WorldWideScience

Sample records for cloud testing color-based

  1. Testing a polarimetric cloud imager aboard research vessel Polarstern: comparison of color-based and polarimetric cloud detection algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Horváth, Ákos; Egri, Ádám; Blahó, Miklós; Barta, Pál; Bumke, Karl; Macke, Andreas

    2015-02-10

    Cloud cover estimation is an important part of routine meteorological observations. Cloudiness measurements are used in climate model evaluation, nowcasting solar radiation, parameterizing the fluctuations of sea surface insolation, and building energy transfer models of the atmosphere. Currently, the most widespread ground-based method to measure cloudiness is based on analyzing the unpolarized intensity and color distribution of the sky obtained by digital cameras. As a new approach, we propose that cloud detection can be aided by the additional use of skylight polarization measured by 180° field-of-view imaging polarimetry. In the fall of 2010, we tested such a novel polarimetric cloud detector aboard the research vessel Polarstern during expedition ANT-XXVII/1. One of our goals was to test the durability of the measurement hardware under the extreme conditions of a trans-Atlantic cruise. Here, we describe the instrument and compare the results of several different cloud detection algorithms, some conventional and some newly developed. We also discuss the weaknesses of our design and its possible improvements. The comparison with cloud detection algorithms developed for traditional nonpolarimetric full-sky imagers allowed us to evaluate the added value of polarimetric quantities. We found that (1) neural-network-based algorithms perform the best among the investigated schemes and (2) global information (the mean and variance of intensity), nonoptical information (e.g., sun-view geometry), and polarimetric information (e.g., the degree of polarization) improve the accuracy of cloud detection, albeit slightly.

  2. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 μm SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 μm selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 μm) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  3. Determination of the impact of RGB points cloud attribute quality on color-based segmentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Kraszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation. In the research, a point cloud with a resolution of 5 mm, received from FAROARO Photon 120 scanner, described the fragment of an office’s room and color images were taken by various digital cameras. The images were acquired by SLR Nikon D3X, and SLR Canon D200 integrated with the laser scanner, compact camera Panasonic TZ-30 and a mobile phone digital camera. Color information from images was spatially related to point cloud in FAROARO Scene software. The color-based segmentation of testing data was performed with the use of a developed application named “RGB Segmentation”. The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries (PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method.Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed. Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: the number of obtained segments, the number of correctly identified objects and the correctness of segmentation process. The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images. Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects. In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial laser scanning, color-based segmentation, RGB attribute, region growing method, digital images, points cloud

  4. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  5. A review on software testing approaches for cloud applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Siddiqui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has actually been invented to be the latest computing standard that will work several distinctive research areas, such as software testing. Testing cloud applications will keep its unique characteristics that involve more recent testing techniques. Software testing helps to reduce the need for hardware and software services and also provide adaptable and valuable cloud platform. Testing within the cloud platform is easily manageable based on new test models and criteria. Prioritization approach is made responsive to build much better relationship between test cases. These test cases are clustered dependent on priority level. The resources can be used properly by applying load balancing algorithm. Cloud guarantees maximum usage of existing resources. But, security defined as a primary problem in cloud. At the present time, organizations are progressively moving excited about deploying and making use of ready-prepared business applications, with particular short-term to the marketplace. The possible lack of capital budgets for software planning and on principle deployments, along with the swift progression of cloud these are the reasons why one should make the interest on business application. However, these are the interests that help make the SaaS based business application on-demand. In this paper different approaches has been discussed that will help to extend the cloud environment. Also, the study of several well-known software testing approaches.

  6. Making Cloud-based Systems Elasticity Testing Reproducible

    OpenAIRE

    Albonico , Michel; Mottu , Jean-Marie; Sunyé , Gerson; Alvares , Frederico

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elastic cloud infrastructures vary computational resources at runtime, i. e., elasticity, which is error-prone. That makes testing throughout elasticity crucial for those systems. Those errors are detected thanks to tests that should run deterministically many times all along the development. However, elasticity testing reproduction requires several features not supported natively by the main cloud providers, such as Amazon EC2. We identify three requirements that we c...

  7. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ster, Daniel C van der; García, Mario Úbeda; Paladin, Massimo; Elmsheuser, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HammerCloud was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HammerCloud has been employed by the ATLAS experiment for continuous testing of many sites worldwide, and also during large scale computing challenges such as STEP'09 and UAT'09, where the scale of the tests exceeded 10,000 concurrently running and 1,000,000 total jobs over multi-day periods. In addition, HammerCloud is being adopted by the CMS experiment; the plugin structure of HammerCloud allows the execution of CMS jobs using their official tool (CRAB).

  8. Tracking the debris cloud from a Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    As the radioactive debris cloud from a Chinese nuclear test on September 26, 1976 began drifting eastward, the Laboratory's computational facilities were pressed into service to predict the possible environmental effects. ERDA asked us to calculate cloud trajectories and to estimate the fallout dose. The FAA asked us to provide dose estimates both for commercial aircraft flights within the U.S. and for transatlantic flights of the Concorde SST. Our dose estimates, calculated with 2BPUFF, a large-cloud diffusion code, proved to be accurate predictions, correlating well with later observations. At FAA and ERDA request, we also worked with EG and G to measure cabin dose rates in some transatlantic SST and subsonic flights while the debris cloud moved out over the Atlantic Ocean

  9. Grid site testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, J; Hönig, F; Legger, F; LLamas, R Medrano; Sciacca, F G; Ster, D van der

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling virtual organisations (VO) and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test workflows. These new workflows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS Monte Carlo production system, XRootD federation (FAX) and new site stress test workflows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  10. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2014-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  11. Grid Site Testing for ATLAS with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Elmsheuser, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Legger, F; Medrano LLamas, R; Sciacca, G; van der Ster, D

    2013-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyze collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 130 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run validation tests of the site and software infrastructure in an automated or on-demand manner. The HammerCloud infrastructure has been constantly improved to support the addition of new test work-flows. These new work-flows comprise e.g. tests of the ATLAS nightly build system, ATLAS MC production system, XRootD federation FAX and new site stress test work-flows. We report on the development, optimization and results of the various components in the HammerCloud framework.

  12. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-González, M.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-10-01

    LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI). The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  13. Testing as a service with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Barrand, Quentin; Sciabà, Andrea; Ster, Daniel van der; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements. The first section will review the architectural changes that a service running in the cloud needs, such an orchestration service or new storage requirements in order to provide functional and stress testing. The second section will review the first tests of infrastructure providers on the perspective of the challenges discovered from the architectural point of view. Finally, the third section will evaluate future requirements of scalability and features to increase testing productivity.

  14. A Condensation–coalescence Cloud Model for Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Formulation and Test Applications to Terrestrial and Jovian Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation–coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.

  15. A Condensation–coalescence Cloud Model for Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Formulation and Test Applications to Terrestrial and Jovian Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Kazumasa; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    A number of transiting exoplanets have featureless transmission spectra that might suggest the presence of clouds at high altitudes. A realistic cloud model is necessary to understand the atmospheric conditions under which such high-altitude clouds can form. In this study, we present a new cloud model that takes into account the microphysics of both condensation and coalescence. Our model provides the vertical profiles of the size and density of cloud and rain particles in an updraft for a given set of physical parameters, including the updraft velocity and the number density of cloud condensation nuclei (CCNs). We test our model by comparing with observations of trade-wind cumuli on Earth and ammonia ice clouds in Jupiter. For trade-wind cumuli, the model including both condensation and coalescence gives predictions that are consistent with observations, while the model including only condensation overestimates the mass density of cloud droplets by up to an order of magnitude. For Jovian ammonia clouds, the condensation–coalescence model simultaneously reproduces the effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness, and cloud geometric thickness inferred from Voyager observations if the updraft velocity and CCN number density are taken to be consistent with the results of moist convection simulations and Galileo probe measurements, respectively. These results suggest that the coalescence of condensate particles is important not only in terrestrial water clouds but also in Jovian ice clouds. Our model will be useful to understand how the dynamics, compositions, and nucleation processes in exoplanetary atmospheres affect the vertical extent and optical thickness of exoplanetary clouds via cloud microphysics.

  16. Performance testing of 3D point cloud software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varela-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR systems are being used widely in recent years for many applications in the engineering field: civil engineering, cultural heritage, mining, industry and environmental engineering. One of the most important limitations of this technology is the large computational requirements involved in data processing, especially for large mobile LiDAR datasets. Several software solutions for data managing are available in the market, including open source suites, however, users often unknown methodologies to verify their performance properly. In this work a methodology for LiDAR software performance testing is presented and four different suites are studied: QT Modeler, VR Mesh, AutoCAD 3D Civil and the Point Cloud Library running in software developed at the University of Vigo (SITEGI. The software based on the Point Cloud Library shows better results in the loading time of the point clouds and CPU usage. However, it is not as strong as commercial suites in working set and commit size tests.

  17. Testing as a Service with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Sciabà, Andrea; van der Ster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    HammerCloud was designed and born under the needs of the grid community to test the resources and automate operations from a user perspective. The recent developments in the IT space propose a shift to the software defined data centres, in which every layer of the infrastructure can be offered as a service. Testing and monitoring is an integral part of the development, validation and operations of big systems, like the grid. This area is not escaping the paradigm shift and we are starting to perceive as natural the Testing as a Service (TaaS) offerings, which allow testing any infrastructure service, such as the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) platforms being deployed in many grid sites, both from the functional and stressing perspectives. This work will review the recent developments in HammerCloud and its evolution to a TaaS conception, in particular its deployment on the Agile Infrastructure platform at CERN and the testing of many IaaS providers across Europe in the context of experiment requirements....

  18. HammerCloud: A Stress Testing System for Distributed Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    van der Ster, Daniel C; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Paladin, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Distributed analysis of LHC data is an I/O-intensive activity which places large demands on the internal network, storage, and local disks at remote computing facilities. Commissioning and maintaining a site to provide an efficient distributed analysis service is therefore a challenge which can be aided by tools to help evaluate a variety of infrastructure designs and configurations. HammerCloud (HC) is one such tool; it is a stress testing service which is used by central operations teams, regional coordinators, and local site admins to (a) submit arbitrary number of analysis jobs to a number of sites, (b) maintain at a steady-state a predefined number of jobs running at the sites under test, (c) produce web-based reports summarizing the efficiency and performance of the sites under test, and (d) present a web-interface for historical test results to both evaluate progress and compare sites. HC was built around the distributed analysis framework Ganga, exploiting its API for grid job management. HC has been ...

  19. Game, cloud architecture and outreach for The BIG Bell Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Carlos; Tura, Jordi; Garcia, Marta; Beduini, Federica; Hirschmann, Alina; Pruneri, Valerio; Acin, Antonio; Marti, Maria; Mitchell, Morgan

    The BIG Bell test uses the input from the Bellsters, self-selected human participants introducing zeros and ones through an online videogame, to perform a suite of quantum physics experiments. In this talk, we will explore the videogame, the data infrastructure and the outreach efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration. First, we will discuss how the game was designed so as to eliminate possible feedback mechanisms that could influence people's behavior. Second, we will discuss the cloud architecture design for scalability as well as explain how we sent each individual bit from the users to the labs. Also, and using all the bits collected via the BIG Bell test interface, we will show a data analysis on human randomness, e.g. are younger Bellsters more random than older Bellsters? Finally, we will talk about the outreach and communication efforts of the BIG Bell test collaboration, exploring both the social media campaigns as well as the close interaction with teachers and educators to bring the project into classrooms.

  20. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳俊; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting human faces in color images. The algorithm consists of three image processing steps. The first step is human skin color statistics. Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions. After that, it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions. In the first step, 250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors. This chroma chart is used to generate, from the original color image, a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the skin. The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into separate skin regions from non skin regions. Finally, multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not. Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%, which is better than most color-based face detection systems. The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image (400×300 pixels) on a Pentium 3 (800MHz) PC.

  1. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter S. K.; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-01-01

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5°C to -40°C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  2. Privacy Penetration Testing: How to Establish Trust in Your Cloud Provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Sasse, M. Angela; Pieters, Wolter

    2012-01-01

    In the age of cloud computing, IT infrastructure becomes virtualised and takes the form of services. This virtualisation results in an increasing de-perimeterisation, where the location of data and computation is irrelevant from a user’s point of view. This irrelevance means that private...... and institutional users no longer have a concept of where their data is stored, and whether they can trust in cloud providers to protect their data. In this chapter, we investigate methods for increasing customers’ trust into cloud providers, and suggest a public penetration-testing agency as an essential component...... in a trustworthy cloud infrastructure....

  3. Architecture and method for optimization of cloud resources used in software testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Coelho Vigário

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays systems can evolve quickly, and to this growth is associated, for example, the production of new features, or even the change of system perspective, required by the stakeholders. These conditions require the development of software testing in order to validate the systems. Run a large battery of tests sequentially can take hours. However, tests can run faster in a distributed environment with rapid availability of pre-configured systems, such as cloud computing. There is increasing demand for automation of the entire process, including integration, build, running tests and management of cloud resources.This paper aims to demonstrate the applicability of the practice continuous integration (CI in Information Systems, for automating the build and software testing performed in a distributed environment of cloud computing, in order to achieve optimization and elasticity of the resources provided by the cloud.

  4. Frameworks for Performing on Cloud Automated Software Testing Using Swarm Intelligence Algorithm: Brief Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys on Cloud Based Automated Testing Software that is able to perform Black-box testing, White-box testing, as well as Unit and Integration Testing as a whole. In this paper, we discuss few of the available automated software testing frameworks on the cloud. These frameworks are found to be more efficient and cost effective because they execute test suites over a distributed cloud infrastructure. One of the framework effectiveness was attributed to having a module that accepts manual test cases from users and it prioritize them accordingly. Software testing, in general, accounts for as much as 50% of the total efforts of the software development project. To lessen the efforts, one the frameworks discussed in this paper used swarm intelligence algorithms. It uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for complete path coverage to minimize time and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO for regression testing to ensure backward compatibility.

  5. Electron cloud dynamics in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Celata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The interference of stray electrons (also called “electron clouds” with accelerator beams is important in modern intense-beam accelerators, especially those with beams of positive charge. In magnetic wigglers, used, for instance, for transverse emittance damping, the intense synchrotron radiation produced by the beam can generate an electron cloud of relatively high density. In this paper the complicated dynamics of electron clouds in wigglers is examined using the example of a wiggler in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator experiment at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with the WARP-POSINST computer code show different density and dynamics for the electron cloud at locations near the maxima of the vertical wiggler field when compared to locations near the minima. Dynamics in these regions, the electron cloud distribution vs longitudinal position, and the beam coherent tune shift caused by the wiggler electron cloud will be discussed.

  6. Development and testing of an aerosol-stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, P.Q.; Meyers, M.P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this new project is to develop an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary layer clouds. Our approach is to create, test, and implement a bulk-microphysics/aerosol model using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites and large-eddy simulation (LES) explicit bin-resolving aerosol/microphysics models. The primary objectives of this work are twofold. First, we need the prediction of number concentrations of activated aerosol which are transferred to the droplet spectrum, so that the aerosol population directly affects the cloud formation and microphysics. Second, we plan to couple the aerosol model to the gas and aqueous-chemistry module that will drive the aerosol formation and growth. We begin by exploring the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations of Arctic stratus clouds over the North Slope CART site. These simulations using Colorado State University`s regional atmospheric modeling system (RAMS) will be useful in designing the structure of the cloud-resolving model and in interpreting data acquired at the North Slope site.

  7. A color based face detection system using multiple templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 卜佳酸; 陈纯

    2003-01-01

    A color based system using multiple templates was developed and implemented for detecting hu-man faces in color images.The algorithm comsists of three image processing steps.The first step is human skin color statistics.Then it separates skin regions from non-skin regions.After that,it locates the frontal human face(s) within the skin regions.In the first step,250 skin samples from persons of different ethnicities are used to determine the color distribution of human skin in chromatic color space in order to get a chroma chart showing likelihoods of skin colors.This chroma chart is used to generate,from the original color image,a gray scale image whose gray value at a pixel shows its likelihood of representing the shin,The algorithm uses an adaptive thresholding process to achieve the optimal threshold value for dividing the gray scale image into sep-arate skin regions from non skin regions.Finally,multiple face templates matching is used to determine if a given skin region represents a frontal human face or not.Test of the system with more than 400 color images showed that the resulting detection rate was 83%,which is better than most colou-based face detection sys-tems.The average speed for face detection is 0.8 second/image(400×300pixels) on a Pentium 3(800MHz) PC.

  8. Distributed storage and cloud computing: a test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, S; Ricca, G Delia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003 the computing farm hosted by the INFN Tier3 facility in Trieste supports the activities of many scientific communities. Hundreds of jobs from 45 different VOs, including those of the LHC experiments, are processed simultaneously. Given that normally the requirements of the different computational communities are not synchronized, the probability that at any given time the resources owned by one of the participants are not fully utilized is quite high. A balanced compensation should in principle allocate the free resources to other users, but there are limits to this mechanism. In fact, the Trieste site may not hold the amount of data needed to attract enough analysis jobs, and even in that case there could be a lack of bandwidth for their access. The Trieste ALICE and CMS computing groups, in collaboration with other Italian groups, aim to overcome the limitations of existing solutions using two approaches: sharing the data among all the participants taking full advantage of GARR-X wide area networks (10 GB/s) and integrating the resources dedicated to batch analysis with the ones reserved for dynamic interactive analysis, through modern solutions as cloud computing.

  9. Cloud-Based Electronic Test Procedures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Procedures are critical to experimental tests as they describe the specific steps necessary to efficiently and safely carry out a test in a repeatable fashion. The...

  10. Cloud phase identification of Arctic boundary-layer clouds from airborne spectral reflection measurements: test of three approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Arctic boundary-layer clouds were investigated with remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR campaign in March and April 2007. The clouds formed in a cold air outbreak over the open Greenland Sea. Beside the predominant mixed-phase clouds pure liquid water and ice clouds were observed. Utilizing measurements of solar radiation reflected by the clouds three methods to retrieve the thermodynamic phase of the cloud are introduced and compared. Two ice indices IS and IP were obtained by analyzing the spectral pattern of the cloud top reflectance in the near infrared (1500–1800 nm wavelength spectral range which is characterized by ice and water absorption. While IS analyzes the spectral slope of the reflectance in this wavelength range, IS utilizes a principle component analysis (PCA of the spectral reflectance. A third ice index IA is based on the different side scattering of spherical liquid water particles and nonspherical ice crystals which was recorded in simultaneous measurements of spectral cloud albedo and reflectance.

    Radiative transfer simulations show that IS, IP and IA range between 5 to 80, 0 to 8 and 1 to 1.25 respectively with lowest values indicating pure liquid water clouds and highest values pure ice clouds. The spectral slope ice index IS and the PCA ice index IP are found to be strongly sensitive to the effective diameter of the ice crystals present in the cloud. Therefore, the identification of mixed-phase clouds requires a priori knowledge of the ice crystal dimension. The reflectance-albedo ice index IA is mainly dominated by the uppermost cloud layer (τ<1.5. Therefore, typical boundary-layer mixed-phase clouds with a liquid cloud top layer will

  11. Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-11-24

    The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cloud-based Electronic Test Procedures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Test procedures are at the heart of any experimental process, especially those involving novel and complex hardware. Whether these procedures are for system...

