WorldWideScience

Sample records for clouds x-ray mirrors

  1. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  2. X-ray imaging with toroidal mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Sakayanagi, Yoshimi

    1978-01-01

    X-ray imaging is made with a single toroidal mirror or two successive toroidal mirrors. Geometrical images at the Gaussian image plane are described by the ray trace. Application of a single toroidal mirror to small-angle scattering is presented. (author)

  3. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  4. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  5. X-ray instrumentation: monochromators and mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The main type of X-ray monochromators used with Synchrotron Radiation are discussed in relation to the energy resolution and to the spectral contamination, as well special systems for applications which require simultaneously high flux and resolution. The characteristics for X-ray mirrors necessaries for its utilization with synchrotron radiation are also analized, as conformators of the beam geometry and spectrum. (L.C.) [pt

  6. X-ray microscope with a Wolter mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2003-01-01

    A Wolter mirror as an objective of an X-ray microscope is described. In comparison with other optical elements, a Wolter mirror has several advantages, such as a large numerical aperture and no chromatic aberration. Recent developments of fabrication process enabled us to make a Wolter mirror objective for X-rays. The fabrication process and the applications to a soft X-ray microscope and an X-ray fluorescence microscope are described. (author)

  7. A parabolic mirror x-ray collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, A.; Jackson, K.; Yacoot, A.

    2000-05-01

    A robust and stable x-ray collimator has been developed to produce a parallel beam of x-rays by total external reflection from a parabolic mirror. The width of the gold-coated silica mirror varies along its length, which allows it to be bent from a plane surface into a parabolic form by application of unequal bending forces at its ends. A family of parabolas of near constant focal length can be formed by changing the screw-applied bending force, thus allowing the collimator to cater for a range of wavelengths by the turning of a screw. Even with radiation with a wavelength as short as that as Mo Kicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> 1 (icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.07 nm), a gain in flux by a factor of 5.5 was achieved. The potential gain increases with wavelength, e.g. for Cu Kicons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> 1 radiation this amounts to over a factor of ten.

  8. Design and fabrication of soft x-ray mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Masaru; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuo [Shimadzu Corp., Production Engineering Laboratory, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic technology is important for measuring the chemical status of material surface in the LSI manufacturing process. We report on non-spherical mirrors focusing laser-induced plasma soft x-ray to fine sample surface. We designed toric and ellipsoidal mirror as soft x-ray condensing means, simulated focusing image, manufactured mirror surface on fused quartz substrate, and measured form accuracy. (author)

  9. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    's science mission. "We will observe X-rays generated when stars are torn apart by the incredibly strong gravity around massive black holes in the centers of galaxies," added Tananbaum. On a larger scale, the telescope will play a vital role in answering fundamental questions about the universe. "The superior quality of the mirrors will allow us to see and measure the details of hot gas clouds in clusters of galaxies, giving us a much better idea of the age and size of the universe," said Dr. Leon Van Speybroeck, Telescope Scientist at the Smithsonian Observatory. "These same observations also will measure the amount of dark matter present, providing unique insight into one of nature's great puzzles," said Van Speybroeck. A second phase of testing is now underway at Marshall. Calibration of the observatory's science instruments began in mid-February. "This phase of testing," said Weisskopf, "includes two focal plane instruments and two sets of gratings used to analyze images and energy distributions from cosmic sources seen by the telescope." Working around the clock, test teams are taking measurements and studying results. "It is very exciting," said Weisskopf. "With more than 1,200 measurements taken, there is already a tremendous amount of information for study." The calibration process will end around late April. The mirror assembly then will be shipped to TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA -- NASA's prime contractor for the program -- for integration into the spacecraft. The science instruments will remain at Marshall for several more weeks of testing before being shipped to Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation in Boulder, CO, where they will be integrated into the science instrument module before being shipped to TRW. The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility is scheduled for launch in August 1998 and will join NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Compton Gamma-ray Observatory in exploring the universe. Marshall manages development of the observatory

  10. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-05-01

    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Earth's atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  11. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  12. Null Lens Assembly for X-Ray Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a null lens assembly that allows laser interferometry of 60 deg. slumped glass mirror segments used in x-ray mirrors. The assembly consists of four lenses in precise alignment to each other, with incorporated piezoelectric nanometer stepping actuators to position the lenses in six degrees of freedom for positioning relative to each other.

  13. X-ray microfocusing with off-axis ellipsoidal mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu, E-mail: yumoto@spring8.or.jp; Koyama, Takahisa [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    High-precision ellipsoidal mirrors for two-dimensionally focusing X-rays to nanometer sizes have not been realized because of technical problems in their fabrication processes. The objective of the present study is to develop fabrication techniques for ellipsoidal focusing mirrors in the hard-X-ray region. We design an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror for use under total reflection conditions up to the X-ray energy of 8 keV. We fabricate an ellipsoidal mirror with a surface roughness of 0.3 nm RMS (root-mean-square) and a surface figure error height of 3.0 nm RMS by utilizing a surface profiler and surface finishing method developed by us. The focusing properties of the mirror are evaluated at the BL29XUL beamline in SPring-8. A focusing beam size of 270 nm × 360 nm FWHM (full width at half maximum) at an X-ray energy of 7 keV is observed with the use of the knife-edge scanning method. We expect to apply the developed fabrication techniques to construct ellipsoidal nanofocusing mirrors.

  14. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  15. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  16. Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Ahsen M.; Joensen, Karsten D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented....... This clearly indicates the effectiveness of the epoxy-replication process for the production of smooth substrates for multilayer deposition to be used in future x-ray telescopes....

  17. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  18. X-ray metrology and performance of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyneer, Lisa A., E-mail: poyneer1@llnl.gov; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Hill, Randall; Jackson, Jessie; Hagler, Lisle [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Celestre, Richard; Feng, Jun [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We describe experiments with a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror (XDM) that have been conducted in End Station 2, Beamline 5.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source. A detailed description of the hardware implementation is provided. We explain our one-dimensional Fresnel propagation code that correctly handles grazing incidence and includes a model of the XDM. This code is used to simulate and verify experimental results. Initial long trace profiler metrology of the XDM at 7.5 keV is presented. The ability to measure a large (150-nm amplitude) height change on the XDM is demonstrated. The results agree well with the simulated experiment at an error level of 1 μrad RMS. Direct imaging of the x-ray beam also shows the expected change in intensity profile at the detector.

  19. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  20. X-ray telescope mirrors made of slumped glass sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A.; Breunig, E.; Friedrich, P.; Proserpio, L.

    2017-11-01

    For several decades, the field of X-ray astronomy has been playing a major role in understanding the processes in our universe. From binary stars and black holes up to galaxy clusters and dark matter, high energetic events have been observed and analysed using powerful X-ray telescopes like e.g. Rosat, Chandra, and XMM-Newton [1,2,3], giving us detailed and unprecedented views of the high-energy universe. In November 2013, the theme of "The Hot and Energetic Universe" was rated as of highest importance for future exploration and in June 2014 the ATHENA Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics was selected by ESA for the second large science mission (L2) in the ESA Cosmic Vision program, with launch foreseen in 2028 [4]. By combining a large X-ray telescope with state-of-the-art scientific instruments, ATHENA will address key questions in astrophysics, including: How and why does ordinary matter assemble into the galaxies and galactic clusters that we see today? How do black holes grow and influence their surroundings? In order to answer these questions, ATHENA needs a powerful mirror system which exceed the capabilities of current missions, especially in terms of collecting area. However, current technologies have reached the mass limits of the launching rocket, creating the need for more light-weight mirror systems in order to enhance the effective area without increasing the telescope mass. Hence new mirror technologies are being developed which aim for low-weight systems with large collecting areas. Light material like glass can be used, which are shaped to form an X-ray reflecting system via the method of thermal glass slumping.

  1. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    We propose to build and test thin film transistor control circuitry for a new highresolution adjustable X-ray mirror technology. This control circuitry will greatly simplify the wiring scheme to address individual actuator cells. The result will be a transformative improvement for the X-ray Surveyor mission concept: mathematical models, which fit the experimental data quite well, indicate that 0.5 arcsecond imaging is feasible through this technique utilizing thin slumped glass substrates with uncorrected angular resolution of order 5-10 arcseconds. In order to correct for figures errors in a telescope with several square meters of collecting area, millions of actuator cells must be set and held at specific voltages. It is clearly not feasible to do this via millions of wires, each one connected to an actuator. Instead, we propose to develop and test thin-film technology that operates on the same principle as megapixel computer screens. We will develop the technologies needed to build thin film piezoelectric actuators, controlled by thin film ZnO transistors, on flexible polyimide films, and to connect those films to the back surfaces of X-ray mirrors on thin glass substrates without deforming the surface. These technologies represent a promising avenue of the development of mirrors for the X-Ray Surveyor mission concept. Such a telescope will make possible detailed studies of a wide variety of astrophysical sources. One example is the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), which is thought to account for a large fraction of the normal matter in the universe but which has not been detected unambiguously to date. Another is the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  2. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  3. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  4. Coating Thin Mirror Segments for Lightweight X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Sharpe, Marton V.; Zhang, William; Kolosc, Linette; Hong, Melinda; McClelland, Ryan; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo; Mazzarellam, James

    2013-01-01

    Next generations lightweight, high resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires integration of very thin mirror segments into a lightweight telescope housing without distortion. Thin glass substrates with linear dimension of 200 mm and thickness as small as 0.4 mm can now be fabricated to a precision of a few arc-seconds for grazing incidence optics. Subsequent implementation requires a distortion-free deposition of metals such as iridium or platinum. These depositions, however, generally have high coating stresses that cause mirror distortion. In this paper, we discuss the coating stress on these thin glass mirrors and the effort to eliminate their induced distortion. It is shown that balancing the coating distortion either by coating films with tensile and compressive stresses, or on both sides of the mirrors is not sufficient. Heating the mirror in a moderately high temperature turns out to relax the coated films reasonably well to a precision of about a second of arc and therefore provide a practical solution to the coating problem.

  5. Stress Free Multilayer Coating for High Resolution X-ray Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most of X-ray optics research and development in the US is to build a high resolution, large collecting area and light-weight optic, namely an soft X-ray mirror for...

  6. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  7. Forming mandrels for making lightweight x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter N.; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William W.; O'Dell, Stephen; Kester, Thomas; Jones, William

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions, similar to the proposed International X-ray Observatory (IXO), will utilize replicated mirrors to reduce both mass and production costs. Accurately figured and measured molds (called mandrels) - on which the mirror substrates are thermally formed, replicating the surface of the mandrels - are essential to enable these missions. The Optics Branches of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have developed fabrication processes along with metrologies that yield high-precision mandrels; and through the SBIR program, they encourage small businesses to attack parts of the remaining problems. The Goddard full-aperture mandrel polisher (the MPM-500) has been developed to a level where mandrel surfaces match the 1.5 arcsec HPD level allocation in a 5 arcsec telescope program. This paper reviews this current technology and describes a pilot program to design a suite of machine tools and process parameters capable of producing many hundreds of these precision objects. A major challenge is to keep mid-spatial frequency errors below 2 nm rms - a severe specification; but we must also note the factors which work to our advantage: e.g., how the figure departs from a pure cone by only one micron, and how the demanding figure specifications which apply in the axial direction are relaxed by an order of magnitude in the azimuthal. Careful study of other large optical fabrication programs in the light of these challenges and advantages has yielded a realistic plan for the economical production of mandrels that meet program requirements in both surface and quantity.

  8. Wolter type I x-ray focusing mirror using multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2006-01-01

    A multilayer coating is a useful addition to a mirror in the x-ray region and has been applied to normal incidence mirrors used with soft x rays. When a multilayer coating is used on grazing incidence optics, higher performance can be achieved than without it.Cr/Sc multilayers coated on a Wolter type I mirror substrate for a soft x-ray microscope are considered. The reflectivity and effective solid angle are calculated for Wolter type I mirrors with uniform and laterally graded multilayer coatings. The laterally graded multilayer mirror showed superior x-ray performance, and the multilayer tolerances were relaxed. This multilayer mirror could be especially useful in the soft x-ray microscope intended for biological applications

  9. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of thin foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Besenbacher, Flemming; Garnaes, Jorgen

    1990-01-01

    In this paper scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of x-ray mirrors are presented. The x-ray mirrors are 0.3 mm thick dip-lacquered aluminum foils coated with gold by evaporation, as well as state-of-the-art polished surfaces coated with gold, platinum, or iridium. The measurements...

  10. Understanding the performance of x-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1989-01-01

    The manufacture of x-ray mirrors is a rather specialized branch of the optical fabrication industry. As those who have had to deal with the procurement of these components well know, there are only a handful of optical companies who supply most of the grazing incidence optics in use at the synchrotron light source facilities in this country. There is relatively little information available of practical use to guide the user through any of the above steps. We have been ''forced'' to develop our own foundation for assessing the performance of various vendors and determining the quality of the components produced by them. Our approach has been to concentrate on the area of metrology of grazing incidence optics and to develop instruments and techniques that can be used to improve the quality of components delivered to us. The major problem hindering the production of grazing incidence optics is the lack of specialized metrology instrumentation that can be used by the small manufacturing shop to assess the quality of the component under production. We have been engaged over the past several years in developing the theoretical framework and practical measurement techniques to link the metrology to actual performance, providing much-needed feedback to the manufacture and also educating users and manufacturers in the proper understanding of the language of surface figure and finish metrology

  11. Refractive optics to compensate x-ray mirror shape-errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal; Pape, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Elliptically profiled mirrors operating at glancing angle are frequently used at X-ray synchrotron sources to focus X-rays into sub-micrometer sized spots. Mirror figure error, defined as the height difference function between the actual mirror surface and the ideal elliptical profile, causes a perturbation of the X-ray wavefront for X- rays reflecting from the mirror. This perturbation, when propagated to the focal plane results in an increase in the size of the focused beam. At Diamond Light Source we are developing refractive optics that can be used to locally cancel out the wavefront distortion caused by figure error from nano-focusing elliptical mirrors. These optics could be used to correct existing optical components on synchrotron radiation beamlines in order to give focused X-ray beam sizes approaching the theoretical diffraction limit. We present our latest results showing measurement of the X-ray wavefront error after reflection from X-ray mirrors and the translation of the measured wavefront into a design for refractive optical elements for correction of the X-ray wavefront. We show measurement of the focused beam with and without the corrective optics inserted showing reduction in the size of the focus resulting from the correction to the wavefront.

  12. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assoufid, Lahsen [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14–16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods.

  13. The challenge of developing thin mirror shells for future x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Gong, Qingqing; Proserpio, Laura; Winter, Anita; Friedrich, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Previously used mirror technologies are not able to fulfil the requirements of future X-ray telescopes due to challenging requests from the scientific community. Consequently new technical approaches for X-ray mirror production are under development. In Europe the technical baseline for the planned X-ray observatory ATHENA is the radical new approach of silicon pore optics. NASÁs recently launched NuSTAR mission uses segmented mirrors shells made from thin bended glasses, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of the glass forming technology for X-ray mirrors. For risk mitigation also in Europe the hot slumping of thin glasses is being developed as an alternative technology for lightweight X-ray telescopes. The high precision mirror manufacturing requires challenging technical developments; several design trades and trend-setting decisions need to be made and are discussed within this paper. Some new technical and economic aspects of the intended glass mirror serial production are also studied within the recently started interdisciplinary project INTRAAST, an acronym for "industry transfer of astronomical mirror technologies". The goal of the project, embedded in a cooperation of the Max-Planck-Institute for extraterrestrial Physics and the University of Applied Sciences Aschaffenburg, is to master the challenge of producing thin mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes. As a first project task the development of low stress coatings for thin glass mirror substrates have been started, the corresponding technical approach and first results are presented.

  14. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundy, D., E-mail: david.laundy@diamond.ac.uk; Sawhney, K.; Nistea, I.; Alcock, S. G.; Pape, I.; Sutter, J.; Alianelli, L.; Evans, G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  15. Fabrication of nested elliptical KB mirrors using profile coating for synchrotron radiation X-ray focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fabrication methods used to demonstrate the advantages of nested or Montel optics for micro/nanofocusing of synchrotron X-ray beams. A standard Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system uses two separated elliptical mirrors at glancing angles to the X-ray beam and sequentially arranged at 90° to each other to focus X-rays successively in the vertical and horizontal directions. A nested KB mirror system has the two mirrors positioned perpendicular and side-by-side to each other. Compared to a standard KB mirror system, Montel optics can focus a larger divergence and the mirrors can have a shorter focal length. As a result, nested mirrors can be fabricated with improved demagnification factor and ultimately smaller focal spot, than with a standard KB arrangement. The nested system is also more compact with an increased working distance, and is more stable, with reduced complexity of mirror stages. However, although Montel optics is commercially available for laboratory X-ray sources, due to technical difficulties they have not been used to microfocus synchrotron radiation X-rays, where ultra-precise mirror surfaces are essential. The main challenge in adapting nested optics for synchrotron microfocusing is to fabricate mirrors with a precise elliptical surface profile at the very edge where the two mirrors meet and where X-rays scatter. For example, in our application to achieve a sub-micron focus with high efficiency, a surface figure root-mean-square (rms) error on the order of 1 nm is required in the useable area along the X-ray footprint with a ∼0.1 mm-diameter cross section. In this paper we describe promising ways to fabricate precise nested KB mirrors using our profile coating technique and inexpensive flat Si substrates.

  16. ALD Sapphire Coating for Large Area Soft X-ray Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed work is to demonstrate that the already established ALD coating method can be applied to the X-ray mirror fabrication and is suitable to produce an...

  17. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: Analytical computation of the required mirror profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiga, Daniele; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Zangrando, Marco

    2013-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are in use in both mirror modules for X-ray telescopes and in synchrotron and FEL (Free Electron Laser) beamlines. A degradation of the focus sharpness arises in general from geometrical deformations and surface roughness, the former usually described by geometrical optics and the latter by physical optics. In general, technological developments are aimed at a very tight focusing, which requires the mirror profile to comply with the nominal shape as much as possible and to keep the roughness at a negligible level. However, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators as done at the EIS-TIMEX beamline of FERMI@Elettra. The resulting profile can be characterized with a Long Trace Profilometer and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code. However, if the roughness contribution can be neglected, the computation can be performed via a ray-tracing routine, and, under opportune assumptions, the focal spot profile (the Point Spread Function, PSF) can even be predicted analytically. The advantage of this approach is that the analytical relation can be reversed; i.e., from the desired PSF the required mirror profile can be computed easily, thereby avoiding the use of complex and time-consuming numerical codes. The method can also be suited in the case of spatially inhomogeneous beam intensities, as commonly experienced at synchrotrons and FELs. In this work we expose the analytical method and the application to the beam shaping problem

  18. X-ray active mirror coupled with a Hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Mercere, Pascal; Modi, Mohammed H.; Dovillaire, Guillaume; Levecq, Xavier; Bucourt, Samuel; Escolano, Lionel; Sauvageot, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and performances of a test prototype active X-ray mirror (AXM) which has been designed and manufactured in collaboration with the French Small and Medium Enterprise mechanical company ISP System for the national French storage ring SOLEIL. Coupled with this active X-ray mirror and also in collaboration with another French Small and Medium Enterprise (Imagine Optic) a lot of efforts have been done in order to design and fabricate a wavefront X-ray analyzer based on the Hartmann principle (Hartman wavefront sensor, HWS).

  19. Thermal management of next-generation contact-cooled synchrotron x-ray mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.

    1999-10-29

    In the past decade, several third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources have been constructed and commissioned around the world. Many of the major problems in the development and design of the optical components capable of handling the extremely high heat loads of the generated x-ray beams have been resolved. It is expected, however, that in the next few years even more powerful x-ray beams will be produced at these facilities, for example, by increasing the particle beam current. In this paper, the design of a next generation of synchrotron x-ray mirrors is discussed. The author shows that the design of contact-cooled mirrors capable of handing x-ray beam heat fluxes in excess of 500 W/mm{sup 2} - or more than three times the present level - is well within reach, and the limiting factor is the thermal stress rather then thermally induced slope error.

  20. Characterization of a piezo bendable X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia; Siewert, Frank; Signorato, Riccardo; Yang, Fan; Sinn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale piezo bendable mirror built as a prototype for an offset mirror at the European XFEL is characterized. The piezo ceramic elements are glued onto the mirror substrate, side-face on with respect to the reflecting surface. Using a nanometre optical component measuring machine and a large-aperture Fizeau interferometer, the mirror profile and influence functions were characterized, and further analysis was made to investigate the junction effect, hysteresis, twisting and reproducibility.

  1. Integration of the ATHENA mirror modules: development of indirect and x-ray direct AIT methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernani, Dervis; Blum, Steffen; Seure, Thibault; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Schaeffer, Uwe; Lièvre, Nicolas; Nazeeruddin, Adeeb; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Collon, Maximilien J.; Cibik, Levent; Krumrey, Michael; Müller, Peter; Burwitz, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    Within the ATHENA optics technology plan, activities are on-going for demonstrating the feasibility of the mirror module Assembly Integration and Testing (AIT). Each mirror module has to be accurately attached to the mirror structure by means of three isostatic mounts ensuring minimal distortion under environmental loads. This work reports on the status of one of the two parallel activities initiated by ESA to address this demanding task. In this study awarded to the industrial consortium, the integration relies on opto-mechanical metrology and direct X-ray alignment. For the first or "indirect" method the X-ray alignment results are accurately referenced, by means of a laser tracking system, to optical fiducial targets mounted on the mirror modules and finally linked to the mirror structure coordinate system. With the second or "direct" method the alignment is monitored in the X-ray domain, providing figures of merit directly comparable to the final performance. The integration being designed and here presented, foresees combining the indirect method to the X-ray direct method. The characterization of the single mirror modules is planned at PTB's X-ray Parallel Beam Facility (XPBF 2.0) at BESSY II, and the integration and testing campaign at Panter. It is foreseen to integrate and test a demonstrator with two real mirror modules manufactured by cosine.

  2. Thermal forming of glass microsheets for x-ray telescope mirror segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Hailey, C.J.; Craig, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    envisioned for future x-ray observatories. The glass microsheets are shaped into mirror segments at high temperature by use of a guiding mandrel, without polishing. We determine the physical properties and mechanisms that elucidate the formation process and that are crucial to improve surface quality. We......We describe a technology to mass-produce ultrathin mirror substrates for x-ray telescopes of near Wolter-I geometry. Thermal glass forming is a low-cost method to produce high-throughput, spaceborne x-ray mirrors for the 0.1-200-keV energy band. These substrates can provide the collecting area...... develop a viscodynamic model for the glass strain as the forming proceeds to find the conditions for repeatability. Thermal forming preserves the x-ray reflectance and scattering properties of the raw glass. The imaging resolution is driven by a large wavelength figure. We discuss the sources of figure...

