剂下,小规格鱼却难进入麻醉状态.运输试验结果表明:麻醉运输组和对照组(非麻醉运输组)鱼血清中皮质醇的含量均显著高于基础组(运输前)(P<0.05);麻醉运输后鱼血清中皮质醇的含量虽均有一定程度的升高,但明显低于对照组,其中仅苯唑卡因麻醉运输组鱼血清中皮质醇的含量显著低于对照组(P<0.05).试验结果表明,苯唑卡因更适合用于运输美洲鲥的麻醉.

  5. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  6. Use of Spices in Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are therefore evidently a group of plants, which have not fully been utilized in food technology. ... light on the history and uses of the spices in the ancient world with ... When artificial .... clove, which inhibited growth and acid production.

  7. Environ: E00182 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ax Syzygium aromaticum [TAX:219868] Same as: D06823 Myrtaceae (myrtle family) Clove the dried flower buds Obtained by steam distillat...ion Major component: Eugeniin [CPD:C10224] Component of

  8. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient as... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or...

  9. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  10. PERBANDINGAN KECEPATAN PEMBIUSAN DAN RECOVERY IKAN HIAS ZEBRA JAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN SIANIDA DAN MINYAK CENGKEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Andy Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare the stunning time and recovery time of reef fish Zebra Jakarta. Sianida and clove oil was used as anaesthetic agent in this experiment. Both substances used concentration of 5 ppm. 5 fish was used in each concentration. Fish was exposed to each concentration one by one and once fish undergo in total loss of equilibrium, time was recorded. Fish then tranferred to recovery tank contained fresh aerated sea water. Once fish recovered, time was recorded. Result shows that fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm have faster stunning time than fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm. However, fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm have faster recovery time compared to fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm.Key words : Stunning time, Zebra Jakarta, Cyanide, Clove oil

  11. Green Coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.IronCertain components of green coffee ...

  12. Reishi Mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut seed, Panax ginseng, psyllium, Siberian ginseng, and others.Herbs and ... angelica, anise, arnica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric, and others.

  13. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni; Rebeca Passarelli Mantovani; Lidiane Nunes Barbosa; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi; Ary Fernandes Junior

    2006-01-01

    ... as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts-"guaco" ( Mikania glomerata ), guava ( Psidium guajava ), clove...

  14. Pau D'arco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold. Flu. Diarrhea. Bladder and prostate infections. Intestinal worms. Cancer. Diabetes. Ulcers. Stomach problems. Liver problems. Asthma. ... herbs include alfalfa, angelica, clove, danshen, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric, and others.

  15. Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. for sunburn and infected wounds. Honey's healing properties are mentioned in the Bible, Koran, and Torah. ... may slow blood clotting include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.

  16. Constituents of the essential oil from different brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum L by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Roudha Ali Al-Hashmi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahib

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this present study was to isolate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oils from two different imported brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum (clove) samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The two essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from two different brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum (clove) such as Guzal and Shahi clove samples using Clevenger type apparatus. Results: Eleven chemical components were identified in the essential oil isolated from Guzal clove imported from Indonesia. The isolated components representing 99.03% of the Guzal clove oil were identified as eugenol (51.51%), caryophyllene (36.20%), α- caryophyllene (4.26%), acetyleugenol (2.64%), carvacrol (2.42%), α-cubebene (0.77%) and thymol (0.42%) were the major components with some other minor components isolated from the same. About twenty two components representing 99.73% were identified within the essential oil isolated from the Shahi brand clove which was imported from India with the main components being eugenol (46.53%), caryophyllene (43.03%),α-caryophyllene (4.61%), aceteugenol (2.54%), copaene (0.80%), α-farnesene (0.72%), germacrene (0.43%) and δ-cadinene (0.27%). Conclusions: Both the isolated essential oils were found to be rich in eugenol and caryophyllene. The clove essential oil from Guzal and Shahi was found to be comparable in terms of its eugenol and caryophyllene contents. According to the above findings, it is suggested that both brands of clove are of similar quality.

  17. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit (Citrus sinensis) as influenced by storage period and edible covers

    OpenAIRE

    Shamloo, M. M.; M SHARIFANI; Daraei Garmakhany, A.; Seifi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %),...

  18. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast c...

  19. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler; Emine Derviş; Buse Cetkin

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove p...

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EUGENOL DERIVATIVES Antimikrobielle Aktivität EUGENOL DERIVATE

    OpenAIRE

    George Eyambe, Luis Canales and Bimal K. Banik

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of the clove plant are due to the presence of eugenol, an aromatic phenolic compound. Eugenol was isolated from clove by stem distillation. The alkene group in eugenol was epoxidized resulting in the synthesis of epoxide-eugenol. The heterocyclic ring in epoxide was cleaved to a bromoalcohol derivative. The compounds synthesized epoxideeugenol, bromo alcohol and euginol were tested for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923). Epoxide-euge...

  1. Efficacy of activated alginate-based nanocomposite films to control Listeria monocytogenes and spoilage flora in rainbow trout slice

    OpenAIRE

    Alboofetileh, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Hosseini, Hedayat; Abdollahi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils of clove, coriander, caraway, marjoram, cinnamon, and cumin were tested for their antilisterial activity by application of agar diffusion assay (experiment 1). Marjoram essential oil (MEO) showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by clove and cinnamon. Subsequently, these essential oils were incorporated to alginate/clay nanocomposite films and antilisterial effectiveness of the films was studied in a model solid food system during 12 days at 10 °C (experiment 2). The res...

  2. Antifungal activities of selected essential oils against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322, with emphasis on Syzygium aromaticum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Rajendran, Sasireka; Srivastava, Ankit; Sharma, Satyawati; Kundu, Bishwajit

    2017-03-01

    The antifungal effects of four essential oils viz., clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), mint (Mentha × piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) were evaluated against wilt causing fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322. The inhibitory effect of oils showed dose-dependent activity on the tested fungus. Most active being the clove oil, exhibiting complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination at 125 ppm with IC50 value of 18.2 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Essential oils of lemongrass, mint and eucalyptus were inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clove oil was 31.25 ppm by broth microdilution method. Thirty one different compounds of clove oil, constituting approximately ≥99% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The major components were eugenol (75.41%), E-caryophyllene (15.11%), α-humulene (3.78%) and caryophyllene oxide (1.13%). Effect of clove oil on surface morphology of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM observation revealed shrivelled hyphae while AFM observation showed shrunken and disrupted spores in clove oil treated samples. In pots, 5% aqueous emulsion of clove oil controlled F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici 1322 infection on tomato plants. This study demonstrated clove oil as potent antifungal agent that could be used as biofungicide for the control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in both preventive and therapeutic manner. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradable gelatin-chitosan films incorporated with essential oils as antimicrobial agents for fish preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Estaca, J; López de Lacey, A; López-Caballero, M E; Gómez-Guillén, M C; Montero, P