  13. Statistical Analysis of the Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test (POLCAST) Field Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekness, Jamie Lynn

    The North Dakota farming industry brings in more than $4.1 billion annually in cash receipts. Unfortunately, agriculture sales vary significantly from year to year, which is due in large part to weather events such as hail storms and droughts. One method to mitigate drought is to use hygroscopic seeding to increase the precipitation efficiency of clouds. The North Dakota Atmospheric Research Board (NDARB) sponsored the Polarimetric Cloud Analysis and Seeding Test (POLCAST) research project to determine the effectiveness of hygroscopic seeding in North Dakota. The POLCAST field projects obtained airborne and radar observations, while conducting randomized cloud seeding. The Thunderstorm Identification Tracking and Nowcasting (TITAN) program is used to analyze radar data (33 usable cases) in determining differences in the duration of the storm, rain rate and total rain amount between seeded and non-seeded clouds. The single ratio of seeded to non-seeded cases is 1.56 (0.28 mm/0.18 mm) or 56% increase for the average hourly rainfall during the first 60 minutes after target selection. A seeding effect is indicated with the lifetime of the storms increasing by 41 % between seeded and non-seeded clouds for the first 60 minutes past seeding decision. A double ratio statistic, a comparison of radar derived rain amount of the last 40 minutes of a case (seed/non-seed), compared to the first 20 minutes (seed/non-seed), is used to account for the natural variability of the cloud system and gives a double ratio of 1.85. The Mann-Whitney test on the double ratio of seeded to non-seeded cases (33 cases) gives a significance (p-value) of 0.063. Bootstrapping analysis of the POLCAST set indicates that 50 cases would provide statistically significant results based on the Mann-Whitney test of the double ratio. All the statistical analysis conducted on the POLCAST data set show that hygroscopic seeding in North Dakota does increase precipitation. While an additional POLCAST field

  14. Best practices for implementing, testing and using a cloud-based communication system in a disaster situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the basics for approaching the selection and implementation of a cloud-based communication system to support a business continuity programme, including: • consideration for how a cloud-based communication system can enhance a business continuity programme; • descriptions of some of the more popular features of a cloud-based communication system; • options to evaluate when selecting a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to design a system to be most effective for an organisation; • best practices for how to conduct the initial load of data to a cloud-based communication system; • best practices for how to conduct an initial validation of the data loaded to a cloud-based communication system; • considerations for how to keep contact information in the cloud-based communication system current and accurate; • best practices for conducting ongoing system testing; • considerations for how to conduct user training; • review of other potential uses of a cloud-based communication system; and • review of other tools and features many cloud-based communication systems may offer.

  15. Insights on the Feasibility, Modeling and Field Testing of Cirrus Cloud Thinning from Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, A.; Mejia, J.; Avery, M. A.; Erfani, E.

    2016-12-01

    To date, it is not clear whether the climate intervention method known as cirrus cloud thinning (CCT) can be viable since it requires cirrus clouds to form through homogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth hom) and some recent GCM studies predict cirrus are formed primarily through heterogeneous ice nucleation (henceforth het). A new CALIPSO infrared retrieval method has been developed for single-layer cirrus cloud that measures the temperature dependence of their layer-averaged number concentration N, effective diameter De and ice water content for optical depths (OD) between 0.3 and 3.0. Based on N, the prevailing ice nucleation mechanism (hom or het) can be estimated as a function of temperature, season, latitude and surface type. These satellite results indicate that seeding cirrus clouds at high latitudes during winter may produce significant global surface cooling. This is because hom often appears to dominate over land during winter north of 30°N latitude while the same appears true for most of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 30°S) during all seasons. Moreover, the sampled cirrus cloud frequency of occurrence in the Arctic is at least twice as large during winter relative to other seasons, while frequency of occurrence in the Antarctic peaks in the spring and is second-highest during winter. During Arctic winter, a combination of frequent hom cirrus, maximum cirrus coverage and an extreme or absent sun angle produces the maximum seasonal cirrus net radiative forcing (warming). Thus a reduction in OD and coverage (via CCT) for these cirrus clouds could yield a significant net cooling effect. From these CALIPSO retrievals, De-T relationships are generated as a function of season, latitude and surface type (land vs. ocean). These will be used in CAM5 to estimate De and the ice fall speed, from which the cirrus radiative forcing will be estimated during winter north of 30°latitude, where hom cirrus are common. Another CAM5 simulation will replace the hom

  16. Fomalhaut b as a cloud of dust: Testing aspects of planet formation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Currie, Thayne; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the ability of three models—impacts, captures, and collisional cascades—to account for a bright cloud of dust in Fomalhaut b. Our analysis is based on a novel approach to the power-law size distribution of solid particles central to each model. When impacts produce debris with (1) little material in the largest remnant and (2) a steep size distribution, the debris has enough cross-sectional area to match observations of Fomalhaut b. However, published numerical experiments of impacts between 100 km objects suggest this outcome is unlikely. If collisional processes maintain a steep size distribution over a broad range of particle sizes (300 μm to 10 km), Earth-mass planets can capture enough material over 1-100 Myr to produce a detectable cloud of dust. Otherwise, capture fails. When young planets are surrounded by massive clouds or disks of satellites, a collisional cascade is the simplest mechanism for dust production in Fomalhaut b. Several tests using Hubble Space Telescope or James Webb Space Telescope data—including measuring the expansion/elongation of Fomalhaut b, looking for trails of small particles along Fomalhaut b's orbit, and obtaining low resolution spectroscopy—can discriminate among these models.

  17. Fomalhaut b as a cloud of dust: Testing aspects of planet formation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A1 (Canada); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: currie@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: bromley@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 201 JFB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We consider the ability of three models—impacts, captures, and collisional cascades—to account for a bright cloud of dust in Fomalhaut b. Our analysis is based on a novel approach to the power-law size distribution of solid particles central to each model. When impacts produce debris with (1) little material in the largest remnant and (2) a steep size distribution, the debris has enough cross-sectional area to match observations of Fomalhaut b. However, published numerical experiments of impacts between 100 km objects suggest this outcome is unlikely. If collisional processes maintain a steep size distribution over a broad range of particle sizes (300 μm to 10 km), Earth-mass planets can capture enough material over 1-100 Myr to produce a detectable cloud of dust. Otherwise, capture fails. When young planets are surrounded by massive clouds or disks of satellites, a collisional cascade is the simplest mechanism for dust production in Fomalhaut b. Several tests using Hubble Space Telescope or James Webb Space Telescope data—including measuring the expansion/elongation of Fomalhaut b, looking for trails of small particles along Fomalhaut b's orbit, and obtaining low resolution spectroscopy—can discriminate among these models.

  18. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  19. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site...

  20. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Legger, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Medrano Llamas, R; Sciacca, G; Van der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes more than 80 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short light-weight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate si...

  1. Observation of Electron Cloud Instabilities and Emittance Dilution at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzapple, R.L.; Campbell, R.C.; McArdle, K.E.; Miller, M.I.; Totten, M.M.; Tucker, S.L.; Billing, M.G.; Dugan, G.F.; Ramirez, G.A.; Sonnad, K.G.; Williams, H.A.; Flanagan, J.; Palmer, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions

  2. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Sciabà, Andrea; García, Mario Úbeda; Ster, Daniel van der; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  3. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Legger, Federica; Sciabà, Andrea; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Úbeda García, Mario; van der Ster, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion policies. A study of the historical test results for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb will be presented, including comparisons between the experiments’ grid availabilities and a search for site-based or temporal failure correlations. Finally, we will look to future plans that will allow users to gain new insights into the test results; these include developments to allow increased testing concurrency, increased scale in the number of metrics recorded per test job (up to hundreds), and increased scale in the historical job information (up to many millions of jobs per VO).

  4. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster , D; Medrano Llamas, R; Legger , F; Sciaba, A; Sciacca, G; Ubeda Garca , M

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion p...

  5. Experience in Grid Site Testing for ATLAS, CMS and LHCb with HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Frequent validation and stress testing of the network, storage and CPU resources of a grid site is essential to achieve high performance and reliability. HammerCloud was previously introduced with the goals of enabling VO- and site-administrators to run such tests in an automated or on-demand manner. The ATLAS, CMS and LHCb experiments have all developed VO plugins for the service and have successfully integrated it into their grid operations infrastructures. This work will present the experience in running HammerCloud at full scale for more than 3 years and present solutions to the scalability issues faced by the service. First, we will show the particular challenges faced when integrating with CMS and LHCb offline computing, including customized dashboards to show site validation reports for the VOs and a new API to tightly integrate with the LHCbDIRAC Resource Status System. Next, a study of the automatic site exclusion component used by ATLAS will be presented along with results for tuning the exclusion ...

  6. Testing S3 API for OBS, and Federated AAI for HNSciCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Pintjuk, Daniil

    2016-01-01

    During my time at CERN join the HNSciCloud PCP project. A Pre-commercial Procurmet tender to develop a cloud platform to support high performance computing and big data capabilities for scientific research.

  7. Development and Testing of a Life Cycle Model and a Parameterization of Thin Mid-level Stratiform Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Steven K.

    2008-03-03

    We used a cloud-resolving model (a detailed computer model of cloud systems) to evaluate and improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models used for numerical weather prediction and climate modeling. We also used observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, made at DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Climate Research Facility located in the Southern Great Plains (Kansas and Oklahoma) during Intensive Observation Periods to evaluate our detailed computer model as well as a single-column version of a global atmospheric model used for numerical weather prediction (the Global Forecast System of the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction). This so-called Single-Column Modeling approach has proved to be a very effective method for testing the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models. The method relies on detailed observations of the atmospheric state, including clouds, in an atmospheric column comparable in size to a grid column used in a global atmospheric model. The required observations are made by a combination of in situ and remote sensing instruments. One of the greatest problems facing mankind at the present is climate change. Part of the problem is our limited ability to predict the regional patterns of climate change. In order to increase this ability, uncertainties in climate models must be reduced. One of the greatest of these uncertainties is the representation of clouds and cloud processes. This project, and ARM taken as a whole, has helped to improve the representation of clouds in global atmospheric models.

  8. Testing the Two-Layer Model for Correcting Near Cloud Reflectance Enhancement Using LES SHDOM Simulated Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guoyong; Marshak, Alexander; Varnai, Tamas; Levy, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A transition zone exists between cloudy skies and clear sky; such that, clouds scatter solar radiation into clear-sky regions. From a satellite perspective, it appears that clouds enhance the radiation nearby. We seek a simple method to estimate this enhancement, since it is so computationally expensive to account for all three-dimensional (3-D) scattering processes. In previous studies, we developed a simple two-layer model (2LM) that estimated the radiation scattered via cloud-molecular interactions. Here we have developed a new model to account for cloud-surface interaction (CSI). We test the models by comparing to calculations provided by full 3-D radiative transfer simulations of realistic cloud scenes. For these scenes, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-like radiance fields were computed from the Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM), based on a large number of cumulus fields simulated by the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) large eddy simulation (LES) model. We find that the original 2LM model that estimates cloud-air molecule interactions accounts for 64 of the total reflectance enhancement and the new model (2LM+CSI) that also includes cloud-surface interactions accounts for nearly 80. We discuss the possibility of accounting for cloud-aerosol radiative interactions in 3-D cloud-induced reflectance enhancement, which may explain the remaining 20 of enhancements. Because these are simple models, these corrections can be applied to global satellite observations (e.g., MODIS) and help to reduce biases in aerosol and other clear-sky retrievals.

  9. Protostellar formation in rotating interstellar clouds. I. Numerical methods and tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    The details of how dense interstellar clouds collapse to form protostars are obscured from observation by the very clouds in which the condensation takes place, leaving an observational gap between the clouds and pre--main-sequence (PMS) stars. There is also a gap of roughly four orders of magnitude between the specific spin angular momentum of such clouds and that of PMS stars. Thus in order to fully understand the sequence of events in stellar formation, we must construct theoretical models of the collapse and fragmentation of rotating interstellar clouds into single or multiple protostellar systems

  10. Tests of Cloud Computing and Storage System features for use in H1 Collaboration Data Preservation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łobodziński, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the currently developing strategy for data preservation and long-term analysis in HEP tests of possible future Cloud Computing based on the Eucalyptus Private Cloud platform and the petabyte scale storage open source system CEPH were performed for the H1 Collaboration. Improvements in computing power and strong development of storage systems suggests that a single Cloud Computing resource supported on a given site will be sufficient for analysis requirements beyond the end-date of experiments. This work describes our test-bed architecture which could be applied to fulfill the requirements of the physics program of H1 after the end date of the Collaboration. We discuss the reasons why we choose the Eucalyptus platform and CEPH storage infrastructure as well as our experience with installations and support of these infrastructures. Using our first test results we will examine performance characteristics, noticed failure states, deficiencies, bottlenecks and scaling boundaries.

  11. Improving ATLAS grid site reliability with functional tests using HammerCloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmsheuser, Johannes; Legger, Federica; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Sciacca, Gianfranco; van der Ster, Dan

    2012-12-01

    With the exponential growth of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) data in 2011, and more coming in 2012, distributed computing has become the established way to analyse collider data. The ATLAS grid infrastructure includes almost 100 sites worldwide, ranging from large national computing centers to smaller university clusters. These facilities are used for data reconstruction and simulation, which are centrally managed by the ATLAS production system, and for distributed user analysis. To ensure the smooth operation of such a complex system, regular tests of all sites are necessary to validate the site capability of successfully executing user and production jobs. We report on the development, optimization and results of an automated functional testing suite using the HammerCloud framework. Functional tests are short lightweight applications covering typical user analysis and production schemes, which are periodically submitted to all ATLAS grid sites. Results from those tests are collected and used to evaluate site performances. Sites that fail or are unable to run the tests are automatically excluded from the PanDA brokerage system, therefore avoiding user or production jobs to be sent to problematic sites.

  12. Feasibility study of point cloud data from test deposition holes for deformation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.

    2014-02-01

    The present document reports the observations and analyses made at the University of Lausanne (UNIL) on the point cloud datasets from the test deposition holes of the ONKALO facility (Olkiluoto, Finland). This study has revealed that an artificial distortion due to the acquisition procedure affects part of the data (up to 6 mm shift). This distortion occurs when the incidence angle gets too high and recommendations are proposed to avoid it during future acquisitions. Another issue is the influence of the surface condition on range measurement, i.e. wet versus dry, or dark versus light colored. No obvious ground deformation was observed on the data provided for this study. But, because of the distortion mentioned previously, a quite important amplitude deformation would be required to be detected in some parts of the holes on the present data. We think that changing slightly the scanning strategy in the field for future acquisitions should make possible to detect sub-mm deformations. (orig.)

  13. A Quantitative Investigation of Cloud Computing Adoption in Nigeria: Testing an Enhanced Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Bashiru Abayomi

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a potential alternative to the traditional on-premise computing that businesses can leverage to achieve operational efficiencies. Consequently, technology managers are often tasked with the responsibilities to analyze the barriers and variables critical to organizational cloud adoption decisions. This…

  14. Test scheduling optimization for 3D network-on-chip based on cloud evolutionary algorithm of Pareto multi-objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanpei; Niu, Junhao; Ling, Jing; Wang, Suyan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present a parallel test strategy for bandwidth division multiplexing under the test access mechanism bandwidth constraint. The Pareto solution set is combined with a cloud evolutionary algorithm to optimize the test time and power consumption of a three-dimensional network-on-chip (3D NoC). In the proposed method, all individuals in the population are sorted in non-dominated order and allocated to the corresponding level. Individuals with extreme and similar characteristics are then removed. To increase the diversity of the population and prevent the algorithm from becoming stuck around local optima, a competition strategy is designed for the individuals. Finally, we adopt an elite reservation strategy and update the individuals according to the cloud model. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm converges to the optimal Pareto solution set rapidly and accurately. This not only obtains the shortest test time, but also optimizes the power consumption of the 3D NoC.

  15. Beam Tests of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Mitigation of Electron Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey [Fermilab; Backfish, Michael [Fermilab; Kato, Shigeki [KEK, Tsukuba; Tan, Cheng-Yang [Fermilab; Zwaska, Robert [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Our results evaluate the efficacy of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating for the mitigation of electron in the Fermilab Main Injector. The interior surface of the beampipe conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the change in electron cloud flux over time in the DLC coated beampipe and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. The electron flux is measured by retarding field analyzers placed in a field-free region of the Main Injector. We find the DLC coating reduces the electron cloud signal to roughly 2\\% of that measured in the uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  16. SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF FORMING OF COLOR-BASED CARDS FOR ASSESSMENT OF EARLY STAGES INNOVATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Bragina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with functional program that allows to generate a visualrepresentation of the shareholder tothe innovative project early stage ofdevelopment, formed a color-based cards.

  17. Characterization of electron clouds in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator using TE-wave transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santis, S.; Byrd, J.M.; Billing, M.; Palmer, M.; Sikora, J.; Carlson, B.

    2010-01-01

    A relatively new technique for measuring the electron cloud density in storage rings has been developed and successfully demonstrated (S. De Santis, J.M. Byrd, F. Caspers, A. Krasnykh, T. Kroyer, M.T.F. Pivi, and K.G. Sonnad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 094801 (2008).). We present the experimental results of a systematic application of this technique at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator. The technique is based on the phase modulation of the TE mode transmitted in a synchrotron beam pipe caused by the periodic variation of the density of electron plasma. Because of the relatively simple hardware requirements, this method has become increasingly popular and has been since successfully implemented in several machines. While the principles of this technique are straightforward, quantitative derivation of the electron cloud density from the measurement requires consideration of several effects, which we address in detail.

  18. Test-driven modeling and development of cloud-enabled cyber-physical smart systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Allan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Embedded products currently tend to evolve into large and complex smart systems where products are enriched with services through clouds and other web technologies. The complex characteristics of smart systems make it very difficult to guarantee functionality, safety, security and performance...

  19. Privacy penetration testing -- how to establish trust in your cloud provider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Probst, C.W.; Sasse, A.M.; Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.; Luysterborg, E.; Arnaud, M.; Gutwirth, S.; Poullet, Y.; De Hert, P.; Leens, R.

    2012-01-01

    In the age of cloud computing, IT infrastructure becomes virtualised and takes the form of services. This virtualisation results in an increasing de-perimeterisation, where the location of data and computation is irrelevant from a user’s point of view. This irrelevance means that private and

  20. Monte Carlo Bayesian inference on a statistical model of sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution cloud observations. Part 2: Sensitivity tests and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Peter M.; da Silva, Arlindo M.

    2018-01-01

    Part 1 of this series presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of global circulation model (GCM) sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud data, thereby permitting parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation for large-scale models. This article performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed reduce mean and standard deviation biases significantly with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud-top pressure and that it also improves the simulated rotational–Raman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows non-gradient-based jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast, where the background state has a clear swath. This article also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in passive-radiometer-retrieved cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud-top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification from Riishojgaard provides some help in this respect, by

  1. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  2. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-Gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-Resolution Cloud Observations. Part 2: Sensitivity Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Peter M.; da Silva, Arlindo M.