  3. Development of iridium coated x-ray mirrors for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Emmerich, Florian; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Stehlíková, Veronika; Friedrich, Peter; Damm, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Future space-based X-ray observatories need to be very lightweight for launcher mass constraints. Therefore they will use a reduced mirror thickness, which results in the additional requirement of low coating stress to avoid deformation of the initial precisely shaped mirror substrates. Due to their excellent reflection properties iridium coatings are sometimes applied for grazing incidence mirrors in astronomical X-ray telescopes. At Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences the coating of thin iridium films by an RF-magnetron sputtering technique is under development. The work is embedded in collaborations with the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, the Czech Technical University in Prague, the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera in Italy, the German Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research in Dresden, and the French Institute Fresnel. Sputtering with different parameters leads to iridium films with different properties. The current work is focused on the microstructure of the iridium coatings to study the influence of the substrate and of the argon gas pressure on the thin film growing process. Correlations between coating density, surface micro-roughness, the crystalline structure of the iridium layers, and the expected reflectivity of the X-ray mirror as well as coating stress effects are presented and discussed. The final goal of the project is to integrate the produced prototype mirrors into an X-ray telescope module. On a longer timescale measurements of the mirror modules optical performance are planned at the X-ray test facility PANTER.

  4. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  5. Elliptically Bent X-Ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Church, M.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Celestre, R.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.A.; Goldberg, K.A.; Kirschman, J.; Noll, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the advanced light source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3 K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the rms slope error is changed by approximately 1.5 μrad (primarily defocus) under the same conditions

  6. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  7. Using refractive optics to broaden the focus of an X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    X-ray mirrors are widely used at synchrotron radiation sources for focusing X-rays into focal spots of size less than 1 µm. The ability of the beamline optics to change the size of this spot over a range up to tens of micrometres can be an advantage for many experiments such as X-ray microprobe and X-ray diffraction from micrometre-scale crystals. It is a requirement that the beam size change should be reproducible and it is often essential that the change should be rapid, for example taking less than 1 s, in order to allow high data collection rates at modern X-ray sources. In order to provide a controlled broadening of the focused spot of an X-ray mirror, a series of refractive optical elements have been fabricated and installed immediately before the mirror. By translation, a new refractive element is moved into the X-ray beam allowing a variation in the size of the focal spot in the focusing direction. Measurements using a set of prefabricated refractive structures with a test mirror showed that the focused beam size could be varied from less than 1 µm to over 10 µm for X-rays in the energy range 10-20 keV. As the optics is in-line with the X-ray beam, there is no effect on the centroid position of the focus. Accurate positioning of the refractive optics ensures reproducibility in the focused beam profile and no additional re-alignment of the optics is required.

  8. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  9. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  10. Figure tolerance of a Wolter type I mirror for a soft-x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon, Kwon Su; Namba, Yoshiharu; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2007-01-01

    The demand for an x-ray microscope has received much attention because of the desire to study living cells at a high resolution and in a hydrated environment. A Wolter type I mirror used for soft-x-ray microscope optics has many advantages. From the mirror fabrication point of view, it is necessary to perform tolerance analysis, particularly with respect to figure errors that considerably degrade the image quality.The figure tolerance of a Wolter type I mirror for a biological application in terms of the image quality and the state-of-the-art fabrication technology is discussed. The figure errors rapidly destroyed the image quality, and the required slope error depended on the detector used in the soft-x-ray microscope

  11. Metrology and Alignment of Light Weight Grazing Incidence X-Ray Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William; Content, David; Petre, Robert; Saha, Timo

    2000-01-01

    Metrology and alignment of light weight X-ray optics have been a challenge for two reasons: (1) that the intrinsic mirror quality and distortions caused by handling can not be easily separated, and (2) the diffraction limits of the visible light become a severe problem at the order of one arc-minute. Traditional methods of using a normal incident pencil or small parallel beam which monitors a tiny fraction of the mirror in question at a given time can not adequately monitor those distortions. We are developing a normal incidence setup that monitors a large fraction, if not the whole, of the mirror at any given time. It will allow us to align thin X-ray mirrors to-an accuracy of a few arc seconds or to a limit dominated by the mirror intrinsic quality.

  12. Iridium/Iridium Silicide as an Oxidation Resistant Capping Layer for Soft X-ray Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisbrey, S; Vernon, S

    2004-01-01

    Rust on a sword, tarnish on the silverware, and a loss in reflectivity for soft x-ray mirrors are all caused by oxidation that changes the desired characteristics of a material. Methods to prevent the oxidation have varied over the centuries with the default method of a protective coating being the most common. The protective coating for x-ray mirrors is usually a self-limiting oxidized layer on the surface of the material that stops further oxidation of the material by limiting the diffusion of oxygen to the material underneath

  13. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-05-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  14. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: II-Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, M.; Ayers, T.; Collura, A.; Nasillo, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2009-01-01

    The formation flight configuration of the Simbol-X mission implies that the X-ray mirror module will be open to Space on both ends. In order to reduce the power required to maintain the thermal stability and, therefore, the high angular resolution of the shell optics, a thin foil thermal shield will cover the mirror module. Different options are presently being studied for the foil material of these shields. We report results of an experimental investigation conducted to verify that the scattering of X-rays, by interaction with the thin foil material of the thermal shield, will not significantly affect the performances of the telescope.

  15. Easily exchangeable x-ray mirrors and hybrid monochromator modules a study of their performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan. [Philips Analytical, Asia Pacific, Toa Payoh, (Singapore); Kogan, V. [Philips Analytical, EA Almelo, (Netherlands); Saito, K. [Philips Analytical, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    Full text: PreFix prealigned optical mounts allowing rapid and easily changeover will be presented. The benefits of laterally graded multilayer X-Ray mirrors coupled with these Prefix mounts - conversion of divergent beam to parallel beam, increase of intensity by a factor of 3-7, monochromation to {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 and a dynamic range of 10 {sup 4-5} CpS will be demonstrated in areas such as Thin Film and Powder analysis. Data will be shown on a diffraction profile of thin film (Cr/SiO{sub 2}) with and without a mirror and Si powder with and without a mirror. Further enhancement will be demonstrated by combining a channel cut monochromator-collimator with an X-Ray mirror to produce a high intensity, parallel, pure Cu K{alpha}1 beam with a high intensity of up to 4.5 x 10{sup 8} cps and a divergence down to 0.01 deg. The applicability to various ranging from High Resolution to thin film/reflectivity to Rietveld structural refinement and to phase analysis will be shown. The Rocking curve of HEMT 10nm InGaAs on InP will be presented using various `standard` optics and hybrid optics, also Si powder and a Rietveld refinement of CuS0{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}0 and Aspirin. A comparison of the benefits and application of X-Ray Mirrors and Hybrid Mirror/Monochromators will be given. The data presented will show that by using X-Ray Mirrors and Hybrid modules the performance of standard `Laboratory` Diffractometers can be greatly enhanced to a level previously unachievable with great practical benefits. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  16. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  17. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  18. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or “tophat” beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  19. Multilayer X-ray mirrors for formation of sub-nanometer wavelength range beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhsakhalyan, A.A.; Akhsakhalyan, A.D.; Klyuenkov, E.B.; Murav'ev, V.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Kharitonov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Paper reviews the efforts undertaken in the RF Academy of Sciences IPM within recent 5 years to design multilayer mirror systems to produce X-ray wavelength subnanometer range beams. Paper describes a process to fabricate the mentioned systems covering the procedures to obtain supersmooth surfaces of the specified shape, to deposit gradient multilayer structures on the mentioned surfaces and describes the rules to calculate the optimal parameters of mirrors. Paper presents characteristics of mirror system two types: a mirror in the shape of a parabolic cylinder to collimate radiation in the DRON-4, DRON-6 production-type X-ray diffractometers and in the shape of a quadraelliptic reflector - a new wide-aperture four-corner focusing system [ru

  20. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    A nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror pair has been designed, fabricated and tested for achromatic nanofocusing synchrotron hard X-rays. The prototype system achieved a FWHM focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions. The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway

  1. From x-ray telescopes to neutron scattering: Using axisymmetric mirrors to focus a neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaykovich, B.; Gubarev, M.V.; Bagdasarova, Y.; Ramsey, B.D.; Moncton, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate neutron beam focusing by axisymmetric mirror systems based on a pair of mirrors consisting of a confocal ellipsoid and hyperboloid. Such a system, known as a Wolter mirror configuration, is commonly used in X-ray telescopes. The axisymmetric Wolter geometry allows nesting of several mirror pairs to increase collection efficiency. We implemented a system containing four nested Ni mirror pairs, which was tested by the focusing of a polychromatic neutron beam at the MIT Reactor. In addition, we have carried out extensive ray-tracing simulations of the mirrors and their performance in different situations. The major advantages of the Wolter mirrors are nesting for large angular collection and aberration-free performance. We discuss how these advantages can be utilized to benefit various neutron scattering methods, such as imaging, SANS, and time-of-flight spectroscopy.

  2. Status of Mirror Development for the Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P. R.; Winebarger, A. R.; Kobayashi, K.; Savage, S. L.; Ramsey, B.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Speegle, C.; Young, M.; Kester, T.; Cheimets, P.; Hertz, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer (MaGIXS) is a NASA sounding rocket instrument designed to observe soft X-ray emissions at 0.5 - 2.0 keV energies (24 - 6 Å) from a solar active region. MaGIXS will, for the first time, obtain spatially resolved spectra of high-temperature, low-emission plasma within an active region core. The unique optical design includes a Wolter I telescope and a 3-optic grazing incidence spectrograph. The spectrograph consists of a finite conjugate, stigmatic mirror pair and a planar varied line space grating. The grazing incidence mirrors are being developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and are produced using electroform nickel-replication techniques, employing the same facilities developed for HERO, FOXSI, ART-XC and IXPE. The MaGIXS mirror mandrels have been fabricated, figured, and have completed the first phase of polishing. A set of three test shells were replicated and exposed to X-rays in the Stray Light Facility (SLF) at MSFC. Here we present results from mandrel metrology and X-ray testing at the SLF. We also discuss the development of a new polishing technique for the MaGIXS mirror mandrels, where we plan to use the Zeeko polishing machine.

  3. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: I-Design and X-Ray Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Varisco, S.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ayers, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X mission is designed to fly in formation flight configuration. As a consequence, the telescope has both ends open to space, and thermal shielding at telescope entrance and exit is required to maintain temperature uniformity throughout the mirrors. Both mesh and meshless solutions are presently under study for the shields. We discuss the design and the X-ray transmission.

  4. Simbol-X Mirror Module Thermal Shields: I - Design and X-Ray Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collura, A.; Varisco, S.; Barbera, M.; Basso, S.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ayers, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Simbol-X mission is designed to fly in formation flight configuration. As a consequence, the telescope has both ends open to space, and thermal shielding at telescope entrance and exit is required to maintain temperature uniformity throughout the mirrors. Both mesh and meshless solutions are presently under study for the shields. We discuss the design and the X-ray transmission.

  5. Large-area soft x-ray projection lithography using multilayer mirrors structured by RIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Steffen; Kloidt, Andreas; Kleineberg, Ulf; Schmiedeskamp, Bernt; Kadel, Klaus; Schomburg, Werner K.; Hormes, F. J.; Heinzmann, Ulrich

    1993-01-01

    SXPL (soft X-ray projection lithography) is one of the most promising applications of X-ray reflecting optics using multilayer mirrors. Within our collaboration, such multilayer mirrors were fabricated, characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors were produced by electron beam evaporation in UHV under thermal treatment with an in-situ X-ray controlled thickness in the region of 2d equals 14 nm. The reflectivities measured at normal incidence reached up to 54%. Various surface analysis techniques have been applied in order to characterize and optimize the X-ray mirrors. The multilayers were patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) with CF(subscript 4), using a photoresist as the etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested in the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 cm(superscript 2) of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto the resist (Hoechst AZ PF 514), which was mounted at an average distance of about 7 mm. In the first test-experiments, structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced over the whole of the exposed area. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  6. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: Kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, David; Pape, Ian [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhamgaye, Vishal [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  7. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  8. Analysis of an x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Ming; Tang, Shanzhi; Gao, Junxiang; Zhang, Weiwei; Zhu, Peiping

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the mechanical behavior of an x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph is presented. A complete two-dimensional relationship between the radius of curvature of the mirror and the applied voltage is derived. The accuracy of this relationship is studied by comparing the figures calculated by the relationship and Finite Element Analysis. The influences of several critical parameters in the relationship on the radius of curvature are analyzed. It is found that piezoelectric coefficient d31 is the main material property parameter that dominates the radius of curvature, and that the optimal thickness of PZT plate corresponding to largest bending range is 2.5 times of that of faceplate. It is demonstrated that the relationship is helpful for us to complete the primary design of the x-ray mirror made from piezoelectric bimorph.

  9. Characterization of a confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics and Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Zhu Guanghua; Li Yude; Wei Xiangjun; Chen Dongliang; Xu Qing; Liu Quanru; Huang Yuying; Lin Xiaoyan; Sun Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    A new confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence (3D micro-XRF) facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics in the detection channel and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the excitation channel is designed. The lateral resolution (l x , l y ) of this confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence facility is 76.3(l x ) and 53.4(l y ) μm respectively, and its depth resolution d z is 77.1 μm at θ = 90 o . A plant sample (twig of B. microphylla) and airborne particles are analyzed

  10. Long, elliptically bent, active X-ray mirrors with slope errors <200 nrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistea, Ioana T; Alcock, Simon G; Kristiansen, Paw; Young, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Actively bent X-ray mirrors are important components of many synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser beamlines. A high-quality optical surface and good bending performance are essential to ensure that the X-ray beam is accurately focused. Two elliptically bent X-ray mirror systems from FMB Oxford were characterized in the optical metrology laboratory at Diamond Light Source. A comparison of Diamond-NOM slope profilometry and finite-element analysis is presented to investigate how the 900 mm-long mirrors sag under gravity, and how this deformation can be adequately compensated using a single, spring-loaded compensator. It is shown that two independent mechanical actuators can accurately bend the trapezoidal substrates to a range of elliptical profiles. State-of-the-art residual slope errors of <200 nrad r.m.s. are achieved over the entire elliptical bending range. High levels of bending repeatability (ΔR/R = 0.085% and 0.156% r.m.s. for the two bending directions) and stability over 24 h (ΔR/R = 0.07% r.m.s.) provide reliable beamline performance.

  11. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca [Thales-SESO, 305 rue Louis Armand, Pôle d’Activités d’Aix les Milles, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2015-01-01

    A next-generation bimorph mirror with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was created. When replacing a first-generation bimorph mirror suffering from the junction effect, the new type of mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected synchrotron X-ray beam. No evidence of the junction effect was observed even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  12. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean-Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A next-generation bimorph mirror with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was created. When replacing a first-generation bimorph mirror suffering from the junction effect, the new type of mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected synchrotron X-ray beam. No evidence of the junction effect was observed even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the ‘junction effect’: a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts

  13. Design, Construction, and Testing of Lightweight X-ray Mirror Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; Saha, Timo C.; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) team at NASA GSFC is nearing mission readiness for a 10 arc-second Half Power Diameter (HPD) slumped glass mirror technology while laying the groundwork for a future 1-2 arc-second technology based on polished silicon mirrors. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) have been designed, fabricated, integrated with mirrors segments, and extensively tested to demonstrate technology readiness. Tests include X-ray performance, thermal vacuum, acoustic load, and random vibration. The thermal vacuum and acoustic load environments have proven relatively benign, while the random vibration environment has proven challenging due to large input amplification at frequencies above 500 Hz. Epoxy selection, surface preparation, and larger bond area have increased bond strength while vibration isolation has decreased vibration amplification allowing for space launch requirements to be met in the near term. The next generation of TDMs, which demonstrates a lightweight structure supporting more mirror segments, is currently being fabricated. Analysis predicts superior performance characteristics due to the use of E-60 Beryllium-Oxide Metal Matrix Composite material, with only a modest cost increase. These TDMs will be larger, lighter, stiffer, and stronger than the current generation. Preliminary steps are being taken to enable mounting and testing of 1-2 arc-second mirror segments expected to be available in the future. A Vertical X-ray Test Facility (VXTF) will minimize module gravity distortion and allow for less constrained mirror mounts, such as fully kinematic mounts. Permanent kinematic mounting into a modified TDM has been demonstrated to achieve 2 arc-second level distortion free alignment.

  14. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  15. X-ray mirror development and testing for the ATHENA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Jakobsen, Anders C.; Massahi, Sonny; Christensen, Finn E.; Shortt, Brian; Garnæs, Jørgen; Torras-Rosell, Antoni; Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Marggraf, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    This study reports development and testing of coatings on silicon pore optics (SPO) substrates including pre and post coating characterisation of the x-ray mirrors using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray reflectometry (XRR) performed at the 8 keV X-ray facility at DTU Space and with synchrotron radiation in the laboratory of PTB at BESSY II. We report our findings on surface roughness and coating reflectivity of Ir/B4C coatings considering the grazing incidence angles and energies of ATHENA and long term stability of Ir/B4C, Pt/B4C, W/Si and W/B4C coatings.

  16. Process of constructing a lightweight x-ray flight mirror assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Espina, Rebecca A.; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-07-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in highenergy astrophysics. NASA's Next Generation X-ray Optics (NGXO) project has made significant progress towards building such optics, both in terms of maturing the technology for spaceflight readiness and improving the angular resolution. Technology Development Modules (TDMs) holding three pairs of mirrors have been regularly and repeatedly integrated and tested both for optical performance and mechanical strength. X-ray test results have been improved over the past year from 10.3 arc-seconds Half Power Diameter (HPD) to 8.3 arc-seconds HPD. A vibration test has been completed to NASA standard verification levels showing the optics can survive launch and pointing towards improvements in strengthening the modules through redundant bonds. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) study was completed which shows the mirror distortion caused by bonding is insensitive to the number of bonds. Next generation TDMs, which will demonstrate a lightweight structure and mount additional pairs of mirrors, have been designed and fabricated. The light weight of the module structure is achieved through the use of E-60 Beryllium Oxide metal matrix composite material. As the angular resolution of the development modules has improved, gravity distortion during horizontal x-ray testing has become a limiting factor. To address this issue, a facility capable of testing in the vertical orientation has been designed and planned. Test boring at the construction site suggest standard caisson construction methods can be utilized to install a subterranean vertical vacuum pipe. This facility will also allow for the testing of kinematically mounted mirror segments, which greatly reduces the effect of bonding displacements. A development platform demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting mirror segments has been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested.

  17. Figure and Dimension Metrology of Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for Space Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is the next major space X-ray observatory, performing both imaging and spectroscopic studies of all kinds of objects in the Universe. It is a collaborative mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the European Space Agency, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is to be launched into a Sun-Earth L2 orbit in 2021. One of the most challenging aspects of the mission is the construction of a flight mirror assembly capable focusing X-rays in the band of 0.1 to 40 keY with an angular resolution of better than 5 arc-seconds and with an effective collection area of more than 3 sq m. The mirror assembly will consist of approximately 15,000 parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments, each of which is approximately 200mm by 300mm with a thickness of 0.4mm. The manufacture and qualification of these mirror segments and their integration into the giant mirror assembly have been the objectives of a vigorous technology development program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each of these mirror segments needs to be measured and qualified for both optical figure and mechanical dimensions. In this talk, I will describe the technology program with a particular emphasis on a measurement system we are developing to meet those requirements, including the use of coordinate measuring machines, Fizeau interferometers, and custom-designed, and -built null lens. This system is capable of measuring highly off-axis aspherical or cylindrical mirrors with repeatability, accuracy, and speed.

  18. The impact of X-rays on molecular cloud fragmentation and the inital mass function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocuk, S.; Spaans, M.

    2010-01-01

    Star formation is regulated through a variety of feedback processes. In this study, we treat feedback by X-rays and discuss its implications. Our aim is to investigate whether star formation is significantly affected when a star forming cloud resides in the vicinity of a strong X-ray source. We

  19. Fabrication of an 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror for a synchrotron x-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Takacs, P.Z.; Hastings, J.B.; Casstevens, J.M.; Pionke, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of an 8:1 demagnifying ellipsoidal mirror to be used for an x-ray microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-26 beam port is described. The design aim was to produce a mirror that could be used over the photon energy range from about 3 to 17 keV. The 300-mm long mirror was required to operate at a grazing angle of 5 mr. The semimajor axis was 4500 mm and the semiminor axis 14.142 mm. Surface roughness of 1 nm or less and slope errors of 1 arc second parallel to the long axis and 200 arc seconds parallel to the short direction were specified. Production of the first electroless nickel-coated aluminum mirror using a diamond-turning technique has been completed. The mirror meets the 1 arc sec surface figure specification except for areas near the ends of the mirror. The reasons for these deviations arise from subtle details of the diamond-turning process which have not been fully incorporated in to the computer program that controls the diamond-turning machines. Further work in computer correction of repeatable errors of the diamond-turning machine can eliminate the waviness at the ends of the mirror. The diamond-turned mirror surface was not fully polished under this effort and therefore does not meet the roughness specification; however, surface smoothness of a fully polished cylindrical mirror manufactured using the same techniques does not meet the specification. It can be concluded that it is now technically feasible to meet the required specifications for the mirror and that the x-ray microprobe based on its use can be achieved

  20. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel, E-mail: srio@esrf.eu [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Bianchi, Davide [AC2T Research GmbH, Viktro-Kaplan-Strasse 2-C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Glass, Mark [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Idir, Mourad [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Metz, Jim [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Siewert, Frank [BESSY II, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Takacs, Peter [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil (France); Tonnessen, Tom [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Vivo, Amparo [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Yashchuk, Valeriy [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 15-R0317, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8199 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    DABAM, an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology to be used with ray-tracing and wave-propagation codes for simulating the effect of the surface errors on the performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline. An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  1. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions The X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Gerhard; Englhauser, J; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Kuster, M; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted "standard model". Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  2. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  3. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  4. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  5. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  6. Optimizing x-ray mirror thermal performance using variable length cooling for second generation FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Corey L.; Srinivasan, Venkat N.; Amores, Lope; Kelez, Nicholas M.; Morton, Daniel S.; Stefan, Peter M.; Nicolas, Josep; Zhang, Lin; Cocco, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    The success of the LCLS led to an interest across a number of disciplines in the scientific community including physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Fueled by this success, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a new high repetition rate free electron laser, LCLS-II, a superconducting linear accelerator capable of a repetition rate up to 1 MHz. Undulators will be optimized for 200 to 1300 eV soft X-rays, and for 1000 to 5000 eV hard X-rays. To absorb spontaneous radiation, higher harmonic energies and deflect the x-ray beam to various end stations, the transport and diagnostics system includes grazing incidence plane mirrors on both the soft and Hard X-ray beamline. To deliver the FEL beam with minimal power loss and wavefront distortion, we need mirrors of height errors below 1nm rms in operational conditions. We need to mitigate the thermal load effects due to the high repetition rate. The absorbed thermal profile is highly dependent on the beam divergence, and this is a function of the photon energy. To address this complexity, we developed a mirror cradle with variable length cooling and first order curve correction. Mirror figure error is minimized using variable length water-cooling through a gallium-indium eutectic bath. Curve correction is achieved with an off-axis bender that will be described in details. We present the design features, mechanical analysis and results from optical and mechanical tests of a prototype assembly, with particular regards to the figure sensitivity to bender corrections.