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils of clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller), cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), herb-of-the-cross (Verbena officinalis L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) were tested for their antimicrobial activity on 18 genera of bacteria, which included some important food pathogen and spoilage bacteria. Clove essential oil showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by rosemary and lavender. In an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of these essential oils as food preservatives, they were also tested on an extract made of fish, where clove and thyme essential oils were the most effective. Then, gelatin-chitosan-based edible films incorporated with clove essential oil were elaborated and their antimicrobial activity tested against six selected microorganisms: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Shewanella putrefaciens, Photobacterium phosphoreum, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The clove-containing films inhibited all these microorganisms irrespectively of the film matrix or type of microorganism. In a further experiment, when the complex gelatin-chitosan film incorporating clove essential oil was applied to fish during chilled storage, the growth of microorganisms was drastically reduced in gram-negative bacteria, especially enterobacteria, while lactic acid bacteria remained practically constant for much of the storage period. The effect on the microorganisms during this period was in accordance with biochemical indexes of quality, indicating the viability of these films for fish preservation. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "Jeg skal opfølgende anmode jer om at melde tilbage, hvorvidt I mener, at der er nogen sundheds- eller miljømæssige ricisi, der kan begrunde, at Danmark stemmer imod ansøgningen. Jeg skal bede om en tilbagemeldig allerede i dag, kl. 17.00. Svar den 25.10.2005" Dianthus caryophyllus (123.2.38/ 123.2.2). Foresprøgsel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta

    2005-01-01

    Mail: DMU har på grundlag af vores økologiske risikovurdering (pr. 18-04-2005) samt yderligere oplysninger i sagen (DMU kommentarer pr. 27-05-2005 og 13-10-2005) ikke fundet nogen miljømæssige ricisi, der kan begrunde at Danmark stemmer imod en markedsføring af den genmodificerede Florigene nellike...

  5. Identification of Carnation varieties using microsatellite markers

    OpenAIRE

    Arens, P.F.P.; Esselink, G.; Noordijk, Y.; Kodde, L.P.; Hof, L.; Wietsma, W.A.; Vosman, B.

    2009-01-01

    As in many ornamentals, also in carnation the number of varieties in common knowledge is large and identification throughout the chain from breeder to consumer using plant material from different stages and organs may be needed. Results in this study on the use of microsatellite markers from Dianthus caryophyllus L. for the characterization of carnation varieties as well as the construction and evaluation of a molecular database show that these markers show potential for identification purposes

  6. 香石竹枯萎病病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任琼丽

    2005-01-01

    香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.),又名康乃馨(Carnation),为石竹科石竹属多年生草本植物。是世界最著名的传统鲜切花之一,因其花朵大、花形美、色鲜艳、品种多、瓶养保鲜期长而深受消费者青睐。

  7. Rooting of carnation cuttings: The auxin signal

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Sánchez-Bravo, José

    2009-01-01

    The rooting of stem cuttings is a common vegetative propagation practice in many ornamental species. Among other signals, auxin polarly transported through the stem plays a key role in the formation and growth of adventitious roots. Unlike in other plant species, auxin from mature leaves plays a decisive role in the rooting of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus. L) cuttings. The gene DcAUX1, which codifies an auxin influx carrier involved in polar auxin transport, has now been cloned and charac...

  8. 香石竹繁育栽培试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福玉

    2003-01-01

    @@ 香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.),又叫康乃馨,为石竹科石竹属,是重要的鲜切花品种.常绿,作宿根花卉栽培,株高60~80cm,茎光滑,基部木质化,稍被白粉.花常单生或2~5朵簇生枝端,有香气.

  9. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of gro......, but all attempts to induce formation of shoots or em-bryoids gave negative results....

  10. Ornamental plants as sinks and bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pallavi; Ghosh, Chirashree

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of urban air pollution is a big challenge, especially for the metropolitan cities of the world. In an Indian metropolis like Delhi, even after the implementation of several control policies, no such remarkable change has been observed in its air quality. Globally, afforestation or greenbelt development is an effective and well-recognized pollution abatement process. The aim of our present study was to examine the biochemical response of some naturalized ornamental plant species, viz. Dracaena deremensis, Tagetes erecta, Rosa indica and Dianthus caryophyllus. During experimental study, plants were kept at selected sites which were categorized in terms of traffic density (emission source) and vegetative pattern during winter months for 120 days. Four biochemical parameters, viz. total chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, pH, relative water contents along with Air Pollution Tolerance Indices were determined from foliar samples at each selected site. D. deremensis and T. erecta were classified under tolerant while R. indica and D. caryophyllus were marked as in sensitive category. Based on the sensitivity of selected plant species, it has been recommended that D. deremensis and T. erecta may be used as sinks for the abatement of air pollution at highly polluted sites whereas R. indica and D. caryophyllus can be used as bioindicators.

  11. Evaluation of ploidy level and endoreduplication in carnation (Dianthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló-Antón, María Ángeles; Olmos, Enrique; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Acosta, Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) is one of the fifth most important ornamental species worldwide. Many desirable plant characteristics, such as big size, adaptation under stress, and intra or interspecific hybridization capability, are dependent on plant ploidy level. We optimized a quick flow cytometry method for DNA content determination in wild and cultivated carnation samples that allowed a systematic evaluation of ploidy levels in Dianthus species. The DNA content of different carnation cultivars and wild Dianthus species was determined using internal reference standards. The precise characterization of ploidy, endoreduplication and C-value of D. caryophyllus 'Master' makes it a suitable standard cultivar for ploidy level determination in other carnation cultivars. Mixoploidy was rigorously characterized in different regions of several organs from D. caryophyllus 'Master', which combined with a detailed morphological description suggested some distinctive developmental traits of this species. Both the number of endoreduplication cycles and the proportion of endopolyploid cells were highly variable in the petals among the cultivars studied, differently to the values found in leaves. Our results suggest a positive correlation between ploidy, cell size and petal size in cultivated carnation, which should be considered in breeding programs aimed to obtain new varieties with large flowers.