    2016-01-01

    Part 1 of this series presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of global circulation model (GCM) sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud data, thereby permitting parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation for large-scale models. This article performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed reduce mean and standard deviation biases significantly with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud-top pressure and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Raman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows non-gradient-based jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast, where the background state has a clear swath. This article also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in passive-radiometer-retrieved cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud-top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification from Riishojgaard provides some help in this respect, by

  3. A new airborne Polar Nephelometer for the measurement of optical and microphysical cloud properties. Part II: Preliminary tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Crépel

    Full Text Available A new optical sensor, the airborne Polar Nephelometer, has been tested in an open wind tunnel. The wind tunnel was operated in cloudy conditions including either cloud water droplets or ice crystals, or a mixture of these particles. The sensor is designed to measure the optical and microphysical parameters of cloud particles sized from a few micrometers to about 500 µm diameter. Basically, the probe measures the scattering phase function of an ensemble of cloud particles which intersect a collimated laser beam near the focal point of a paraboloidal mirror. From the measured scattering phase function the retrieval of the droplet-size spectra and subsequent derived quantities such as liquid water content and size parameters can be calculated using an inversion method. The particle phase discrimination (water droplets/ice particles can be derived from the shape of the scattering phase function and the sensitivity of the probe allows the detection of small ice crystals (typically of 5 µm diameter. The paper describes the preliminary results obtained by the prototype version of the Polar Nephelometer in various cloudy conditions. These results are compared with direct microphysical measurements obtained by usual PMS probes also mounted in the wind tunnel. Complementary results obtained in a cold chamber are presented in order to illustrate the reliability of the Polar Nephelometer in the presence of small ice crystals.

  4. Comparison of Enamel and Stainless Steel Electron Cloud Clearing Electrodes Tested in the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Mahner, C; Wendel, JC

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 run with the nominal LHC proton beam, electron cloud has been clearly identified and characterized in the PS using a dedicated setup with shielded button-type pickups. Efficient electron cloud suppression could be achieved with a stainless steel stripline-type electrode biased to negative and positive voltages up to ± 1 kV. For the 2008 run, a second setup was installed in straight section 84 of the PS where the stainless steel was replaced by a stripline composed of an enamel insulator with a resistive coating. In contrast to ordinary stripline electrodes this setup presents a very low beam coupling impedance and could thus be envisaged for long sections of high-intensity machines. Here, we present first comparative measurements with this new type of enamel clearing electrode using the nominal LHC beam with 72 bunches and 25 ns bunch spacing.

  5. Scalable, ultra-resistant structural colors based on network metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Galinski, Henning

    2017-05-05

    Structural colors have drawn wide attention for their potential as a future printing technology for various applications, ranging from biomimetic tissues to adaptive camouflage materials. However, an efficient approach to realize robust colors with a scalable fabrication technique is still lacking, hampering the realization of practical applications with this platform. Here, we develop a new approach based on large-scale network metamaterials that combine dealloyed subwavelength structures at the nanoscale with lossless, ultra-thin dielectric coatings. By using theory and experiments, we show how subwavelength dielectric coatings control a mechanism of resonant light coupling with epsilon-near-zero regions generated in the metallic network, generating the formation of saturated structural colors that cover a wide portion of the spectrum. Ellipsometry measurements support the efficient observation of these colors, even at angles of 70°. The network-like architecture of these nanomaterials allows for high mechanical resistance, which is quantified in a series of nano-scratch tests. With such remarkable properties, these metastructures represent a robust design technology for real-world, large-scale commercial applications.

  6. Initial Field Test of a Cloud-Based Cardiac Auscultation System to Determine Murmur Etiology in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Lee; Hemmati, Pouya; Pan, J; Yu, Xiaoju; Liu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Tsakistos, Andreas; Zheleva, Bistra; Shao, Weiguang; Ni, Quan

    2017-04-01

    A system for collection, distribution, and long distant, asynchronous interpretation of cardiac auscultation has been developed and field-tested in rural China. We initiated a proof-of-concept test as a critical component of design of a system to allow rural physicians with little experience in evaluation of congenital heart disease (CHD) to obtain assistance in diagnosis and management of children with significant heart disease. The project tested the hypothesis that acceptable screening of heart murmurs could be accomplished using a digital stethoscope and internet cloud transmittal to deliver phonocardiograms to an experienced observer. Of the 7993 children who underwent school-based screening in the Menghai District of Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, 149 had a murmur noted by a screener. They had digital heart sounds and phonocardiograms collected with the HeartLink tele auscultation system, and underwent echocardiography by a cardiology resident from the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. The digital phonocardiograms, stored on a cloud server, were later remotely reviewed by a board-certified American pediatric cardiologist. Fourteen of these subjects were found to have CHD confirmed by echocardiogram. Using the HeartLink system, the pediatric cardiologist identified 11 of the 14 subjects with pathological murmurs, and missed three subjects with atrial septal defects, which were incorrectly identified as venous hum or Still's murmur. In addition, ten subjects were recorded as having pathological murmurs, when no CHD was confirmed by echocardiography during the field study. The overall test accuracy was 91% with 78.5% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the feasibility of differentiating pathologic murmurs due to CHD from normal functional heart murmurs with the HeartLink system. This field study is an initial step to develop a cost-effective CHD screening strategy in low

  7. A New Chicane Experiment In PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine

  8. Characterization of electron clouds in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator using TE-wave transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Santis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new technique for measuring the electron cloud density in storage rings has been developed and successfully demonstrated [S. De Santis, J. M. Byrd, F. Caspers, A. Krasnykh, T. Kroyer, M. T. F. Pivi, and K. G. Sonnad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 094801 (2008.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.094801]. We present the experimental results of a systematic application of this technique at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator. The technique is based on the phase modulation of the TE mode transmitted in a synchrotron beam pipe caused by the periodic variation of the density of electron plasma. Because of the relatively simple hardware requirements, this method has become increasingly popular and has been since successfully implemented in several machines. While the principles of this technique are straightforward, quantitative derivation of the electron cloud density from the measurement requires consideration of several effects, which we address in detail.

  9. Moving HammerCloud to CERN's private cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Barrand, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    HammerCloud is a testing framework for the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Currently deployed on about 20 hand-managed machines, it was desirable to move it to the Agile Infrastructure, CERN's OpenStack-based private cloud.

  10. Can Clouds Replace Grids? A Real-Life Exabyte-Scale Test-Case

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    2008-01-01

    The world’s largest scientific machine – comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9oK and located some 100m underground – currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared â€ワopen” and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability – as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools – still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently â€ワCloud Computing” – in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning – has...

  11. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  12. Technical Note: A numerical test-bed for detailed ice nucleation studies in the AIDA cloud simulation chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Cotton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere aerosol and cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe can be used to test the ice forming ability of aerosols. The AIDA chamber is extensively instrumented including pressure, temperature and humidity sensors, and optical particle counters. Expansion cooling using mechanical pumps leads to ice supersaturation conditions and possible ice formation. In order to describe the evolving chamber conditions during an expansion, a parcel model was modified to account for diabatic heat and moisture interactions with the chamber walls. Model results are shown for a series of expansions where the initial chamber temperature ranged from −20°C to −60°C and which used desert dust as ice forming nuclei. During each expansion, the initial formation of ice particles was clearly observed. For the colder expansions there were two clear ice nucleation episodes. In order to test the ability of the model to represent the changing chamber conditions and to give confidence in the observations of chamber temperature and humidity, and ice particle concentration and mean size, ice particles were simply added as a function of time so as to reproduce the observations of ice crystal concentration. The time interval and chamber conditions over which ice nucleation occurs is therefore accurately known, and enables the model to be used as a test bed for different representations of ice formation.

  13. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  14. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  15. Two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics in the GFDL AM3 GCM: description, evaluation, and sensitivity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salzmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new stratiform cloud scheme including a two-moment bulk microphysics module, a cloud cover parameterization allowing ice supersaturation, and an ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented into the recently developed GFDL AM3 general circulation model (GCM as part of an effort to treat aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions more realistically. Unlike the original scheme, the new scheme facilitates the study of cloud-ice-aerosol interactions via influences of dust and sulfate on ice nucleation. While liquid and cloud ice water path associated with stratiform clouds are similar for the new and the original scheme, column integrated droplet numbers and global frequency distributions (PDFs of droplet effective radii differ significantly. This difference is in part due to a difference in the implementation of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF mechanism, which leads to a larger contribution from super-cooled droplets in the original scheme. Clouds are more likely to be either completely glaciated or liquid due to the WBF mechanism in the new scheme. Super-saturations over ice simulated with the new scheme are in qualitative agreement with observations, and PDFs of ice numbers and effective radii appear reasonable in the light of observations. Especially, the temperature dependence of ice numbers qualitatively agrees with in-situ observations. The global average long-wave cloud forcing decreases in comparison to the original scheme as expected when super-saturation over ice is allowed. Anthropogenic aerosols lead to a larger decrease in short-wave absorption (SWABS in the new model setup, but outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR decreases as well, so that the net effect of including anthropogenic aerosols on the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (netradTOA = SWABS-OLR is of similar magnitude for the new and the original scheme.

  16. Two-moment bulk stratiform cloud microphysics in the GFDL AM3 GCM: description, evaluation, and sensitivity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, M.; Ming, Y.; Golaz, J.-C.; Ginoux, P. A.; Morrison, H.; Gettelman, A.; Krämer, M.; Donner, L. J.

    2010-08-01

    A new stratiform cloud scheme including a two-moment bulk microphysics module, a cloud cover parameterization allowing ice supersaturation, and an ice nucleation parameterization has been implemented into the recently developed GFDL AM3 general circulation model (GCM) as part of an effort to treat aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions more realistically. Unlike the original scheme, the new scheme facilitates the study of cloud-ice-aerosol interactions via influences of dust and sulfate on ice nucleation. While liquid and cloud ice water path associated with stratiform clouds are similar for the new and the original scheme, column integrated droplet numbers and global frequency distributions (PDFs) of droplet effective radii differ significantly. This difference is in part due to a difference in the implementation of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, which leads to a larger contribution from super-cooled droplets in the original scheme. Clouds are more likely to be either completely glaciated or liquid due to the WBF mechanism in the new scheme. Super-saturations over ice simulated with the new scheme are in qualitative agreement with observations, and PDFs of ice numbers and effective radii appear reasonable in the light of observations. Especially, the temperature dependence of ice numbers qualitatively agrees with in-situ observations. The global average long-wave cloud forcing decreases in comparison to the original scheme as expected when super-saturation over ice is allowed. Anthropogenic aerosols lead to a larger decrease in short-wave absorption (SWABS) in the new model setup, but outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) decreases as well, so that the net effect of including anthropogenic aerosols on the net radiation at the top of the atmosphere (netradTOA = SWABS-OLR) is of similar magnitude for the new and the original scheme.

  17. Testing remote sensing on artificial observations: impact of drizzle and 3-D cloud structure on effective radius retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zinner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud effective particle size with passive sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is an important tool for cloud microphysical studies. As a measure of the radiatively relevant droplet size, effective radius can be retrieved with different combinations of visible through shortwave and midwave infrared channels. In practice, retrieved effective radii from these combinations can be quite different. This difference is perhaps indicative of different penetration depths and path lengths for the spectral reflectances used. In addition, operational liquid water cloud retrievals are based on the assumption of a relatively narrow distribution of droplet sizes; the role of larger precipitation particles in these distributions is neglected. Therefore, possible explanations for the discrepancy in some MODIS spectral size retrievals could include 3-D radiative transport effects, including sub-pixel cloud inhomogeneity, and/or the impact of drizzle formation.

    For three cloud cases the possible factors of influence are isolated and investigated in detail by the use of simulated cloud scenes and synthetic satellite data: marine boundary layer cloud scenes from large eddy simulations (LES with detailed microphysics are combined with Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations that explicitly account for the detailed droplet size distributions as well as 3-D radiative transfer to simulate MODIS observations. The operational MODIS optical thickness and effective radius retrieval algorithm is applied to these and the results are compared to the given LES microphysics.

    We investigate two types of marine cloud situations each with and without drizzle from LES simulations: (1 a typical daytime stratocumulus deck at two times in the diurnal cycle and (2 one scene with scattered cumulus. Only small impact of drizzle formation on the retrieved domain average and on the differences between the three

  18. A low cost color-based bacterial biosensor for measuring arsenic in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Wei; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Using arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater for drinking or irrigation has caused major health problems for humans around the world, raising a need to monitor As level efficiently and economically. This study developed a color-based bacterial biosensor which is easy-to-use and inexpensive for measuring As and could be complementary to current As detecting techniques. The arsR-lacZ recombinant gene cassette in nonpathogenic strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used in the color-based biosensor which could be observed by eyes or measured by spectrometer. The developed bacterial biosensor demonstrates a quantitative range from 10 to 500μgL(-1) of As in 3-h reaction time. Furthermore, the biosensor was able to successfully detect and estimate As concentration in groundwater sample by measuring optical density at 595nm (OD595). Among different storage methods used in this study, biosensor in liquid at 4°C showed the longest shelf life about 9d, and liquid storage at RT and cell pellet could also be stored for about 3-5d. In conclusion, this study showed that the As biosensor with reliable color signal and economical preservation methods is useful for rapid screening of As pollutant, providing the potential for large scale screening and better management strategies for environmental quality control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  20. A hurricane modification process, applying a new technology tested for warm cloud seeding to produce artificial rains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T.; Martin, I.; Iha, K.

    A Hurricane Modification Process with application of a new clean technology attested for seeding warm clouds with collector pure water droplets of controlled size to produce artificial rains in warm clouds is proposed to modify the hurricanes in order to avoid their formation or to modify the trajectory or to weaken hurricanes in action The Process is based on the time-dependent effects of cloud droplets microphysical processes for the formation and growth of the natural water droplets inside the clouds releasing large volumes of Aeolian energy to form the strong rotative upside air movements A new Paradigm proposed explain the strong and rotative winds created with the water droplets formation and grow process releasing the rotative Aeolian Energy in Tornados and Hurricanes This theory receive the Gold Medal Award of the Water Science in the 7th International Water Symposium 2005 in France Artificial seeding in the Process studies condensing a specified percentage of the water vapor to liquid water droplets where we observe the release of larges intensity of the Aeolian energy creates the hurricanes producing appreciable perturbations With they rotating strong wind created by the water droplets releasing Aeolian energy The Amplitudes of these winds are comparable to natural disasters Once this natural thermal process is completely understood artificial process to modify the hurricanes become scientifically possible to avoid them to happen or to deviate their trajectory or to weaken the already formed hurricanes In this work

  1. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  2. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  3. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  4. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  5. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  6. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  7. GenColors-based comparative genome databases for small eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Marius; Romualdi, Alessandro; Petzold, Andreas; Platzer, Matthias; Sühnel, Jürgen; Glöckner, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Many sequence data repositories can give a quick and easily accessible overview on genomes and their annotations. Less widespread is the possibility to compare related genomes with each other in a common database environment. We have previously described the GenColors database system (http://gencolors.fli-leibniz.de) and its applications to a number of bacterial genomes such as Borrelia, Legionella, Leptospira and Treponema. This system has an emphasis on genome comparison. It combines data from related genomes and provides the user with an extensive set of visualization and analysis tools. Eukaryote genomes are normally larger than prokaryote genomes and thus pose additional challenges for such a system. We have, therefore, adapted GenColors to also handle larger datasets of small eukaryotic genomes and to display eukaryotic gene structures. Further recent developments include whole genome views, genome list options and, for bacterial genome browsers, the display of horizontal gene transfer predictions. Two new GenColors-based databases for two fungal species (http://fgb.fli-leibniz.de) and for four social amoebas (http://sacgb.fli-leibniz.de) were set up. Both new resources open up a single entry point for related genomes for the amoebozoa and fungal research communities and other interested users. Comparative genomics approaches are greatly facilitated by these resources.

  8. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  9. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  10. MOVING WINDOW SEGMENTATION FRAMEWORK FOR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sithole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As lidar point clouds become larger streamed processing becomes more attractive. This paper presents a framework for the streamed segmentation of point clouds with the intention of segmenting unstructured point clouds in real-time. The framework is composed of two main components. The first component segments points within a window shifting over the point cloud. The second component stitches the segments within the windows together. In this fashion a point cloud can be streamed through these two components in sequence, thus producing a segmentation. The algorithm has been tested on airborne lidar point cloud and some results of the performance of the framework are presented.

  11. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  12. CLOUD: an atmospheric research facility at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    The Cloud Collaboration

    2001-01-01

    This report is the second of two addenda to the CLOUD proposal at CERN (physics/0104048), which aims to test experimentally the existence a link between cosmic rays and cloud formation, and to understand the microphysical mechanism. The document places CLOUD in the framework of a CERN facility for atmospheric research, and provides further details on the particle beam requirements.

  13. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  14. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  15. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jie; Fatma Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users....

  16. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  17. A strategy for testing the impact of clouds on the shortwave radiation budge of general circulation models: A prototype for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cess, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Cloud-climate interactions are one of the greatest uncertainties in contemporary general circulation models (GCMs), and this study has focused on one aspect of this. Specifically, combined satellite and near-surface shortwave (SW) flux measurements have been used to test the impact of clouds on the SW radiation budgets of two GCMs. Concentration is initially on SW rather than longwave (LW) radiation because, in one of the GCMs used in this study an SW radiation inconsistency causes a LW inconsistency. The surface data consist of near-surface insolation measured by the upward facing pyranometer at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower. The satellite data consist of top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo data, collocated with the tower location, as determined from the GOES SW spin-scan radiometer. Measurements are made every half hour, with hourly means taken by averaging successive measurements. The combined data are for a 21-day period encompassing 28 June through 18 July 1987 and consist of 202 combined albedo/insolation measurements

  18. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  19. Exploring the Effects of Cloud Vertical Structure on Cloud Microphysical Retrievals based on Polarized Reflectances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. J.; Zhang, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Ackerman, A. S.; Cornet, C.; Baum, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    A polarized cloud reflectance simulator was developed by coupling an LES cloud model with a polarized radiative transfer model to assess the capabilities of polarimetric cloud retrievals. With future remote sensing campaigns like NASA's Aerosols/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) planning to feature advanced polarimetric instruments it is important for the cloud remote sensing community to understand the retrievable information available and the related systematic/methodical limitations. The cloud retrieval simulator we have developed allows us to probe these important questions in a realistically relevant test bed. Our simulator utilizes a polarized adding-doubling radiative transfer model and an LES cloud field from a DHARMA simulation (Ackerman et al. 2004) with cloud properties based on the stratocumulus clouds observed during the DYCOMS-II field campaign. In this study we will focus on how the vertical structure of cloud microphysics can influence polarized cloud effective radius retrievals. Numerous previous studies have explored how retrievals based on total reflectance are affected by cloud vertical structure (Platnick 2000, Chang and Li 2002) but no such studies about the effects of vertical structure on polarized retrievals exist. Unlike the total cloud reflectance, which is predominantly multiply scattered light, the polarized reflectance is primarily the result of singly scattered photons. Thus the polarized reflectance is sensitive to only the uppermost region of the cloud (tau~influencer on the microphysical development of cloud droplets, can be potentially studied with polarimetric retrievals.

  20. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  1. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... There are several types of services available on a cloud. We describe .... CPU speed has been doubling every 18 months at constant cost. Besides this ... Plain text (e.g., email) may be read by anyone who is able to access it.