  7. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  8. Characterization of a next-generation piezo bimorph X-ray mirror for synchrotron beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sutter, John P; Sawhney, Kawal; Fermé, Jean Jacques; Thellièr, Christophe; Peverini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Piezo bimorph mirrors are versatile active optics used on many synchrotron beamlines. However, many bimorphs suffer from the `junction effect': a periodic deformation of the optical surface which causes major aberrations to the reflected X-ray beam. This effect is linked to the construction of such mirrors, where piezo ceramics are glued directly below the thin optical substrate. In order to address this problem, a next-generation bimorph with piezos bonded to the side faces of a monolithic substrate was developed at Thales-SESO and optimized at Diamond Light Source. Using metrology feedback from the Diamond-NOM, the optical slope error was reduced to ∼ 0.5 µrad r.m.s. for a range of ellipses. To maximize usability, a novel holder was built to accommodate the substrate in any orientation. When replacing a first-generation bimorph on a synchrotron beamline, the new mirror significantly improved the size and shape of the reflected X-ray beam. Most importantly, there was no evidence of the junction effect even after eight months of continuous beamline usage. It is hoped that this new design will reinvigorate the use of active bimorph optics at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities to manipulate and correct X-ray wavefronts.

  9. 3D characterization of thin glass x-ray mirrors via optical profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the "Characterization Universal Profilometer" (CUP), a new metrological instrument developed at the Brera Observatory for the 3D surface figure mapping of X-ray segmented mirrors. The CUP working principle is based on the measure of the the distance between the surface under test from a rigid reference dish. This approach is made possible by the coupled use of two sensors, the CHRocodile® optical device and the SIOS triple beam interferometer, mounted onto a proper system of x-y-z stage of translators. In this paper we describe the working principle of the new instrument. We will also present the results of the commissioning performed for a CUP breadboard developed at the Brera Observatory. The CUP offers the possibility to perform an high accuracy metrology of thin glass segments produced via hot slumping, to be used in future segmented X-ray mirrors like those foreseen aboard IXO or other projects that will make use of active X-ray mirrors.

  10. GLASS AND SILICON FOILS FOR X-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MIRRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MIKA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unique observations delivered by space X-ray imaging telescopes have been significantly contributing to important discoveries of current astrophysics. The telescopes’ most crucial part is a high throughput, heavily nested mirror array reflecting X-rays and focusing them to a detector. Future astronomical projects on large X-ray telescopes require novel materials and technologies for the construction of the reflecting mirrors. The future mirrors must be lightweight and precisely shaped to achieve large collecting area with high angular resolution of a few arc sec. The new materials and technologies must be cost-effective as well. Currently, the most promising materials are glass or silicon foils which are commercially produced on a large scale. A thermal forming process was used for the precise shaping of these foils. The forced and free slumping of the foils was studied in the temperature range of hot plastic deformation and the shapes obtained by the different slumping processes were compared. The shapes and the surface quality of the foils were measured by a Taylor Hobson contact profilemeter, a ZYGO interferometer and Atomic Forced Microscopy. In the experiments, both heat-treatment temperature and time were varied following our experiment design. The obtained data and relations can be used for modelling and optimizing the thermal forming procedure.

  11. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  12. The X-ray mirror telescope and the pn-CCD detector of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M; Englhauser, J; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Hartmann, R; Kang, D; Kotthaus, R; Lutz, Gerhard; Moralez, J; Serber, W; Strüder, L

    2004-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope - CAST - uses a prototype 9 Tesla LHC superconducting dipole magnet to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar particle, the axion, which was proposed by theory in the 1980s to solve the strong CP problem and which could be a dark matter candidate. In CAST a strong magnetic field is used to convert the solar axions to detectable photons via inverse Primakoff effect. The resulting X-rays are thermally distributed in the energy range of 1-7 keV and can be observed with conventional X-ray detectors. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector originally developed for XMM-Newton combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. The combination of a focusing X-ray optics and a state of the art pn-CCD detector which combines high quantum efficiency, good spacial and energy resolution, and low background improves the sensitivity of the CAST experiment such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constrai...

  13. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30 fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a 0 ∼ 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200 KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (∼6 × 10 −12 ) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements

  14. Development of the measurement system with interferometers for ultraprecise X-ray mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, K; Mimura, H

    2003-01-01

    A figure measurement system with a stitching method has been developed for evaluation and fabrication of the ultraprecise hard X-ray mirror optics. This system was constructed by two interferometers. One is the Michelson-type microscopic interferometer which is improved to keep the focus distance within 0.1 mu m. Another is the Fizeau's interferometer employed to compensate stitching error in the long spatial wavelength range. To estimate the absolute accuracy in this figure measurement system, the reflection X-ray intensity distributions of flat and aspherical mirrors, which are fabricated by us, were predicted by wave-optical simulation based on measured profile an compared with actually observed distributions. As the result, they are in good agreements. These agreements prove that the developed system has sub-nanometer absolute accuracy in all the spatial wavelength range longer than 0.5mm, because sub-nanometer figure error in those spatial wavelength ranges are known to affect reflection X-ray intensity ...

  15. Coherent, Short-Pulse X-ray Generation via Relativistic Flying Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kando

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent, Short X-ray pulses are demanded in material science and biology for the study of micro-structures. Currently, large-sized free-electron lasers are used; however, the available beam lines are limited because of the large construction cost. Here we review a novel method to downsize the system as well as providing fully (spatially and temporally coherent pulses. The method is based on the reflection of coherent laser light by a relativistically moving mirror (flying mirror. Due to the double Doppler effect, the reflected pulses are upshifted in frequency and compressed in time. Such mirrors are formed when an intense short laser pulse excites a strongly nonlinear plasma wave in tenuous plasma. Theory, proof-of-principle, experiments, and possible applications are addressed.

  16. Correlation methods in optical metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Lacey, Ian; Smith, Brian V.

    2018-01-01

    The development of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage ring x-ray sources has brought to focus the need for higher performing x-ray optics with unprecedented tolerances for surface slope and height errors and roughness. For example, the proposed beamlines for the future upgraded Advance Light Source, ALS-U, require optical elements characterized by a residual slope error of optics with a length of up to one meter. However, the current performance of x-ray optical fabrication and metrology generally falls short of these requirements. The major limitation comes from the lack of reliable and efficient surface metrology with required accuracy and with reasonably high measurement rate, suitable for integration into the modern deterministic surface figuring processes. The major problems of current surface metrology relate to the inherent instrumental temporal drifts, systematic errors, and/or an unacceptably high cost, as in the case of interferometry with computer-generated holograms as a reference. In this paper, we discuss the experimental methods and approaches based on correlation analysis to the acquisition and processing of metrology data developed at the ALS X-Ray Optical Laboratory (XROL). Using an example of surface topography measurements of a state-of-the-art x-ray mirror performed at the XROL, we demonstrate the efficiency of combining the developed experimental correlation methods to the advanced optimal scanning strategy (AOSS) technique. This allows a significant improvement in the accuracy and capacity of the measurements via suppression of the instrumental low frequency noise, temporal drift, and systematic error in a single measurement run. Practically speaking, implementation of the AOSS technique leads to an increase of the measurement accuracy, as well as the capacity of ex situ metrology by a factor of about four. The developed method is general and applicable to a broad spectrum of high accuracy measurements.

  17. Structure in defocused beams of x-ray mirrors: causes and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Alcock, Simon G.; Rust, Fiona; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are now a standard optic for focusing X-ray beams. Both bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors are widely used at Diamond Light Source because they permit a wide choice of focal lengths. They can also be deliberately set out of focus to enlarge the X-ray beam, and indeed many beamline teams now wish to generate uniform beam spots of variable size. However, progress has been slowed by the appearance of fine structure in these defocused beams. Measurements showing the relationship between the medium-frequency polishing error and this structure over a variety of beam sizes will be presented. A theoretical model for the simulations of defocused beams from general mirrors will then be developed. Not only the figure error and its first derivative the slope error, but also the second derivative, the curvature error, must be considered. In conclusion, possible ways to reduce the defocused beam structure by varying the actuators' configuration and settings will be discussed.

  18. Ray-tracing of shape metrology data of grazing incidence x-ray astronomy mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Fabio E.; Vernani, Dervis

    2008-07-01

    A number of future X-ray astronomy missions (e.g. Simbol-X, eROSITA) plan to utilize high throughput grazing incidence optics with very lightweight mirrors. The severe mass specifications require a further optimization of the existing technology with the consequent need of proper optical numerical modeling capabilities for both the masters and the mirrors. A ray tracing code has been developed for the simulation of the optical performance of type I Wolter masters and mirrors starting from 2D and 3D metrology data. In particular, in the case of 2D measurements, a 3D data set is reconstructed on the basis of dimensional references and used for the optical analysis by ray tracing. In this approach, the actual 3D shape is used for the optical analysis, thus avoiding the need of combining the separate contributions of different 2D measurements that require the knowledge of their interactions which is not normally available. The paper describes the proposed approach and presents examples of application on a prototype engineering master in the frame of ongoing activities carried out for present and future X-ray missions.

  19. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  20. Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Cheng Xinbin; Zhu Jingtao; Huang Qiushi; Zhang Zhong; Chen Lingyan

    2011-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of aperiodic tungsten/carbon (W/C) multi-layer mirror were studied. W/C multi-layer was designed as a broad-angle reflective supermirror for Cu-Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) in the grazing incident angular range (0.9-1.1 deg.) using simulated annealing algorithm. To deposit the W/C depth-graded multi-layer mirror accurately, we introduce an effective layer growth rate as a function of layer thickness. This method greatly improves the reflectivity curve compared to the conventional multi-layer mirror prepared with constant growth rate. The deposited multi-layer mirror exhibits an average reflectivity of 19% over the grazing incident angle range of 0.88-1.08 deg. which mainly coincides with the designed value. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms were discussed and the re-sputtering process of light-atom layers is accounted for the modification of layer thicknesses which leads to the effective growth rates. Using this calibration method, the aperiodic multi-layer mirrors can be better fabricated for X-ray optics.

  1. Design optimization of ultra-precise elliptical mirrors for hard x-ray nanofocusing at Nanoscopium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewish, Cameron M.; Polack, François; Signorato, Riccardo; Somogyi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The design and implementation of a pair of 100 mm-long grazing-incidence total-reflection mirrors for the hard X-ray beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil is presented. A vertically and horizontally nanofocusing mirror pair, oriented in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, has been designed and fabricated with the aim of creating a diffraction-limited high-intensity 5 - 20 keV beam with a focal spot size as small as 50 nm. We describe the design considerations, including wave-optical calculations of figures-of-merit that are relevant for spectromicroscopy, such as the focal spot size, depth of field and integrated intensity. The mechanical positioning tolerance in the pitch angle that is required to avoid introducing high-intensity features in the neighborhood of the focal spot is demonstrated with simulations to be of the order of microradians, becoming tighter for shorter focal lengths and therefore directly affecting all nanoprobe mirror systems. Metrology results for the completed mirrors are presented, showing that better than 1.5 °A-rms figure error has been achieved over the full mirror lengths with respect to the designed elliptical surfaces, with less than 60 nrad-rms slope errors.

  2. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUNS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hainich, R.; Sun, W.; Chen, Y.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Guerrero, M. A.; Güdel, M.; Silich, S.; Nazé, Y.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. X-ray emission is detected from the cluster core area with the highest stellar density and from a dusty ridge surrounding the H II region. We use a census of massive stars in the cluster to demonstrate that a cluster wind or wind-blown bubble is unlikely to provide a significant contribution to the X-ray emission detected from the central area of the cluster. We therefore suggest that X-ray emission at the cluster core originates from an ensemble of low- and solar-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, each of which would be too weak in X-rays to be detected individually. We attribute the X-ray emission from the dusty ridge to the embedded tight cluster of the newborn stars known in this area from infrared studies. Assuming that the levels of X-ray activity in young stars in the low-metallicity environment of NGC 602a are comparable to their Galactic counterparts, then the detected spatial distribution, spectral properties, and level of X-ray emission are largely consistent with those expected from low- and solar-mass PMS stars and young stellar objects (YSOs). This is the first discovery of X-ray emission attributable to PMS stars and YSOs in the SMC, which suggests that the accretion and dynamo processes in young, low-mass objects in the SMC resemble those in the Galaxy.

  3. Surface roughness evaluation on mandrels and mirror shells for future X-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia; Spiga, D.

    2008-07-01

    More X-ray missions that will be operating in near future, like particular SIMBOL-X, e-Rosita, Con-X/HXT, SVOM/XIAO and Polar-X, will be based on focusing optics manufactured by means of the Ni electroforming replication technique. This production method has already been successfully exploited for SAX, XMM and Swift-XRT. Optical surfaces for X-ray reflection have to be as smooth as possible also at high spatial frequencies. Hence it will be crucial to take under control microroughness in order to reduce the scattering effects. A high rms microroughness would cause the degradation of the angular resolution and loss of effective area. Stringent requirements have therefore to be fixed for mirror shells surface roughness depending on the specific energy range investigated, and roughness evolution has to be carefully monitored during the subsequent steps of the mirror-shells realization. This means to study the roughness evolution in the chain mandrel, mirror shells, multilayer deposition and also the degradation of mandrel roughness following iterated replicas. Such a study allows inferring which phases of production are the major responsible of the roughness growth and could help to find solutions optimizing the involved processes. The exposed study is carried out in the context of the technological consolidation related to SIMBOL-X, along with a systematic metrological study of mandrels and mirror shells. To monitor the roughness increase following each replica, a multiinstrumental approach was adopted: microprofiles were analysed by means of their Power Spectral Density (PSD) in the spatial frequency range 1000-0.01 μm. This enables the direct comparison of roughness data taken with instruments characterized by different operative ranges of frequencies, and in particular optical interferometers and Atomic Force Microscopes. The performed analysis allowed us to set realistic specifications on the mandrel roughness to be achieved, and to suggest a limit for the

  4. Measurements within cloud cavitation by means of X-ray attenuation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barouch, G.; Legoupil, S.; Stutz, B.; Woo, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the two-phase flow structure of cloud cavitation. The experimental study is performed in a cavitation tunnel equipped with a Venturi-type test section. The flow is investigated by means of an optical probe and a X-ray attenuation device. 24 collimated detectors enable measurement of the instantaneous space fraction of the vapour phase at different locations of the two-phase flow. X-ray intensity measurement mode enables fast data acquisitions (250 Hz). The studied geometry is characterized by a convergent angle of 18 deg. and a divergent angle of 8 deg. It leads to regular large vapour cloud shedding

  5. An X-ray and infrared survey of the Lynds 1228 cloud core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Rebull, Luisa [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    The nearby Lynds 1228 (L1228) dark cloud at a distance of ∼200 pc is known to harbor several young stars including the driving sources of the giant HH 199 and HH 200 Herbig-Haro (HH) outflows. L1228 has previously been studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths but not in X-rays. We present results of a sensitive 37 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the L1228 core region. Chandra detected 60 X-ray sources, most of which are faint (<40 counts) and non-variable. Infrared counterparts were identified for 53 of the 60 X-ray sources using archival data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Object classes were assigned using mid-IR colors for those objects with complete photometry, most of which were found to have colors consistent with extragalactic background sources. Seven young stellar object candidates were identified including the class I protostar HH 200-IRS which was detected as a faint hard X-ray source. No X-ray emission was detected from the luminous protostar HH 199-IRS. We summarize the X-ray and infrared properties of the detected sources and provide IR spectral energy distribution modeling of high-interest objects including the protostars driving the HH outflows.

  6. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences

  7. Progress towards sub-micron hard x-ray imaging using elliptically bent mirrors and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Lamble, G.M.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed an x-ray micro-probe facility utilizing mirror bending techniques that allow white light x-rays (4--12keV) from the Advanced light Source Synchrotron to be focused down to spot sizes of micron spatial dimensions. They have installed a 4 crystal monochromator prior to the micro-focusing mirrors. The monochromator is designed such that it can move out of the way of the input beam, and allows the same micron sized sample to be illuminated with either white or monochromatic radiation. Illumination of the sample with white light allows for elemental mapping and Laue x-ray diffraction, while illumination of the sample with monochromatic light allows for elemental mapping (with reduced background), micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-diffraction. The performance of the system will be described as will some of the initial experiments that cover the various disciplines of Earth, Material and Life Sciences.

  8. An application of space technology to the terrestrial search for axions: the X-ray mirror telescope at CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Gerhard E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Braeuninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Hartmann, R.; Kang, D.; Kotthaus, R.; Kuster, M.; Serber, W.; Strueder, L

    2004-02-01

    An X-ray mirror telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror assembly as used in X-ray astronomy and a new type X-ray CCD has been added to the CERN Axion Solar Telescope experiment. It will strongly improve the sensitivity in the search for axions, a so far elusive particle. The axion is predicted in order to explain the observed CP conservation in strong interaction which is not expected within the generally accepted 'standard model'. Construction and performance of the X-ray telescope are described. An improvement by two orders of magnitude in the signal over background S/B event ratio is estimated.

  9. Mathematical Formalism for Designing Wide-Field X-Ray Telescopes: Mirror Nodal Positions and Detector Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.

  10. Soft X-ray reflectivity: from quasi-perfect mirrors to accelerator walls

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfers, F.

    2013-04-22

    Reflection of light from surfaces is a very common, but complex phenomenon not only in science and technology, but in every day life. The underlying basic optical principles have been developed within the last five centuries using visible light available from the sun or other laboratory light sources. X-rays were detected in 1895, and the full potential of soft- and hard-x ray radiation as a probe for the electronic and geometric properties of matter, for material analysis and its characterisation is available only since the advent of synchrotron radiation sources some 50 years ago. On the other hand high-brilliance and high power synchrotron radiation of present-days 3rd and 4th generation light sources is not always beneficial. Highenergy machines and accelerator-based light sources can suffer from a serious performance drop or limitations due to interaction of the synchrotron radiation with the accelerator walls, thus producing clouds of photoelectrons (e-cloud) which in turn interact with the accelerated ...

  11. Speckle-based portable device for in-situ metrology of x-ray mirrors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Zhou, Tunhe; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-09-01

    For modern synchrotron light sources, the push toward diffraction-limited and coherence-preserved beams demands accurate metrology on X-ray optics. Moreover, it is important to perform in-situ characterization and optimization of X-ray mirrors since their ultimate performance is critically dependent on the working conditions. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a portable metrology device, which can be easily implemented on a range of beamlines for in-situ metrology. An X-ray speckle-based portable device for in-situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors has been developed at Diamond Light Source. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning the speckle generator in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that characterization and alignment of X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device is presented with representative examples.

  12. Observations of X-ray sources in the Large Magellanic cloud by the OSO-7 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Clark, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the 1-40 keV X-ray detectors on the OSO-7 satellite are reported. Results include the discovery of a previously unreported source LMC X-5, measurements of the spectral characteristics of four sources, and observations of their variability on time scales of months

  13. Ultra-short period X-ray mirrors: Production and investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibishkin, M.S.; Chkhalo, N.I.; Fraerman, A.A.; Pestov, A.E.; Prokhorov, K.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Vainer, Yu.A.

    2005-01-01

    Technological problems that deal with manufacturing of highly effective ultra-short (d=0.7-3.2 nm) period X-ray multilayer mirrors (MLM) are discussed in the article. In an example of Cr/Sc and W/B 4 C MLM it is experimentally shown, that the problem of periodicity and selectivity for multilayer dispersive X-ray elements has been generally solved by now. However, the problem of short-period MLM reflectivity increase related to existing of transitive borders between layers in structures remains rather urgent. The new technique of tungsten deposition using the RF source in order to decrease roughness in borders is discussed and tested. The results of measurements on wavelengths of 0.154, 0.834 and 1.759 nm are given. The RbAP crystals ordinary used in experiments and short-period W/B 4 C MLM produced are compared. The specular and non-specular characteristics of scattering on the 0.154 nm wavelengths are also measured in order to study transitive borders structures

  14. New technology and techniques for x-ray mirror calibration at PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Michael J.; Budau, Bernd; Burkert, Wolfgang; Friedrich, Peter; Hartner, Gisela; Misaki, Kazutami; Mühlegger, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The PANTER X-ray Test Facility has been utilized successfully for developing and calibrating X-ray astronomical instrumentation for observatories such as ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, Swift, etc. Future missions like eROSITA, SIMBOL-X, or XEUS require improved spatial resolution and broader energy band pass, both for optics and for cameras. Calibration campaigns at PANTER have made use of flight spare instrumentation for space applications; here we report on a new dedicated CCD camera for on-ground calibration, called TRoPIC. As the CCD is similar to ones used for eROSITA (pn-type, back-illuminated, 75 μm pixel size, frame store mode, 450 μm micron wafer thickness, etc.) it can serve as prototype for eROSITA camera development. New techniques enable and enhance the analysis of measurements of eROSITA shells or silicon pore optics. Specifically, we show how sub-pixel resolution can be utilized to improve spatial resolution and subsequently the characterization of of mirror shell quality and of point spread function parameters in particular, also relevant for position reconstruction of astronomical sources in orbit.