  12. Conditioned place avoidance of zebrafish (Danio rerio to three chemicals used for euthanasia and anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devina Wong

    Full Text Available Zebrafish are becoming one of the most used vertebrates in developmental and biomedical research. Fish are commonly killed at the end of an experiment with an overdose of tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS, also known as MS-222, but to date little research has assessed if exposure to this or other agents qualifies as euthanasia (i.e. a "good death". Alternative agents include metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. We use a conditioned place avoidance paradigm to compare aversion to TMS, clove oil, and metomidate hydrochloride. Zebrafish (n = 51 were exposed to the different anaesthetics in the initially preferred side of a light/dark box. After exposure to TMS zebrafish spent less time in their previously preferred side; aversion was less pronounced following exposure to metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. Nine of 17 fish exposed to TMS chose not to re-enter the previously preferred side, versus 2 of 18 and 3 of 16 refusals for metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil, respectively. We conclude that metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil are less aversive than TMS and that these agents be used as humane alternatives to TMS for killing zebrafish.

  13. PERANAN DEPARTEMEN KESEHATAN DALAM PENYUSUNAN RANCANGAN UNDANG-UNDANG PENGENDALIAN DAMPAK TEMBAKAU TERHADAP KESEHATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Soetirto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the 5th largest country that consumes tobacco in the world. Eighty five percent smokers, smokes local brand cigarette names Clove Cigarette. Clove cigarette is cigarette mixed with clove for around 30% per stick, the combination of clove (eugenol and nicotine creates double addictives effect. According to Health legislation No. 23/1992 to protect the public from dangerous substances, article No 44 provision 1,2,3 all the addictive substances have to limited and stipulate in Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah No. 81/1999, the nicotine as a addictive substance content may not exceed 1.5 mg/stick and tar maximum 20 mg/stict. Due to pressure from tobacco manufacturer caused amendment Peraturan Pemerintah No. 38/2000, to pospone the regulation (from 5 to 7 years. A new Peraturan Pemerintah No. 19/2003 was made without limitation of addictive substances, it's mean completely different with Health legtslation No. 23/1992. The draft of tobacco control legislation has been prepared by parliament and the role of Ministry of Health is needed to give input the contents of tobacco control legislation. The limitation the two addictive substances (nicotine & eugenol may not exceed 1.5 mg/stick and tar maximum 20 mg/stick and pinalty is given to those who violate legislation should be autority of Ministry of Health. Key words: clove cigarette, eugenol, legislation

  14. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and control of bacterial spot in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaine Ciavareli Lucas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant essential oils (EOs on the growth of Xanthomonas vesicatoria, on bacterial morphology and ultrastructure, and on the severity of tomato bacterial spot. EOs from citronella, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass, eucalyptus, thyme, and tea tree were evaluated in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100% in 1.0% powdered milk. The effect of EOs, at 0.1%, on the severity of tomato bacterial spot was evaluated in tomato seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The effects of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree EOs, at 0.1%, on X. vesicatoria cells were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. All EOs showed direct toxic effect on the bacteria at a 10%-concentration in vitro. Under greenhouse conditions, the EOs of clove, citronella, tea tree, and lemongrass reduced disease severity. EOs of clove and tea tree, and streptomycin sulfate promoted loss of electron-dense material and alterations in the cytoplasm, whereas EO of tea tree promoted cytoplasm vacuolation, and those of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree caused damage to the bacterial cell wall. The EOs at a concentration of 0.1% reduce the severity of the disease.

  15. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L. by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Singh Rana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L. against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-10-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.

  17. Formação de biofilme por Pseudomonas aeruginosa sobre aço inoxidável em contato com leite e seu controle por óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Nara BATISTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação bacteriostática e bactericida de diferentes óleos essenciais sobre células planctônicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, bem como verificar a ação sanitizante, dos óleos essenciais que apresentarem a menor Concentração Mínima Inibitória (CMI, sobre o biofilme formado por esta espécie, Material e Métodos: A ação bacteriostática foi realizada por meio da determinação das CMIs dos óleos de Zingiber officinale, Eugenia caryophyllus, Elettaria cardamomum, Citrus limon e Citrus reticulata v, tangerine, O tempo de morte bacteriana foi determinado utilizando-se as CMIs de cada óleo essencial submetidos a diferentes tempos de contato, O biofilme de P, aeruginosa foi desenvolvido em cupons de aço inoxidável AISI 304 dispostos em placa de Petri contendo leite tratado por Ultra Alta Temperatura (UAT, sendo incubado sob agitação de 70 rpm, a 37 °C/96 horas, Células aderidas foram removidas através de swabs e enumeradas por contagem em placas após submissão a diferentes tratamentos, Resultados: Todos os óleos essenciais apresentaram efeito bacteriostático, se destacando Z, officinale, E, caryophyllus e E, cardamomum, por apresentarem menor CMI, O tempo de morte de P, aeruginosa foi de 10 minutos quando utilizadas soluções a base de E, cardamomum e E, caryophyllus, No entanto, quando testados em biofilme, apenas E, caryophyllus eliminou as células bacterianas viáveis de P, aeruginosa, Conclusão: E, caryophyllus é uma nova alternativa para o controle do biofilme de P, aeruginosa na indústria de alimentos, pois, além de sua alta atividade antimicrobiana, é um composto natural, o que atende as exigências do mercado consumidor.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fábio Ricardo; Schmidt, Gustavo; Romero, Adriano Lopez; Sartoretto, Juliano Luiz; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), sage, Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) and clove, Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae), essential oils were evaluated by studying humor- and cell-mediated immune responses. Essential oils were administered to mice (once a day, orally, for a week) previously immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Clove essential oil increased the total white blood cell (WBC) count and enhanced the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in mice. Moreover, it restored cellular and humoral immune responses in cyclophosphamide-immunosuppressed mice in a dose-dependent manner. Ginger essential oil recovered the humoral immune response in immunosuppressed mice. Contrary to the ginger essential oil response, sage essential oil did not show any immunomodulatory activity. Our findings establish that the immunostimulatory activity found in mice treated with clove essential oil is due to improvement in humor- and cell-mediated immune response mechanisms.