  2. Research About Attacks Over Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is expected to continue expanding in the next few years and people will start to see some of the following benefits in their real lives. Security of cloud computing environments is the set of control-based technologies and policies absolute to adhere regulatory compliance rules and protect information data applications and infrastructure related with cloud use. In this paper we suggest a model to estimating the cloud computing security and test the services provided to users. The simulator NG-Cloud Next Generation Secure Cloud Storage is used and modified to administer the proposed model. This implementation achieved security functions potential attacks as defined in the proposed model. Finally we also solve some attacks over cloud computing to provide the security and safety of the cloud.

  3. An Integrated Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Product Using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, S.; Gibson, S.; Chen, Y.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of aerosols, clouds, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from Aqua CERES and MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat. All of these instruments are flying in formation as part of the Aqua Train, or A-Train. This paper will present the preliminary results of merging aerosol and cloud data from the CALIPSO active lidar, cloud data from CloudSat, integrated column aerosol and cloud data from the MODIS CERES analyses, and surface and top-of-atmosphere broadband radiation fluxes from CERES. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  4. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm for Solving De Jong Test Function on Cloud Environment and Compare Its Performance with Local Host Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tauhid Zuhori

    2012-01-01

    In this day, Cloud Computing has gained large attention not only from IT specialists but also from many clients. It is global network (internet)-based computing, where shared resources, software and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like the electricity bill. Firstly Cost can be reduced and the technology is also known as green saver or power technology. Secondly, the dynamic and flexible scalability of cloud computing. The third is that cloud computing is pla...

  5. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  6. A Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE): Documentation and Testing of a Detailed Process Model of the Partly Cloudy Boundary Layer over Heterogeneous Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Boone, Aaron

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a general description of, and demonstrates the capabilities of, the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE). The PLACE model is a detailed process model of the partly cloudy atmospheric boundary layer and underlying heterogeneous land surfaces. In its development, particular attention has been given to three of the model's subprocesses: the prediction of boundary layer cloud amount, the treatment of surface and soil subgrid heterogeneity, and the liquid water budget. The model includes a three-parameter nonprecipitating cumulus model that feeds back to the surface and boundary layer through radiative effects. Surface heterogeneity in the PLACE model is treated both statistically and by resolving explicit subgrid patches. The model maintains a vertical column of liquid water that is divided into seven reservoirs, from the surface interception store down to bedrock.Five single-day demonstration cases are presented, in which the PLACE model was initialized, run, and compared to field observations from four diverse sites. The model is shown to predict cloud amount well in these while predicting the surface fluxes with similar accuracy. A slight tendency to underpredict boundary layer depth is noted in all cases.Sensitivity tests were also run using anemometer-level forcing provided by the Project for Inter-comparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS). The purpose is to demonstrate the relative impact of heterogeneity of surface parameters on the predicted annual mean surface fluxes. Significant sensitivity to subgrid variability of certain parameters is demonstrated, particularly to parameters related to soil moisture. A major result is that the PLACE-computed impact of total (homogeneous) deforestation of a rain forest is comparable in magnitude to the effect of imposing heterogeneity of certain surface variables, and is similarly comparable to the overall variance among the other PILPS participant models. Were

  7. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  8. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  9. Cloud detection, classification and motion estimation using geostationary satellite imagery for cloud cover forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escrig, H.; Batlles, F.J.; Alonso, J.; Baena, F.M.; Bosch, J.L.; Salbidegoitia, I.B.; Burgaleta, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    Considering that clouds are the greatest causes to solar radiation blocking, short term cloud forecasting can help power plant operation and therefore improve benefits. Cloud detection, classification and motion vector determination are key to forecasting sun obstruction by clouds. Geostationary satellites provide cloud information covering wide areas, allowing cloud forecast to be performed for several hours in advance. Herein, the methodology developed and tested in this study is based on multispectral tests and binary cross correlations followed by coherence and quality control tests over resulting motion vectors. Monthly synthetic surface albedo image and a method to reject erroneous correlation vectors were developed. Cloud classification in terms of opacity and height of cloud top is also performed. A whole-sky camera has been used for validation, showing over 85% of agreement between the camera and the satellite derived cloud cover, whereas error in motion vectors is below 15%. - Highlights: ► A methodology for detection, classification and movement of clouds is presented. ► METEOSAT satellite images are used to obtain a cloud mask. ► The prediction of cloudiness is estimated with 90% in overcast conditions. ► Results for partially covered sky conditions showed a 75% accuracy. ► Motion vectors are estimated from the clouds with a success probability of 86%

  10. Cloud Computing, Tieto Cloud Server Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, Saara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what is cloud computing. To be able to make wise decisions when moving to cloud or considering it, companies need to understand what cloud is consists of. Which model suits best to they company, what should be taken into account before moving to cloud, what is the cloud broker role and also SWOT analysis of cloud? To be able to answer customer requirements and business demands, IT companies should develop and produce new service models. IT house T...

  11. Integrated cloud-aerosol-radiation product using CERES, MODIS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Chen, Yan; Gibson, Sharon; Yi, Yuhong; Trepte, Qing; Wielicki, Bruce; Kato, Seiji; Winker, Dave; Stephens, Graeme; Partain, Philip

    2007-10-01

    This paper documents the development of the first integrated data set of global vertical profiles of clouds, aerosols, and radiation using the combined NASA A-Train data from the Aqua Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and CloudSat. As part of this effort, cloud data from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar are merged with the integrated column cloud properties from the CERES-MODIS analyses. The active and passive datasets are compared to determine commonalities and differences in order to facilitate the development of a 3-dimensional cloud and aerosol dataset that will then be integrated into the CERES broadband radiance footprint. Preliminary results from the comparisons for April 2007 reveal that the CERES-MODIS global cloud amounts are, on average, 0.14 less and 0.15 greater than those from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively. These new data will provide unprecedented ability to test and improve global cloud and aerosol models, to investigate aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, and to validate the accuracy of global aerosol, cloud, and radiation data sets especially in polar regions and for multi-layered cloud conditions.

  12. Moving towards Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki; Zoltán Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment th...

  13. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  14. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  15. Cauchy horizon stability in a collapsing spherical dust cloud: II. Energy bounds for test fields and odd-parity gravitational perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Néstor; Sarbach, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the Cauchy horizon associated with a globally naked, shell-focussing singularity arising from the complete gravitational collapse of a spherical dust cloud. In a previous work, we have studied the dynamics of spherical test scalar fields on such a background. In particular, we proved that such fields cannot develop any divergences which propagate along the Cauchy horizon. In the present work, we extend our analysis to the more general case of test fields without symmetries and to linearized gravitational perturbations with odd parity. To this purpose, we first consider test fields possessing a divergence-free stress-energy tensor satisfying the dominant energy condition, and we prove that a suitable energy norm is uniformly bounded in the domain of dependence of the initial slice. In particular, this result implies that free-falling observers co-moving with the dust particles measure a finite energy of the field, even as they cross the Cauchy horizon at points lying arbitrarily close to the central singularity. Next, for the case of Klein–Gordon fields, we derive point-wise bounds from our energy estimates which imply that the scalar field cannot diverge at the Cauchy horizon, except possibly at the central singular point. Finally, we analyze the behaviour of odd-parity, linear gravitational and dust perturbations of the collapsing spacetime. Similarly to the scalar field case, we prove that the relevant gauge-invariant combinations of the metric perturbations stay bounded away from the central singularity, implying that no divergences can propagate in the vacuum region. Our results are in accordance with previous numerical studies and analytic work in the self-similar case.

  16. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  17. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiasson, A.

    2008-03-01

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  18. Cloud detection for MIPAS using singular vector decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hurley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-borne high-spectral-resolution limb sounders, such as the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT, provide information on clouds, especially optically thin clouds, which have been difficult to observe in the past. The aim of this work is to develop, implement and test a reliable cloud detection method for infrared spectra measured by MIPAS.

    Current MIPAS cloud detection methods used operationally have been developed to detect cloud effective filling more than 30% of the measurement field-of-view (FOV, under geometric and optical considerations – and hence are limited to detecting fairly thick cloud, or large physical extents of thin cloud. In order to resolve thin clouds, a new detection method using Singular Vector Decomposition (SVD is formulated and tested. This new SVD detection method has been applied to a year's worth of MIPAS data, and qualitatively appears to be more sensitive to thin cloud than the current operational method.

  19. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  20. Cloud computing for comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivovarov Rimma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD, to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2. We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. Results We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. Conclusions The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  1. Cloud computing for comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis P; Kudtarkar, Parul; Fusaro, Vincent A; Pivovarov, Rimma; Patil, Prasad; Tonellato, Peter J

    2010-05-18

    Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  2. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  3. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Celina M. Olszak

    2014-01-01

    . The paper reviews and critiques current research on Business Intelligence (BI) in cloud. This review highlights that organizations face various challenges using BI cloud. The research objectives for this study are a conceptualization of the BI cloud issue, as well as an investigation of some benefits and risks from BI cloud. The study was based mainly on a critical analysis of literature and some reports on BI cloud using. The results of this research can be used by IT and business leaders ...

  4. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  5. Identity-Based Authentication for Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Dai, Yuanshun; Tian, Ling; Yang, Haomiao

    Cloud computing is a recently developed new technology for complex systems with massive-scale services sharing among numerous users. Therefore, authentication of both users and services is a significant issue for the trust and security of the cloud computing. SSL Authentication Protocol (SAP), once applied in cloud computing, will become so complicated that users will undergo a heavily loaded point both in computation and communication. This paper, based on the identity-based hierarchical model for cloud computing (IBHMCC) and its corresponding encryption and signature schemes, presented a new identity-based authentication protocol for cloud computing and services. Through simulation testing, it is shown that the authentication protocol is more lightweight and efficient than SAP, specially the more lightweight user side. Such merit of our model with great scalability is very suited to the massive-scale cloud.

  6. ISR-1 Seminar: Nuclear Cloud Lofting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Andrew Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report goes into detail about motivation, background, lofting methodologies (empirical, parcel methods, Navier-Stokes), DELFIC Model, validation, DIORAMA integration, and has the following conclusions: A parcel methodology was applied to develop the DIORAMA cloud lofting module. It is based on the DELFIC model and treats the cloud as a homogenous unit. It solves the set of 8 ODEs for cloud properties. It outputs the time history of the cloud height, radius, and other parameters. The cloud lofting module was tuned with 54 test cases. An iterative brute force search was carried out to find the best fit tuning parameters. The best fit parameters yielded average cloud height errors of 12.9% and 10.3% for the bottom and top, respectively. This all allows for more accurate modeling of the propagation of delayed gamma rays in DIORAMA.

  7. Cloud a particle beam facility to investigate the influence of cosmic rays on clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    Palaeoclimatic data provide extensive evidence for solar forcing of the climate during the Holocene and the last ice age, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. However recent observations suggest that cosmic rays may play a key role. Satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between cosmic ray intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by low clouds \\cite{svensmark97,marsh}. Since the cosmic ray intensity is modulated by the solar wind, this may be an important clue to the long-sought mechanism for solar-climate variability. In order to test whether cosmic rays and clouds are causally linked and, if so, to understand the microphysical mechanisms, a novel experiment known as CLOUD\\footnotemark\\ has been proposed \\cite{cloud_proposal}--\\cite{cloud_addendum_2}. CLOUD proposes to investigate ion-aerosol-cloud microphysics under controlled laboratory conditions using a beam from a particle accelerator, which provides a precisely adjustable and measurable artificial source of cosmic rays....

  8. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  9. [Porting Radiotherapy Software of Varian to Cloud Platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lian; Zhang, Weisha; Liu, Xiangxiang; Xie, Zhao; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-09-30

    To develop a low-cost private cloud platform of radiotherapy software. First, a private cloud platform which was based on OpenStack and the virtual GPU hardware was builded. Then on the private cloud platform, all the Varian radiotherapy software modules were installed to the virtual machine, and the corresponding function configuration was completed. Finally the software on the cloud was able to be accessed by virtual desktop client. The function test results of the cloud workstation show that a cloud workstation is equivalent to an isolated physical workstation, and any clients on the LAN can use the cloud workstation smoothly. The cloud platform transplantation in this study is economical and practical. The project not only improves the utilization rates of radiotherapy software, but also makes it possible that the cloud computing technology can expand its applications to the field of radiation oncology.

  10. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  11. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  12. Cloud CCN feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result

  13. A Fuzzy Color-Based Approach for Understanding Animated Movies Content in the Indexing Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Buzuloiu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for detecting and analyzing the color techniques used in the animated movies. Each animated movie uses a specific color palette which makes its color distribution one major feature in analyzing the movie content. The color palette is specially tuned by the author in order to convey certain feelings or to express artistic concepts. Deriving semantic or symbolic information from the color concepts or the visual impression induced by the movie should be an ideal way of accessing its content in a content-based retrieval system. The proposed approach is carried out in two steps. The first processing step is the low-level analysis. The movie color content gets represented with several global statistical parameters computed from the movie global weighted color histogram. The second step is the symbolic representation of the movie content. The numerical parameters obtained from the first step are converted into meaningful linguistic concepts through a fuzzy system. They concern mainly the predominant hues of the movie, some of Itten’s color contrasts and harmony schemes, color relationships and color richness. We use the proposed linguistic concepts to link to given animated movies according to their color techniques. In order to make the retrieval task easier, we also propose to represent color properties in a graphical manner which is similar to the color gamut representation. Several tests have been conducted on an animated movie database.

  14. A cloud climatology of the Southern Great Plains ARM CART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, S.M.; Krueger, S.K.; Mace, G.G.

    2000-05-15

    Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) in north-central Oklahoma (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma and Wichita, Kansas) were selected. The ECR data span a 10-yr period from December 1981 to November 1991. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) provided cloud amounts over the SGP CART for an 8-yr period (1983--91). Cloud amounts were also obtained from Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and Belfort Ceilometer (BLC) cloud-base height measurements made at the SGP CART over a 1-yr period. The annual and diurnal cycles of cloud amount as a function of cloud height and type were analyzed. The three datasets closely agree for total cloud amount. Good agreement was found in the ECR and MPL-BLC monthly low cloud amounts. With the exception of summer and midday in other seasons, the ISCCP low cloud amount estimates are generally 5%--10% less than the others. The ECR high cloud amount estimates are typically 10%--15% greater than those obtained from either the ISCCP or MPL-BLC datasets. The observed diurnal variations of altocumulus support the authors' model results of radiatively induced circulations.

  15. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  16. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  17. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  18. Clouds of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollenberg, R G [Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301, U.S.A.; Hansen, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Ragent, B [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Calif. (USA). Ames Research Center; Martonchik, J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Tomasko, M [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA)

    1977-05-01

    The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.

  19. Radiative properties of clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1993-01-01

    The climatic effects of condensation nuclei in the formation of cloud droplets and the subsequent role of the cloud droplets as contributors to the planetary short-wave albedo is emphasized. Microphysical properties of clouds, which can be greatly modified by the degree of mixing with cloud-free air from outside, are discussed. The effect of clouds on visible radiation is assessed through multiple scattering of the radiation. Cloudwater or ice absorbs more with increasing wavelength in the near-infrared region, with water vapor providing the stronger absorption over narrower wavelength bands. Cloud thermal infrared absorption can be solely related to liquid water content at least for shallow clouds and clouds in the early development state. Three-dimensional general circulation models have been used to study the climatic effect of clouds. It was found for such studies (which did not consider variations in cloud albedo) that the cooling effects due to the increase in planetary short-wave albedo from clouds were offset by heating effects due to thermal infrared absorption by the cloud. Two permanent direct effects of increased pollution are discussed in this chapter: (a) an increase of absorption in the visible and near infrared because of increased amounts of elemental carbon, which gives rise to a warming effect climatically, and (b) an increased optical thickness of clouds due to increasing cloud droplet number concentration caused by increasing cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, which gives rise to a cooling effect climatically. An increase in cloud albedo from 0.7 to 0.87 produces an appreciable climatic perturbation of cooling up to 2.5 K at the ground, using a hemispheric general circulation model. Effects of pollution on cloud thermal infrared absorption are negligible

  20. Red radiators versus red tulips : the influence of context on the interpretation and effectiveness of color-based ambient persuasive technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, S.; Ham, J.R.C.; Midden, C.J.H.; Meschtscherjakov, A.; De Ruyter, B.; Fuchsberger, V.; Murer, M.; Tscheligi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Colors are widely used as feedback in ambient persuasive technology. In current research, we argue that the information that colorbased feedback carries is highly context dependent. Two studies investigated effects of context (in which color-based feedback was presented) on user’s interpretation of

  1. Uncover the Cloud for Geospatial Sciences and Applications to Adopt Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Huang, Q.; Xia, J.; Liu, K.; Li, J.; Xu, C.; Sun, M.; Bambacus, M.; Xu, Y.; Fay, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud computing is emerging as the future infrastructure for providing computing resources to support and enable scientific research, engineering development, and application construction, as well as work force education. On the other hand, there is a lot of doubt about the readiness of cloud computing to support a variety of scientific research, development and educations. This research is a project funded by NASA SMD to investigate through holistic studies how ready is the cloud computing to support geosciences. Four applications with different computing characteristics including data, computing, concurrent, and spatiotemporal intensities are taken to test the readiness of cloud computing to support geosciences. Three popular and representative cloud platforms including Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure, and NASA Nebula as well as a traditional cluster are utilized in the study. Results illustrates that cloud is ready to some degree but more research needs to be done to fully implemented the cloud benefit as advertised by many vendors and defined by NIST. Specifically, 1) most cloud platform could help stand up new computing instances, a new computer, in a few minutes as envisioned, therefore, is ready to support most computing needs in an on demand fashion; 2) the load balance and elasticity, a defining characteristic, is ready in some cloud platforms, such as Amazon EC2, to support bigger jobs, e.g., needs response in minutes, while some are not ready to support the elasticity and load balance well. All cloud platform needs further research and development to support real time application at subminute level; 3) the user interface and functionality of cloud platforms vary a lot and some of them are very professional and well supported/documented, such as Amazon EC2, some of them needs significant improvement for the general public to adopt cloud computing without professional training or knowledge about computing infrastructure; 4) the security is a big concern in

  2. Moving towards Cloud Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment the users have to know the rule of cloud usage, however they have little knowledge about traditional IT security. It is important to measure the level of their knowledge, and evolve the training system to develop the security awareness. The article proves the importance of suggesting new metrics and algorithms for measuring security awareness of corporate users and employees to include the requirements of emerging cloud security.

  3. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  4. Cloud Computing for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future

  5. Cloud computing for radiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  6. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  7. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  8. Towards Indonesian Cloud Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrin, Taqwan; Lukman, Iing; Wahyuningsih, Dina Ika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Cloud Computing is most discussed term in business and academic environment.Cloud campus has many benefits such as accessing the file storages, e-mails, databases,educational resources, research applications and tools anywhere for faculty, administrators,staff, students and other users in university, on demand. Furthermore, cloud campus reduces universities’ IT complexity and cost.This paper discuss the implementation of Indonesian cloud campus and various opportunies and benefits...

  9. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  10. Cloud services in organization

    OpenAIRE

    FUXA, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the definition of the word cloud computing, cloud computing models, types, advantages, disadvantages, and comparing SaaS solutions such as: Google Apps and Office 365 in the area of electronic communications. The work deals with the use of cloud computing in the corporate practice, both good and bad practice. The following section describes the methodology for choosing the appropriate cloud service organization. Another part deals with analyzing the possibilities of SaaS i...