  15. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken; Conley, Ray; Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard; Zhou, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results

  16. A one-dimensional ion beam figuring system for x-ray mirror fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idir, Mourad, E-mail: midir@bnl.gov; Huang, Lei; Bouet, Nathalie; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Vescovi, Matthew; Lauer, Ken [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Conley, Ray [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rennie, Kent; Kahn, Jim; Nethery, Richard [Kaufman & Robinson, Inc., 1330 Blue Spruce Drive, Fort Collins, Colorado 80524 (United States); Zhou, Lin [College of Mechatronics and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, 109 Deya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Hu’nan Key Laboratory of Ultra-precision Machining Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a one-dimensional Ion Beam Figuring (IBF) system for x-ray mirror polishing. Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The system is based on a state of the art sputtering deposition system outfitted with a gridded radio frequency inductive coupled plasma ion beam source equipped with ion optics and dedicated slit developed specifically for this application. The production of an IBF system able to produce an elongated removal function rather than circular is presented in this paper, where we describe in detail the technical aspect and present the first obtained results.

  17. A new transient pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud with an unusual x-ray spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the discovery of a luminous (3.5 x 10(exp 37) ergs/sec over the 0.2 to 2 keV band) transient X-ray pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with an extremely soft component to its X-ray spectrum. This is the first time that a spectrum of this type has been seen in this class of X-ray source. The pulse period is 2.7632 s, and the pulse modulation appears to vary with energy from nearly unpulsed in the low-energy band of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) (0.07 to 0.4 keV) to about 50% in the high-energy band (1.0 to 2.4 keV). The object, RX J0059.2-7138, also shows flickering variability in its X-ray emission on timescales of 50 to 100s. The pulse-phase-averaged PSPC X-ray spectrum can be well described by a two-component source model seen through an absorbing column density of approximately 10(exp 21) atoms cm(exp -2). One spectral component is a power law with photon index 2.4. The other component is significantly softer and can be described by either a steeply falling power law or a blackbody with a temperature KT(sub BB) approximately 35 eV. Ths component is transient, but evidently upulsed, and, for the blackbody model fits, requires a large bolometric luminosity: near, or even several times greater than, the Eddington luminosity for a 1.4 solar mass object. When these characteristics of its soft emission are considered, RX J0059.2-7138 appears quite similar to other X-ray sources in the magellanic Clouds, such as CAL 83, CAL 87, and RX J0527.8-6954, which show only extreme ultrasoft (EUS) X-ray spectra. The discovery of RX J0059.2-7138, a probably high-mass X-ray binary, clearly indicates that EUS spectra may arise from accretion-powered neutron-star X-ray sources. This result lends support to the idea that some of the 'pure' EUS sources may be shrouded low-mass X-ray binaries rather than accreting white dwarfs.

  18. Preparation and characterization of gold nanocrystals and nanomultilayer mirrors for X-ray diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slieh, Jawad

    2009-03-01

    In order to make possible studies on the dynamics of protein molecules in their natural environment Sasaki has developed in the last years a new X-ray diffraction procedure. In this procedure, which is called dynamical X-ray tracking (DXT), the diffraction occurs not directly on the protein molecule, but on a nanomirror rigidly bound to the protein molecule. Measured is hereby the time variation od the alignment of the nanocrystal, which is determined by means of the position of the Laue-diffraction points. By means of these position variations statements on structure variations of the studied protein can be derived with a high spatial accuracy in the time domain. The scientific aim of this thesis is the construction of a DXT measuring place as well as the preparation of the requireds nanocrystalline X-ray diffracting protein labels including their characterization. First a short survey about the foundations of the X radiation and their interactions with matter, especially under regardment of X-ray diffraction on crystals, is given. The measuring methods for the determination of the crystal alignment as well as the vertical and lateral crystal size are presented. In the following chapter a comprehensive survey about the different devices and analysis methods used for the fabrication and characterization of gold crystals is presented. Additionally with precise technical statements the self-constructed MBE apparature is described. This apparature has the purpose to fabricate gold nanocrystals by means of the molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) procedure. In the fourth chapter the construction of the DXT laboratory are presented and its beam profile in the focus, its divergence, and its beam spectrum determined. Based on this in the fifth chapter the study of the radiation damage of 2 cysteine-peroxyredoxine (2CP) proteins and the detection of this radiation damage without Au colloids and with Au colloids are presented. The main content of the sixth chapter is the precise

  19. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Borghi, G.; Garoli, D.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.; Burkert, W.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G.; Citterio, O.; Gorenstein, P.; Romaine, S.

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW < or approx. 30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  20. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freyberg, M.; Garoli, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hartner, G.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW <~30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  1. Study of Cr/Sc-based multilayer reflecting mirrors using soft x-ray reflectivity and standing wave-enhanced x-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiyi; Burcklen, Catherine; André, Jean-Michel; Guen, Karine Le; Giglia, Angelo; Koshmak, Konstantin; Nannarone, Stefano; Bridou, Françoise; Meltchakov, Evgueni; Rossi, Sébastien de; Delmotte, Franck; Jonnard, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    We study Cr/Sc-based multilayer mirrors designed to work in the water window range using hard and soft x-ray reflectivity as well as x-ray fluorescence enhanced by standing waves. Samples differ by the elemental composition of the stack, the thickness of each layer, and the order of deposition. This paper mainly consists of two parts. In the first part, the optical performances of different Cr/Sc-based multilayers are reported, and in the second part, we extend further the characterization of the structural parameters of the multilayers, which can be extracted by comparing the experimental data with simulations. The methodology is detailed in the case of Cr/B4C/Sc sample for which a three-layer model is used. Structural parameters determined by fitting reflectivity curve are then introduced as fixed parameters to plot the x-ray standing wave curve, to compare with the experiment, and confirm the determined structure of the stack.

  2. Correcting X-ray spectra obtained from the AXAF VETA-I mirror calibration for pileup, continuum, background and deadtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, G.; Flanagan, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Nguyen, D.; Zombek, M.; Joy, M.; Kolodziejezak, J.

    1993-01-01

    The VETA-I mirror was calibrated with the use of a collimated soft X-ray source produced by electron bombardment of various anode materials. The FWHM, effective area and encircled energy were measured with the use of proportional counters that were scanned with a set of circular apertures. The pulsers from the proportional counters were sent through a multichannel analyzer that produced a pulse height spectrum. In order to characterize the properties of the mirror at different discrete photon energies one desires to extract from the pulse height distribution only those photons that originated from the characteristic line emission of the X-ray target source. We have developed a code that fits a modeled spectrum to the observed X-ray data, extracts the counts that originated from the line emission, and estimates the error in these counts. The function that is fitted to the X-ray spectra includes a Prescott function for the resolution of the detector a second Prescott function for a pileup peak and a X-ray continuum function. The continuum component is determined by calculating the absorption of the target Bremsstrahlung through various filters, correcting for the reflectivity of the mirror and convolving with the detector response.

  3. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  4. Numerical controlled diamond fly cutting machine for grazing incidence X-ray reflection mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Shigeo; Seya, Eiiti

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has reached the stage of practical use, and the application to the wide fields that support future advanced technologies such as spectroscopy, the structural analysis of matters, semiconductor lithography and medical light source is expected. For the optical system of the equipment utilizing synchrotron radiation, the total reflection mirrors of oblique incidence are used for collimating and collecting X-ray. In order to restrain their optical aberration, nonspherical shape is required, and as the manufacturing method with high precision for nonspherical mirrors, a numerically controlled diamond cutting machine was developed. As for the cutting of soft metals with diamond tools, the high precision machining of any form can be done by numerical control, the machining time can be reduced as compared with grinding, and the cooling effect is large in metals. The construction of the cutting machine, the principle of machining, the control system, the method of calculating numerical control data, the investigation of machinable forms and the result of evaluation are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Large aperture Fizeau interferometer commissioning and preliminary measurements of a long x-ray mirror at European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M., E-mail: maurizio.vannoni@xfel.eu; Freijo Martín, I. [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The European XFEL (X-ray Free Electron Laser) is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 ms long pulse train at 10 Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale), and high average brilliance (1.6 ⋅ 10{sup 25} (photons s{sup −1} mm{sup −2} mrad{sup −2})/0.1% bandwidth). The beam has very high pulse energy; therefore, it has to be spread out on a relatively long mirror (about 1 m). Due to the very short wavelength, the mirrors need to have a high quality surface on their entire length, and this is considered very challenging even with the most advanced polishing methods. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mount, we equipped a metrology laboratory with a large aperture Fizeau interferometer. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter beam. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been taken in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. We report the first commissioning of the instrument, its calibration, and performance characterization, together with some preliminary results with the measurement of a 950 mm silicon substrate. The intended application is to characterize the final XFEL mirrors with nanometer accuracy.

  6. Measurement of the point spread function and effective area of the Solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemen, J. R.; Claflin, E. S.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Catura, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    A grazing incidence solar X-ray telescope, Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), will be flown on the Solar-A satellite in 1991. Measurements have been conducted to determine the focal length, Point Spread Function (PSF), and effective area of the SXT mirror. The measurements were made with pinholes, knife edges, a CCD, and a proportional counter. The results show the 1/r character of the PSF, and indicate a half power diameter of 4.9 arcsec and an effective area of 1.33 sq cm at 13.3 A (0.93 keV). The mirror was found to provide a high contrast image with very little X-ray scattering.

  7. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  8. Focusing X-rays to a 1-μm spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 μm. This has been improved to 1 μm through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples

  9. Control of a 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror with either external or internal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Pardini, Tommaso; McCarville, Thomas; Palmer, David; Brooks, Audrey

    2014-09-01

    Our 45-cm long x-ray deformable mirror has 45 actuators along the tangential axis, along with one strain gauge per actuator and eight temperature sensors. We discuss the detailed calibration of the mirror's figure response to voltage (fourth-order) and the strain gauges' response to figure changes (linear). The mirror's cylinder shape changes with temperature, which can be tracked with the temperature sensors. We present initial results of measuring figure change with the strain gauges, which works very well for large changes (> 10 nm peak-to- valley), but is noisy with a single strain reading for small changes (5 nm peak-to-valley).

  10. Deep Chandra Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. II. Timing Analysis of X-Ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, JaeSub; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Drake, Jeremy J.; Plucinsky, Paul P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Haberl, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbach straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sasaki, Manami [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Sternwartstrasse 7, 96049 Bamberg (Germany); Laycock, Silas, E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the timing analysis results of X-ray pulsars from a recent deep Chandra survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analyzed a total exposure of 1.4 Ms from 31 observations over a 1.2 deg{sup 2} region in the SMC under a Chandra X-ray Visionary Program. Using the Lomb–Scargle and epoch-folding techniques, we detected periodic modulations from 20 pulsars and a new candidate pulsar. The survey also covered 11 other pulsars with no clear sign of periodic modulation. The 0.5–8 keV X-ray luminosity ( L {sub X} ) of the pulsars ranges from 10{sup 34} to 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} at 60 kpc. All of the Chandra sources with L {sub X} ≳ 4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} exhibit X-ray pulsations. The X-ray spectra of the SMC pulsars (and high-mass X-ray binaries) are in general harder than those of the SMC field population. All but SXP 8.02 can be fitted by an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of Γ ≲ 1.5. The X-ray spectrum of the known magnetar SXP 8.02 is better fitted with a two-temperature blackbody model. Newly measured pulsation periods of SXP 51.0, SXP 214, and SXP 701, are significantly different from the previous XMM-Newton and RXTE measurements. This survey provides a rich data set for energy-dependent pulse profile modeling. Six pulsars show an almost eclipse-like dip in the pulse profile. Phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals diverse spectral variations during pulsation cycles: e.g., for an absorbed power-law model, some exhibit an (anti)-correlation between absorption and X-ray flux, while others show more intrinsic spectral variation (i.e., changes in photon indices).

  11. Characterizing the X-ray Emission in Small Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Nicole; Auchettl, Katie; Lopez, Laura

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud is a close, metal-poor galaxy with active star formation, and it has a diverse population of 24 supernova remnants (SNRs) that have been identified at several wavelengths. Past work has characterized the X-ray emission in these sources separately and aimed to constrain their explosive origins from observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. Three SNRs have possible evidence for Type Ia explosions based on strong Fe-L emission in their X-ray spectra, although the environments and intermediate-mass element abundances are more consistent with those of core-collapse SNe. In this poster, we analyze the archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the SMC SNR sample, and we model the sources' X-ray spectra in a systematic way to derive the plasma properties and to constrain the nature of the explosions. In one SNR, we note the presence of an X-ray binary near the source's geometric center, suggesting the compact object was produced in the SN explosion. As one of only three SNRs known in the Local Group to host a binary system, this source is worthy of follow-up investigations to probe explosions of massive stars in binary systems.

  12. COSMIC-RAY AND X-RAY HEATING OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS AND PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassgold, Alfred E.; Galli, Daniele; Padovani, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic-ray and X-ray heating are derived from the electron energy-loss calculations of Dalgarno, Yan, and Liu for hydrogen-helium gas mixtures. These authors treated the heating from elastic scattering and collisional de-excitation of rotationally excited hydrogen molecules. Here we consider the heating that can arise from all ionization and excitation processes, with particular emphasis on the reactions of cosmic-ray and X-ray generated ions with the heavy neutral species, which we refer to as chemical heating. In molecular regions, chemical heating dominates and can account for 50% of the energy expended in the creation of an ion pair. The heating per ion pair ranges in the limit of negligible electron fraction from ∼4.3 eV for diffuse atomic gas to ∼13 eV for the moderately dense regions of molecular clouds and to ∼18 eV for the very dense regions of protoplanetary disks. An important general conclusion of this study is that cosmic-ray and X-ray heating depends on the physical properties of the medium, i.e., on the molecular and electron fractions, the total density of hydrogen nuclei, and, to a lesser extent, on the temperature. It is also noted that chemical heating, the dominant process for cosmic-ray and X-ray heating, plays a role in UV irradiated molecular gas.

  13. Experimental study and analytical model of deformation of magnetostrictive films as applied to mirrors for x-ray space telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Knapp, Peter; Vaynman, S; Graham, M E; Cao, Jian; Ulmer, M P

    2014-09-20

    The desire for continuously gaining new knowledge in astronomy has pushed the frontier of engineering methods to deliver lighter, thinner, higher quality mirrors at an affordable cost for use in an x-ray observatory. To address these needs, we have been investigating the application of magnetic smart materials (MSMs) deposited as a thin film on mirror substrates. MSMs have some interesting properties that make the application of MSMs to mirror substrates a promising solution for making the next generation of x-ray telescopes. Due to the ability to hold a shape with an impressed permanent magnetic field, MSMs have the potential to be the method used to make light weight, affordable x-ray telescope mirrors. This paper presents the experimental setup for measuring the deformation of the magnetostrictive bimorph specimens under an applied magnetic field, and the analytical and numerical analysis of the deformation. As a first step in the development of tools to predict deflections, we deposited Terfenol-D on the glass substrates. We then made measurements that were compared with the results from the analytical and numerical analysis. The surface profiles of thin-film specimens were measured under an external magnetic field with white light interferometry (WLI). The analytical model provides good predictions of film deformation behavior under various magnetic field strengths. This work establishes a solid foundation for further research to analyze the full three-dimensional deformation behavior of magnetostrictive thin films.

  14. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Large X-Ray Mirror Mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran S.; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-energy grazing incidence shell optics for hard-x-ray telescopes. The resolution of a mirror shells depends on the quality of cylindrical mandrel from which they are being replicated. Mid-spatial-frequency axial figure error is a dominant contributor in the error budget of the mandrel. This paper presents our efforts to develop a deterministic cylindrical polishing process in order to keep the mid-spatial-frequency axial figure errors to a minimum. Simulation software is developed to model the residual surface figure errors of a mandrel due to the polishing process parameters and the tools used, as well as to compute the optical performance of the optics. The study carried out using the developed software was focused on establishing a relationship between the polishing process parameters and the mid-spatial-frequency error generation. The process parameters modeled are the speeds of the lap and the mandrel, the tool s influence function, the contour path (dwell) of the tools, their shape and the distribution of the tools on the polishing lap. Using the inputs from the mathematical model, a mandrel having conical approximated Wolter-1 geometry, has been polished on a newly developed computer-controlled cylindrical polishing machine. The preliminary results of a series of polishing experiments demonstrate a qualitative agreement with the developed model. We report our first experimental results and discuss plans for further improvements in the polishing process. The ability to simulate the polishing process is critical to optimize the polishing process, improve the mandrel quality and significantly reduce the cost of mandrel production

  15. The eROSITA X-ray mirrors: technology and qualification aspects of the production of mandrels, shells and mirror modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeli, L.; Borghi, G.; Bräuninger, H.; Citterio, O.; Ferrario, I.; Friedrich, P.; Grisoni, G.; Marioni, F.; Predehl, P.; Rossi, M.; Ritucci, A.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2017-11-01

    The name "eROSITA" stands for extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array. The general design of the eROSITA X-ray telescope is derived from that of ABRIXAS. A bundle of 7 mirror modules with short focal lengths make up a compact telescope which is ideal for survey observations. Similar designs had been proposed for the missions DUO and ROSITA but were not realized due to programmatic shortfall. Compared to those, however, the effective area in the soft X-ray band has now much increased by adding 27 additional outer mirror shells to the original 27 ones of each mirror module. The requirement on the on-axis resolution has also been confined, namely to 15 arc seconds HEW. For these reasons the prefix "extended" was added to the original name "ROSITA". The scientific motivation for this extension is founded in the ambitious goal to detect about 100,000 clusters of galaxies which trace the large scale structure of the Universe in space and time. The X-ray telescope of eROSITA will consist of 7 identical and co-aligned mirror modules, each with 54 nested Wolter-1 mirror shells. The mirror shells are glued onto a spider wheel which is screwed to the mirror interface structure making a rigid mechanical unit. The assembly of 7 modules forms a compact hexagonal configuration with 1300 mm diameter (see Fig. 1) and will be attached to the telescope structure which connects to the 7 separate CCD cameras in the focal planes. The co-alignment of the mirror module enables eROSITA to perform also pointed observations. The replication process described in chapter III allows the manufacturing in one single piece and at the same time of both the parabola and hyperbola parts of the Wolter 1 mirror.

  16. Fabrication of High Resolution Lightweight X-ray Mirrors Using Mono-crystalline Silicon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "Three factors characterize an X-ray optics fabrication technology: angular resolution, effective area per unit mass, and production cost per unit effective...

  17. X-ray imaging studies of electron cyclotron microwave-heated plasmas in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, B.H.

    1986-02-01

    An x-ray pinhole camera designed to efficiently detect photons with energies between 5 and 250 keV was built to image bremsstrahlung emission from a microwave-heated hot electron plasma. This plasma is formed at one of the thermal barrier locations in the Tandem Experiment-Upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instrument consists of a lead aperture, an x-ray converter in the form of a sodium-activated cesium iodide scintillator, light intensifier electronics, and a recording medium that may either be high speed film or a CCD array. The nominal spatial and temporal resolutions are one part in 40 and 17 msec, respectively. The component requirements for optimum performance were determined both analytically and by computer simulation, and were verified experimentally. The details of these results are presented. The instrument has been used to measure x-ray emission from the TMX-U west end cell. Data acquired with the x-ray camera has allowed us to infer the temporal evolution of the mirror-trapped electron radial profile

  18. BeatMark Software to Reduce the Cost of X-Ray Mirror Fabrication by Optimization of Polishing and Metrology cycle, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For X-Ray optics, polishing the mirrors is one of the most costly steps in the fabrication of the system. BeatMark software will significantly decrease the cost of...

  19. The use of x-ray interferometry to investigate the linearity of the NPL Differential Plane Mirror Optical Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Downs, Michael J.

    2000-08-01

    The x-ray interferometer from the combined optical and x-ray interferometer (COXI) facility at NPL has been used to investigate the performance of the NPL Jamin Differential Plane Mirror Interferometer when it is fitted with stabilized and unstabilized lasers. This Jamin interferometer employs a common path design using a double pass configuration and one fringe is realized by a displacement of 158 nm between its two plane mirror retroreflectors. Displacements over ranges of several optical fringes were measured simultaneously using the COXI x-ray interferometer and the Jamin interferometer and the results were compared. In order to realize the highest measurement accuracy from the Jamin interferometer, the air paths were shielded to prevent effects from air turbulence and electrical signals generated by the photodetectors were analysed and corrected using an optimizing routine in order to subdivide the optical fringes accurately. When an unstabilized laser was used the maximum peak-to-peak difference between the two interferometers was 80 pm, compared with 20 pm when the stabilized laser was used.

  20. Laser Plasma Soft X-ray Microscope with Wolter Mirrors for Observation of Biological Specimens in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Sadao

    2006-02-01

    A laser plasma soft X-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors was developed so that specimens could be set in the atmosphere. Silicon nitride membranes 100 nm thick were used as vacuum-tight windows. Using relatively large windows (0.46× 0.46 mm2), an adequate working distance for samples, which was approximately 1.2 mm, was assured. The endurance of the vacuum-tight window was measured briefly. Dry biological cells could be observed with resolution better than 100 nm. A preliminary observation of wet biological cells was carried out using a wet environmental sample holder which was composed of only two sheets of silicon nitride membrane. An X-ray micrograph of wet red blood cells from a chicken was obtained without apparent effects of radiation damage. The properties of a vacuum-tight window and a wet sample holder are discussed.