  19. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  20. The use anesthetic agents to promote welfare in anemonefish aquaculture: Case study to handling and long-distance transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Chambel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three anaesthetic agents (80 to 110 mg/L of MS-222, 10 to 30 mg/L of clove oil and 100 to 350 mg/L of 2-phenoxyethanol in anaesthesia and the success of use different clove oil concentrations (1, 3 and 10 mg/L on water quality and survival of an ornamental anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, during long-distance transport in closed system for 48 hours. The lowest effective concentrations based on the efficacy criteria of complete anaesthetic induction within 180s, recovery within 300s and survival when exposed 30 min to anaesthetic was 15 mg/l for clove oil, 200 µl/L for 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 mg/L for MS-222. Above the concentrations of 30 mg/L, 300 µl/L and 100 mg/L of clove oil, 2-phenoxyethanol and MS-222 respectively, fish did not recovery when exposed to anaesthetic during 30min. During long-distance transport, clove oil slowed the increase on the ammonia concentration and the decrease on oxygen level, but did not affect the pH and only at concentration of 10 mg/L increase de mortality at 36 and 48 hours after packed. All concentrations showed a significance increase on water quality, reducing total ammonia from 9.31 ± 0.58 mg/L (control group to 5.43 ± 0.56 mg/L (1mg/L, 4.97 ± 0.59 mg/L (3mg/L and 3.88 ± 0.14 mg/L (10mg/L. This study showed that all anaesthetic agents under study can be used in anaesthesia of percula clownfish with optimal doses varied according to the anaesthetic, 15 to 25 mg/L of clove oil, 200 to 250 of 2-phenoxyethanol and 85 to 90 mg/L of MS-222, but clove oil was the anaesthetic agent more effectiveness and with major margin of safety for percula clownfish, and this anaesthesic (clove oil can be used in ornamental fish transportation, reducing the deterioration in water quality and ensuring a better transport environment and reduced stress for the fish. However must be careful related the dose in use, because an excess anesthesic may reduce dissolved oxygen and cause high

  1. Biomassa em aula prática de Química Orgânica Verde: cravo-da-índia como fonte simultânea de óleo essencial e de furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an optimized integrated experiment for isolation of clove bud essential oil, rich in eugenol, and subsequent utilization of the solid residue for furfural synthesis. The operationally simple laboratory protocols and utilization of water as a solvent in both operations, plus the use of biomass as the starting material for preparation of versatile intermediates in organic synthesis, make the experiments attractive for undergraduate experimental organic chemistry courses in the context of green chemistry. In addition, this is the first description of the use of biomass (clove bud in the simultaneous preparation of two chemical feedstocks, eugenol and furfural, on experimental organic chemistry courses.

  2. IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON GROWTH OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Ćosić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven essential oils (clove, rosemary, cinnamon leaf, sage, scots pine, neroli, peppermint, aniseed, caraway, lavander, common thyme were tested for in vitro antifungal activity on twelve plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. avenaceum, Diaporthe helianthi, Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora, Phomopsis longicolla, P. viticola, Helminthosporium sativum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Thanatephorus cucumeris. The results indicated that all oils except scots pine and neroli had antifungal activity against some or all tested fungi. The best antifungal activity had common thyme, cinnamon leaf, clove and aniseed oils. When compared to control, scots pine, neroli and sage oils stimulated mycelium growth of some investigated fungi.

  3. Anti-oxidant activity and major chemical component analyses of twenty-six commercially available essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Yih, Kuang-Hway; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Huang, Keh-Feng

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed 26 commercially available essential oils and their major chemical components to determine their antioxidant activity levels by measuring their total phenolic content (TPC), reducing power (RP), β-carotene bleaching (BCB) activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DFRS) ability. The clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had the highest RP, BCB activity levels, and TPC values among the 26 commercial essential oils. Furthermore, of the 26 essential oils, the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had the highest TEAC values, and the clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils had the highest DFRS ability. At a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils had RP and BCB activity levels of 94.56% ± 0.06% and 24.64% ± 0.03% and 94.58% ± 0.01% and 89.33% ± 0.09%, respectively. At a concentration of 1 mg/mL, the clove bud and thyme borneol essential oils showed TPC values of 220.00 ± 0.01 and 69.05 ± 0.01 mg/g relative to gallic acid equivalents, respectively, and the clove bud and ylang ylang complete essential oils had TEAC values of 809.00 ± 0.01 and 432.33 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The clove bud and jasmine absolute essential oils showed DFRS abilities of 94.13% ± 0.01% and 78.62% ± 0.01%, respectively. Phenolic compounds of the clove bud, thyme borneol and jasmine absolute essential oils were eugenol (76.08%), thymol (14.36%) and carvacrol (12.33%), and eugenol (0.87%), respectively. The phenolic compounds in essential oils were positively correlated with the RP, BCB activity, TPC, TEAC, and DFRS ability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Catalytic activity of titania zirconia mixed oxide catalyst for dimerization eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursiloadi, S.; Kristiani, A.; Jenie, S. N. Aisyiyah; Laksmono, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Clove oil has been found to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant and insecticidal properties. The major compound of clove oil is eugenol about 49-87%. Eugenol as phenolic compounds exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The derivative compound of eugenol, dieugenol, show antioxidant potency better than parent eugenol. A series of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides (TZ) with various titanium contents from 0 to 100wt%, prepared by using sol gel method were tested their catalytic activity for dimerization eugenol, Their catalytic activity show that these catalysts resulted a low yield of dimer eugenol, dieugenol, about 2-9 % and the purity is more than 50%.

  5. Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant ...

  6. Drug: D06816 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06816 Mixture, Drug Arsenical paste (JP16) Arsenic trioxide [DR:D02106], Procaine hydrochloride [DR:D00740], Hydrophilic ointment [DR:D05237], Clove oil [DR:D06823], Medicinal carbon [DR:D03251] PubChem: 47208467 ...

  7. Compositional Factors that Influence Lipid Peroxidation in Beef Juice and Standard Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gu; Haug, Anna; Nordvi, Berit; Saarem, Kristin; Oostindjer, Marije; Langsrud, Øyvind; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2015-12-01

    In order to identify how different additives influenced lipid peroxidation formation, a sausage only using beef juice as pigment source and a standard beef-pork meat sausage were studied. The effects of different additives, including fish oil, myoglobin, nitrite, clove extract, and calcium sources on oxidation and sensory properties were examined. Both sausage systems were stored in 3 different manners prior to testing: (1) frozen immediately at -80 °C; (2) chilled stored for 2.5 weeks followed by fluorescent light illumination at 4 °C for another 2 wk; (3) frozen at -20 °C for 5 mo. The frozen group 3 showed the highest peroxide formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) for both sausage systems. Unpolar peroxides dominated in both systems. The clove extract could offset the peroxide formation from myoglobin/beef juice and/or fish oil, but the addition of clove flavor was recognized by the sensory panelists. Calcium addition reduced lipid peroxide formation. Added nitrite and fish oil seemed to interact to stimulate nitroso-myoglobin formation. Nitrite was identified to interact with clove addition and thereby, relatively speaking, increased TBARS. The 2 sausage systems generally ranked the additives similarly as pro- and antioxidants.

  8. 21 CFR 145.190 - Canned prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... words may be combined as for example, “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, cinnamon oil and unpeeled...: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (4... spice, “Seasoned with vinegar” or “Seasoned with unpeeled pieces of citrus fruit”. When two or more...