  11. Orchestrating Your Cloud Orchestra

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing potentially ushers in a new era of computer music performance with exceptionally large computer music instruments consisting of 10s to 100s of virtual machines which we propose to call a `cloud-orchestra'. Cloud computing allows for the rapid provisioning of resources, but to deploy such a complicated and interconnected network of software synthesizers in the cloud requires a lot of manual work, system administration knowledge, and developer/operator skills. This is a barrier ...

  12. Cloud security mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has brought great benefits in cost and flexibility for provisioning services. The greatest challenge of cloud computing remains however the question of security. The current standard tools in access control mechanisms and cryptography can only partly solve the security challenges of cloud infrastructures. In the recent years of research in security and cryptography, novel mechanisms, protocols and algorithms have emerged that offer new ways to create secure services atop cloud...

  13. Cloud computing for radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amjad Safvi; S S Thind; Amarjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as...

  14. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  15. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  16. Chargeback for cloud services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.; Khadka, R.; Stefanov, H.; Jansen, S.; Batenburg, R.; Heusden, E. van

    2014-01-01

    With pay-per-use pricing models, elastic scaling of resources, and the use of shared virtualized infrastructures, cloud computing offers more efficient use of capital and agility. To leverage the advantages of cloud computing, organizations have to introduce cloud-specific chargeback practices.

  17. On CLOUD nine

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  18. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  19. Greening the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, G.; Lago, P.; Grosso, Paola; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and lms (Spotify and Net ix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs). The cloud forms a massive storage and processing

  20. Security in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  1. Condensed Acids In Antartic Stratospheric Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Toon, O. B.; Ferry, G. V.; Starr, W. L.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Chan, K. R.; Goodman, J. K.; Livingston, J. M.; Verma, S.; hide

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses nitrate, sulfate, and chloride contents of stratospheric aerosols during 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Emphasizes growth of HNO3*3H2O particles in polar stratospheric clouds. Important in testing theories concerning Antarctic "ozone hole".

  2. Cloud4Psi: cloud computing for 3D protein structure similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Dariusz; Małysiak-Mrozek, Bożena; Kłapciński, Artur

    2014-10-01

    Popular methods for 3D protein structure similarity searching, especially those that generate high-quality alignments such as Combinatorial Extension (CE) and Flexible structure Alignment by Chaining Aligned fragment pairs allowing Twists (FATCAT) are still time consuming. As a consequence, performing similarity searching against large repositories of structural data requires increased computational resources that are not always available. Cloud computing provides huge amounts of computational power that can be provisioned on a pay-as-you-go basis. We have developed the cloud-based system that allows scaling of the similarity searching process vertically and horizontally. Cloud4Psi (Cloud for Protein Similarity) was tested in the Microsoft Azure cloud environment and provided good, almost linearly proportional acceleration when scaled out onto many computational units. Cloud4Psi is available as Software as a Service for testing purposes at: http://cloud4psi.cloudapp.net/. For source code and software availability, please visit the Cloud4Psi project home page at http://zti.polsl.pl/dmrozek/science/cloud4psi.htm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  4. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  5. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  6. The Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As the two galaxies nearest to our own, the Magellanic Clouds hold a special place in studies of the extragalactic distance scale, of stellar evolution and the structure of galaxies. In recent years, results from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and elsewhere have shown that it is possible to begin understanding the three dimensional structure of the Clouds. Studies of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids have continued, both to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the Clouds and to learn more about Cepheids and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. Other research undertaken at SAAO includes studies on Nova LMC 1988 no 2 and red variables in the Magellanic Clouds

  7. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  8. CERES Single Scanner Satellite Footprint, TOA, Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF)- Test data in HDF (CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset-Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product contains one hour of instantaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SSF combines instantaneous CERES data with scene information from a higher-resolution imager such as Visible/Infrared Scanner (VIRS) on TRMM or Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua. Scene identification and cloud properties are defined at the higher imager resolution and these data are averaged over the larger CERES footprint. For each CERES footprint, the SSF contains the number of cloud layers and for each layer the cloud amount, height, temperature, pressure, optical depth, emissivity, ice and liquid water path, and water particle size. The SSF also contains the CERES filtered radiances for the total, shortwave (SW), and window (WN) channels and the unfiltered SW, longwave (LW), and WN radiances. The SW, LW, and WN radiances at spacecraft altitude are converted to Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes based on the imager defined scene. These TOA fluxes are used to estimate surface fluxes. Only footprints with adequate imager coverage are included on CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1the SSF which is much less than the full set of footprints on the CERES ES-8 product. The following CERES SSF data sets are currently available: CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Subset_Edition1 CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A CER_SSF_TRMM-SIM-VIRS_Edition2_VIRSonly CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2A-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B-TransOps CER_SSF_TRMM-PFM-VIRS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition1A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2A CER_SSF_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2B CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta1 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM3-MODIS_Beta2 CER_SSF_Aqua-FM4-MODIS_Beta2. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop

  9. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan IOVAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing reprentes the software applications offered as a service online, but also the software and hardware components from the data center.In the case of wide offerd services for any type of client, we are dealing with a public cloud. In the other case, in wich a cloud is exclusively available for an organization and is not available to the open public, this is consider a private cloud [1]. There is also a third type, called hibrid in which case an user or an organization might use both services available in the public and private cloud. One of the main challenges of cloud computing are to build the trust and ofer information privacy in every aspect of service offerd by cloud computingle. The variety of existing standards, just like the lack of clarity in sustenability certificationis not a real help in building trust. Also appear some questions marks regarding the efficiency of traditionsecurity means that are applied in the cloud domain. Beside the economic and technology advantages offered by cloud, also are some advantages in security area if the information is migrated to cloud. Shared resources available in cloud includes the survey, use of the "best practices" and technology for advance security level, above all the solutions offered by the majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  10. Behavior of explosion debris clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    In the normal course of events the behavior of debris clouds created by explosions will be of little concern to the atomic energy industry. However, two situations, one of them actual and one postulated, exist where the rise and spread of explosion clouds can affect site operations. The actual occurrence would be the detonation of nuclear weapons and the resultant release and transport of radioactive debris across the various atomic energy installations. Although the activity of the diffusing cloud is not of biological concern, it may still be sufficiently above background to play havoc with the normal readings of sensitive monitoring instruments. If it were not known that these anomalous readings resulted from explosion debris, considerable time and expense might be required for on-site testing and tracing. Fortunately it is usually possible, with the use of meteorological data and forecasts, to predict when individual sites are affected by nuclear weapon debris effects. The formation rise, and diffusion of weapon clouds will be discussed. The explosion of an atomic reactor is the postulated situation. It is common practice in reactor hazard analysis to assume a combination of circumstances which might result in a nuclear incident with a release of material to the atmosphere. It is not within the scope of this report to examine the manifold plausibilities that might lead to an explosion or the possible methods of release of gaseous and/or particulates from such an occurrence. However, if the information of a cloud is assumed and some idea of its energy content is obtainable, estimates of the cloud behavior in the atmosphere can be made

  11. Searchable Encryption in Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Junn Hwang; Chung-Chien Lu; Jain-Shing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Cloud outsource storage is one of important services in cloud computing. Cloud users upload data to cloud servers to reduce the cost of managing data and maintaining hardware and software. To ensure data confidentiality, users can encrypt their files before uploading them to a cloud system. However, retrieving the target file from the encrypted files exactly is difficult for cloud server. This study proposes a protocol for performing multikeyword searches for encrypted cloud data by applying ...

  12. Enterprise Cloud Adoption - Cloud Maturity Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Gerry; Doherty, Eileen; Carcary, Marian; Crowley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The introduction and use of cloud computing by an organization has the promise of significant benefits that include reduced costs, improved services, and a pay-per-use model. Organizations that successfully harness these benefits will potentially have a distinct competitive edge, due to their increased agility and flexibility to rapidly respond to an ever changing and complex business environment. However, as cloud technology is a relatively new ph...

  13. Star clouds of Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular galaxies belonging to the local group which the Milky Way belongs to. By studying the Clouds, astronomers hope to gain insight into the origin and composition of the Milky Way. The overall structure and dynamics of the Clouds are clearest when studied in radio region of the spectrum. One benefit of directly observing stellar luminosities in the Clouds has been the discovery of the period-luminosity relation. Also, the Clouds are a splendid laboratory for studying stellar evolution. It is believed that both Clouds may be in the very early stage in the development of a regular, symmetric galaxy. This raises a paradox because some of the stars in the star clusters of the Clouds are as old as the oldest stars in our galaxy. An explanation for this is given. The low velocity of the Clouds with respect to the center of the Milky Way shows they must be bound to it by gravity. Theories are given on how the Magellanic Clouds became associated with the galaxy. According to current ideas the Clouds orbits will decay and they will spiral into the Galaxy

  14. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  15. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 ± 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of ∼ 10 5 M sun , rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A K > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H 2 ) ∼ a few x 10 4 cm -3 .

  16. A Novel Cloud Computing Algorithm of Security and Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yung Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of cloud computing has simplified the flow of large-scale deployment distributed system of software suppliers; when issuing respective application programs in a sharing clouds service to different user, the management of material becomes more complex. Therefore, in multitype clouds service of trust environment, when enterprises face cloud computing, what most worries is the issue of security, but individual users are worried whether the privacy material will have an outflow risk. This research has mainly analyzed several different construction patterns of cloud computing, and quite relevant case in the deployment construction security of cloud computing by fit and unfit quality, and proposed finally an optimization safe deployment construction of cloud computing and security mechanism of material protection calculating method, namely, Global Authentication Register System (GARS, to reduce cloud material outflow risk. We implemented a system simulation to test the GARS algorithm of availability, security and performance. By experimental data analysis, the solutions of cloud computing security, and privacy derived from the research can be effective protection in cloud information security. Moreover, we have proposed cloud computing in the information security-related proposals that would provide related units for the development of cloud computing security practice.

  17. Diffusion and deposition of the Schooner clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Todd V [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Schooner was a 31-kt nuclear cratering experiment done as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Plowshare Program. Detonation was at 0800 PST on December 8, 1968 at the Nevada Test Site. The resulting cloud had ceased its dynamic growth by about H+4 min. Two distinct parts, a base surge and a main cloud, were evident. Thereafter, further cloud growth was by diffusion and fallout as the cloud moved downwind. Aircraft sampling of the cloud at H+12.5 min revealed that the main cloud part contained about 10 times as much radioactivity as the base surge part. Later aircraft data, local fallout field measurements, and airborne particle size data indicate that the H+12.5-min cloud burdens, primarily the tungsten isotopes, were depleted by a factor of about 2, due to fallout, over the next few hours. The remaining airborne cloud burdens for each cloud were used as input to diffusion calculations. Calculated main cloud center concentrations using observed cloud sizes, cloud burdens, and meteorology agree with measurements to better than a factor of 2 over 1 1/2 days. These postshot calculations and data are about a factor of 3 higher than calculations done preshot. Base surge calculations are consistent with available data to within about a factor of 4, but the data needed to perform as complete an analysis as was done for the main cloud do not exist. Fallout, as distinguished from deposition of nonfalling debris, was important to a distance of about 500 km for the main cloud and to a distance of about 100 km for the base surge. At distances closer to ground zero, diffusion calculations under-predicted ground level concentration and deposition, but an isotopically scaled external gross gamma fallout calculation was within about a factor of 3 of the data. At larger distances downwind for the base surge, ground level exposure rate calculations and deposition for a variety of nuclides agree to within about a factor of 3 of measurements. (author)

  18. Spreadsheets in the Cloud { Not Ready Yet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. McCullogh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a relatively new technology that facilitates collaborative creation and modification of documents over the internet in real time. Here we provide an introductory assessment of the available statistical functions in three leading cloud spreadsheets namely Google Spreadsheet, Microsoft Excel Web App, and Zoho Sheet. Our results show that the developers of cloud-based spreadsheets are not performing basic quality control, resulting in statistical computations that are misleading and erroneous. Moreover, the developers do not provide sufficient information regarding the software and the hardware, which can change at any time without notice. Indeed, rerunning the tests after several months we obtained different and sometimes worsened results.

  19. Cloud detection method for Chinese moderate high resolution satellite imagery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bo; Chen, Wuhan; Wu, Shanlong; Liu, Qinhuo

    2016-10-01

    Cloud detection of satellite imagery is very important for quantitative remote sensing research and remote sensing applications. However, many satellite sensors don't have enough bands for a quick, accurate, and simple detection of clouds. Particularly, the newly launched moderate to high spatial resolution satellite sensors of China, such as the charge-coupled device on-board the Chinese Huan Jing 1 (HJ-1/CCD) and the wide field of view (WFV) sensor on-board the Gao Fen 1 (GF-1), only have four available bands including blue, green, red, and near infrared bands, which are far from the requirements of most could detection methods. In order to solve this problem, an improved and automated cloud detection method for Chinese satellite sensors called OCM (Object oriented Cloud and cloud-shadow Matching method) is presented in this paper. It firstly modified the Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) method, which was developed for Landsat-7 data, to get an initial cloud map. The modified ACCA method is mainly based on threshold and different threshold setting produces different cloud map. Subsequently, a strict threshold is used to produce a cloud map with high confidence and large amount of cloud omission and a loose threshold is used to produce a cloud map with low confidence and large amount of commission. Secondly, a corresponding cloud-shadow map is also produced using the threshold of near-infrared band. Thirdly, the cloud maps and cloud-shadow map are transferred to cloud objects and cloud-shadow objects. Cloud and cloud-shadow are usually in pairs; consequently, the final cloud and cloud-shadow maps are made based on the relationship between cloud and cloud-shadow objects. OCM method was tested using almost 200 HJ-1/CCD images across China and the overall accuracy of cloud detection is close to 90%.

  20. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  1. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  2. Bipolar H II regions produced by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Anthony; Lomax, Oliver; Balfour, Scott; Mège, Pierre; Zavagno, Annie; Deharveng, Lise

    2018-05-01

    We suggest that bipolar H II regions may be the aftermath of collisions between clouds. Such a collision will produce a shock-compressed layer, and a star cluster can then condense out of the dense gas near the center of the layer. If the clouds are sufficiently massive, the star cluster is likely to contain at least one massive star, which emits ionizing radiation, and excites an H II region, which then expands, sweeping up the surrounding neutral gas. Once most of the matter in the clouds has accreted onto the layer, expansion of the H II region meets little resistance in directions perpendicular to the midplane of the layer, and so it expands rapidly to produce two lobes of ionized gas, one on each side of the layer. Conversely, in directions parallel to the midplane of the layer, expansion of the H II region stalls due to the ram pressure of the gas that continues to fall towards the star cluster from the outer parts of the layer; a ring of dense neutral gas builds up around the waist of the bipolar H II region, and may spawn a second generation of star formation. We present a dimensionless model for the flow of ionized gas in a bipolar H II region created according to the above scenario, and predict the characteristics of the resulting free-free continuum and recombination-line emission. This dimensionless model can be scaled to the physical parameters of any particular system. Our intention is that these predictions will be useful in testing the scenario outlined above, and thereby providing indirect support for the role of cloud-cloud collisions in triggering star formation.

  3. Considerations for Cloud Security Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James

    2016-01-01

    Information Security in Cloud Computing environments is explored. Cloud Computing is presented, security needs are discussed, and mitigation approaches are listed. Topics covered include Information Security, Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, Public Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ISO 27001, OWASP, Secure SDLC.

  4. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  5. Security in cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Martín, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Security in Cloud Computing is becoming a challenge for next generation Data Centers. This project will focus on investigating new security strategies for Cloud Computing systems. Cloud Computingisarecent paradigmto deliver services over Internet. Businesses grow drastically because of it. Researchers focus their work on it. The rapid access to exible and low cost IT resources on an on-demand fashion, allows the users to avoid planning ahead for provisioning, and enterprises to save money ...

  6. Carbon chain molecules in interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnewisser, G.; Walmsley, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the distribution of long carbon chain molecules in interstellar clouds shows that their abundance is correlated. The various formation schemes for these molecules are discussed. It is concluded that the ion-molecule type formation mechanisms are more promising than their competitors. They have also the advantage of allowing predictions which can be tested by observations. Acetylene C 2 H 2 and diacetylene HCCCCH, may be very abundant in interstellar clouds. (Auth.)

  7. CLOUD TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dukkardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the review of main features of cloud computing that can be used in education. Particular attention is paid to those learning and supportive tasks, that can be greatly improved in the case of the using of cloud services. Several ways to implement this approach are proposed, based on widely accepted models of providing cloud services. Nevertheless, the authors have not ignored currently existing problems of cloud technologies , identifying the most dangerous risks and their impact on the core business processes of the university. 

  8. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  9. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhamrit Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computing to genomics are like easy access and sharing of data security of data less cost to pay for resources but still there are some demerits like large time needed to transfer data less network bandwidth.

  10. Automated Grid Monitoring for LHCb through HammerCloud

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  11. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  12. +Cloud: An Agent-Based Cloud Computing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roberto; Hernández de la Iglesia, Daniel; de la Prieta Pintado, Fernando; Gil González, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is revolutionizing the services provided through the Internet, and is continually adapting itself in order to maintain the quality of its services. This study presents the platform +Cloud, which proposes a cloud environment for storing information and files by following the cloud paradigm. This study also presents Warehouse 3.0, a cloud-based application that has been developed to validate the services provided by +Cloud.

  13. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  14. Lost in Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  15. Research on cloud computing solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas; Vaida Zdanytė

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, ...

  16. VMware vCloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    VMware vCloud Security provides the reader with in depth knowledge and practical exercises sufficient to implement a secured private cloud using VMware vCloud Director and vCloud Networking and Security.This book is primarily for technical professionals with system administration and security administration skills with significant VMware vCloud experience who want to learn about advanced concepts of vCloud security and compliance.

  17. Security Architecture of Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    V.KRISHNA REDDY; Dr. L.S.S.REDDY

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Computing offers service over internet with dynamically scalable resources. Cloud Computing services provides benefits to the users in terms of cost and ease of use. Cloud Computing services need to address the security during the transmission of sensitive data and critical applications to shared and public cloud environments. The cloud environments are scaling large for data processing and storage needs. Cloud computing environment have various advantages as well as disadvantages o...

  18. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  19. Ten Years of Cloud Optical and Microphysical Retrievals from MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Hubanks, Paul; Arnold, G. Thomas; Amarasinghe, Nandana

    2010-01-01

    The MODIS cloud optical properties algorithm (MOD06/MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) has undergone extensive improvements and enhancements since the launch of Terra. These changes have included: improvements in the cloud thermodynamic phase algorithm; substantial changes in the ice cloud light scattering look up tables (LUTs); a clear-sky restoral algorithm for flagging heavy aerosol and sunglint; greatly improved spectral surface albedo maps, including the spectral albedo of snow by ecosystem; inclusion of pixel-level uncertainty estimates for cloud optical thickness, effective radius, and water path derived for three error sources that includes the sensitivity of the retrievals to solar and viewing geometries. To improve overall retrieval quality, we have also implemented cloud edge removal and partly cloudy detection (using MOD35 cloud mask 250m tests), added a supplementary cloud optical thickness and effective radius algorithm over snow and sea ice surfaces and over the ocean, which enables comparison with the "standard" 2.1 11m effective radius retrieval, and added a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm. We will discuss the status of the MOD06 algorithm and show examples of pixellevel (Level-2) cloud retrievals for selected data granules, as well as gridded (Level-3) statistics, notably monthly means and histograms (lD and 2D, with the latter giving correlations between cloud optical thickness and effective radius, and other cloud product pairs).