  1. Laser plasma soft x-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors for observation of biological specimens in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Sadao

    2006-01-01

    A laser plasma soft X-ray microscope with Wolter mirrors was developed so that specimens could be set in the atmosphere. Silicon nitride membranes 100 nm thick were used as vacuum-tight windows. Using relatively large windows (0.46 x 0.46 mm 2 ), an adequate working distance for samples, which was approximately 1.2 mm, was assured. The endrance of the vacuum-tight window was measured briefly. Dry biological cells could be observed with resolution better than 100 nm. A preliminary observation of wet biological cells was carried out using a wet environmental sample holder which was composed of only two sheets of silicon nitride membrane. An X-ray micrograph of wet red blood cells from a chicken was obtained without apparent effects of radiation damage. The properties of a vacuum-tight window and a wet sample holder are discussed. (author)

  2. Trace Element Mapping of a Biological Specimen by a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope with a Wolter Mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Yamada, Norimitsu; Ishino, Toyoaki; Namiki, Takashi; Watanabe, Norio; Aoki, Sadao

    2007-01-01

    A full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging microscope with a Wolter mirror was applied to the element mapping of alfalfa seeds. The X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). X-ray fluorescence images of several growing stages of the alfalfa seeds were obtained. X-ray fluorescence energy spectra were measured with either a solid state detector or a CCD photon counting method. The element distributions of iron and zinc which were included in the seeds were obtained using a photon counting method

  3. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  4. Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors: Study of interfaces and X-ray reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burcklen, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Rossi, S. de; Delmotte, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Soufli, R. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dennetiere, D.; Polack, F.; Capitanio, B.; Thomasset, M. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, BP 48F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gullikson, E. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the effect of layer interfaces on the x-ray reflectance in Cr/B{sub 4}C multilayer interference coatings with layer thicknesses ranging from 0.7 nm to 5.4 nm. The multilayers were deposited by magnetron sputtering and by ion beam sputtering. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry, soft x-ray reflectometry, and transmission electron microscopy reveal asymmetric multilayer structures with a larger B{sub 4}C-on-Cr interface, which we modeled with a 1–1.5 nm thick interfacial layer. Reflectance measurements in the vicinity of the Cr L{sub 2,3} absorption edge demonstrate fine structure that is not predicted by simulations using the currently tabulated refractive index (optical constants) values for Cr.

  5. Young Star Cluster Found Aglow With Mysterious X-Ray Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    A mysterious cloud of high-energy electrons enveloping a young cluster of stars has been discovered by astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These extremely high-energy particles could cause dramatic changes in the chemistry of the disks that will eventually form planets around stars in the cluster. Known as RCW 38, the star cluster covers a region about 5 light years across. It contains thousands of stars formed less than a million years ago and appears to be forming new stars even today. The crowded environment of a star cluster is thought to be conducive to the production of hot gas, but not high-energy particles. Such particles are typically produced by exploding stars, or in the strong magnetic fields around neutron stars or black holes, none of which is evident in RCW 38. "The RCW 38 observation doesn't agree with the conventional picture," said Scott Wolk of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, lead author of an Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the Chandra observation. "The data show that somehow extremely high-energy electrons are being produced there, although it is not clear how." RCW 38 RCW 38 X-ray, Radio, Infrared Composite Electrons accelerated to energies of trillions of volts are required to account for the observed X-ray spectrum of the gas cloud surrounding the ensemble of stars, which shows an excess of high-energy X-rays. As these electrons move in the magnetic field that threads the cluster, they produce X-rays. One possible origin for the high-energy electrons is a previously undetected supernova that occurred in the cluster. Although direct evidence for the supernova could have faded away thousands of years ago, a shock wave or a rapidly rotating neutron star produced by the outburst could be acting in concert with stellar winds to produce the high-energy electrons. "Regardless of the origin of the energetic electrons," said Wolk, "their presence would change the chemistry of proto

  6. Multimodal hard x-ray nanoprobe facility by nested Montel mirrors aimed for 40nm resolution at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Gung-Chian, E-mail: gcyin@nsrrc.org.tw; Chang, Shi-Hung; Chen, Bo-Yi; Chen, Huang-Yeh; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Tseng, Shao-Chin; Lee, Chian-Yao; Tang, Mau-Tsu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shao-Yun [National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-28

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe facility at Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) provides multimodal X-ray detections, including XRF, XAS, XEOL, projection microscope, CDI, etc. Resulting from the large numerical aperture obtained by utilizing nested Montel mirrors, the beamline with a moderate length 75 meters can conduct similar performance with those beamlines longer than 100 meters. The mirrors are symmetrically placed with a 45 degrees cut. The beamline optics is thus designed to take the advantage of the symmetry of mirrors such that a round focal spot is accomplished. The size and the divergence of the focus spot are simulated around 40 nm and 6.29 mrad, respectively. The whole facility including the beamline and the stations will be operated under vacuum to preserve the photon coherence as well as to prevent the system from unnecessary environmental interference. A SEM in close cooperation with laser interferometers is equipped to precisely locate the position of the sample. This endstation is scheduled to be commissioned in the fall of 2016.

  7. Accelerating statistical image reconstruction algorithms for fan-beam x-ray CT using cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Somesh; Rao, A. Ravishankar; Sheinin, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Statistical image reconstruction algorithms potentially offer many advantages to x-ray computed tomography (CT), e.g. lower radiation dose. But, their adoption in practical CT scanners requires extra computation power, which is traditionally provided by incorporating additional computing hardware (e.g. CPU-clusters, GPUs, FPGAs etc.) into a scanner. An alternative solution is to access the required computation power over the internet from a cloud computing service, which is orders-of-magnitude more cost-effective. This is because users only pay a small pay-as-you-go fee for the computation resources used (i.e. CPU time, storage etc.), and completely avoid purchase, maintenance and upgrade costs. In this paper, we investigate the benefits and shortcomings of using cloud computing for statistical image reconstruction. We parallelized the most time-consuming parts of our application, the forward and back projectors, using MapReduce, the standard parallelization library on clouds. From preliminary investigations, we found that a large speedup is possible at a very low cost. But, communication overheads inside MapReduce can limit the maximum speedup, and a better MapReduce implementation might become necessary in the future. All the experiments for this paper, including development and testing, were completed on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) for less than $20.

  8. The mirror module design for the cryogenic x-ray imaging spectrometer on-board ORIGIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Basso, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ORIGIN is a medium size high-energy mission concept submitted to ESA in response to the Cosmic Vision call issued on July 2010. The mission will investigate the evolution of the Universe by performing soft X-ray high resolution spectroscopic measurements of metals formed in different astrophysica...

  9. Glass and silicon foils for X-ray space telescope mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míka, M.; Pína, L.; Landová, M.; Jankovský, O.; Kačerovský, R.; Švéda, L.; Havlíková, R.; Hudec, René; Maršíková, V.; Inneman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2011), s. 418-424 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : glass * silicon * X-ray Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2011

  10. Reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images for multispectral x-ray imaging with a pinhole array and a flat Bragg mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, N.; Barbee, T. W.; Koch, J. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Welser, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a software package for reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from a multiple monochromatic x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The instrument consists of a pinhole array, a multilayer Bragg mirror, and an image detector. The pinhole array projects hundreds of images onto the detector after reflection off the multilayer Bragg mirror, which introduces spectral dispersion along the reflection axis. The quasimonochromatic images of line emissions and continuum emissions can be used for measurement of temperature and density maps of implosion plasmas. In this article, we describe a computer-aided processing technique for systematic reconstruction of quasimonochromatic images from raw data. This technique provides flexible spectral bandwidth selection and allows systematic subtraction of continuum emission from line emission images

  11. Stochastic analysis of 1D and 2D surface topography of x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurina, Anastasia Y.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-08-01

    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of new optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography for planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially complex in the case of x-ray optics, particularly for the X-ray Surveyor under development and other missions. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics with unprecedented quality (surface slope accuracy quality optics. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors makes the fabrication extremely time consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We discuss improvements in metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical analysis of a compact volume of metrology data. The data is considered stochastic and a new statistical model called Invertible Time Invariant Linear Filter (InTILF) is developed now for 2D surface profiles to provide compact description of the 2D data additionally to 1D data treated so far. The model captures faint patterns in the data and serves as a quality metric and feedback to polishing processes, avoiding high resolution metrology measurements over the entire optical surface. The modeling, implemented in our Beatmark software, allows simulating metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data is vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, to be exactly adequate for the required system performance.

  12. The MEL-X project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: a mirror-based delay line for x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Tom; Hill, Randy; Decker, Todd; Alameda, Jennifer; Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andy; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sébastien; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.

    2015-09-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in collaboration with the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we are developing a mirror-based delay line for x-rays (MEL-X) to enable x-ray pump/x-ray probe experiments at Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The goal of this project is the development and deployment of a proof-of-principle delay line featuring coated x-ray optics. The four-mirror design of the MEL-X is motivated by the need for ease of alignment and use. In order to simplify the overlap of the pump and the probe beam after each delay time change, a scheme involving super-polished rails and mirror-to-motor decoupling has been adopted. The MEL-X, used in combination with a bright pulsed source like LCLS, features a capability for a high intensity pump beam. Its Iridium coating allows it to work at hard x-ray energies all the way up to 9 keV, with a probe beam transmission of 35% up to 8keV, and 14% at 9keV. The delay time can be tailored to each particular experiment, with a nominal range of 70 - 350 fs for this prototype. The MEL-X, combined with established techniques such as x-ray diffraction, absorption or emission, could provide new insights on ultra-fast transitions in highly excited states of matter.

  13. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  14. Mirrors for High Resolution X-Ray Optics---Figure Preserving IR/PT Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Olsen, Lawrence; Sharpe, Marton; Numata, Ai; McClelland, Ryan; Saha, Timo; Zhang, Will

    2016-01-01

    Coating stress of 10 - 20 nm of Ir is sufficiently high to distort the figure of arc-second thin lightweight mirrors. For iridium: --Stress sigma 4 GPa for 15 nm film implies 60 Nm integrated stress-- Need less than 3 N/m (or stress less than 200 MPa) for sub-arcsecond optics. Basic Approaches for Mitigation. A. Annealing the film-- Glass can be heat up to 400 C without distortion. Silicon is even more resistant.-- It was found that recovery is limited by residual thermal stress from taking the mirror down from high T. B. Coating bi-layer films with compressive stress with tensile stress. C. Front-and-back coating with magnetron sputtering or atomic layer deposition-- Sputtering involve spanning of substrates. Geometric difference in setup (convexness/concaveness of curved mirrors) does not permit precise front-and-back matching-- Atomic layer deposition can provide a uniform deposition front and back simultaneously.

  15. Analysis of the relative movement between mirrors and detectors for the next generation x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, Marta

    2009-08-01

    Focusing X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities, like SIMBOL-X, HEXISAT and IXO, are characterized by very long focal lengths, greater than 10m. The constraints posed by the launchers on the maximum dimensions of a payload, make necessary using alternatives to monolithic telescopes. One possibility is that the mirror and the detectors are carried by two separate spacecrafts that fly in formation. Another is placing the detector module on a bench that will be extended once in final orbit. In both the case the system will be subjected to deformation due the relative movement of the mirrors with respect to detectors. In one case the deformation will be due to the correction on the position and attitude of the detector spacecraft to maintain the formation with the mirror spacecraft, while in the other to oscillations of the detectors on the top of the bench. The aim of this work is to compare the behavior of the system in the two different configurations and to evaluate the performances of the on board metrology systems needed not to degrade the telescope angular resolution.

  16. Internal structure and stability of an interstellar cloud heated by an external flux of soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabano, Yutaka; Tosa, Makoto

    1975-01-01

    We study the properties of an interstellar gas cloud which is heated by an external flux of soft X-rays and has a uniform pressure distribution. The heating flux is significantly attenuated inside the cloud even for a rather small cloud, and the central region of the cloud is much cooler and denser than that heated uniformly, hence the cloud can be compressed easier. The stability of such a gas cloud and its implications for the process of star formation are discussed on the basis of the two-phase model of the interstellar medium. The large scale galactic shock seems important as a triggering mechanism for the formation of a dense cloud and for the gravitational collapse leading to star formation. (author)

  17. Reactive diffusion in Sc/Si multilayer X-ray mirrors with CrB2 barrier layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershyn, Y.P.; Zubarev, E.N.; Kondratenko, V.V.; Sevryukova, V.A.; Kurbatova, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Processes undergoing in Sc/Si multilayer X-ray mirrors (MXMs) with periods of ∝27 nm and barrier layers of CrB 2 0.3- and 0.7-nm thick within the temperature range of 420-780 K were studied by methods of small-angle X-ray reflectivity (λ=0.154 nm) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. All layers with the exception of Sc ones are amorphous. Barrier layers are stable at least up to a temperature of 625 K and double the activation energy of diffusional intermixing at moderate temperatures. Introduction of barriers improves the thermal stability of Sc/Si MXMs at least by 80 degrees. Diffusion of Si atoms through barrier layers into Sc layers with formation of silicides was shown to be the main degradation mechanism of MXMs. A comparison of the stability for Sc/Si MXMs with different barriers published in the literature is conducted. The ways of further improvement of barrier properties are discussed. (orig.)

  18. 3-D x-ray mirror metrology with a vertical scanning long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Li, H.; Li, X.; Grindel, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) was originally developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the specific purpose of measuring the surface figure of large cylindrical mirrors used at grazing incidence in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. In its original configuration, it could measure only along one line down the center of the cylinder. A single linear profile is often sufficient to gauge the quality of the optical surface on these kinds of mirrors. For some applications it is necessary to measure the topography of the entire surface, not just along one line but over a grid that covers the entire surface area. We have modified a standard LTP to enable measurement of the complete surface of Wolter telescope optics in a vertical configuration. The vertical scanning LTP (VSLTP) is capable of producing a complete 3-D map of the surface topography errors relative to the ideal desired surface on complete segments of paraboloids and hyperboloids. The instrument uses a penta prism assembly to scan the probe beam in the longitudinal direction parallel to the mirror symmetry axis and uses a precision rotary stage to provide scans in the azimuthal direction. A Risley prism pair and a dove prism are used to orient the probe beam in the proper direction for the azimuthal scans. The repeatability of the prototype instrument is better than 20 nm over trace lengths of 35 mm with a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Alignment and Distortion-Free Integration of Lightweight Mirrors into Meta-Shells for High-Resolution Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Zhang, William W.; Schofield, Mark J.; Numata, Ai; Mazzarella, James R.; Saha, Timo T.; Biskach, Michael P.; McCelland, Ryan S.; Niemeyer, Jason; Sharpe, Marton V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires fabrication of well-formed mirror segments and their integration with arc-second level precision. Recently, advances of fabrication of silicon mirrors developed at NASA/Goddard prompted us to develop a new method of mirror integration. The new integration scheme takes advantage of the stiffer, more thermally conductive, and lower-CTE silicon, compared to glass, to build a telescope of much lighter weight. In this paper, we address issues of aligning and bonding mirrors with this method. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the basic viability of such scheme. Using glass mirrors, we demonstrated that alignment error of 1" and bonding error 2" can be achieved for mirrors in a single shell. We will address the immediate plan to demonstrate the bonding reliability and to develop technology to build up a mirror stack and a whole "meta-shell".

  20. The dress and the cloud. Stories about X-rays, radioactivity and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Repussard, Jacques; Tabare, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the authors recall the history of X-rays, of radioactivity and of radiation protection. It describes the almost simultaneous discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, the concern created by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the importance given back to civil society by the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. They comment the various applications of X-rays and radioactivity in the fields of research, medicine, energy, weapons. They describe the progressive development of radiation protection in a context of large political, economic and social evolutions during the past century

  1. An X-ray Expansion and Proper Motion Study of the Magellanic Cloud Supernova Remnant J0509-6731 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Quentin; Filipovi, Miroslav; Allen, Glenn E.; Sano, Hidetoshi; Park, Laurence; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Sasaki, Manami; Haberl, Frank; Kavanagh, Patrick J.; Yamane, Yumiko; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Fukui, Yasuo; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.

    2018-05-01

    Using archival Chandra data consisting of a total of 78.46 ksec over two epochs seven years apart, we have measured the expansion of the young (˜400 years old) type Ia Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant (SNR) J0509-6731. In addition, we use radial brightness profile matching to detect proper-motion expansion of this SNR, and estimate an speed of 7 500±1 700 km s-1. This is one of the only proper motion studies of extragalactic SNRs expansion that is able to derive an expansion velocity, and one of only two such studies of an extragalactic SNR to yield positive results in the X-rays. We find that this expansion velocity is consistent with an optical expansion study on this object. In addition, we examine the medium into which the SNR is expanding by examining the CO and neutral H I gas using radio data obtained from Mopra, the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Parkes radio telescopes. We also briefly compare this result with a recent radio survey, and find that our results predict a radio spectral index α of -0.67±0.07. This value is consistent with high frequency radio observations of MCSNR J0509-6731.

  2. Star Formation In Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs): X-Ray and Infrared Source Catalogs and Membership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Richert, Alexander J. W.; Ota, Yosuke [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuhn, Michael A. [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Gran Bretana 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaiso (Chile); Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS (Chile); Bate, Matthew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4SB (United Kingdom); Garmire, Gordon P. [Huntingdon Institute for X-Ray Astronomy, LLC, 10677 Franks Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) project is aimed at providing a detailed study of the young stellar populations and of star cluster formation in the nearby 22 star-forming regions (SFRs) for comparison with our earlier MYStIX survey of richer, more distant clusters. As a foundation for the SFiNCs science studies, here, homogeneous data analyses of the Chandra X-ray and Spitzer mid-infrared archival SFiNCs data are described, and the resulting catalogs of over 15,300 X-ray and over 1,630,000 mid-infrared point sources are presented. On the basis of their X-ray/infrared properties and spatial distributions, nearly 8500 point sources have been identified as probable young stellar members of the SFiNCs regions. Compared to the existing X-ray/mid-infrared publications, the SFiNCs member list increases the census of YSO members by 6%–200% for individual SFRs and by 40% for the merged sample of all 22 SFiNCs SFRs.

  3. An x-ray detection system development for Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U): Hardware and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Coutts, G.W.; Failor, B.H.

    1983-01-01

    This x-ray detection system measures the electron Bremstrahlung spectrum from the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). From this spectrum, we can calculate the electron temperature. The low energy portion of the spectrum (0.5-40 keV) is measured by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled, lithium-drifted silicon detector. The higher energy spectrometer uses an intrinsic germanium detector to accommodate the 100 to 200 keV spectra. The system proceeds as follows. The preamplified detector signals are digitized by a high-speed A-to-D converter located in a Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) crate. The data is then stored in a histogramming memory via a data router. The CAMAC crate interfaces with a local desktop computer or the main data acquisition computer that stores the data. The software sets up the modules, acquires the energy spectra (with sample times as short as 2 ms) and plots it. Up to 40 time-resolved spectra are available during one plasma cycle. The actual module configuration, CAMAC interfacing and software that runs the system are the subjects of this paper

  4. Anti-correlation between X-ray luminosity and pulsed fraction in the Small Magellanic Cloud pulsar SXP 1323

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zezas, Andreas; Coe, Malcolm J.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Hong, JaeSub; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Wik, Daniel R.

    2018-05-01

    We report the evidence for the anti-correlation between pulsed fraction (PF) and luminosity of the X-ray pulsar SXP 1323, found for the first time in a luminosity range 1035-1037 erg s-1 from observations spanning 15 years. The phenomenon of a decrease in X-ray PF when the source flux increases has been observed in our pipeline analysis of other X-ray pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). It is expected that the luminosity under a certain value decreases as the PF decreases due to the propeller effect. Above the propeller region, an anti-correlation between the PF and flux might occur either as a result of an increase in the un-pulsed component of the total emission or a decrease of the pulsed component. Additional modes of accretion may also be possible, such as spherical accretion and a change in emission geometry. At higher mass accretion rates, the accretion disk could also extend closer to the neutron star (NS) surface, where a reduced inner radius leads to hotter inner disk emission. These modes of plasma accretion may affect the change in the beam configuration to fan-beam dominant emission.

  5. X-ray polarization fluctuations induced by cloud eclipses in active galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marin, Frederic; Dovčiak, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 573, January (2015), A60/1-A60/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12010 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: Seyfert * polarization * radiative transfer * relativistic processes * scattering * X-rays: general Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  6. AN X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THREE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimek, Matthew D.; Points, S. D.; Smith, R. C.; Shelton, R. L.; Williams, R.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC using multi-wavelength data. These SNRs are generally fainter than the known sample (see Section 4) and may represent a previously missed population. One of our SNRs is the second LMC remnant analyzed which is larger than any Galactic remnant for which a definite size has been established. The analysis of such a large remnant contributes to the understanding of the population of highly evolved SNRs. We have obtained X-ray images and spectra of three of these recently identified SNRs using the XMM-Newton observatory. These data, in conjunction with pre-existing optical emission-line images and spectra, were used to determine the physical conditions of the optical- and X-ray-emitting gas in the SNRs. We have compared the morphologies of the SNRs in the different wavebands. The physical properties of the warm ionized shell were determined from the Hα surface brightness and the SNR expansion velocity. The X-ray spectra were fit with a thermal plasma model and the physical conditions of the hot gas were derived from the model fits. Finally, we have compared our observations with simulations of SNR evolution.

  7. Point spread function and centroiding accuracy measurements with the JET-X mirror and MOS CCD detector of the Swift gamma ray burst explorer's X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, R M; Hutchinson, I B; Willingale, R; Wells, A; Short, A D T; Campana, S; Citterio, O; Tagliaferri, G; Burkert, W; Bräuninger, H

    2002-01-01

    The optical components of the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) are already developed items. They are the flight spare X-ray mirror from the JET-X/Spectrum-X program and an MOS CCD (CCD22) of the type currently operating in orbit as part of the EPIC focal plane camera on XMM-Newton (SPIE 4140 (2000) 64). The JET-X mirrors were first calibrated at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics' (MPE) Panter facility, Garching, Germany in 1996 (SPIE 2805 (1996) 56; SPIE 3114 (1997) 392). Half-energy widths of 16 arcsec at 1.5 keV were confirmed for the two flight mirrors and the flight spare. The calibration of the flight spare was repeated at Panter in July 2000 in order to establish whether any changes had occurred during the 4 yr that the mirror had been in storage at the OAB, Milan, Italy. The results reported in this paper confirm that the resolution of the JET-X mirrors has remained stable over this storage period. In an extension of this test program, the flight spare EPIC camera was installed at the fo...

  8. Experiments on the injection, confinement, and ejection of electron clouds in a magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhouse, S.; Fisher, A.; Rostoker, N.