  9. Antimicrobial effect of essential oils on the seafood spoilage micro-organism Photobacterium phosphoreum in liquid media and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2002-01-01

    storage trials. Oils of oregano and cinnamon had strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by lemongrass, thyme, clove, bay, marjoram, sage and basil oils. Oregano oil (0.05%, v/w) reduced growth of P. phosphoreum in naturally contaminated MAP cod fillets and extended shelf-life from 11-12 d to 21-26 d...

  10. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the h

  11. Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S.R.; Kammenga, J.E.; Murk, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an E

  12. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being euge

  13. Integrated systems of weed management in organic transplated vidalia sweet onion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted from 2008 through 2010 near Lyons, GA to develop integrated weed management systems for organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation with a tine weeder, and a clove oil herbicide. Plots were so...

  14. Efficacy of tricaine on Peocilia latipinna at different temperatures and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-01

    Feb 1, 2010 ... cortisol level increased in deeply anesthetized fish (Davis and Griffin, 2004; Cho and .... Coral fish. Pomacentrus ... ethanol, clove oil, carbon dioxide, Aqui-S, or quinaldine. (Davis and ... coral reef fish, J. Fish Biol. 51: 931-938.

  15. 鱼头豆腐汤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1/2 head of mud carp,75 grams soy sauce,15 grams soy bean paste,1 piece tender beancurd,50 grams mushrooms,30 grams bamboo shoots,25 grams garlic cloves,200 grams lard(olive oil for those who prefer),3 grams salt,

  16. Drug: D09109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09109 Formula, Drug Shiteito Clove [DR:D03570], Persimmon calyx [DR:D07154], Ginge...r [DR:D06744] Traditional Chinese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Formulas Formulas for Qi Formulas for regulating Qi D09109 Shiteito PubChem: 96025789 ...

  17. Antonio van Diemen : de opkomst van de VOC in Azië

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Willem Menno

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company, the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie ) was founded in 1602 and was the first company with permanent capital, tradable shares and limited liability. Its aim was to monopolise the trade in valuable spices as nutmeg, mace and cloves found only in a remote part of the

  18. Using Ozone in Organic Chemistry Lab: The Ozonolysis of Eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branan, Bruce M.; Butcher, Joshua T.; Olsen, Lawrence R.

    2007-01-01

    An ozonolysis experiment, suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry lab, is presented. Ozonolysis of eugenol (clove oil), followed by reductive workup furnishes an aldehyde that is easily identified by its NMR and IR spectra. Ozone (3-5% in oxygen) is produced using an easily built generator. (Contains 2 figures and 1 scheme.)

  19. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    on the application method. Larger phenolic compounds such as thymol and eugenol (thyme, cinnamon and clove) had best effect applied directly to medium, whereas smaller compounds such as allyl isothiocyanate and citral (mustard and lemongrass) were most efficient when added as volatiles.Significance and Impact...

  20. What is your diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliades, Manuela; Silva, Claudia Marcia Resende; Gontijo, Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    CLOVES syndrome is a rare, newly described, and relatively unknown syndrome, related to somatic mutations of the PIK3CA gene. Clinical findings include adipose tissue overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, scoliosis, and spinal deformities. This report deals with a characteristic phenotype case, highlighting peculiar cutaneous and radiological changes. PMID:27438212

  1. Bioautography-guided isolation of antibacterial compounds of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomarat, Pattamapan; Phanthong, Phanida; Wongsariya, Karn; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan

    2013-05-01

    The outbreak of histamine fish poisoning has been being an issue in food safety and international trade. The growth of contaminated bacterial species including Morganella morganii which produce histidine decarboxylase causes histamine formation in fish during storage. Histamine, the main toxin, causes mild to severe allergic reaction. At present, there is no well-established solution for histamine fish poisoning. This study was performed to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils from Thai spices against histamine-producing bacteria. Among the essential oils tested, clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils were found to possess the antibacterial activity. Clove oil showed the strongest inhibitory activity against Morganella morganii, followed by lemongrass and sweet basil oils. The results indicated that clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils could be useful for the control of histamine-producing bacteria. The attempt to identify the active components using preparative TLC and GC/MS found eugenol, citral and methyl chavicol as the active components of clove, lemongrass and sweet basil oils, respectively. The information from this study would be useful in the research and development for the control of histamine-producing bacteria in fish or seafood products to reduce the incidence of histamine fish poisoning.

  2. Biological and Nonbiological Antioxidant Activity of Some Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Risco, Ester; Vila, Roser; Peñalver, Pedro; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2016-06-15

    Fifteen essential oils, four essential oil fractions, and three pure compounds (thymol, carvacrol, and eugenol), characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were investigated for biological and nonbiological antioxidant activity. Clove oil and eugenol showed strong DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 13.2 μg/mL and 11.7 μg/mL, respectively) and powerfully inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils stimulated by PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) (IC50 = 7.5 μg/mL and 1.6 μg/mL) or H2O2 (IC50 = 22.6 μg/mL and 27.1 μg/mL). Nutmeg, ginger, and palmarosa oils were also highly active on this test. Essential oils from clove and ginger, as well as eugenol, carvacrol, and bornyl acetate inhibited NO (nitric oxide) production (IC50 oils of clove, red thyme, and Spanish oregano, together with eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol showed the highest myeloperoxidase inhibitory activity. Isomers carvacrol and thymol displayed a disparate behavior in some tests. All in all, clove oil and eugenol offered the best antioxidant profile.

  3. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  4. 77 FR 65171 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of... shipper reviews (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... covered by the order includes all grades of garlic, whole or separated into constituent cloves....