  20. Cloud security in vogelvlucht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is dé hype in IT op het moment, en hoewel veel aspecten niet nieuw zijn, leidt het concept wel tot de noodzaak voor nieuwe vormen van beveiliging. Het idee van cloud computing biedt echter ook juist kansen om hierover na te denken: wat is de rol van informatiebeveiliging in een

  1. CLOUD SERVICES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Seydametova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the on-line services based on cloud computing, provided by Google to educational institutions. We describe the own experience of the implementing the Google Apps Education Edition in the educational process. We analyzed and compared the other universities experience of using cloud technologies.

  2. Cloud MicroAtlas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by outlining the life cycle of a tall cloud, and thenbriefly discuss cloud systems. We choose one aspect of thislife cycle, namely, the rapid growth of water droplets in ice freeclouds, to then discuss in greater detail. Taking a singlevortex to be a building block of turbulence, we demonstrateone mechanism by which ...

  3. Greening the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Lago, Patricia; Grosso, Paolo; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and films (Spotify and Netflix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs).

  4. Learning in the Clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  5. Kernel structures for Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Eugene H.; Mckendry, Martin S.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the internal structure of the Clouds kernel was presented. An indication of how these structures will interact in the prototype Clouds implementation is given. Many specific details have yet to be determined and await experimentation with an actual working system.

  6. A cloud/particle model of the interstellar medium - Galactic spiral structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, F. H.; Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A cloud/particle model for gas flow in galaxies is developed that incorporates cloud-cloud collisions and supernovae as dominant local processes. Cloud-cloud collisions are the main means of dissipation. To counter this dissipation and maintain local dispersion, supernova explosions in the medium administer radial snowplow pushes to all nearby clouds. The causal link between these processes is that cloud-cloud collisions will form stars and that these stars will rapidly become supernovae. The cloud/particle model is tested and used to investigate the gas dynamics and spiral structures in galaxies where these assumptions may be reasonable. Particular attention is given to whether large-scale galactic shock waves, which are thought to underlie the regular well-delineated spiral structure in some galaxies, form and persist in a cloud-supernova dominated interstellar medium; this question is answered in the affirmative.

  7. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  8. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  9. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J.K.; Aemisegger, F.; Scholl, M.; Wienhold, F.G.; Collett, J.L.; Lee, T.; van Pinxteren, D.; Mertes, S.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog) during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010) using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC). An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range) were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  10. Stable water isotopologue ratios in fog and cloud droplets of liquid clouds are not size-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first observations of stable water isotopologue ratios in cloud droplets of different sizes collected simultaneously. We address the question whether the isotope ratio of droplets in a liquid cloud varies as a function of droplet size. Samples were collected from a ground intercepted cloud (= fog during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010 using a three-stage Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC. An instrument test revealed that no artificial isotopic fractionation occurs during sample collection with the CASCC. Furthermore, we could experimentally confirm the hypothesis that the δ values of cloud droplets of the relevant droplet sizes (μm-range were not significantly different and thus can be assumed to be in isotopic equilibrium immediately with the surrounding water vapor. However, during the dissolution period of the cloud, when the supersaturation inside the cloud decreased and the cloud began to clear, differences in isotope ratios of the different droplet sizes tended to be larger. This is likely to result from the cloud's heterogeneity, implying that larger and smaller cloud droplets have been collected at different moments in time, delivering isotope ratios from different collection times.

  11. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  12. Formation of Massive Molecular Cloud Cores by Cloud-cloud Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by the cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive mol...

  13. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, T; Quast, G; Büge, V; Scheurer, A; Kunze, M; Baun, C

    2011-01-01

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  14. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž Zrnec; Dejan Lavbič

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database u...

  15. Point Cloud Management Through the Realization of the Intelligent Cloud Viewer Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, D.; Angelini, M. G.; Settembrini, F.

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a software dedicated to the elaboration of point clouds, called Intelligent Cloud Viewer (ICV), made in-house by AESEI software (Spin-Off of Politecnico di Bari), allowing to view point cloud of several tens of millions of points, also on of "no" very high performance systems. The elaborations are carried out on the whole point cloud and managed by means of the display only part of it in order to speed up rendering. It is designed for 64-bit Windows and is fully written in C ++ and integrates different specialized modules for computer graphics (Open Inventor by SGI, Silicon Graphics Inc), maths (BLAS, EIGEN), computational geometry (CGAL, Computational Geometry Algorithms Library), registration and advanced algorithms for point clouds (PCL, Point Cloud Library), advanced data structures (BOOST, Basic Object Oriented Supporting Tools), etc. ICV incorporates a number of features such as, for example, cropping, transformation and georeferencing, matching, registration, decimation, sections, distances calculation between clouds, etc. It has been tested on photographic and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) data, obtaining satisfactory results. The potentialities of the software have been tested by carrying out the photogrammetric survey of the Castel del Monte which was already available in previous laser scanner survey made from the ground by the same authors. For the aerophotogrammetric survey has been adopted a flight height of approximately 1000ft AGL (Above Ground Level) and, overall, have been acquired over 800 photos in just over 15 minutes, with a covering not less than 80%, the planned speed of about 90 knots.

  16. Making and Breaking Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Molecular clouds which youre likely familiar with from stunning popular astronomy imagery lead complicated, tumultuous lives. A recent study has now found that these features must be rapidly built and destroyed.Star-Forming CollapseA Hubble view of a molecular cloud, roughly two light-years long, that has broken off of the Carina Nebula. [NASA/ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley)/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]Molecular gas can be found throughout our galaxy in the form of eminently photogenic clouds (as featured throughout this post). Dense, cold molecular gas makes up more than 20% of the Milky Ways total gas mass, and gravitational instabilities within these clouds lead them to collapse under their own weight, resulting in the formation of our galaxys stars.How does this collapse occur? The simplest explanation is that the clouds simply collapse in free fall, with no source of support to counter their contraction. But if all the molecular gas we observe collapsed on free-fall timescales, star formation in our galaxy would churn a rate thats at least an order of magnitude higher than the observed 12 solar masses per year in the Milky Way.Destruction by FeedbackAstronomers have theorized that there may be some mechanism that supports these clouds against gravity, slowing their collapse. But both theoretical studies and observations of the clouds have ruled out most of these potential mechanisms, and mounting evidence supports the original interpretation that molecular clouds are simply gravitationally collapsing.A sub-mm image from ESOs APEX telescope of part of the Taurus molecular cloud, roughly ten light-years long, superimposed on a visible-light image of the region. [ESO/APEX (MPIfR/ESO/OSO)/A. Hacar et al./Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]If this is indeed the case, then one explanation for our low observed star formation rate could be that molecular clouds are rapidly destroyed by feedback from the very stars

  17. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sarga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing is gaining acclaim as a cost-effective alternative to acquiring processing resources for corporations, scientific applications and individuals, various challenges are rapidly coming to the fore. While academia struggles to procure a concise definition, corporations are more interested in competitive advantages it may generate and individuals view it as a way of speeding up data access times or a convenient backup solution. Properties of the cloud architecture largely preclude usage of existing practices while achieving end-users’ and companies’ compliance requires considering multiple infrastructural as well as commercial factors, such as sustainability in case of cloud-side interruptions, identity management and off-site corporate data handling policies. The article overviews recent attempts at formal definitions of cloud computing, summarizes and critically evaluates proposed delimitations, and specifies challenges associated with its further proliferation. Based on the conclusions, future directions in the field of cloud computing are also briefly hypothesized to include deeper focus on community clouds and bolstering innovative cloud-enabled platforms and devices such as tablets, smart phones, as well as entertainment applications.

  18. Cloud Computing Law

    CERN Document Server

    Millard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the legal implications of cloud computing. In essence, ‘the cloud’ is a way of delivering computing resources as a utility service via the internet. It is evolving very rapidly with substantial investments being made in infrastructure, platforms and applications, all delivered ‘as a service’. The demand for cloud resources is enormous, driven by such developments as the deployment on a vast scale of mobile apps and the rapid emergence of ‘Big Data’. Part I of this book explains what cloud computing is and how it works. Part II analyses contractual relationships between cloud service providers and their customers, as well as the complex roles of intermediaries. Drawing on primary research conducted by the Cloud Legal Project at Queen Mary University of London, cloud contracts are analysed in detail, including the appropriateness and enforceability of ‘take it or leave it’ terms of service, as well as the scope for negotiating cloud deals. Specific arrangements for public sect...

  19. Community Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  20. The Impact of Aerosols on Cloud and Precipitation Processes: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Li, Xiaowen; Khain, Alexander; Matsui, Toshihisa; Lang, Stephen; Simpson, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    ]. Please see Tao et al. (2007) for more detailed description on aerosol impact on precipitation. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated.

  1. On HammerCloud and ETF

    CERN Document Server

    Babik, Marian; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2017-01-01

    This technical report presents the two major synthetic testing platforms used in WLCG, HammerCloud (HC) and Experiments Test Framework (ETF). It gives an overview of their architecture, components, deployment and operations and discusses the possible commonalities/differences and possible future synergies between the two projects.

  2. Quantifying the Climate-Scale Accuracy of Satellite Cloud Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Y.; Wielicki, B. A.; Sun-Mack, S.; Minnis, P.; Liang, L.; Di Girolamo, L.

    2014-12-01

    frequency of occurrence of cloud types between two decades and will have the information needed to calculate the total change in 3D optical thickness bias between two decades. If we uncover aliases in this study, the results will motivate the development and rigorous testing of climate specific cloud retrieval algorithms.

  3. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  4. Cloud Computing Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ngongang, Guy

    2011-01-01

    This project aimed to show how possible it is to use a network intrusion detection system in the cloud. The security in the cloud is a concern nowadays and security professionals are still finding means to make cloud computing more secure. First of all the installation of the ESX4.0, vCenter Server and vCenter lab manager in server hardware was successful in building the platform. This allowed the creation and deployment of many virtual servers. Those servers have operating systems and a...

  5. Aerosols, clouds and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1991-01-01

    Most of the so-called 'CO{sub 2} effect' is, in fact, an 'H{sub 2}O effect' brought into play by the climate modeler's assumption that planetary average temperature dictates water-vapor concentration (following Clapeyron-Clausius). That assumption ignores the removal process, which cloud physicists know to be influenced by the aerosol, since the latter primarily controls cloud droplet number and size. Droplet number and size are also influential for shortwave (solar) energy. The reflectance of many thin to moderately thick clouds changes when nuclei concentrations change and make shortwave albedo susceptible to aerosol influence.

  6. Trusted cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Krcmar, Helmut; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This book documents the scientific results of the projects related to the Trusted Cloud Program, covering fundamental aspects of trust, security, and quality of service for cloud-based services and applications. These results aim to allow trustworthy IT applications in the cloud by providing a reliable and secure technical and legal framework. In this domain, business models, legislative circumstances, technical possibilities, and realizable security are closely interwoven and thus are addressed jointly. The book is organized in four parts on "Security and Privacy", "Software Engineering and

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Rajak*, Diwakar Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Present era is of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and there are number of researches are going on Cloud Computing and Mobile Cloud Computing such security issues, data management, load balancing and so on. Cloud computing provides the services to the end user over Internet and the primary objectives of this computing are resource sharing and pooling among the end users. Mobile Cloud Computing is a combination of Cloud Computing and Mobile Computing. Here, data is stored in...

  8. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  9. Taxonomy of cloud computing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefer, C.N.; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic, and many big players of the software industry are entering the development of cloud services. Several companies want to explore the possibilities and benefits of cloud computing, but with the amount of cloud computing services increasing quickly, the need

  10. Data and image fusion for geometrical cloud characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, L.R.; Buch, K.A.; Sun, Chen-Hui; Diegert, C.

    1997-04-01

    Clouds have a strong influence on the Earth`s climate and therefore on climate change. An important step in improving the accuracy of models that predict global climate change, general circulation models, is improving the parameterization of clouds and cloud-radiation interactions. Improvements in the next generation models will likely include the effect of cloud geometry on the cloud-radiation parameterizations. We have developed and report here methods for characterizing the geometrical features and three-dimensional properties of clouds that could be of significant value in developing these new parameterizations. We developed and report here a means of generating and imaging synthetic clouds which we used to test our characterization algorithms; a method for using Taylor`s hypotheses to infer spatial averages from temporal averages of cloud properties; a computer method for automatically classifying cloud types in an image; and a method for producing numerical three-dimensional renderings of cloud fields based on the fusion of ground-based and satellite images together with meteorological data.

  11. Cloud Detection by Fusing Multi-Scale Convolutional Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Wei, Yancong; Cheng, Qing; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2018-04-01

    Clouds detection is an important pre-processing step for accurate application of optical satellite imagery. Recent studies indicate that deep learning achieves best performance in image segmentation tasks. Aiming at boosting the accuracy of cloud detection for multispectral imagery, especially for those that contain only visible and near infrared bands, in this paper, we proposed a deep learning based cloud detection method termed MSCN (multi-scale cloud net), which segments cloud by fusing multi-scale convolutional features. MSCN was trained on a global cloud cover validation collection, and was tested in more than ten types of optical images with different resolution. Experiment results show that MSCN has obvious advantages over the traditional multi-feature combined cloud detection method in accuracy, especially when in snow and other areas covered by bright non-cloud objects. Besides, MSCN produced more detailed cloud masks than the compared deep cloud detection convolution network. The effectiveness of MSCN make it promising for practical application in multiple kinds of optical imagery.

  12. Research on cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; He, Lingsong; Su, Wei; Wang, Can; Zhang, Changfan

    2015-02-01

    The promising potential of cloud computing and its convergence with technologies such as cloud storage, cloud push, mobile computing allows for creation and delivery of newer type of cloud service. Combined with the thought of cloud computing, this paper presents a cloud-based remote measurement and analysis system. This system mainly consists of three parts: signal acquisition client, web server deployed on the cloud service, and remote client. This system is a special website developed using asp.net and Flex RIA technology, which solves the selective contradiction between two monitoring modes, B/S and C/S. This platform supplies customer condition monitoring and data analysis service by Internet, which was deployed on the cloud server. Signal acquisition device is responsible for data (sensor data, audio, video, etc.) collection and pushes the monitoring data to the cloud storage database regularly. Data acquisition equipment in this system is only conditioned with the function of data collection and network function such as smartphone and smart sensor. This system's scale can adjust dynamically according to the amount of applications and users, so it won't cause waste of resources. As a representative case study, we developed a prototype system based on Ali cloud service using the rotor test rig as the research object. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system architecture is feasible.

  13. Cloud Computing (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing, the recent years buzzword for distributed computing, continues to attract and keep the interest of both the computing and business world. These lectures aim at explaining "What is Cloud Computing?" identifying and analyzing it's characteristics, models, and applications. The lectures will explore different "Cloud definitions" given by different authors and use them to introduce the particular concepts. The main cloud models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS), cloud types (public, private, hybrid), cloud standards and security concerns will be presented. The borders between Cloud Computing and Grid Computing, Server Virtualization, Utility Computing will be discussed and analyzed.

  14. Cloud Computing (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing, the recent years buzzword for distributed computing, continues to attract and keep the interest of both the computing and business world. These lectures aim at explaining "What is Cloud Computing?" identifying and analyzing it's characteristics, models, and applications. The lectures will explore different "Cloud definitions" given by different authors and use them to introduce the particular concepts. The main cloud models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS), cloud types (public, private, hybrid), cloud standards and security concerns will be presented. The borders between Cloud Computing and Grid Computing, Server Virtualization, Utility Computing will be discussed and analyzed.

  15. IBM SmartCloud essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    A practical, user-friendly guide that provides an introduction to cloud computing using IBM SmartCloud, along with a thorough understanding of resource management in a cloud environment.This book is great for anyone who wants to get a grasp of what cloud computing is and what IBM SmartCloud has to offer. If you are an IT specialist, IT architect, system administrator, or a developer who wants to thoroughly understand the cloud computing resource model, this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge of cloud computing is expected.

  16. Multilayer Cloud Detection with the MODIS Near-Infrared Water Vapor Absorption Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Hubanks, Paul A,; Pavolonis, Michael J.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Yang, Ping; Baum, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection 5 processing for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Earth Observing System EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft includes an algorithm for detecting multilayered clouds in daytime. The main objective of this algorithm is to detect multilayered cloud scenes, specifically optically thin ice cloud overlying a lower-level water cloud, that presents difficulties for retrieving cloud effective radius using single layer plane-parallel cloud models. The algorithm uses the MODIS 0.94 micron water vapor band along with CO2 bands to obtain two above-cloud precipitable water retrievals, the difference of which, in conjunction with additional tests, provides a map of where multilayered clouds might potentially exist. The presence of a multilayered cloud results in a large difference in retrievals of above-cloud properties between the CO2 and the 0.94 micron methods. In this paper the MODIS multilayered cloud algorithm is described, results of using the algorithm over example scenes are shown, and global statistics for multilayered clouds as observed by MODIS are discussed. A theoretical study of the algorithm behavior for simulated multilayered clouds is also given. Results are compared to two other comparable passive imager methods. A set of standard cloudy atmospheric profiles developed during the course of this investigation is also presented. The results lead to the conclusion that the MODIS multilayer cloud detection algorithm has some skill in identifying multilayered clouds with different thermodynamic phases

  17. Cloud MicroAtlas∗

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∗Any resemblance to the title of David Mitchell's book is purely intentional! RESONANCE | March 2017. 269 .... The most comprehensive reference we know of on the subject of cloud microphysics is the book .... Economic and. Political Weekly ...

  18. Experimental project - Cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Elena; Quinchard, Gregory; Soudon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This document reports an academic experimental project dealing with the general concepts of radioactivity and their application to the cloud room experiment. The author first recalls the history of the design and development of a cloud room, and some definitions and characteristics of cosmic radiation, and proposes a description of the principle and physics of a cloud room. The second part is a theoretical one, and addresses the involved particles, the origins of electrons, and issues related to the transfer of energy (Bremsstrahlung effect, Bragg peak). The third part reports the experimental work with the assessment of a cloud droplet radius, the identification of a trace for each particle (alphas and electrons), and the study of the magnetic field deviation

  19. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  20. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  1. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality ...

  2. Cloud benchmarking for performance

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Blesson; Akgun, Ozgur; Miguel, Ian; Thai, Long; Barker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Date of Acceptance: 20/09/2014 How can applications be deployed on the cloud to achieve maximum performance? This question has become significant and challenging with the availability of a wide variety of Virtual Machines (VMs) with different performance capabilities in the cloud. The above question is addressed by proposing a six step benchmarking methodology in which a user provides a set of four weights that indicate how important each of the following groups: memory, processor, computa...

  3. Toward Cloud Computing Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Heru; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Kang, Chen Chin

    2012-01-01

    -Information Technology (IT) shaped the success of organizations, giving them a solid foundation that increases both their level of efficiency as well as productivity. The computing industry is witnessing a paradigm shift in the way computing is performed worldwide. There is a growing awareness among consumers and enterprises to access their IT resources extensively through a "utility" model known as "cloud computing." Cloud computing was initially rooted in distributed grid-based computing. ...