    1978-01-01

    A cloud of (5 to 10 keV) electrons is injected into a magnetic mirror field. The magnetic field rises in 40--120 μsec to a maximum of 10 kG. Two methods of injection were tried: In the first, the injector is located at the mirror midplane and electrons are injected perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. In the second scheme, the injector is located near the mirror maximum. Up to about 10 11 electrons were trapped in both schemes with a mean kinetic energy of 0.3 MeV. Measured confinement time is limited only by the magnetic field decay time. The compressed electron cloud executes electrostatic oscillations. The frequency of the oscillation is proportional to the number of electrons trapped, and it is independent of the value of the magnetic field and the initial electron energy. The electron cloud was ejected along the mirror axis and properties of the ejected electron cloud were measured by x-ray pulses from bremstrahlung of electrons on the vacuum system wall and by collecting electrons on a Faraday cup

  9. Experimental studies and modeling of X-Rays multilayer mirrors damages under high X-Ray flux generated by a laser-plasma experiment; Etude experimentale et modelisation de l`endommagement des miroirs multicouches X soumis a de hauts flux de rayonnement X dans le cadre de l`experience plasma-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F

    1996-05-24

    We have been able with this work to point out characterize X-Rays multilayers mirrors damages. We have designed two experimental set-up which have been installed in the HELIOTROPE experimental chamber of the OCTAL facility located at the CEA in Limeil-Valenton. We have demonstrated that X-Rays multilayer mirrors properties were drastically modified by X-Rays emitted by a golden laser plasma. We have, more precisely, introduced the damage speed concept to quantify the expansion of the multilayer mirror period. We have been able to classify different multilayer mirrors in function of their resistance to damage and we have demonstrated that a silicate layer deposited on a mirror allowed to increase his resistance to damage. In a second part we have developed a simulation tool in order to simulate the X-Rays multilayer mirrors optical properties modifications. We have therefore coupled a thermo-mechanic code with an optical program. The results of the simulations are in a rather good agreement with the experiments and can be used to predict, before experiments, the multilayer mirror behavior under X-Rays irradiation. (author) 55 refs.

  10. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: surface profile and point spread function computation for Gaussian beams using physical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D

    2018-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are commonly used in different sectors of science, such as X-ray astronomy, medical imaging and synchrotron/free-electron laser beamlines. While deformations of the mirror profile may cause degradation of the focus sharpness, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators. The resulting profile can be characterized with suitable metrology tools and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code or, sometimes, predicted using geometric optics. In the latter case and for the special class of profile deformations with monotonically increasing derivative, i.e. concave upwards, the point spread function (PSF) can even be predicted analytically. Moreover, under these assumptions, the relation can also be reversed: from the desired PSF the required profile deformation can be computed analytically, avoiding the use of trial-and-error search codes. However, the computation has been so far limited to geometric optics, which entailed some limitations: for example, mirror diffraction effects and the size of the coherent X-ray source were not considered. In this paper, the beam-shaping formalism in the framework of physical optics is reviewed, in the limit of small light wavelengths and in the case of Gaussian intensity wavefronts. Some examples of shaped profiles are also shown, aiming at turning a Gaussian intensity distribution into a top-hat one, and checks of the shaping performances computing the at-wavelength PSF by means of the WISE code are made.

  11. Effect of slope errors on the performance of mirrors for x-ray free electron laser applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Tom; Cocco, Daniele; Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2015-12-14

    In this work we point out that slope errors play only a minor role in the performance of a certain class of x-ray optics for X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) applications. Using physical optics propagation simulations and the formalism of Church and Takacs [Opt. Eng. 34, 353 (1995)], we show that diffraction limited optics commonly found at XFEL facilities posses a critical spatial wavelength that makes them less sensitive to slope errors, and more sensitive to height error. Given the number of XFELs currently operating or under construction across the world, we hope that this simple observation will help to correctly define specifications for x-ray optics to be deployed at XFELs, possibly reducing the budget and the timeframe needed to complete the optical manufacturing and metrology.

  12. Aplanatic telescopes based on Schwarzschild optical configuration: from grazing incidence Wolter-like x-ray optics to Cherenkov two-mirror normal incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements

  13. Comparison of slope and height profiles for flat synchrotron x-ray mirrors measured with a long trace profiler and a Fizeau interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, J.; Assoufid, L.; Macrander, A.

    2007-01-01

    Long trace profilers (LTPS) have been used at many synchrotron radiation laboratories worldwide for over a decade to measure surface slope profiles of long grazing incidence x-ray mirrors. Phase measuring interferometers (PMIs) of the Fizeau type, on the other hand, are being used by most mirror manufacturers to accomplish the same task. However, large mirrors whose dimensions exceed the aperture of the Fizeau interferometer require measurements to be carried out at grazing incidence, and aspheric optics require the use of a null lens. While an LTP provides a direct measurement of ID slope profiles, PMIs measure area height profiles from which the slope can be obtained by a differentiation algorithm. Measurements of the two types of instruments have been found by us to be in good agreement, but to our knowledge there is no published work directly comparing the two instruments. This paper documents that comparison. We measured two different nominally flat mirrors with both the LTP in operation at the Advanced Photon Source (a type-II LTP) and a Fizeau-type PMI interferometer (Wyko model 6000). One mirror was 500 mm long and made of Zerodur, and the other mirror was 350 mm long and made of silicon. Slope error results with these instruments agree within nearly 100% (3.11 ± 0.15 (micro)rad for the LTP, and 3.11 ± 0.02 (micro)rad for the Fizeau PMI interferometer) for the medium quality Zerodur mirror with 3 (micro)rad rms nominal slope error. A significant difference was observed with the much higher quality silicon mirror. For the Si mirror, slope error data is 0.39 ± 0.08 (micro)rad from LTP measurements but it is 0.35 ± 0.01 (micro)rad from PMI interferometer measurements. The standard deviations show that the Fizeau PMI interferometer has much better measurement repeatability.

  14. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  15. Wave-optical evaluation of interference fringes and wavefront phase in a hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by mirror optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Mimura, Hidekazu; Sano, Yasuhisa; Saito, Akira; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Souvorov, Alexei; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuzo

    2005-11-10

    The intensity flatness and wavefront shape in a coherent hard-x-ray beam totally reflected by flat mirrors that have surface bumps modeled by Gaussian functions were investigated by use of a wave-optical simulation code. Simulated results revealed the necessity for peak-to-valley height accuracy of better than 1 nm at a lateral resolution near 0.1 mm to remove high-contrast interference fringes and appreciable wavefront phase errors. Three mirrors that had different surface qualities were tested at the 1 km-long beam line at the SPring-8/Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute. Interference fringes faded when the surface figure was corrected below the subnanometer level to a spatial resolution close to 0.1 mm, as indicated by the simulated results.

  16. A simple way of characterizing X-ray downwards-deflecting mirror-bender assemblies using the long trace profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Her, P.

    1999-01-01

    A simple device composed of a modular double-pentaprism system that enables the long trace profiler (LTP) to measure mirrors in nonconventional ways, i.e., in the vertical-downward and sideways positions, has been devised and implemented in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) long trace profiler (LTP II). The systems is very useful in calibrating mirror-bender assemblies. This paper describes the system and gives results of measurements performed with it on a mirror used at the APS

  17. XMM-NEWTON MEASUREMENT OF THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION USING A COMPACT SHADOWING CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.; Cumbee, Renata S.; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the soft X-ray background can be used to separate the background Galactic halo emission from the local emission due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) and/or the Local Bubble (LB). We present an XMM-Newton observation of a shadowing cloud, G225.60–66.40, that is sufficiently compact that the on- and off-shadow spectra can be extracted from a single field of view (unlike previous shadowing observations of the halo with CCD-resolution spectrometers, which consisted of separate on- and off-shadow pointings). We analyzed the spectra using a variety of foreground models: one representing LB emission, and two representing SWCX emission. We found that the resulting halo model parameters (temperature T h ≈ 2 × 10 6 K, emission measure E h ≈4×10 −3  cm −6  pc) were not sensitive to the foreground model used. This is likely due to the relative faintness of the foreground emission in this observation. However, the data do favor the existence of a foreground. The halo parameters derived from this observation are in good agreement with those from previous shadowing observations, and from an XMM-Newton survey of the Galactic halo emission. This supports the conclusion that the latter results are not subject to systematic errors, and can confidently be used to test models of the halo emission

  18. Study of a high finesse four mirrors Fabry Perot cavity for X-rays and Gamma rays production by laser-electron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedala, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The main goal of this thesis is the study and design of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to amplify a laser beam in order to achieve power gains ranging from 10 4 to 10 5 . This cavity is dedicated to the production of intense and monochromatic X-ray for medical applications (medical RADIOTHOMX ring) and gamma rays for a Compton based polarized positron source by Compton scattering of a high power laser beam and electron beam. To increase the brightness of the Compton interaction at the collision points, it is essential to have not only a high power laser beam but also very small laser beam radii at the interaction points. To achieve such performances, 2 scenarios are possible: a concentric 2 mirrors cavity which is mechanically unstable or a 4 mirrors cavity more complex but more stable. We tested numerically mechanical stability and stability of Eigen modes polarization of various planar and non-planar geometries of 4 mirrors cavities. Experimentally, we have developed a four mirrors tetrahedral 'bow-tie' cavity; radii of the order of 20 microns were made. The Eigen modes of such a cavity, in both planar and non planar geometries, were measured and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement was observed. In a second time, the impact of Compton interaction on the transverse dynamics, in the case of the polarized positrons source, and the longitudinal dynamic, in the case of the medical ring of the electron beam was studied. Compton scattering causes energy loss and induces an additional dispersion of energy in electron beam. For the polarized positrons source, 10 collision points are planned. The transport line has been determined and the modelling of the Compton interaction effect with a simple matrix calculation was made. For the medical ring, Compton scattering causes bunch lengthening and the increase of energy dispersion which are to influence the produced X-ray flux. A study of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron beam in the ring was

  19. Registration of intensive hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays from the thunderstorm clouds at Tien-Shan installation Adron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Vil'danova, L.I.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Kokobaev, M.M.; Nesterova, N.M.; Piskal', V.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Adron installation mounted at the Tien-Shan station is intended for studying the extensive air showers. The Adron installation consists of a neutron supermonitor charged particles detector, muon detector and detector for registering the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds accomplished on the basis of the Geiger-Mueller counters with sensitivity area of 16-17 m 2 . The intensive fluxes of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds passing over the Adron installation at the height below 1 km are registered using this installation. The short-time radiation flares of 1-5 min duration are separated at the background of the intensity slow change. This testifies to the benefit of existence of the runaway electron effect in the thunderstorm clouds [ru

  20. Hard x-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud SGR B2: Constraining Past SGR A* Flaring Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, NuSTAR observed the Sgr B2 region and for the first time resolved its hard X-ray emission on subarcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV:. a newly emerging cloud, G0.66-0.13, and the central 90 '' radius region containing two compact cores, Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N......), surrounded by diffuse emission. It is inconclusive whether the remaining level of Sgr. B2 emission is still decreasing or has reached a constant background level. A decreasing X-ray emission can be best explained by the X-ray reflection nebula scenario, where the cloud reprocesses a past giant outburst from...... Sgr A*. In the X-ray reflection nebula (XRN) scenario, the 3-79 keV Sgr. B2 spectrum allows us to self-consistently test the XRN model using both the Fe K alpha line and the continuum emission. The peak luminosity of the past Sgr A* outburst is constrained to L3-79keV∼5 x 1038 ergs s-1. A newly...

  1. Upgrade of long trace profiler for characterization of high-precision X-ray mirrors at SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Y.; Kishimoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Zeschke, T.; Siewert, F.; Goto, S.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    The long trace profiler (LTP) at SPring-8 has been upgraded to improve stability and resolution of slope measurement. The performances of the upgraded LTP at SPring-8 are presented by cross-checking measurements on a flat mirror with data obtained using Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine (NOM) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY-II.

  2. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  3. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  4. UPPER LIMITS ON PULSED RADIO EMISSION FROM THE 6.85 s X-RAY PULSAR XTE J0103-728 IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Fronefield; Devour, Brian M.; Takacs, Brian P.; Lorimer, Duncan R.; Kondratiev, Vladislav I.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray pulsations with a 6.85 s period were recently detected in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and were subsequently identified as originating from the Be/X-ray binary system XTE J0103-728. The recent localization of the source of the X-ray emission has made a targeted search for radio pulsations from this source possible. The detection of pulsed radio emission from XTE J0103-728 would make it only the second system after PSR B1259-63 that is both a Be/X-ray binary and a radio pulsar. We observed XTE J0103-728 in 2008 February with the Parkes 64 m radio telescope soon after the identification of the source of X-ray pulsations was reported in order to search for corresponding radio pulsations. We used a continuous 6.4 hr observation with a 256 MHz bandwidth centered at 1390 MHz using the center beam of the Parkes multibeam receiver. In the subsequent data analysis, which included a folding search, a Fourier search, a fast-folding algorithm search, and a single pulse search, no pulsed signals were found for trial dispersion measures (DMs) between 0 and 800 pc cm -3 . This DM range easily encompasses the expected values for sources in the SMC. We place an upper limit of ∼45 mJy kpc 2 on the luminosity of periodic radio emission from XTE J0103-728 at the epoch of our observation, and we compare this limit to a range of luminosities measured for PSR B1259-63, the only Be/X-ray binary currently known to emit radio pulses. We also compare our limit to the radio luminosities of neutron stars having similarly long spin periods to XTE J0103-728. Since the radio pulses from PSR B1259-63 are eclipsed and undetectable during the portion of the orbit near periastron, repeated additional radio search observations of XTE J0103-728 may be valuable if it is undergoing similar eclipsing and if such observations are able to sample the orbital phase of this system well.

  5. X-ray sources in stars formation areas: T Tauri stars and proto-stars in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    This thesis studies from large to small scales, X-ray sources in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud. After some background on the formation of the low-mass young stars (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 takes an interest in the T Tauri star population. Chapter 3 tackles the search of the magnetic activity at the younger stage of protostar, presenting a powerful X-ray emission from an IR protostar, called YLW15, during a flare, and a quasi-periodic flare of the same source; as well as a new detection of another IR protostar in the ROSAT archives. It ends with a review of protostar detections. Some IR protostar flares show a very long increasing phase. Chapter 4 links this behaviour with a modulation by the central star rotation. The standard model of jet emission assumes that the central star rotates at the same speed that the inner edge of its accretion disk. This chapter shows that the observation of the YLW15 quasi-periodic flare suggests rather that the forming star rotates faster than its accretion disk, at the break up limit. The synchronism with the accretion disk, observed on T Tauri stars, must be reach progressively by magnetic breaking during the IR protostar stage, and more or less rapidly depending on the forming star mass. Recent studies have shown that T Tauri star X-ray emission could ionize the circumstellar disk, and play a role in the instability development, as well as stimulate the accretion. The protostar X-ray emission might be higher than the T Tauri star one, Chapter 5 presents a millimetric interferometric observation dedicated to measure this effect on YLW15. Finally, Chapter 6 reassembles conclusions and perspectives of this work. (author) [fr

  6. An X-ray and optical study of the ultracompact X-ray binary A 1246-58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Bassa, C.G.; Jonker, P.G.; Keek, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Méndez, M.; Markwardt, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Results are discussed of an X-ray and optical observation campaign of the low-mass X-ray binary A 1246-58 performed with instruments on Satellite per Astronomia X ("BeppoSAX"), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission ("XMM-Newton"), the Swift mission, and the Very

  7. Preparation and characterization of gold nanocrystals and nanomultilayer mirrors for X-ray diffraction experiments; Praeparation und Charakterisierung von Goldnanokristallen und Nanomultilayerspiegeln fuer Roentgenbeugungsexperimente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slieh, Jawad

    2009-03-15

    description of the preparation of gold nano- and microcrystals. In the chapters seven and eight the results of the characterization of the gold nano- as well as microcrystals are considere. Especially hereby the influence of different preparation parameters on the crystal size as well as size distribution, the crystal shape, the crystal alignment relatively to the substrate as well as the contribution of the monocrystals is studied. In chapter nine the structure studies performed by means of TEM measurements on free gold crystals as well as Mo/Si nanomultilayer mirrors are presented. [German] Um Untersuchungen zur Dynamik von Proteinmolekuelen in ihrer natuerlichen Umgebung zu ermoeglichen, hat Sasaki in den letzten Jahren ein neues Roentgenbeugungsverfahren entwickelt. Bei diesem Verfahren, das Dynamical X-Ray-Tracking (DXT) genannt wird, findet die Beugung nicht direkt am Proteinmolekuel, sondern an einem starr an das Proteinmolekuel gebundenen Nanospiegel statt. Gemessen wird hierbei die zeitliche Veraenderung der Ausrichtung des Nanokristalls, die anhand der Lage der Laue-Beugungspunkte bestimmt wird. Anhand dieser Lageveraenderungen lassen sich dann wieder Aussagen ueber Strukturaenderungen des untersuchten Proteins mit einer hohen Ortsgenauigkeit in der Zeitdomaene herleiten. Die wissenschaftliche Zielsetzung dieser Arbeit ist der Aufbau eines DXT-Messplatzes sowie die Praeparation der benoetigten nanokristallinen roentgenbeugenden Proteinlabels einschliesslich deren Charakterisierung. Zunaechst wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Grundlagen der Roentgenstrahlung und deren Wechselwirkung mit Materie, insbesondere unter Beruecksichtigung von Roentgenbeugung an Kristallen, gegeben. Es werden die Messmethoden zur Bestimmung der Kristallausrichtung sowie der vertikalen und lateralen Kristallgroesse dargestellt. Im darauf folgenden Kapitel wird ein umfassender Ueberblick ueber die verschiedenen zur Herstellung und Charakterisierung von Goldkristallen verwendeten Geraete und

  8. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  9. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  11. The development for small scale soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Kexu; Jiang Shaoen; Yi Rongqing; Cui Yanli

    2004-12-01

    For the development of small-scale soft X-ray spectrometer, first, some small-scale soft X-ray detection elements are developed, it is included GaAs irradiated with neutron, GaAs irradiated with proton, multi-layer mirror, plane mirror and small scale X-ray diode et al. Soft X-ray spectrometers built of multi-layer mirror-GaAs (with neutron irradiation), and plane mirror-small-scale XRD, and plane mirror-GaAs (with proton irradiation) are prepared. These spectrometers are examined in Shen Guang-II laser facility, and some external estimation are given. (authors)

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  13. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  14. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  15. Uniformity of the soft-x-ray emissions from gold foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams determined by a two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Boehly, Thomas; Pien, Gregory; Bradley, David

    1998-01-01

    A two-mirror normal-incidence microscope with multilayer coatings was used to image the soft-x-ray emissions from planar foils irradiated by OMEGA laser beams. The bandpass of the multilayer coatings was centered at a wavelength of 48.3 Angstrom (257-eV energy) and was 0.5 Angstrom wide. Five overlapping OMEGA beams, without beam smoothing, were typically incident on the gold foils. The total energy was 1500 J, and the focused intensity was 6x10 13 Wcm -2 . The 5.8x magnified images were recorded by a gated framing camera at various times during the 3-ns laser pulse. A pinhole camera imaged the x-ray emission in the energy range of >2 keV. On a spatial scale of 10 μm, it was found that the soft-x-ray images at 257 eV were quite uniform and featureless. In contrast, the hard-x-ray images in the energy range of >2 kev were highly nonuniform with numerous features of size 150 μm. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  17. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  18. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 3991 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in hours. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. a flash of X-rays hi-res Size hi-res: 2153 Kb Credits: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays (Please choose "hi-res" version for animation) XMM-Newton's X-ray EPIC camera shows the expanding rings caused by a flash of X-rays scattered by dust in our Galaxy. The X-rays were produced by a powerful gamma-ray burst that took place on 3 December 2003. The slowly fading afterglow of the gamma-ray burst is at the centre of the expanding rings. Other, unrelated, X-ray sources can also be seen. The time since the gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. This echo forms when the powerful radiation of a gamma-ray burst, coming from far away, crosses a slab of dust in our Galaxy and is scattered by it, like the beam of a lighthouse in clouds. Using the expanding rings to precisely pin-point the location of this dust, astronomers can identify places where new stars and planets are likely to form. On 3 December 2003 ESA's observatory, Integral, detected a burst of gamma rays, lasting about 30 seconds, from the direction of a distant galaxy. Within minutes of the detection, thanks to a sophisticated alert network, many

  19. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  2. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  3. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  6. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  7. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  8. AN X-RAY UPPER LIMIT ON THE PRESENCE OF A NEUTRON STAR FOR THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD SUPERNOVA REMNANT 1E0102.2-7219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Windhorst, R. A.; Schlegel, E. M.; Keohane, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory archival observations of the supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219, a young oxygen-rich remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Combining 28 ObsIDs for 324 ks of total exposure time, we present an Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer image with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio (mean S/N ≅√S∼ 6; maximum S/N > 35). We search within the remnant, using the source detection software WAVDETECT, for point sources which may indicate a compact object. Despite finding numerous detections of high significance in both broad and narrowband images of the remnant, we are unable to satisfactorily distinguish whether these detections correspond to emission from a compact object. We also present upper limits to the luminosity of an obscured compact stellar object which were derived from an analysis of spectra extracted from the high signal-to-noise image. We are able to further constrain the characteristics of a potential neutron star for this remnant with the results of the analysis presented here, though we cannot confirm the existence of such an object for this remnant.

  9. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  10. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  11. Surface correlation function analysis of high resolution scattering data from mirrored surfaces obtained using a triple-axis X-ray diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    methods is that they are bandwidth-limited. A crucial point in the analysis of data is, therefore, to specify accurately the wavelength bandwidth limitation and to determine the surface autocorrelation function within this bandwidth. The authors present a number of scattering measurements obtained using...... a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer and the results of an autocorrelation function analysis. Furthermore, they present some measurements of integrated reflectivity, which they believe provide evidence for microroughness in the range from a few angstroms to tens of microns...

  12. X-ray scattering by interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, D.

    1980-10-01

    This thesis reports work carried out to make a first observation of x-rays scattered by interstellar dust grains. Data about the dust, obtained at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions, are discussed in order to establish a useful description of the grains themselves. This is then used to estimate the magnitude and form of the expected x-ray scattering effect which is shown to manifest itself as a diffuse halo accompanying the image of a celestial x-ray source. Two x-ray imaging experiments are then discussed. The first, specifically proposed to look for this effect surrounding a point x-ray source, was the Skylark 1611 project, and comprised an imaging proportional counter coupled to an x-ray mirror. This is described up to its final calibration when the basis for a concise model of its point response function was established. The experiment was not carried out but its objective and the experience gained during its testing were transferred to the second of the x-ray imaging experiments, the Einstein Observatory. The new instrumental characteristics are described and a model for its point response function is developed. Using this, image data for the point x-ray source GX339-4 is shown to exhibit the sought after scattering phenomenon. (author)

  13. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  14. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  15. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα 1 2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures

  16. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  17. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  18. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  20. Optics for coherent X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabashi, Makina, E-mail: yabashi@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mimura, Hidekazu [The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-08-27

    Developments of optics for coherent X-ray applications and their role in diffraction-limited storage rings are described. Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed.