  5. Design of planting mechanism for garlic planter%大蒜播种机种植机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢学虎; 张永; 刘召; 程永健; 刘彩霞; 毕力格图

    2015-01-01

    为了满足大蒜在栽植过程中保持蒜瓣鳞芽朝上垂直入土且蒜瓣弓背面朝向一致的农艺要求,该文根据蒜瓣的外形特征,设计了一种大蒜播种机种植机构并对该机构进行详细的理论分析,运用Solidworks软件对该机构进行建模并通过3D打印机打印出零件,然后组建试验台对该种植机构进行试验。试验数据显示采用该种植机构不但可以确保大蒜弓背面朝向一致,而且播种机前进速度的变化对蒜瓣垂直度的影响较小。该文为大蒜种植机械种植机构的设计提供了一种设计方法,为研究大蒜播种机和同类机具提供了参考。%Garlic planters developed relatively late and its technology is not matured in the agricultural machinery. However, due to the growing demand for garlic, intensive planting of garlic has become the trend in modern agriculture. The restricting factor of garlic intensive planting is delayed garlic planting machinery development. This paper proposed two key problems of developing garlic planting machinery:garlic cloves insert vertically and the cloves face towards consistent. To solve these two problems, we designed a garlic planting mechanism which can meet the garlic agricultural cultivation requirement. Based on the study of garlic planter at home and abroad, we designed a mechanism and analyzed it in detailed according to the shape characteristics of garlic cloves. The software of Solidworks was used for modeling the mechanism and the parts were printed by 3D printer, and then the garlic cultivation mechanism was built and tested. The test bench includes mobile platform which can control the speed, stepper motor, garlic planting mechanism, bracket, soil and 10 different sizes of garlic cloves. The garlic cultivation mechanism is fixed on the mobile platform through the bracket and steeper motor is fixed on the mobile platform. The rope of garlic cultivation mechanism is winded up onto the stepper

  6. 桂林地区香石竹切花栽培及茬口安排技术%Cultivation and Crop Rotation Arrangement Technique of Carnation Cuting Flower for Guilin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春惠

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus)俗称"康乃馨"(Carnation),是流行的鲜切花主要品种之一,与月季、菊花、唐菖蒲并称世界"四大切花".栽培技术直接影响香石竹切花产量和质量.以市场为导向,合理安排种植茬口、调控花期则能获得较大的经济效益.

  7. 香石竹组培脱毒与快繁技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文成; 郝明会

    2011-01-01

    @@ 香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus),即康乃馨,又名狮头石竹、麝香石竹、大花石竹、荷兰石竹等,为石竹科石竹属的一种多年生宿根草本植物,分布于欧洲温带以及中国大陆的福建、湖北等地,是目前世界上应用最普遍的花卉之一.其茎丛生,质坚硬,灰绿色,节膨大,高度约50厘米.

  8. 香石竹无性繁殖技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈梅娟; 张生清

    2002-01-01

    香石竹(Dianthus caryophyllus L.)别名康乃馨,石竹科石竹属,为常绿亚灌木宿根花卉.原产于欧洲南部,现世界各地广为栽培.香石竹茎叶清秀,花朵富丽高雅,色彩绚丽娇艳,观赏价值极高,而且单朵花期长,宜制作花束、花篮,是世界著名的四大切花之一.

  9. Expression of a Dianthus flavonoid glucosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for whole-cell biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2009-07-15

    Glycosyltransferases are promising biocatalysts for the synthesis of small molecule glycosides. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase (GT) from Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation) was investigated as a whole-cell biocatalyst. Two yeast expression systems were compared using the flavonoid naringenin as a model substrate. Under in vitro conditions, naringenin-7-O-glucoside was formed and a higher specific glucosyl transfer activity was found using a galactose inducible expression system compared to a constitutive expression system. However, S. cerevisiae expressing the GT constitutively was significantly more productive than the galactose inducible system under in vivo conditions. Interestingly, the glycosides were recovered directly from the culture broth and did not accumulate intracellularly. A previously uncharacterized naringenin glycoside formed using the D. caryophyllus GT was identified as naringenin-4'-O-glucoside. It was found that S. cerevisiae cells hydrolyze naringenin-7-O-glucoside during whole-cell biocatalysis, resulting in a low final glycoside titer. When phloretin was added as a substrate to the yeast strain expressing the GT constitutively, the natural product phlorizin was formed. This study demonstrates S. cerevisiae is a promising whole-cell biocatalyst host for the production of valuable glycosides.

  10. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  11. In vitro study of natural plant products against oral bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddiqui R; Siti AsmaH; Tang L; Jie CC; Rosliza AR; Roziawati Y

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of selected plant product against several bacterial which commonly causes oral infection.It was hope that in future,this product will become the remedy for treatment of oral infection and with the hope that it can substitute antibiotics.Methods:A total of 5 species of oral bacteria from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)were employed in this study(S.mutans,S.aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.sobri-nus and L.salivarius).Three types of natural plants crude extracts were used (garlic,curry leaves and cloves).Bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of these herbs were tested.Results:It was shown garlic had an-tibacterial effects on all bacteria.The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in g/mL)of garlic towards S. aureus,P.aeruginosa,S.mutans,S.sobrinus and L.salivarius were 0.3,1.8,1.2,0.5 and 1.8,respectively. There was significant difference among the MIC of garlic on tested bacteria.It was more potent toward S.au-reus.The curry leaf solution on the other hand,did not show any zone of inhibition in all bacteria plates but adversely showed enhanced growth of those bacteria.Clove had shown its antibacterial effects on S.aureus and P.aeruginosa.The clove was more potent toward S.aureus with the MIC of 0.45 g/mL.P.aeruginosa was more sensitive to clove compared to garlic.For S.aureus,it was more sensitive to garlic compared to clove. Conclusion:The antibacterial activity of garlic and clove crude extracts shown in our study further confirm these natural plants'potential usage in therapeutic use for oral diseases or infections.This could be the platform for the interested party to do research and development on it and to produce oral health products which are more affordable for lower economic income groups and with fewer side effects as seen in synthetic drug.

  12. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lans Cheryl

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Methods Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia and one in Tobago (Mason Hall. Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Results Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium

  13. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2007-03-15

    Throughout history women have tried to control or enhance their fertility using herbal remedies, with various levels of societal support. Caribbean folk medicine has been influenced by European folk medicine, either through the early Spanish and French settlers or through the continuous immigration of Spanish-speaking peoples from Venezuela. Some folk uses are ancient and were documented by Galen and Pliny the Elder. Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method. Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction. Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems. The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens, Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides. The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints: Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus

  14. The repellent efficacy of eleven essential oils against adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefanidesová, Katarína; Škultéty, Ľudovít; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Špitalská, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus ticks are among the most important arthropod vectors of zoonotic disease agents in Europe. Eleven essential oils, namely basil (Ocimum basilicum), bergamot (Citrus bergamia), clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum), citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), lemon-scented gum (Corymbia citriodora), marjoram (Origanum majorana), peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (M. spicata), and red thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were tested for repellency against adult D. reticulatus ticks at concentrations of 1 and 3%. Clove bud, creeping thyme and red thyme essential oils were the most efficient - repelling 83, 82 and 68% of ticks when diluted to 3%, respectively. The mixture of creeping thyme and citronella containing 1.5% of each showed higher repellency (91%) than individual essential oils at the concentration of 3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  16. Antibacterial and immunity enhancement properties of anaesthetic doses of thyme (Thymus vulgaris oil and three other anaesthetics in Sparidentax hasta and Acanthopagrus latus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Azad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An effective alternative was discovered in the form of thyme oil for use as a fish anaesthetic (patent pending approval. The thyme oil along with a common aquaculture-grade commercial anaesthetic (AQUI-S, clove oil and quinaldine were investigated for their antimicrobial properties and its effect on the immune parameters of two important maricultured fish species, bluefin bream (Sparidentax hasta and yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus latus. In vivo studies indicated that both the fish species had highly reduced bacterial load after the treatments and the in vitro antibacterial activity of the of the thyme oil was superior to that of the other treatments. The effects of anaesthetic dose of thyme oil, clove oil, quinaldine and AQUI-S were evaluated and compared. The reduction in the total viable vibrio counts in the anesthetized fish indicated that the vibrio were sensitive to the thyme oil. Also thyme oil produced higher non-specific immune enhancements.