  4. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  5. On Cloud-based Oversubscription

    OpenAIRE

    Householder, Rachel; Arnold, Scott; Green, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rising trends in the number of customers turning to the cloud for their computing needs has made effective resource allocation imperative for cloud service providers. In order to maximize profits and reduce waste, providers have started to explore the role of oversubscribing cloud resources. However, the benefits of cloud-based oversubscription are not without inherent risks. This paper attempts to unveil the incentives, risks, and techniques behind oversubscription in a cloud infrastructure....

  6. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON CLOUD ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Pacurari; Elena Nechita

    2013-01-01

    Cloud technologies have developed intensively during the last years. Cloud computing allows the customers to interact with their data and applications at any time, from any location, while the providers host these resources. A client company may choose to run in the cloud a part of its business (sales by agents, payroll, etc.), or even the entire business. The company can get access to a large category of cloud-based software, including accounting software. Cloud solutions are especially reco...

  7. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  8. On the association of magnetic clouds with disappearing filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence that an interplanetary magnetic cloud preceding an interaction region, observed at earth January 24, 1974, is associated with the eruptive filament or disparition brusque (DB) near central meridian on January 18. The DB also was associated with a long-decay soft X ray transient (LDE) and a long-duration gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) radio burst. To assess whether magnetic clouds are generally associated with DBs, we present results from statistical testing of the relation of 33 magnetic clouds (and 33 control samples without magnetic clouds) to disappearing filaments near central meridian (approx. 99% confidence. There is a suggestion that clouds following shocks, probably launched at times of solar flares, are not as strongly associated with disappearing filaments as are clouds launched less violently

  9. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  10. ATLAS computing operations within the GridKa Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J; Walker, R; Olszewski, A; Nderitu, S; Serfon, C; Duckeck, G

    2010-01-01

    The organisation and operations model of the ATLAS T1-T2 federation/Cloud associated to the GridKa T1 in Karlsruhe is described. Attention is paid to Cloud level services and the experience gained during the last years of operation. The ATLAS GridKa Cloud is large and divers spanning 5 countries, 2 ROC's and is currently comprised of 13 core sites. A well defined and tested operations model in such a Cloud is of the utmost importance. We have defined the core Cloud services required by the ATLAS experiment and ensured that they are performed in a managed and sustainable manner. Services such as Distributed Data Management involving data replication,deletion and consistency checks, Monte Carlo Production, software installation and data reprocessing are described in greater detail. In addition to providing these central services we have undertaken several Cloud level stress tests and developed monitoring tools to aid with Cloud diagnostics. Furthermore we have defined good channels of communication between ATLAS, the T1 and the T2's and have pro-active contributions from the T2 manpower. A brief introduction to the GridKa Cloud is provided followed by a more detailed discussion of the operations model and ATLAS services within the Cloud.

  11. cloudPEST - A python module for cloud-computing deployment of PEST, a program for parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Kunicki, Thomas C.; Kester, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents cloudPEST-a Python module with functions to facilitate deployment of the model-independent parameter estimation code PEST on a cloud-computing environment. cloudPEST makes use of low-level, freely available command-line tools that interface with the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2(TradeMark)) that are unlikely to change dramatically. This report describes the preliminary setup for both Python and EC2 tools and subsequently describes the functions themselves. The code and guidelines have been tested primarily on the Windows(Registered) operating system but are extensible to Linux(Registered).

  12. Sampling of solid particles in clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuillebois, F.; Lasek, A.; Scibilia, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the sampling of small solid particles from clouds by an airborne apparatus to be mounted on an airplane for meteorological investigations. In the airborne experiment the particles entering the test tube should be as representative as possible of the upstream conditions ahead of the plane, in the real cloud. Due to the inertia of the particles, the proportion of the different sizes of particles entering the test tube depends on the location of the tube mouth. We present a method of calculating the real concentration in particles of different sizes, using the results of measurements executed during the flight of an airplane in a cloud. Two geometries are considered: the nose of the airplane, represented schematically by a hemisphere, and a wing represented by a (2D) Joukowski profile which matches well a NACA 0015 profile on its leading edge

  13. Modelling the Intention to Adopt Cloud Computing Services: A Transaction Cost Theory Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogan Yigitbasioglu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses transaction cost theory to study cloud computing adoption. A model is developed and tested with data from an Australian survey. According to the results, perceived vendor opportunism and perceived legislative uncertainty around cloud computing were significantly associated with perceived cloud computing security risk. There was also a significant negative relationship between perceived cloud computing security risk and the intention to adopt cloud services. This study also reports on adoption rates of cloud computing in terms of applications, as well as the types of services used.

  14. A Diagnostic PDF Cloud Scheme to Improve Subtropical Low Clouds in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Lin, Yanluan; Xu, Shiming; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Xie, Shaocheng

    2018-02-01

    Low clouds strongly impact the radiation budget of the climate system, but their simulation in most GCMs has remained a challenge, especially over the subtropical stratocumulus region. Assuming a Gaussian distribution for the subgrid-scale total water and liquid water potential temperature, a new statistical cloud scheme is proposed and tested in NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The subgrid-scale variance is diagnosed from the turbulent and shallow convective processes in CAM5. The approach is able to maintain the consistency between cloud fraction and cloud condensate and thus alleviates the adjustment needed in the default relative humidity-based cloud fraction scheme. Short-term forecast simulations indicate that low cloud fraction and liquid water content, including their diurnal cycle, are improved due to a proper consideration of subgrid-scale variance over the southeastern Pacific Ocean region. Compared with the default cloud scheme, the new approach produced the mean climate reasonably well with improved shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) due to more reasonable low cloud fraction and liquid water path over regions with predominant low clouds. Meanwhile, the SWCF bias over the tropical land regions is also alleviated. Furthermore, the simulated marine boundary layer clouds with the new approach extend further offshore and agree better with observations. The new approach is able to obtain the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance with a slightly alleviated double ITCZ problem in preliminary coupled simulations. This study implies that a close coupling of cloud processes with other subgrid-scale physical processes is a promising approach to improve cloud simulations.

  15. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  16. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  17. Security Problems in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Motawie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud is a pool of computing resources which are distributed among cloud users. Cloud computing has many benefits like scalability, flexibility, cost savings, reliability, maintenance and mobile accessibility. Since cloud-computing technology is growing day by day, it comes with many security problems. Securing the data in the cloud environment is most critical challenges which act as a barrier when implementing the cloud. There are many new concepts that cloud introduces, such as resource sharing, multi-tenancy, and outsourcing, create new challenges for the security community. In this work, we provide a comparable study of cloud computing privacy and security concerns. We identify and classify known security threats, cloud vulnerabilities, and attacks.

  18. When STAR meets the Clouds-Virtualization and Cloud Computing Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauret, J; Hajdu, L; Walker, M; Balewski, J; Goasguen, S; Stout, L; Fenn, M; Keahey, K

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, Cloud computing has become a very attractive paradigm and popular model for accessing distributed resources. The Cloud has emerged as the next big trend. The burst of platform and projects providing Cloud resources and interfaces at the very same time that Grid projects are entering a production phase in their life cycle has however raised the question of the best approach to handling distributed resources. Especially, are Cloud resources scaling at the levels shown by Grids? Are they performing at the same level? What is their overhead on the IT teams and infrastructure? Rather than seeing the two as orthogonal, the STAR experiment has viewed them as complimentary and has studied merging the best of the two worlds with Grid middleware providing the aggregation of both Cloud and traditional resources. Since its first use of Cloud resources on Amazon EC2 in 2008/2009 using a Nimbus/EC2 interface, the STAR software team has tested and experimented with many novel approaches: from a traditional, native EC2 approach to the Virtual Organization Cluster (VOC) at Clemson University and Condor/VM on the GLOW resources at the University of Wisconsin. The STAR team is also planning to run as part of the DOE/Magellan project. In this paper, we will present an overview of our findings from using truly opportunistic resources and scaling-out two orders of magnitude in both tests and practical usage.

  19. Cloud type comparisons of AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO cloud height and amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Kahn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the two-layer cloud height fields derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS is explored and quantified for a five-day set of observations. Coincident profiles of vertical cloud structure by CloudSat, a 94 GHz profiling radar, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, are compared to AIRS for a wide range of cloud types. Bias and variability in cloud height differences are shown to have dependence on cloud type, height, and amount, as well as whether CloudSat or CALIPSO is used as the comparison standard. The CloudSat-AIRS biases and variability range from −4.3 to 0.5±1.2–3.6 km for all cloud types. Likewise, the CALIPSO-AIRS biases range from 0.6–3.0±1.2–3.6 km (−5.8 to −0.2±0.5–2.7 km for clouds ≥7 km (<7 km. The upper layer of AIRS has the greatest sensitivity to Altocumulus, Altostratus, Cirrus, Cumulonimbus, and Nimbostratus, whereas the lower layer has the greatest sensitivity to Cumulus and Stratocumulus. Although the bias and variability generally decrease with increasing cloud amount, the ability of AIRS to constrain cloud occurrence, height, and amount is demonstrated across all cloud types for many geophysical conditions. In particular, skill is demonstrated for thin Cirrus, as well as some Cumulus and Stratocumulus, cloud types infrared sounders typically struggle to quantify. Furthermore, some improvements in the AIRS Version 5 operational retrieval algorithm are demonstrated. However, limitations in AIRS cloud retrievals are also revealed, including the existence of spurious Cirrus near the tropopause and low cloud layers within Cumulonimbus and Nimbostratus clouds. Likely causes of spurious clouds are identified and the potential for further improvement is discussed.

  20. The Q Continuum: Encounter with the Cloud Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Frey, R.; Holz, R.; Philips, C.; Dutcher, S.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing a common cloud mask for MODIS and VIIRS observations, referred to as the MODIS VIIRS Continuity Mask (MVCM). Our focus is on extending the MODIS-heritage cloud detection approach in order to generate appropriate climate data records for clouds and climate studies. The MVCM is based on heritage from the MODIS cloud mask (MOD35 and MYD35) and employs a series of tests on MODIS reflectances and brightness temperatures. Cloud detection is based on contrasts (i.e., cloud versus background surface) at pixel resolution. The MVCM follows the same approach. These cloud masks use multiple cloud detection tests to indicate the confidence level that the observation is of a clear-sky scene. The outcome of a test ranges from 0 (cloudy) to 1 (clear-sky scene). Because of overlap in the sensitivities of the various spectral tests to the type of cloud, each test is considered in one of several groups. The final cloud mask is determined from the product of the minimum confidence of each group and is referred to as the Q value as defined in Ackerman et al (1998). In MOD35 and MYD35 processing, the Q value is not output, rather predetermined Q values determine the result: If Q ≥ .99 the scene is clear; .95 ≤ Q laws of physics are followed, at least according to normal human notions. Using CALIOP as representing truth, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) will be analyzed to determine the optimum Q for various scenes and seasons, thus providing a continuum of discriminating thresholds.

  1. Counting the clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, David A

    2005-01-01

    Cloud processes are very important for the global circulation of the atmosphere. It is now possible, though very expensive, to simulate the global circulation of the atmosphere using a model with resolution fine enough to explicitly represent the larger individual clouds. An impressive preliminary calculation of this type has already been performed by Japanese scientists, using the Earth Simulator. Within the next few years, such global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs) will be applied to weather prediction, and later they will be used in climatechange simulations. The tremendous advantage of GCRMs, relative to conventional lowerresolution global models, is that GCRMs can avoid many of the questionable 'parameterizations' used to represent cloud effects in lower-resolution global models. Although cloud microphysics, turbulence, and radiation must still be parameterized in GCRMs, the high resolution of a GCRM simplifies these problems considerably, relative to conventional models. The United States currently has no project to develop a GCRM, although we have both the computer power and the expertise to do it. A research program aimed at development and applications of GCRMs is outlined

  2. Trust management in cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Noor, Talal H; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design and implementation of Cloud Armor, a novel approach for credibility-based trust management and automatic discovery of cloud services in distributed and highly dynamic environments. This book also helps cloud users to understand the difficulties of establishing trust in cloud computing and the best criteria for selecting a service cloud. The techniques have been validated by a prototype system implementation and experimental studies using a collection of real world trust feedbacks on cloud services.The authors present the design and implementation of a novel pro

  3. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  4. Cloud Computing for Geosciences--GeoCloud for standardized geospatial service platforms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, D. D.; Huang, Q.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The 21st century geoscience faces challenges of Big Data, spike computing requirements (e.g., when natural disaster happens), and sharing resources through cyberinfrastructure across different organizations (Yang et al., 2011). With flexibility and cost-efficiency of computing resources a primary concern, cloud computing emerges as a promising solution to provide core capabilities to address these challenges. Many governmental and federal agencies are adopting cloud technologies to cut costs and to make federal IT operations more efficient (Huang et al., 2010). However, it is still difficult for geoscientists to take advantage of the benefits of cloud computing to facilitate the scientific research and discoveries. This presentation reports using GeoCloud to illustrate the process and strategies used in building a common platform for geoscience communities to enable the sharing, integration of geospatial data, information and knowledge across different domains. GeoCloud is an annual incubator project coordinated by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) in collaboration with the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) and the Department of Health and Human Services. It is designed as a staging environment to test and document the deployment of a common GeoCloud community platform that can be implemented by multiple agencies. With these standardized virtual geospatial servers, a variety of government geospatial applications can be quickly migrated to the cloud. In order to achieve this objective, multiple projects are nominated each year by federal agencies as existing public-facing geospatial data services. From the initial candidate projects, a set of common operating system and software requirements was identified as the baseline for platform as a service (PaaS) packages. Based on these developed common platform packages, each project deploys and monitors its web application, develops best practices, and documents cost and performance information. This

  5. Retrieval of macrophysical cloud parameters from MIPAS: algorithm description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hurley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS onboard ENVISAT has the potential to be particularly useful for studying high, thin clouds, which have been difficult to observe in the past. This paper details the development, implementation and testing of an optimal-estimation-type retrieval for three macrophysical cloud parameters (cloud top height, cloud top temperature and cloud extinction coefficient from infrared spectra measured by MIPAS. A preliminary estimation of a parameterisation of the optical and geometrical filling of the measurement field-of-view by cloud is employed as the first step of the retrieval process to improve the choice of a priori for the macrophysical parameters themselves.

    Preliminary application to single-scattering simulations indicates that the retrieval error stemming from uncertainties introduced by noise and by a priori variances in the retrieval process itself is small – although it should be noted that these retrieval errors do not include the significant errors stemming from the assumption of homogeneity and the non-scattering nature of the forward model. Such errors are preliminarily and qualitatively assessed here, and are likely to be the dominant error sources. The retrieval converges for 99% of input cases, although sometimes fails to converge for vetically-thin (<1 km clouds. The retrieval algorithm is applied to MIPAS data; the results of which are qualitatively compared with CALIPSO cloud top heights and PARASOL cloud opacities. From comparison with CALIPSO cloud products, it must be noted that the cloud detection method used in this algorithm appears to potentially misdetect stratospheric aerosol layers as cloud.

    This algorithm has been adopted by the European Space Agency's "MIPclouds" project.

  6. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  7. Atomic carbon in an infrared dark cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossenkopf, Volker; Ormel, Chris W.; Simon, Robert; Sun, Kefeng; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are potential sites of massive star formation, dark in the near-infrared, but in many cases already with indications of active star-formation from far-infrared and submm observations. They are an ideal test bed to study the role of internal and external heating on the

  8. A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model of ground radioactive fallout for atmospheric nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi

    2008-01-01

    A simple dynamic rising nuclear cloud based model for atmospheric nuclear explosion radioactive prediction was presented. The deposition of particles and initial cloud radius changing with time before the cloud stabilization was considered. Large-scale relative diffusion theory was used after cloud stabilization. The model was considered reasonable and dependable in comparison with four U.S. nuclear test cases and DELFIC model results. (authors)

  9. Modeling the Cloud to Enhance Capabilities for Crises and Catastrophe Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    through support by a prior DOD grant, and in this project, we focused on how to effectively adapt this for the cloud catastrophe environment. The...the effects of varying cloud resources and the cloud architecture on L, o, and g values, we will be able to formulate realistic analytical models of...variation in computing and communication costs of test problems due to varying loads in the cloud environment. We used the parallel matrix multiplication

  10. Tharsis Limb Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of Tharsis Limb Cloud 7 September 2005 This composite of red and blue Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired on 6 July 2005 shows an isolated water ice cloud extending more than 30 kilometers (more than 18 miles) above the martian surface. Clouds such as this are common in late spring over the terrain located southwest of the Arsia Mons volcano. Arsia Mons is the dark, oval feature near the limb, just to the left of the 'T' in the 'Tharsis Montes' label. The dark, nearly circular feature above the 'S' in 'Tharsis' is the volcano, Pavonis Mons, and the other dark circular feature, above and to the right of 's' in 'Montes,' is Ascraeus Mons. Illumination is from the left/lower left. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  11. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  12. The photoevaporation of interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, F.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of the photoevaporation of interstellar clouds and its consequences for the structure and evolution of H II regions are studied. An approximate analytical solution for the evolution of photoevaporating clouds is derived under the realistic assumption of axisymmetry. The effects of magnetic fields are taken into account in an approximate way. The evolution of a neutral cloud subjected to the ionizing radiation of an OB star has two distinct stages. When a cloud is first exposed to the radiation, the increase in pressure due to the ionization at the surface of the cloud leads to a radiation-driven implosion: an ionization front drives a shock into the cloud, ionizes part of it and compresses the remaining into a dense globule. The initial implosion is followed by an equilibrium cometary stage, in which the cloud maintains a semistationary comet-shaped configuration; it slowly evaporates while accelerating away from the ionizing star until the cloud has been completely ionized, reaches the edge of the H II region, or dies. Expressions are derived for the cloud mass-loss rate and acceleration. To investigate the effect of the cloud photoevaporation on the structure of H II regions, the evolution of an ensemble of clouds of a given mass distribution is studied. It is shown that the compressive effect of the ionizing radiation can induce star formation in clouds that were initially gravitationally stable, both for thermally and magnetically supported clouds

  13. Cloud Computing: A study of cloud architecture and its patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Handa,; Shriya Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client–server in the early 1980s. Cloud computing can be defined as accessing third party software and services on web and paying as per usage. It facilitates scalability and virtualized resources over Internet as a service providing cost effective and scalable solution to customers. Cloud computing has...

  14. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  15. Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Detection between CERES Edition 3 Cloud Mask and CALIPSO Version 2 Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, Qing; Minnis, Patrick; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Trepte, Charles

    Clouds and aerosol play important roles in the global climate system. Accurately detecting their presence, altitude, and properties using satellite radiance measurements is a crucial first step in determining their influence on surface and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes. This paper presents a comparison analysis of a new version of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Edition 3 cloud detection algorithms using Aqua MODIS data with the recently released Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Version 2 Vertical Feature Mask (VFM). Improvements in CERES Edition 3 cloud mask include dust detection, thin cirrus tests, enhanced low cloud detection at night, and a smoother transition from mid-latitude to polar regions. For the CALIPSO Version 2 data set, changes to the lidar calibration can result in significant improvements to its identification of optically thick aerosol layers. The Aqua and CALIPSO satellites, part of the A-train satellite constellation, provide a unique opportunity for validating passive sensor cloud and aerosol detection using an active sensor. In this paper, individual comparison cases will be discussed for different types of clouds and aerosols over various surfaces, for daytime and nighttime conditions, and for regions ranging from the tropics to the poles. Examples will include an assessment of the CERES detection algorithm for optically thin cirrus, marine stratus, and polar night clouds as well as its ability to characterize Saharan dust plumes off the African coast. With the CALIPSO lidar's unique ability to probe the vertical structure of clouds and aerosol layers, it provides an excellent validation data set for cloud detection algorithms, especially for polar nighttime clouds.