  1. Modeling surface topography of state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors as a result of stochastic polishing process: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Tyurin, Yuri N.; Tyurina, Anastasia

    2016-09-01

    Recently, an original method for the statistical modeling of surface topography of state-of-the-art mirrors for usage in xray optical systems at light source facilities and for astronomical telescopes [Opt. Eng. 51(4), 046501, 2012; ibid. 53(8), 084102 (2014); and ibid. 55(7), 074106 (2016)] has been developed. In modeling, the mirror surface topography is considered to be a result of a stationary uniform stochastic polishing process and the best fit time-invariant linear filter (TILF) that optimally parameterizes, with limited number of parameters, the polishing process is determined. The TILF model allows the surface slope profile of an optic with a newly desired specification to be reliably forecast before fabrication. With the forecast data, representative numerical evaluations of expected performance of the prospective mirrors in optical systems under development become possible [Opt. Eng., 54(2), 025108 (2015)]. Here, we suggest and demonstrate an analytical approach for accounting the imperfections of the used metrology instruments, which are described by the instrumental point spread function, in the TILF modeling. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated with numerical simulations for correction of measurements performed with an autocollimator based surface slope profiler. Besides solving this major metrological problem, the results of the present work open an avenue for developing analytical and computational tools for stitching data in the statistical domain, obtained using multiple metrology instruments measuring significantly different bandwidths of spatial wavelengths.

  2. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  3. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  5. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  8. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

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    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  3. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  10. BeppoSAX and Chandra Observations of SAX J0103.2-7209 = 2E 0101.5-7225: A New Persistent 345 Second X-Ray Pulsar in the Small Magellanic Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel; Campana; Covino; Dal Fiume D; Gaetz; Mereghetti; Oosterbroek; Orlandini; Parmar; Ricci; Stella

    2000-03-10

    We report the results of a 1998 July BeppoSAX observation of a field in the Small Magellanic Cloud which led to the discovery of approximately 345 s pulsations in the X-ray flux of SAX J0103.2-7209. The BeppoSAX X-ray spectrum is well fitted by an absorbed power law with a photon index of approximately 1.0 plus a blackbody component with kT=0.11 keV. The unabsorbed luminosity in the 2-10 keV energy range is approximately 1.2x1036 ergs s-1. In a very recent Chandra observation, the 345 s pulsations are also detected. The available period measurements provide a constant period derivative of -1.7 s yr-1 over the last 3 years, making SAX J0103.2-7209 one of the most rapidly spinning up X-ray pulsars known. The BeppoSAX position (30&arcsec; uncertainty radius) is consistent with that of the Einstein source 2E 0101.5-7225 and the ROSAT source RX J0103.2-7209. This source was detected at a luminosity level of a few times 1035-1036 ergs s-1 in all data sets of past X-ray missions since 1979. The ROSAT HRI and Chandra positions are consistent with that of a mV=14.8 Be spectral-type star already proposed as the likely optical counterpart of 2E 0101.5-7225. We briefly report and discuss photometric and spectroscopic data carried out at the ESO telescopes 2 days before the BeppoSAX observation. We conclude that SAX J0103.2-7209 and 2E 0101.5-7225 are the same source: a relatively young and persistent X-ray pulsar in the SMC.

  11. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ''light pipes'' embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible

  12. A portable x-ray source and method for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivsky, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    A portable x-ray source that produces a sufficient x-ray flux to produce high quality x-ray images on x-ray films. The source includes a vacuum chamber filled with a heavy atomic weight gas at low pressure and an x-ray emitter. The chamber is in a magnetic field and an oscillating electric field and generates electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma having a ring of energetic electrons inside the chamber. The electrons bombard the x-ray emitter which in turn produces x-ray. A pair of magnetic members generate an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap inside the chamber. The chamber may be nested within a microwave resonant cavity and between the magnets or the chamber and the microwave cavity may be a single composite structure. (author)

  13. X-Ray Optics: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy started with a small collimated proportional counter atop a rocket in the early 1960s. It was immediately recognized that focusing X-ray optics would drastically improve both source location accuracy and source detection sensitivity. In the past 5 decades, X-ray astronomy has made significant strides in achieving better angular resolution, large photon collection area, and better spectral and timing resolutions, culminating in the three currently operating X-ray observatories: Chandra, XMM/Newton, and Suzaku. In this talk I will give a brief history of X-ray optics, concentrating on the characteristics of the optics of these three observatories. Then I will discuss current X-ray mirror technologies being developed in several institutions. I will end with a discussion of the optics for the International X-ray Observatory that I have been developing at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  14. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  15. X-ray calibration facility for plasma diagnostics of the MegaJoule laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, S.; Prevot, V.

    2013-01-01

    The Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) located at CEA-CESTA will be equipped with x-ray plasma diagnostics using different kinds of x-ray components such as filters, mirrors, crystals, detectors and cameras. To guarantee LMJ measurements, detectors such as x-ray cameras need to be regularly calibrated. An x-ray laboratory is devoted to this task and performs absolute x-ray calibrations for similar x-ray cameras running on Laser Integration Line (LIL). This paper presents the x-ray calibration bench with its x-ray tube based High Energy x-ray Source (HEXS) and some calibration results. By mean of an ingenious transposition system under vacuum absolute x-ray calibration of x-ray cameras, like streak and stripline ones, can be carried out. Coupled to a new collimation system with micrometric accuracy on aperture sensitivity quantum efficiency measurements can be achieved with reduced uncertainties. (authors)

  16. X-ray pore optic developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  17. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  18. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  19. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  20. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  1. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  2. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  3. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  4. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  5. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  6. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  12. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  13. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  14. G359.97-0.038: A Hard X-Ray Filament Associated with a Supernova Shell-Molecular Cloud Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    near Sgr A*. Its NuSTAR and Chandra broadband spectrum is characterized by a single power law with Γ = 1.3 ± 0.3 that extends from 2 to 50 keV, with an unabsorbed luminosity of 1.3 × 1033 erg s-1 (d/8 kpc)2 in the 2-8 keV band. Despite possessing a cometary X-ray morphology that is typical of a pulsar...

  15. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  17. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  18. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  20. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  1. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  2. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  3. X-ray generation by femtosecond laser pulses and its application to soft X-ray imaging microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have developed laser-produced plasma X-ray sources using femtosecond laser pulses at 10Hz repetition rate in a table-top size in order to investigate basic mechanism of X-ray emission from laser-matter interactions and its application to a X-ray microscope. In a soft X-ray region over 5 nm wavelength, laser-plasma X-ray emission from a solid target achieved an intense flux of photons of the order of 1011 photons/rad per pulse with duration of a few 100 ps, which is intense enough to make a clear imaging in a short time exposure. As an application of laser-produced plasma X-ray source, we have developed a soft X-ray imaging microscope operating in the wavelength range around 14 nm. The microscope consists of a cylindrically ellipsoidal condenser mirror and a Schwarzshird objective mirror with highly-reflective multilayers. We report preliminary results of performance tests of the soft X-ray imaging microscope with a compact laser-produced plasma X-ray source

  4. High-Resolution and Lightweight X-ray Optics for the X-Ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William

    Envisioned in "Enduring Quest, Daring Visions" and under study by NASA as a potential major mission for the 2020s, the X-ray Surveyor mission will likely impose three requirements on its optics: (1) high angular resolution: 0.5 PSF, (2) large effective area: e10,000 cm2 or more, and (3) affordable production cost: $500M. We propose a technology that can meet these requirements by 2020. It will help the X-ray Surveyor secure the endorsement of the coming decadal survey and enable its implementation following WFIRST. The technology comprises four elements: (1) fabrication of lightweight single crystal silicon mirrors, (2) coating these mirrors with iridium to maximize effective area without figure degradation, (3) alignment and bonding of these mirrors to form meta-shells that will be integrated to make a mirror assembly, and (4) systems engineering to ensure that the mirror assembly meet all science performance and spaceflight environmental requirements. This approach grows out of our existing approach based on glass slumping. Using glass slumping technology, we have been able to routinely build and test mirror modules of 10half-power diameter (HPD). While comparable in HPD to XMM-Newtons electroformed nickel mirrors, these mirror modules are 10 times lighter. Likewise, while comparable in weight to Suzakus epoxy-replicated aluminum foil mirrors, these modules have 10 times better HPD. These modules represent the current state of the art of lightweight X-ray optics. Although both successful and mature, the glass slumping technology has reached its limit and cannot achieve sub-arc second HPD. Therefore, we are pursuing the new approach based on polishing single crystal silicon. The new approach will enable the building and testing of mirror modules, called meta-shells, capable of 3HPD by 2018 and 1HPD by 2020, and has the potential to reach diffraction limits ( 0.1) in the 2020s.

  5. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  6. X-ray short-time lags in the Fe-K energy band produced by scattering clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Done, Chris; Hagino, Kouichi; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Odaka, Hirokazu

    2018-05-01

    X-rays illuminating the accretion disc in active galactic nuclei give rise to an iron K line and its associated reflection spectrum which are lagged behind the continuum variability by the light-travel time from the source to the disc. The measured lag timescales in the iron band can be as short as ˜Rg/c, where Rg is the gravitational radius, which is often interpreted as evidence for a very small continuum source close to the event horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. However, the short lags can also be produced by reflection from more distant material, because the primary photons with no time-delay dilute the time-lags caused by the reprocessed photons. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the dilution effect in the X-ray reverberation lags from a half-shell of neutral material placed at 100 Rg from the central source. This gives lags of ˜2 Rg/c, but the iron line is a distinctly narrow feature in the lag-energy plot, whereas the data often show a broader line. We show that both the short lag and the line broadening can be reproduced if the scattering material is outflowing at ˜0.1c. The velocity structure in the wind can also give shifts in the line profile in the lag-energy plot calculated at different frequencies. Hence we propose that the observed broad iron reverberation lags and shifts in profile as a function of frequency of variability can arise from a disc wind at fairly large distances from the X-ray source.

  7. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  8. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  9. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  10. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  11. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  12. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  13. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  14. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  15. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  16. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  17. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  18. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  3. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  11. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  12. Present status of research and development on X-ray microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Suzuki, I.H.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray beam micro-analysis has advanced rapidly in these years in conjunction with the development of powerful X-ray sources. Among a variety of methods being attempted, the method using a collimated narrow beam has been important because of high brightness, and of usability in both regions of soft and hard X-rays. In the soft X-ray region, the focused beam is formed by a fresnel zone plate or a Schwaltzschild mirror assembly, and can be used for scanning transmission microscope or scanning photoelectron microscope. In the hard X-ray region, the beam is formed by grazing incidence mirrors, and can be used for X-ray fluorescence micro-analysis for obtaining elemental mapping. In this report, the recent progress on the soft X-ray scanning microscopy and the X-ray microprobe has been surveyed, together with the improvement on the related optical elements. (author) 84 refs

  13. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  18. The Growth of Interest in Astronomical X-Ray Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Marin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical X-ray polarimetry was first explored in the end of the 1960s by pioneering rocket instruments. The craze arising from the first discoveries of stellar and supernova remnant X-ray polarization led to the addition of X-ray polarimeters to early satellites. Unfortunately, the inadequacy of the diffraction and scattering technologies required to measure polarization with respect to the constraints driven by X-ray mirrors and detectors, coupled with long integration times, slowed down the field for almost 40 years. Thanks to the development of new, highly sensitive, compact X-ray polarimeters in the beginning of the 2000s, observing astronomical X-ray polarization has become feasible, and scientists are now ready to explore our high-energy sky thanks to modern X-ray polarimeters. In the forthcoming years, several X-ray missions (rockets, balloons, and satellites will create new observational opportunities. Interest in astronomical X-ray polarimetry field has thus been renewed, and this paper presents for the first time a quantitative assessment, all based on scientific literature, of the growth of this interest.

  19. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  20. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  1. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  2. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  3. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices

  4. X-raying with low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malevich, E.E.; Kisel, E.M.; Shpita, I.D.; Lazovsky, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    With the purpose of the improvement of diagnostics quality and reduction of beam load on a patient in modern x-ray devices pulse x-raying is applied. It is based on the using of radiation pulses with various frequencies of intervals between them instead of continuous radiation. At pulse x-raying with the net control the principle of filling of an interval is used, when the information about the image, received with the last pulse, get into memory and is displayed before occurrence of other pulse. It creates impression of the continuous image even at low frequency of pulses. Due to the unique concept of the simultaneous (double) control, all of 3 parameters, which define the quality of the image (pressure(voltage), force of a current and length of a pulse), are adjusted automatically at each pulse, thus optimum adaptation to varied thickness of object during dynamic researches occurs. At x-raying pulse the presence of a free interval from x-ray radiation between two pulses results in the decrease of a radiation dose. Pulsing occurs some times per one second with equal intervals between pulses. Thus, the degree of decrease irradiation dose depends on duration of a pause between pulses. On the screen the image of last pulse before occurrence of the following is kept and repeats. The principle of x-raying pulse was realized in system Grid Controlled Fluoroscopy by the firm 'Philips Medi zin Systeme'. In the x-ray tube of this system inclusion and de energizing of radiation occurs directly on a source. Electron cloud is broken off by the special grid, which is located between the cathode and the anode and operates as a barrier. Thus the tube continues to be energized. In usual devices for pulses formation is used generator pulsation system, which at increase and attenuation of a x-ray pulse results in occurrence of the increasing and fading radiation which are not participating in the formation of the image, but creating beam load on the patient and the personnel. Thus

  5. X-ray imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhez, P.

    1986-01-01

    Direct projection, pin diaphragm, lenses, mirrors and holography are used for X images. Each method is examined, radiation source problem is taken in account. For instance, the important role of synchrotron radiation in direct projection is noticed (angiography, microlithography, isotope separation). The pin diaphragm is used for laser-plasma images. Two use techniques of mirrors are presented: in grazing incidence (X-UV telescopes on satellite board) or in normal incidence (new ''laminated'' mirrors). This second technique, which uses interferences, seems to be the unique solution to equip optical cavities of X lasers. More classically, the multilayered mirrors are applicated to X microscopes (with synchrotron radiation). Lenses use diffraction. They lead to scanning X microscopes. At last, reconstruction methods of image are reviewed: different from computer are topography interferometry and holography. These three last ones are precised. In conclusion, the X optics application to two-dimensional material physics is recalled [fr

  6. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  7. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  8. The STAR-X X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Bautz, Mark W.; Bonafede, Joseph A.; Miller, Eric D.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.; Zhang, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) science goals are to discover what powers the most violent explosions in the Universe, understand how black holes grow across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats the majority of baryons in the Universe. To achieve these goals, STAR-X requires a powerful X-ray telescope with a large field of view, large collecting area, and excellent point spread function. The STAR-X instrument, the X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA), meets these requirements using a powerful X-ray mirror technology based on precision-polished single crystal silicon and a mature CCD detector technology. The XTA is composed of three major subsystems: an X-ray Mirror Assembly (MA) of high resolution, lightweight mirror segments fabricated out of single crystal silicon; a Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) made of back-illuminated CCD's capable of detecting X-rays with excellent quantum efficiency; and a composite Telescope Tube that structurally links the MA and FPA. The MA consists of 5,972 silicon mirror segments mounted into five subassemblies called meta-shells. A meta-shell is constructed from an annular central structural shell covered with interlocking layers of mirror segments. This paper describes the requirements, design, and analysis of the XTA subsystems with particular focus on the MA.

  9. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  10. "{Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Joensen, K.D.; Hoeghoej, P.

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented. T...

  11. Design of a normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Gabardi, David R.; Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    Normal incidence multilayer Cassegrain X-ray telescopes were flown on the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-ray Spectroheliograph. These instruments produced high spatial resolution images of the sun and conclusively demonstrated that doubly reflecting multilayer X-ray optical systems are feasible. The images indicated that aplanatic imaging soft X-ray/EUV microscopes should be achievable using multilayer optics technology. A doubly reflecting normal incidence multilayer imaging X-ray microscope based on the Schwarzschild configuration has been designed. The design of the microscope and the results of the optical system ray trace analysis are discussed. High resolution aplanatic imaging X-ray microscopes using normal incidence multilayer X-ray mirrors should have many important applications in advanced X-ray astronomical instrumentation, X-ray lithography, biological, biomedical, metallurgical, and laser fusion research.

  12. Hartman Testing of X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Biskasch, Michael; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    Hartmann testing of x-ray telescopes is a simple test method to retrieve and analyze alignment errors and low-order circumferential errors of x-ray telescopes and their components. A narrow slit is scanned along the circumference of the telescope in front of the mirror and the centroids of the images are calculated. From the centroid data, alignment errors, radius variation errors, and cone-angle variation errors can be calculated. Mean cone angle, mean radial height (average radius), and the focal length of the telescope can also be estimated if the centroid data is measured at multiple focal plane locations. In this paper we present the basic equations that are used in the analysis process. These equations can be applied to full circumference or segmented x-ray telescopes. We use the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC) to model a segmented x-ray telescope and show that the derived equations and accompanying analysis retrieves the alignment errors and low order circumferential errors accurately.

  13. The BESSY X-ray microfocus beamline project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erko, A.; Schaefers, F.; Firsov, A.; Peatman, W.B.; Eberhardt, W.; Signorato, R.

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of a beamline dedicated to X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray small-angle scattering measurements with micron and submicron spatial resolution in the photon energy range of 1.9-30 keV are reported here. The main feature of the beamline is a combination of all these methods in one experimental station. The source will be a BESSY 7-T wavelength shifter, which is already in operation. Such a wavelength shifter with its continuous spectrum is an optimum source for these experiments. Glass capillaries and the combination of a linear Bragg-Fresnel lens and bimorph mirror were chosen as the special optical components in the beamline. This beamline will open for BESSY users the possibility to perform experiments on the same sample applying a microfocused X-ray beam in combination with advanced experimental methods

  14. Mirroring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Wegener, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    and metaphorical value of mirroring for creativity theory across two different research fields — neuroscience and learning. We engage in a mutual (possibly creative) exploration of mirroring from ‘mirror neurons’ to mirroring in social learning theory. One of the most fascinating aspects of mirroring...... as a neurobiological and as a learning phenomenon is that it points to the embodied and unconscious aspects of social interaction. Thus, mirroring should not be reduced to the non-creative, mechanical repetition of the original, outstanding creativity. To mirror is a human capability built into our capacity to create......Most definitions of creativity emphasise originality. The creative product is recognised as distinct from other products and the creative person as someone who stands out from the crowd. What tend to be overlooked are acts of mirroring as a crucial element of the creative process. The human ability...

  15. Enhanced brightness x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.C.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Nilsen, J.

    1994-09-01

    We are developing short-pulsed, enhanced-brightness, and coherent x-ray lasers (XRLs) for applications in areas such as plasma imaging. In a traveling wave pump setup the optical laser creating the XRL plasma sweeps along the lasant axis at the same speed as the x-rays. This technique becomes increasingly important as the target length increases and the gain duration shortens. An order of magnitude increase in output energy was measured with vs without traveling wave pump. Using multiple pulse techniques and multilayer mirrors to inject the output of one pulse back into the plasma formed by a later pulse we have begun to develop the x-ray analog of a multi-pass amplifler. The use of multiple pulses separated by as much as 1.6 ns reduces multilayer mirror damage. This injection technique is demonstrated by imaging the near-field emission profiles of the XRL. The addition of multilayer beamsplitter will allow us to effectively produce a soft XRL cavity

  16. Absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ride, S.K.; Stanford Univ., Calif.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.; Stanford Univ., Calif.

    1977-01-01

    In order to interpret soft X-ray spectra of cosmic X-ray sources, it is necessary to know the photoabsorption cross-section of the intervening interstellar material. Current models suggest that the interstellar medium contains two phases which make a substantial contribution to the X-ray opacity: cool, relatively dense clouds that exist in pressure equilibrium with hot, tenuous intercloud regions. We have computed the soft X-ray photoabsorption cross-section (per hydrogen atom) of each of these two phases. The calculation are based on a model of the interstellar medium which includes chemical evolution of the galaxy, the formation of molecules and grains, and the ionization structure of each of each phase. These cross-sections of clouds and of intercloud regions can be combined to yield the total soft X-ray photoabsorption cross-section of the interstellar medium. By choosing the appropriate linear combination of cloud and intercloud cross-sections, we can tailor the total cross-section to a particular line-of-sight. This approach, coupled with our interstellar model, enables us to better describe a wide range of interstellar features such as H II regions, dense (molecular) clouds, or the ionized clouds which may surround binary X-ray sources. (orig.) [de

  17. Soft X-ray spectrographs for solar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in soft X-ray spectrometery are reviewed, with emphasis on techniques for studying the windowless region from roughly 1-100 A. Recent technological developments considered include multilayer mirrors, large-format CCD detectors which are sensitive to X-rays, position-sensitive photon counting detectors, new kinds of X-ray films, and optical systems based on gratings with nonuniform ruling spacings. Improvements in the extent and accuracy of the atomic physics data sets on which the analysis of spectroscopic observatons depend are also discussed.

  18. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  19. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  20. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  1. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  2. Characteristics of x-ray radiation from a gas-puff z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, N.; Takasugi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of x-ray radiation from Ar gas-puff z-pinch plasma have been investigated by changing delay time of discharge from gas puffing. Intense cloud structure of x-ray image was observed at small delay time region, but the total x-ray signal was not so intense. The x-ray signal increased with increasing the delay time, and hot spots of x-ray image also became intense. Electron temperature was evaluated from x-ray spectroscopic data, and no significant difference in temperature was observed. (author)

  3. Replicated x-ray optics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, René; Pína, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-11-01

    We report on the program of design and development of X-ray optics for space applications in the Czech Republic. Having more than 30 years background in X-ray optics development for space applications (for use in astronomical X-ray telescopes onboard spacecrafts, before 1989 mostly for Soviet and East European INTERKOSMOS program), we focus nowadays on novel technologies and approaches, thin shell replicated mirrors, as well as studies of light-weight mirrors based on innovative materials such as ceramics. The collaboration includes teams from the Academy of Sciences, Universities, and industry. We will describe and discuss both the history of the development of Xray optics in the Czech Republic and the developed technologies and approaches (with focus on replication technology) as well as recent activities and developments including our participation on the ESA XEUS mirror technology development based on the Agreement between ESA and Czech Government.