  17. [Determination of ochratoxin a in spices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik; Wilczyńska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    The method of determination of ochratoxin A in some spices: coriander, cloves, ginger, paprika, black pepper was described. Depending on kind of matrix, extraction with metanol/water (80/20) or with solution of 1% NaHCO3 and several variants of clean-up on IAC columns were investigated. The most useful extraction solvent appeared water solution of 1% NaHCO3. In case of cloves only, none of the methods of extraction and clean-up variants was appropriate. The mean recovery of the method, dependent on kind of sample, was 61-82% and RSD% 1.4 and 7.8. The estimated LOD and LOQ were 0.02 and 0.06 microg/kg, respectively. In samples of spice used for method preparation, ochratoxin A was detected on the level 3.4-4.6 microg/kg.

  18. Inhibition Effect of Herbal Preservatives on Listeria monocytogenes on Chilled Pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liu; KONG Baohua; DIAO Xinping; LIU Jing

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the growth situation of Listeria monocytogenes on chilled pork and the effect of herbal preservatives on this pathogen.The inhibitions of herbal preservatives were identified. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cinnamon and clove were all 0.79 mg·mL-1,while the rosemary was 1.58 mg.mL-1.And the composite herbal preservatives were got through orthogonal experiment.The optimum proportion was as following on agar medium:1.16 mg·mL-1 cinnamon+2.38 mg·mL-1 rosemary+3.17mg·mL-1 clove (herb combination number 5),while on chilled pork,the strong inhibition of L.monocytogenes was showed,which demonstrated that the surface application of herb combination resulted in an effective delay of L.monocytogenes growth.

  19. EFECTO ANTIMICROBIANO DEL CLAVO Y LA CANELA SOBRE PATÓGENOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YENIS IBETH PASTRANA PUCHE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of spices with antimicrobial properties has been very important in the food industry. The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial effect of clove and cinnamon on the pathogens Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar diffusion method, and double dilutions in broth. The extracts of cinnamon and clove studied under the agar diffusion method, caused no antimicrobial effect on Salmonella spp, while in its highest concentrations (100 y 150 mg/mL if they showed an antimicrobial effect on E. coli and S. aureus, classified as sensitive. In the methodology of double dilutions in broth, it was determined that for S. aureus ATCC ® 29213TM the CMI and CMB were 512 μg/mL and 4096 μg/mL respectively and E. coli O157:H7 the CMI and CMB were 2048 μg/mL and 4096 μg/mL.

  20. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin.

  1. Un sistema para la deteccion de antioxidantes volatiles comunmente emitidos desde especias y hierbas medicinales A system for detection of volatile antioxidant commonly emitted from spices and medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Pastene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus which allows the direct measurement of the antioxidant capacity of volatiles compounds emitted from some herbs and culinary spices is described. The device comprises: a sample chamber, a mixing chamber, a pump and, a detection system. Volatiles from Clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry were purged and captured into a DPPH-containing solution and changes in the absorbance were recorded on-line. Linear response was observed when temperature was set between 30-53 ºC; nitrogen flow was 15 mL min-1 during 60 min; DPPH concentration was 20 µmol L-1 and a sample size (powdered Clove ranged between 200-1000 mg.

  2. Autofit and the Spectrum of Eugenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Erika; Welden, Sawyer; Cockram, Emma; Ervin, Katherine; Shipman, Steven; Funderburk, Cameron M.; Brown, Gordon G.; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2016-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of eugenol, the primary constituent in clove oil, was obtained via chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 3-8 GHz in a supersonic expansion on a sample that was extracted from cloves via steam distillation. Ab initio calculations indicate that this molecule possesses several conformers with energies that are only a few hundred wavenumbers above that of the global minimum conformation, due to different relative orientations of the molecule's methoxy and allyl groups. Eugenol's spectrum was analyzed with a new version of the Autofit software that has been designed to run in cluster computing environments. Here we will present the results of this study, including benchmarking results for the new version of Autofit.

  3. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangkamon Sritabutra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods: On a volunteer’s forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm伊10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results: Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions: The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  4. Screening of some Malay medicated oils for antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khalisanni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils from six Malay medicated oils, used traditionally in the treatment of infectious and septic diseases in humans, were tested for their antimicrobial property. The aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six Malay medicated oils against certain microbial isolates. Locally available Malay medicated oils were checked for their antimicrobial activities using six species of bacteria: E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis and 2 fungi with 1 yeast (Aspergillus niger, Penicillum spp. and Candida albicans. Clove oil showed the highest antibacterial activity followed, respectively, by 'bunga merah', cajaput, nutmeg, lemon grass and 'gamat' oil. Clove oil and lemon grass showed anticandidal activity. The Malay medicated oil studies did not show any antifungal activity. The study shows that Malay medicated oils, like antibiotics, have antimicrobial activities against some microorganisms.

  5. Antifungal activity of essential oils evaluated by two different application techniques against rye bread spoilage fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To study how antifungal activity of natural essential oils depends on the assay method used.Methods and Results: Oils of bay, cinnamon leaf, clove, lemongrass, mustard, orange, sage, thyme and two rosemary oils were tested by two methods: (1) a rye bread-based agar medium was supplemented...... with 100 and 250 mu l l(-1) essential oil and (2) real rye bread was exposed to 136 and 272 mu l l(-1) volatile oil in air. Rye bread spoilage fungi were used for testing. Method 1 proved thyme oil to be the overall best growth inhibitor, followed by clove and cinnamon. On the contrary, orange, sage...... and rosemary oils had very limited effects. Mustard and lemongrass were the most effective oils by the volatile method, and orange, sage and one rosemary showed some effects. Oil compositions were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrography.Conclusions: Antifungal effects of the essential oils depended...