  4. The Ferrara hard X-ray facility for testing/calibrating hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Gianluca; Frontera, Filippo; Pellicciotta, Damiano; Pisa, Alessandro; Carassiti, Vito; Chiozzi, Stefano; Evangelisti, Federico; Landi, Luca; Melchiorri, Michele; Squerzanti, Stefano

    2005-12-01

    We will report on the current configuration of the X-ray facility of the University of Ferrara recently used to perform reflectivity tests of mosaic crystals and to calibrate the experiment JEM X aboard Integral. The facility is now located in the technological campus of the University of Ferrara in a new building (named LARIX laboratory= LARge Italian X-ray facility) that includes a tunnel 100 m long with, on the sides, two large experimental rooms. The facility is being improved for determining the optical axis of mosaic crystals in Laue configuration, for calibrating Laue lenses and hard X-ray mirror prototypes.

  5. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  6. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  7. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  8. Lifting the veil on the X-ray universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    ESA's X-ray Multi Mirror mission - XMM - is the second Cornerstone in ESA's Long Term Scientific Programme (*). This new X-ray space telescope promises even more discoveries. With the large collecting area of its mirrors and the high sensitivity of its cameras, XMM is expected to increase radically our understanding of high-energy sources - clues to a mysterious past, and keys to understanding the future of the Universe. 174 wafer-thin X-ray mirrors X-rays coming from celestial objects are highly energetic and elusive. They can best be measured and studied after focusing a sufficient number upon sensitive detectors. To achieve this, XMM's Mirror Modules have been given a gargantuan appetite for X-rays. The space observatory combines three barrel-shaped telescope modules. In each are nested 58 wafer-thin concentric mirror shells highly polished and subtly shaped. Passing through at an extremely shallow angle, the so-called "grazing incidence", the X-rays will be beamed to the science instruments situated on the focal plane at the other extremity of the satellite. The three mirror modules have a total mirror surface of over 120m2 - practically the size of a tennis court.. The collecting power of XMM's three telescopes is the greatest ever seen on an X-ray space mission, many times more than the most recently launched X-ray satellite. The design and assembly of the mirror modules, their testing for operation in space and their precise calibration constitute one of the greatest achievements of the XMM programme. The flimsy mirror shells, with their gold reflective surface on a nickel backing, were made by replication like carbon copies from master moulds. They were shaped to an accuracy of a thousandth of a millimetre, and then polished to a smoothness a thousand times better than that. Packaged one within another like Russian dolls, each mirror was focused and centred with respect to its neighbour to an accuracy of 25 microns - a quarter of the width of a human hair

  9. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  10. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  11. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  12. A development of laser-plasma-based soft x-ray microscope system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyong Woo; Kim, Kyu Gyeom; Kwon, Young Man; Yoon, Kwon Ha

    2003-01-01

    Soft x-ray nano-imaging microscopy system for biomedical application with a high resolution about 50 nm has been designed and described, and its integrated techniques also have been studied. The system is mainly composed of soft x-ray generation system, nano-scaled control system, x-ray optical device like a condenser or object mirror, a CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate (MCP) and vacuum system. In the system, soft x-ray is generated from the laser-based plasma by focusing Nd:YAG laser beam on tantalum (Ta) target. In an x-ray optical system, a wolter mirror has been considering condensing the x-ray beam on a biological specimen and zone plate was adapted as an object mirror. A Si 3 N 4 was used as specimen holder for keeping a biological sample alive in atmosphere conditions. A back-illuminated-CCD camera coupled with multichannel plate was determined to set up.

  13. An X-ray BBB Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Materlik, Gerhard; Nishino, Yoshinori; Rostomyan, Armen; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina

    2004-09-01

    A new X-ray Michelson interferometer based on the BBB interferometer of Bonse and Hart and designed for X-rays of wavelength approximately 1 A was described in a previous paper. Here, a further test carried out at the SPring-8 1 km beamline BL29XUL is reported. One of the BBB's mirrors was displaced by a piezo to introduce the required path-length difference. The resulting variation of intensity with piezo voltage as measured by an avalanche photodiode could be ascribed to the phase variation resulting from the path-length change, with a small additional contribution from the change of the position of the lattice planes of the front mirror relative to the rest of the crystal. This 'Michelson fringe' interpretation is supported by the observed steady movement across the output beam of the interference fringes produced by a refractive wedge when the piezo voltage was ramped. The front-mirror displacement required for one complete fringe at the given wavelength is only 0.675 A; therefore, a quiet environment is vital for operating this device, as previous experiments have shown.

  14. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  15. Diamond x-ray optics: Transparent, resilient, high-resolution, and wavefront preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Blank, Vladimir; Terentyev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. Furthermore, they are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.

  16. X-ray supermirrors for BESSY II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erko, A.; Schaefers, F.; Vidal, B.; Yakshin, A.; Pietsch, U.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray multilayer supermirrors for the energy range up to 20 keV have been theoretically studied and experimentally measured with synchrotron radiation. A multilayer mirror with 50 W/Si bilayers with different thicknesses on the Si substrate has a smooth reflectivity of up to 32% in the whole energy range from 5 to 22 keV at a grazing incidence angle of 0.32 degree which is considerably larger than using total external reflection. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  18. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  1. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  7. Radio and X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvarova, A.I.; Novruzova, H.I.; Ahmedova, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper it was studied the statistical correlation between radio and X-ray emissions from shell-type supernova remnants (SNR). The primary aim of this study is to test the model of radio emission of shell-type SNRs presented by one of the authors. Based on this model of radio emission, by using the Monte Carlo techniques we have simulated statistical relations radio - X-ray luminosities (not surface brightnesses) which then were compared with the observations. X-ray emission is assumed to be thermal. To have a uniform statistical material it was used observational data on the SNRs in Magellanic Clouds

  8. On-axis microscopes for the inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofron, K. J., E-mail: kgofron@bnl.gov; Cai, Y. Q.; Coburn, D. S.; Antonelli, S.; Suvorov, A. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Flores, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A novel on-axis X-ray microscope with 3 µm resolution, 3x magnification, and a working distance of 600 mm for in-situ sample alignment and X-ray beam visualization for the Inelastic X-ray Scattering (IXS) beamline at NSLS-II is presented. The microscope uses reflective optics, which minimizes dispersion, and allows imaging from Ultraviolet (UV) to Infrared (IR) with specifically chosen objective components (coatings, etc.). Additionally, a portable high resolution X-ray microscope for KB mirror alignment and X-ray beam characterization was developed.

  9. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  10. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  11. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  12. The X-ray Telescope of CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kuster, M.; Cebrian, S.; Davenport, M.; Elefteriadis, C.; Englhauser, J.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, P.; Hartmann, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Hoffmeister, G.; Joux, J.N.; Kang, D.; Konigsmann, Kay; Kotthaus, R.; Papaevangelou, T.; Lasseur, C.; Lippitsch, A.; Lutz, G.; Morales, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Struder, L.; Vogel, J.; Zioutas, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

  13. The x-ray telescope of CAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, M [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, IKP, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuninger, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cebrian, S [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has been in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting x-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type x-ray mirror system. With the x-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders of magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g{sub a{gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 1 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1}.

  14. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  15. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  16. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  17. Interpretation of the X-ray variability of type 1 Seyfert galaxy nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentsova, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis is analyzed that the X-ray variability of type 1 Seyfert galaxies ad quasars causes the absorption of the central object X radiation by emission clouds. It is shown that this hypothesis can explain the characteristic time scale of the X-ray variability and its amplitude. It is indicated that systematic X-ray observations of Seyfert galaxies and quasars for the investigation of the physical conditions in the emission clouds are important

  18. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  19. A compact scanning soft X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trail, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating at wavelengths between 2.3 nm and 4.4 nm are capable of imaging wet biological cells with a resolution many times that of a visible light microscope. Several such soft x-ray microscopes have been constructed. However, with the exception of contact microscopes, all use synchrotrons as the source of soft x-ray radiation and Fresnel zone plates as the focusing optics. These synchrotron based microscopes are very successful but have the disadvantage of limited access. This dissertation reviews the construction and performance of a compact scanning soft x-ray microscope whose size and accessibility is comparable to that of an electron microscope. The microscope uses a high-brightness laser-produced plasma as the soft x-ray source and normal incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm, and has a soft x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10 4 -10 5 s -1 when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The complete system, including the laser, fits on a single 4' x 8' optical table. The significant components of the compact microscope are the laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, the multilayer coatings, and the Schwarzschild objective. These components are reviewed, both with regard to their particular use in the current microscope and with regard to extending the microscope performance to higher resolution, higher speed, and operation at shorter wavelengths. Measurements of soft x-ray emission and debris emission from our present LPP source are presented and considerations given for an optimal LPP source. The LPP source was also used as a broadband soft x-ray source for measurement of normal incidence multilayer mirror reflectance in the 10-25 nm spectral region

  20. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  1. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  2. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  3. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  7. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  10. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  12. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  15. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  16. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  20. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  1. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  9. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  10. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  11. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  12. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  13. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  14. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  15. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  16. Can isolated single black holes produce X-ray novae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Teraki, Yuto; Ioka, Kunihito

    2018-03-01

    Almost all black holes (BHs) and BH candidates in our Galaxy have been discovered as soft X-ray transients, so-called X-ray novae. X-ray novae are usually considered to arise from binary systems. Here, we propose that X-ray novae are also caused by isolated single BHs. We calculate the distribution of the accretion rate from interstellar matter to isolated BHs, and find that BHs in molecular clouds satisfy the condition of the hydrogen-ionization disc instability, which results in X-ray novae. The estimated event rate is consistent with the observed one. We also check an X-ray novae catalogue (Corral-Santana et al.) and find that 16/59 ˜ 0.27 of the observed X-ray novae are potentially powered by isolated BHs. The possible candidates include IGR J17454-2919, XTE J1908-094, and SAX J1711.6-3808. Near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups can exclude companion stars for a BH census in our Galaxy.

  17. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence beamline at LNLS: components and some associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, CArlos A.; Radtke, Martin; Perez, Carlos; Tolentino, Helio; Vicentin, Flavio; Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Perez, Roberto D.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. In this work a general description of the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and the X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XRFM) is presented. Components, equipment and experimental stations for the x-ray fluorescence beamline are described, regarding to the techniques mentioned above. Results from the simulations of a pair bended mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, are shown. The simulations were performed with Shadow program. (author)

  19. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  20. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  1. Applications for X-ray detectors in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remillard, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Position-sensitive X-Ray detectors continue to playa central role in high-energy astrophysics. The current science goals are reviewed with emphasis on requirements in terms of camera performance. Wide-field imaging techniques, including coded mask cameras, are an essential part of space programs because of the transient nature of high-priority targets, e.g. eruptions from black-hole binaries and cosmic explosions such as gamma ray bursts. Pointing X-ray telescopes are being planned with a wide range of photon energies and with collection designs that include both mirrors and coded masks. Requirements for high spectral resolution and high time resolution are driven by diverse types of X-ray sources such as msec pulsars, quasars with emission-line profiles shaped by general relativity, and X-ray binaries that exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations in the range of 40-1300 Hz. Many laboratories and universities are involved in space-qualification of new detector technologies, e.g. CZT cameras, X-ray calorimeters, new types of CCDs, and GEM detectors. Even X-ray interferometry is on the horizon of NASA's science roadmap. The difficulties in advancing new technologies for space science applications require careful coordinations between industry and science groups in order to solve science problems while minimizing risk

  2. X-ray laser interferometry: A new tool for AGEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Moreno, J.C.; Libby, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 4--40 nm. With the recent advances in the development of multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters in the soft x-ray regime, we can utilize the unique properties of x-ray lasers to study large, rapidly evolving laser-driven plasmas with high electron densities. By employing a shorter wavelength x-ray laser, as compared to using conventional optical laser as the probe source, we can access a much higher density regime while reducing refractive effects which limit the spatial resolution and data interpretation. Using a neon-like yttrium x-ray laser which operates at a wavelength of 15.5 mn, we have performed a series of soft x-ray laser interferometry experiments, operated in the skewed Mach-Zehnder configuration, to characterize plasmas relevant to both weapons and inertial confinement fusion. The two-dimensional density profiles obtained from the interferograms allow us to validate and benchmark our numerical models used to study the physics in the high-energy density regime, relevant to both weapons and inertial confinement fusion

  3. X-ray microscopy using collimated and focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Gordon, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focused beams with sizes as low as 0.07 μm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focusing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K- or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic table. The practicality of a single instrument combining all the features of these two approaches is unclear. The use of high-energy x rays for x-ray microscopy has intrinsic value for characterization of thick samples and determination of trace amounts of most elements. A summary of work done on the X-26 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with collimated and focused x rays with energies above 4 keV is given here. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Low-Stress Iridium Coatings for Thin-Shell X-Ray Telescopes, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and commercialize a new type of low-stress iridium (Ir) X-ray mirror coating technology that can be used for the construction of...

  5. X ray reflection masks: Manufacturing, characterization and first tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Stephen

    1992-09-01

    SXPL (Soft X-ray Projection Lithography) multilayer mirrors are characterized, laterally structured and then used as reflection masks in a projecting lithography procedure. Mo/Si-multilayer mirrors with a 2d in the region of 14 nm were characterized by Cu-k(alpha) grazing incidence as well as soft X-ray normal incidence reflectivity measurements. The multilayer mirrors were patterned by reactive ion etching with CF4 using a photoresist as etch mask, thus producing X-ray reflection masks. The masks were tested at the synchrotron radiation laboratory of the electron accelerator ELSA. A double crystal X-ray monochromator was modified so as to allow about 0.5 sq cm of the reflection mask to be illuminated by white synchrotron radiation. The reflected patterns were projected (with an energy of 100 eV) onto a resist and structure sizes down to 8 micrometers were nicely reproduced. Smaller structures were distorted by Fresnel-diffraction. The theoretically calculated diffraction images agree very well with the observed images.

  6. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yagi, Naoto [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  7. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L

    2009-01-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  8. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, J.; Andritschke, R.; Hartmann, R.; Herrmann, S.; Holl, P.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Meidinger, N.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2009-03-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 × 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  9. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: jft@hll.mpg.de

    2009-03-15

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  10. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  11. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  12. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  13. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  14. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  15. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  16. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  17. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    sources that were previously unobtainable within realistic observation times e.g. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Standard photoelectric X-ray polarimeter designs are both quantum efficiency (QE) limited and challenging to calibrate due to diffusion of electron signal as it drifts through the gas. Drifting negative ions decreases diffusion to the thermal limit thereby decoupling sensitivity from drift distance and enabling larger detector areas that can be at the focus of larger diameter mirrors and single reflection concentrator optics. NITPCs also allow the selection of constituent gasses and pressures to be based on the optimization of modulation and QE rather than diffusion properties. This versatility enables a large improvement in sensitivity without driving cost and with only moderate increase to mass and power of the detector and/or instrument. Furthermore, the energy band of NGXP will be tunable to maximize the science return. Following the efforts of this proposal NGXP will be proposed as sounding rocket experiment and as a candidate instrument for future opportunities. The GSFC polarimeter group has demonstrated NITPCs for several detector concepts. This proposal leverages the previous effort and team expertise with goals to establish the NITPC as the baseline for narrow field observations of faint persistent sources and to improve the technology readiness of associated technologies such as stainless steel gas electron multipliers and finer readout pitch.

  18. Recent Progress in Adjustable X-ray Optics for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; McMuldroch, Stuart; Marquez, Vanessa; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; hide

    2014-01-01

    Two adjustable X-ray optics approaches are being developed for thin grazing incidence optics for astronomy. The first approach employs thin film piezoelectric material sputter deposited as a continuous layer on the back of thin, lightweight Wolter-I mirror segments. The piezoelectric material is used to correct mirror figure errors from fabrication, mounting/alignment, and any ground to orbit changes. The goal of this technology is to produce Wolter mirror segment pairs corrected to 0.5 arc sec image resolution. With the combination of high angular resolution and lightweight, this mirror technology is suitable for the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X) mission concept.. The second approach makes use of electrostrictive adjusters and full shell nickel/cobalt electroplated replication mirrors. An array of radial adjusters is used to deform the full shells to correct the lowest order axial and azimuthal errors, improving imaging performance from the 10 - 15 arc sec level to 5 arc sec. We report on recent developments in both technologies. In particular, we discuss the use of insitu strain gauges on the thin piezo film mirrors for use as feedback on piezoelectric adjuster functionality, including their use for on-orbit figure correction. We also report on the first tests of full shell nickel/cobalt mirror correction with radial adjusters.

  19. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  20. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  1. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  2. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  3. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  4. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  6. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. Large-aperture focusing of x rays with micropore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tatsuhiko; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Large-aperture focusing of Al K(α) 1.49 keV x-ray photons using micropore optics made from a dry-etched 4 in. (100 mm) silicon wafer is demonstrated. Sidewalls of the micropores are smoothed with high-temperature annealing to work as x-ray mirrors. The wafer is bent to a spherical shape to collect parallel x rays into a focus. Our result supports that this new type of optics allows for the manufacturing of ultralight-weight and high-performance x-ray imaging optics with large apertures at low cost. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  10. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  11. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  12. AN OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION FOR FULL REALIZATION OF HARD X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.; Kolodziej, T.; Lindberg, R. R.; Shu, D.; Shvyd' ko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Fawley, W. M.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J.; Marcus, G.; Qin, Weilun; Medvedev, N.; Zemella, J.; Blank, V.; Terentyev, S.

    2017-06-01

    An x-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is feasible by employing an X-ray cavity with Bragg mirrors such as diamond crystals. An XFELO at the 5th harmonic frequency may be implemented at the LCLS II using its 4 GeV superconducting linac, producing stable, fully coherent, high-spectral-purity hard x-rays. In addition, its output can be a coherent seed to the LCLS amplifier for stable, high-power, femto-second x-ray pulses. We summarize the recent progress in various R&D efforts addressing critical issues for realizing an XFELO at LCLS II.

  13. X-ray digital wavefront sensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Fricker, Sebastien; Modi, Mohammed H.; Potier, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Phase contrast imaging (PCI) is a wavefront sensing method that uses a series of intensity images to reconstruct the wavefront. The lateral resolution of PCI is limited mainly by the resolution of the intensity images. PCI provides a simple and efficient technique for characterizing X-ray mirrors. A simulation experiment was conducted to demonstrate the performances of PCI. The results of these experiments have shown the feasibility and potential performances of this method. The use of phase retrieval presents opportunities for greatly simplifying the techniques and apparatus used for characterizing optical surfaces and systems, particularly aspherical surfaces. This paper addresses the design, implementation and performances of an integrated at wavelength digital wavefront sensor.

  14. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  15. Silicon pore optics for future x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska; Shortt, Brian; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Günther, Ramses; Olde Riekerink, Mark; Koelewijn, Arenda; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Erhard, Markus; Kampf, Dirk; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Freyberg, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The candidate mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) required a mirror assembly of 1 m2 effective area (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of 10 arcsec or better. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is being developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the recent upgrades made to the manufacturing processes and equipment, ranging from the manufacture of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration, and results from first vibration tests. The performance of the mirror modules is tested at X-ray facilities that were recently extended to measure optics at a focal distance up to 20 m.

  16. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  17. Some estimates of mirror plasma startup by neutral beam heating of pellet and gas cloud targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Hot plasma buildup by neutral beam injection into an initially cold solid or gaseous target is found to be conceivable in large mirror machine experiments such as 2XIIB or MFTF. A simple analysis shows that existing neutral beam intensities are sufficient to ablate suitable targets to form a gas or vapor cloud. An approximate rate equation model is used to follow the subsequent processes of ionization, heating, and hot plasma formation. Solutions of these rate equations are obtained by means of the ''GEAR'' techniques for solving ''stiff'' systems of differential equations. These solutions are in rough agreement with the 2XIIB stream plasma buildup experiment. They also predict that buildup on a suitable nitrogen-like target will occur in the MFTF geometry. In 2XIIB the solutions are marginal; buildup may be possible, but is not certain

  18. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of multilayer optics induced a decisive extension of opportunities in laboratory based X-ray analysis. With the growing number of different applications, more and more dedicated X-ray optics are required, optimized for the spectral range they are intended to be used for. Both the characteristic of the used X-ray source and the design of the multilayer optics finally define the performance of the conditioned incident beam for the application. In any case, qualified spacer and absorber materials have to be selected for the deposition of the multilayer in respect to the designated X-ray wavelength. X-ray optical devices based on uniform multilayers have the advantage of a wide acceptance angle but show chromatic aberrations. This effect can be avoided by synthesizing a multilayer with a lateral thickness gradient. The gradient ensures that any beam of a certain wavelength emitted from an infinite narrow X-ray source impinging the multilayer optics fulfills the Bragg condition. Three different types of curvature of laterally graded multilayer mirrors are used for X-ray analysis experiments: parabolic, elliptic and planar, which result in parallel, focusing and divergent beam conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the X-ray beam characteristics: intensity, monochromasy, divergence, beam width and brilliance can be additionally conditioned by combining one multilayer optics with either a different optic and/or with a crystal monochromator. The deposition of nanometer-multilayers, used as X-ray optical components, result in extraordinary requirements of the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 individual layers with thicknesses in the range between 1 to 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than σ D = 0.1 nm and an interface roughness below σ R = 0.25 nm have to be achieved. Thickness homogeneity Δd/d -8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic

  19. The X-ray Telescope of the CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kotthaus, Rainer; Friedrich, P.; Kang, D.; Hartmann, R.; Kuster, M.; Lutz, G.; Strüder, L.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for solar axions employing a 9 Tesla superconducting dipole magnet equipped with 3 independent detection systems for X-rays from axion-photon conversions inside the 10 m long magnetic field. Results of the first 6 months of data taking in 2003 imply a 95 % CL upper limit on the axion-photon coupling constant of 1.16x10(-10) GeV(-1) for axion masses < 0.02 eV. The most sensitive detector of CAST is a X-ray telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror system and a fully depleted pn-CCD as focal plane detector. Exploiting the full potential of background suppression by focussing X-rays emerging from the magnet bore, the axion sensitivity obtained with telescope data taken in 2004, for the first time in a controlled laboratory experiment, will supersede axion constraints derived from stellar energy loss arguments.

  20. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  1. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  3. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  4. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  5. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  6. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  8. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  9. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  10. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  12. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  13. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  14. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  15. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  18. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...