  6. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 8. Group VI. Chemicals & Chemical Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    yields essential for profitable crop production. Because different crops and soils require different quantities and blends of nutrients...distri- bution of such other products as petroleum refining and related industries, plastic products, natural gas and crude oil extraction , and...Inks, printing Orange oil Le.,mon oil Citrus oils , nec. Peppermint oil Spearmint oil Cedarwood oil , clove oil and nutmeg oil Source: Prepared by

  7. Bioactivity-Guided Investigation of Geranium Essential Oils as Natural Tick Repellents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    from amyris essential oil suggested that it had potential as a repellent against Aedes aegypti (L.). While (−)-10-epi-γ- eudesmol has been tested against...M.; Hayes, E. B.; Ertel, S.; Shapiro, E. D. Effectiveness of personal protective measures to prevent Lyme disease. Emerging Infect. Dis. 2008, 14...picaridin. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2008, 51, 31−36. (11) Shapiro, R. Prevention of vector transmitted diseases with clove oil insect repellent. J. Pediatr

  8. Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Khullar, Rachit; Kumar, Deepinder; Seth, Nimrata; Saini, Seema

    2011-01-01

    Emulgels have emerged as a promising drug delivery system for the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. The objective of the study was to prepare emulgel of mefenamic acid, a NSAID, using Carbapol 940 as a gelling agent. Mentha oil and clove oil were used as penetration enhancers. The emulsion was prepared and it was incorporated in gel base. The formulations were evaluated for rheological studies, spreading coefficient studies, bioadhesion strength, skin irritation studies, in vitro release, ex viv...

  9. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    OpenAIRE

    Sára Maria Chalfoun; Marcelo Cláudio Pereira; Mario Lúcio V. Resende; Caroline Lima Angélico; Rozane Aparecida da Silva

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  10. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun,Sára Maria; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Mario Lúcio V. Resende; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Silva,Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  11. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  12. Chronique de jurisprudence. Chronique commentée des décisions de l'Organe de règlement des différends (novembre 2011-août 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Busseuil; Jean-Marie Garinot; Clotilde Jourdain-Fortier; Isabelle Moine-Dupuis; Valérie Pironon

    2013-01-01

    In respect with the guiding principle of this chronicle to estimate connections between liberalization of international trade and non-trade values, this new edition illustrates new conflicts of values. This almost double year of awards of the Dispute Settlement Body is characterized by the focus put on the Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement at the heart of several disputes: United States – Clove Cigarettes, United States – Cool, United States – Tuna II. Some and new lightings on several ke...

  13. Behavioral Responses of Catnip (Nepeta cataria) by Two Species of Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni, in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Thymus vulgaris L.), clove (Syzygium aromati- cum L.), and catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), were tested as alternative topical mosquito repellents (Barnard...Laborato- ry, Plant Science Institute, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705. 4 Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University...a promising plant derived compound from catnip (Peterson and Coats 2001). Chemicals protect human from the bite of mosquitoes in 3 different ways

  14. Segmental overgrowth syndrome due to an activating PIK3CA mutation identified in affected muscle tissue by exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Weigert, Karen Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Mosaic PIK3CA-mutations have been described in an increasing number of overgrowth syndromes. We describe a patient with a previously unreported segmental overgrowth syndrome with the mutation, PIKCA3 c.3140A>G (p.His1047Arg) in affected tissue diagnosed by exome sequencing. This PIK3CA-associated......-associated segmental overgrowth syndrome overlaps with CLOVES syndrome and fibroadipose hyperplasia but is distinct from each of these entities....

  15. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THERE was a popular food called pepper and sesame cake during the Tang Dynasty. Its ingredients included refined white flour, the five spices(prickly ash, star aniseed, cinnamon, clove and fennel), salt, maltose and sesame. The raw cake was baked in an oven. The most famous shop which made and sold pepper and sesame cake in Chang’an City was Fuxingfang. According to the Account of Emperor Xuanzong in History as a Mirror, during the An (An Lushan) Shi (Shi Siming)

  16. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi; Hamid Majeed; Waseem Safdar; John Antoniou; Zhong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU) and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap) emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO) co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA) and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT) were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed...

  17. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Vani; S. F. Cheng; Chuah, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Te...

  18. [Decontamination of some spices by ethylene oxide. Development of 2-chloroethanol and ethylene glycol during the preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaigneau, M; Muraz, B

    1993-01-01

    After the disinfection by ethylene oxide and storage by ethylene oxide in definite conditions of 16 spices (parsley, chervil, tarragone, chive, thyme, rosemary, coriander, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, allspices, clove, pepper), the authors observed the fast loss of residual ethylene oxide and ethyleneglycol. On the contrary, the persistence of 2-chloroethanol was followed up for 6 months. They turn their attention to the toxicity of this compound to ensure the protection of customers.

  19. Concise and informative title: evaluation of selected spices in extending shelf life of paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eresam, E Krishna Kumari; Pinto, Suneeta; Aparnathi, K D

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and clove were tested for their relative efficacy in improving shelf life of paneer. All the spices were incorporated in paneer @ 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. Addition of black pepper, cardamom or clove at the rate of 0.6 % by weight or cinnamon at the rate of 0.4 % by weight was found to be acceptable. Therefore, paneer was prepared by incorporating black pepper, cardamom and clove i.e. Bp, Ca and Cl @ 0.6 % and cinnamon (Ci) @ 0.4 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. All the paneer samples viz. Bp, Ca, Cl and Ci were subjected to sensory evaluation when fresh and after interval of 7 days during storage at 7 ± 1 °C up to 28 days. Results indicated that control remained acceptable up to 7 days, Bp up to 14 days of storage and Cl up to 21st day of storage. The overall acceptability score of Ca remained well above the acceptable level even on 28th day of the storage. Results of changes in chemical characteristics indicate that amongst all the spices studied, cardamom had maximum ability to control the rate of increase in acidity, free fatty acids content and soluble nitrogen content in paneer during storage. The order of the relative effectiveness in enhancing shelf life of paneer was cardamom > cinnamon > clove > black pepper. The effect of cardamom on microbial counts of paneer viz. standard plate counts (SPC), yeast and mould count and coliform count were evaluated. Among the spices studied, cardamom was found to be the best spice to improve shelf life of paneer up to 28 days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C.

  20. Microarray Bactericidal Testing of Natural Products Against Yersinia intermedia and Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Based Preservation Systems and Probiotic Bacteria. In Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. M. P. Doyle, L.R. Beuchat and T.J. Montville...from Lactococcus lactis, has these characteristics and in addition is a FDA GRAS food additive. Plant essential oils (e.g. oil of cloves, eucalyptus...etc) are attractive as BWA bactericides because of their historical use in the preservation of food , embalming and medicine. These oils and their