  16. Cloud Collaboration: Cloud-Based Instruction for Business Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charlie; Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne; Wang, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs, Adobe Creative Cloud, Dropbox, and Microsoft Windows Live, have become increasingly appreciated to the next generation digital learning tools. Cloud computing technologies encourage students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in their learning, facilitate group work, and support…

  17. Cloud blueprints for integrating and managing cloud federations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.; Heisel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary cloud technologies face insurmountable obstacles. They follow a pull-based, producer-centric trajectory to development where cloud consumers have to ‘squeeze and bolt’ applications onto cloud APIs. They also introduce a monolithic SaaS/PaaS/IaaS stack where a one-size-fits-all mentality

  18. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor, Víctor Fernandez; Miguelez, Marcos Seco; Silva, Juan Jose Saborido; Pena, Tomas Fernandez; Muñoz, Victor Mendez; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani

    2014-01-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for

  19. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  20. Opaque cloud detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskovensky, John K [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  1. Storm and cloud dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cotton, William R

    1992-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models.Key Features* Key Highlight

  2. Detailed Information Security in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Valerievich Ivonin

    2013-01-01

    The object of research in this article is technology of public clouds, structure and security system of clouds. Problems of information security in clouds are considered, elements of security system in public clouds are described.

  3. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  4. Colisional Cloud Debris and Propelled Evasive Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L. S.; Jesus, A. D. C.; Carvalho, T. C. F.; Sousa, R. R.

    2017-10-01

    Space debris clouds exist at various altitudes in the environment outside the Earth. Fragmentation of debris and/or collision between the debris of a cloud increases the amount of debris, producing smaller debris. This event also increases significantly the chances of collision with operational vehicles in orbit. In this work we study clouds of debris that are close to a spacecraft in relation to its distance from the center of the Earth. The results show several layers of colliding debris depending on their size over time of evasive maneuvers of the vehicle. In addition, we have tested such maneuvers for propulsion systems with a linear and exponential mass variation model. The results show that the linear propulsion system is more efficient.

  5. Turning Video Resource Management into Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.

  6. Relationships among cloud occurrence frequency, overlap, and effective thickness derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat merged cloud vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profiles derived from the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and cloud profiling radar. The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical profiles can be related by a cloud overlap matrix when the correlation length of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data (July 2006) support these assumptions, although the correlation length sometimes increases with separation distance when the cloud top height is large. The data also show that the correlation length depends on cloud top hight and the maximum occurs when the cloud top height is 8 to 10 km. The cloud correlation length is equivalent to the decorrelation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth (2000) when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same. The simple relationships derived in this study can be used to estimate the top-of-atmosphere irradiance difference caused by cloud fraction, uppermost cloud top, and cloud thickness vertical profile differences.

  7. Securing virtual and cloud environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carroll, M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available targets such as reduced costs, scalability, flexibility, capacity utilisation, higher efficiencies and mobility. Many of these benefits are achieved through the utilisation of technologies such as cloud computing and virtualisation. In many instances cloud...

  8. Efficient Resource Management in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Rushikesh Shingade; Amit Patil; Shivam Suryawanshi; M. Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing, one of the widely used technology to provide cloud services for users who are charged for receiving services. In the aspect of a maximum number of resources, evaluating the performance of Cloud resource management policies are difficult to optimize efficiently. There are different simulation toolkits available for simulation and modelling the Cloud computing environment like GridSim CloudAnalyst, CloudSim, GreenCloud, CloudAuction etc. In proposed Efficient Resource Manage...

  9. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  10. Cloud Computing Security: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Issa; Khreishah, Abdallah; Azeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technology paradigm that migrates current technological and computing concepts into utility-like solutions similar to electricity and water systems. Clouds bring out a wide range of benefits including configurable computing resources, economic savings, and service flexibility. However, security and privacy concerns are shown to be the primary obstacles to a wide adoption of clouds. The new concepts that clouds introduce, such as multi-tenancy, resource sharing a...

  11. Database security in the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhi, Imal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to get an overview of the database services available in cloud computing environment, investigate the security risks associated with it and propose the possible countermeasures to minimize the risks. The thesis also analyzes two cloud database service providers namely; Amazon RDS and Xeround. The reason behind choosing these two providers is because they are currently amongst the leading cloud database providers and both provide relational cloud databases which makes ...

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira Aslam; Hina Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is a greatest and latest thing. Marketers for lots of big companies are all using cloud computing terms in their marketing campaign to make them seem them impressive so, that they can get clients and customers. Cloud computing is overall the philosophy and design concept and it is much more complicated and yet much simpler. The basic underlined thing that cloud computing do is to separate the applications from operating systems from the software from the hardware that runs eve...

  13. Cloud services, networking, and management

    CERN Document Server

    da Fonseca, Nelson L S

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Services, Networking and Management provides a comprehensive overview of the cloud infrastructure and services, as well as their underlying management mechanisms, including data center virtualization and networking, cloud security and reliability, big data analytics, scientific and commercial applications. Special features of the book include: State-of-the-art content. Self-contained chapters for readers with specific interests. Includes commercial applications on Cloud (video services and games).

  14. Security Dynamics of Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khaled M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores various dimensions of cloud computing security. It argues that security concerns of cloud computing need to be addressed from the perspective of individual stakeholder. Security focuses of cloud computing are essentially different in terms of its characteristics and business model. Conventional way of viewing as well as addressing security such as ‘bolting-in’ on the top of cloud computing may not work well. The paper attempts to portray the security spectrum necessary for...

  15. Green Cloud on the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mufajjul

    This paper proposes a Green Cloud model for mobile Cloud computing. The proposed model leverage on the current trend of IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and SaaS (Software as a Service), and look at new paradigm called "Network as a Service" (NaaS). The Green Cloud model proposes various Telco's revenue generating streams and services with the CaaS (Cloud as a Service) for the near future.

  16. Reusability Framework for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, Rishideep

    2012-01-01

    Cloud based development is a challenging task for several software engineering projects, especially for those which needs development with reusability. Present time of cloud computing is allowing new professional models for using the software development. The expected upcoming trend of computing is assumed to be this cloud computing because of speed of application deployment, shorter time to market, and lower cost of operation. Until Cloud Co mputing Reusability Model is considered a fundamen...

  17. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildosola, Iñaki; Río-Belver, Rosa; Cilleruelo, Ernesto; Garechana, Gaizka

    2015-01-01

    Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on “on-demand payment” for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible. PMID:26230400

  18. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Bildosola

    Full Text Available Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on "on-demand payment" for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Cloud Computing Adoption Decision Tool: Generating a Cloud Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildosola, Iñaki; Río-Belver, Rosa; Cilleruelo, Ernesto; Garechana, Gaizka

    2015-01-01

    Migrating to cloud computing is one of the current enterprise challenges. This technology provides a new paradigm based on "on-demand payment" for information and communication technologies. In this sense, the small and medium enterprise is supposed to be the most interested, since initial investments are avoided and the technology allows gradual implementation. However, even if the characteristics and capacities have been widely discussed, entry into the cloud is still lacking in terms of practical, real frameworks. This paper aims at filling this gap, presenting a real tool already implemented and tested, which can be used as a cloud computing adoption decision tool. This tool uses diagnosis based on specific questions to gather the required information and subsequently provide the user with valuable information to deploy the business within the cloud, specifically in the form of Software as a Service (SaaS) solutions. This information allows the decision makers to generate their particular Cloud Road. A pilot study has been carried out with enterprises at a local level with a two-fold objective: to ascertain the degree of knowledge on cloud computing and to identify the most interesting business areas and their related tools for this technology. As expected, the results show high interest and low knowledge on this subject and the tool presented aims to readdress this mismatch, insofar as possible.

  20. Adventures in Private Cloud: Balancing Cost and Capability at the CloudSat Data Processing Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, P.; Finley, S.; Fluke, J.; Haynes, J. M.; Cronk, H. Q.; Miller, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Since the beginning of the CloudSat Mission in 2006, The CloudSat Data Processing Center (DPC) at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) has been ingesting data from the satellite and other A-Train sensors, producing data products, and distributing them to researchers around the world. The computing infrastructure was specifically designed to fulfill the requirements as specified at the beginning of what nominally was a two-year mission. The environment consisted of servers dedicated to specific processing tasks in a rigid workflow to generate the required products. To the benefit of science and with credit to the mission engineers, CloudSat has lasted well beyond its planned lifetime and is still collecting data ten years later. Over that period requirements of the data processing system have greatly expanded and opportunities for providing value-added services have presented themselves. But while demands on the system have increased, the initial design allowed for very little expansion in terms of scalability and flexibility. The design did change to include virtual machine processing nodes and distributed workflows but infrastructure management was still a time consuming task when system modification was required to run new tests or implement new processes. To address the scalability, flexibility, and manageability of the system Cloud computing methods and technologies are now being employed. The use of a public cloud like Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud or Google Compute Engine was considered but, among other issues, data transfer and storage cost becomes a problem especially when demand fluctuates as a result of reprocessing and the introduction of new products and services. Instead, the existing system was converted to an on premises private Cloud using the OpenStack computing platform and Ceph software defined storage to reap the benefits of the Cloud computing paradigm. This work details the decisions that were made, the benefits that

  1. iCloud standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alfi, Fauzan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-use guide, filled with tutorials that will teach you how to set up and use iCloud, and profit from all of its marvellous features.This book is for anyone with basic knowledge of computers and mobile operations. Prior knowledge of cloud computing or iCloud is not expected.

  2. Coherent Radiation of Electron Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cloud in positron storage rings is pinched when a bunch passes by. For short bunches, the radiation due to acceleration of electrons of the cloud is coherent. Detection of such radiation can be used to measure the density of the cloud. The estimate of the power and the time structure of the radiated signal is given in this paper

  3. Understanding and Monitoring Cloud Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio

    2013-01-01

    Cloud services have changed the way computing power is delivered to customers. The advantages of the cloud model have fast resulted in powerful providers. However, this success has not come without problems. Cloud providers have been related to major failures, including outages and performance

  4. Research on cloud computing solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community. The most common and well-known deployment model is Public Cloud. A Private Cloud is suited for sensitive data, where the customer is dependent on a certain degree of security.According to the different types of services offered, cloud computing can be considered to consist of three layers (services models: IaaS (infrastructure as a service, PaaS (platform as a service, SaaS (software as a service. Main cloud computing solutions: web applications, data hosting, virtualization, database clusters and terminal services. The advantage of cloud com-puting is the ability to virtualize and share resources among different applications with the objective for better server utilization and without a clustering solution, a service may fail at the moment the server crashes.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.914

  5. GEWEX cloud assessment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Rossow, William B.; Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Steve; Cesana, Gregory; Chepfer, Hélène; Di Girolamo, Larry; Getzewich, Brian; Guignard, Anthony; Heidinger, Andy; Maddux, Brent; Menzel, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Pearl, Cindy; Platnick, Steven; Poulsen, Caroline; Riedi, Jérôme; Sayer, Andrew; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Walther, Andi; Winker, Dave; Zeng, Shen; Zhao, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the entire globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years; however, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provides the first coordinated intercomparison of publicly available, global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multi-angle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. The monthly, gridded database presented here facilitates further assessments, climate studies, and the evaluation of climate models.

  6. The Basics of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  7. Towards trustworthy health platform cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, M.; Nalin, M.; Petkovic, M.; Baroni, I.; Marco, A.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    To address today’s major concerns of health service providers regarding security, resilience and data protection when moving on the cloud, we propose an approach to build a trustworthy healthcare platform cloud, based on a trustworthy cloud infrastructure. This paper first highlights the main

  8. A View from the Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is definitely a thing now, but it's not new and it's not even novel. Back when people were first learning about the Internet in the 1990s, every diagram that one saw showing how the Internet worked had a big cloud in the middle. That cloud represented the diverse links, routers, gateways, and protocols that passed traffic around in…

  9. Trusting Privacy in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.O.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies have the potential to increase innovation and economic growth considerably. But many users worry that data in the cloud can be accessed by others, thereby damaging the data owner. Consequently, they do not use cloud technologies up to the efficient level. I design an

  10. Securing the Cloud Cloud Computer Security Techniques and Tactics

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Vic (JR)

    2011-01-01

    As companies turn to cloud computing technology to streamline and save money, security is a fundamental concern. Loss of certain control and lack of trust make this transition difficult unless you know how to handle it. Securing the Cloud discusses making the move to the cloud while securing your peice of it! The cloud offers felxibility, adaptability, scalability, and in the case of security-resilience. This book details the strengths and weaknesses of securing your company's information with different cloud approaches. Attacks can focus on your infrastructure, communications network, data, o

  11. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  12. VMware private cloud computing with vCloud director

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, Simon

    2013-01-01

    It's All About Delivering Service with vCloud Director Empowered by virtualization, companies are not just moving into the cloud, they're moving into private clouds for greater security, flexibility, and cost savings. However, this move involves more than just infrastructure. It also represents a different business model and a new way to provide services. In this detailed book, VMware vExpert Simon Gallagher makes sense of private cloud computing for IT administrators. From basic cloud theory and strategies for adoption to practical implementation, he covers all the issues. You'll lea

  13. Characterization of Mixed-Phase Clouds in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T. C.; Hallett, J.

    2005-12-01

    A technique was developed in which a mixed-phase cloud of controllable ice and water content is created. First a freezer filled with a water droplet cloud becomes supercooled. Then, in an isolated small volume of the freezer, an adjustable adiabatic expansion locally nucleates ice. Finally the two regions of the cloud are vigorously stirred together producing a mixed-phase cloud throughout the chamber. At this point the water droplets evaporate and the crystals grow at a slow measurable rate, until a fully glaciated cloud results. Experiments were carried out at temperatures near -20 C in a standard top-opening chest freezer. A cloud of supercooled water droplets several micrometers in diameter was produced by a commercial ultrasonic nebulizer. Ice was nucleated using the discharge of an empty compressed air pistol pumped to different initial pressures. In that process high-pressure room temperature air in the pistol expands adiabatically, cooling the air enough to nucleate water droplets which then freeze homogeneously if sufficiently cold. The freezer was partitioned with thick movable walls of foam material to isolate the ice cloud in a small volume of the freezer before mixing occurs. Clouds of supercooled water droplets or of ice particles are readily produced and examined in collimated white light beams. They look similar visually in some cases although normally large crystals with flat reflecting surfaces clearly differ due to the flashes of reflected light. When the pistol is discharged into the supercooled water cloud, it displays a distinct hazy bluish "plume." But discharge into the ice particle cloud leaves no such plume: that discharge only mixes the particles present. This discharge is a test of glaciation in our initially mixed freezer cloud. A visible plume indicates that supercooled water remains in the cloud and no plume indicates the cloud is entirely ice at a high concentration. Our first unsuccessful experiments were done with the freezer

  14. Advanced Technology Cloud Particle Probe for UAS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase II SPEC will design, fabricate and flight test a state-of-the-art combined cloud particle probe called the Hawkeye. Hawkeye is the culmination of two...

  15. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC. However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds. Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as retrieval of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density. MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences.

    Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP. By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR, we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of detection thresholds of the applied detection methods. Based on BTR, a detection threshold of ADP = 107 μm2 cm−2 and an ice water content of 10−5 g m−3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud.

    Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric

  16. Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the first study resolving the temporal evolution of δ2H and δ18O values in cloud droplets during 13 different cloud events. The cloud events were probed on a 937 m high mountain chain in Germany in the framework of the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010 in September and October 2010. The δ values of cloud droplets ranged from −77‰ to −15‰ (δ2H and from −12.1‰ to −3.9‰ (δ18O over the whole campaign. The cloud water line of the measured δ values was δ2H=7.8×δ18O+13×10−3, which is of similar slope, but with higher deuterium excess than other Central European Meteoric Water Lines. Decreasing δ values in the course of the campaign agree with seasonal trends observed in rain in central Europe. The deuterium excess was higher in clouds developing after recent precipitation revealing episodes of regional moisture recycling. The variations in δ values during one cloud event could either result from changes in meteorological conditions during condensation or from variations in the δ values of the water vapor feeding the cloud. To test which of both aspects dominated during the investigated cloud events, we modeled the variation in δ values in cloud water using a closed box model. We could show that the variation in δ values of two cloud events was mainly due to changes in local temperature conditions. For the other eleven cloud events, the variation was most likely caused by changes in the isotopic composition of the advected and entrained vapor. Frontal passages during two of the latter cloud events led to the strongest temporal changes in both δ2H (≈ 6‰ per hour and δ18O (≈ 0.6‰ per hour. Moreover, a detailed trajectory analysis for the two longest cloud events revealed that variations in the entrained vapor were most likely related to rain out or changes in relative

  17. Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J.K.; Aemisegger, F.; Scholl, M.; Wienhold, F.G.; Collett, J.L.; Lee, T.; van Pinxteren, D.; Mertes, S.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first study resolving the temporal evolution of δ2H and δ18O values in cloud droplets during 13 different cloud events. The cloud events were probed on a 937 m high mountain chain in Germany in the framework of the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010) in September and October 2010. The δ values of cloud droplets ranged from −77‰ to −15‰ (δ2H) and from −12.1‰ to −3.9‰ (δ18O) over the whole campaign. The cloud water line of the measured δ values was δ2H=7.8×δ18O+13×10−3, which is of similar slope, but with higher deuterium excess than other Central European Meteoric Water Lines. Decreasing δ values in the course of the campaign agree with seasonal trends observed in rain in central Europe. The deuterium excess was higher in clouds developing after recent precipitation revealing episodes of regional moisture recycling. The variations in δ values during one cloud event could either result from changes in meteorological conditions during condensation or from variations in the δ values of the water vapor feeding the cloud. To test which of both aspects dominated during the investigated cloud events, we modeled the variation in δ values in cloud water using a closed box model. We could show that the variation in δ values of two cloud events was mainly due to changes in local temperature conditions. For the other eleven cloud events, the variation was most likely caused by changes in the isotopic composition of the advected and entrained vapor. Frontal passages during two of the latter cloud events led to the strongest temporal changes in both δ2H (≈ 6‰ per hour) and δ18O (≈ 0.6‰ per hour). Moreover, a detailed trajectory analysis for the two longest cloud events revealed that variations in the entrained vapor were most likely related to rain out or changes in relative humidity and temperature at the moisture source region or both. This study illustrates the sensitivity of stable isotope

  18. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  19. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  20. Computing in the Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  1. CloudETL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) programs process data into data warehouses (DWs). Rapidly growing data volumes demand systems that scale out. Recently, much attention has been given to MapReduce for parallel handling of massive data sets in cloud environments. Hive is the most widely used RDBMS...

  2. Predictable cloud computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    The standard tools for cloud computing—processor and network virtualization—make it difficult to achieve dependability, both in terms of real time operations and fault tolerance. Virtualization multiplexes virtual resources onto physical ones, typically by time division or statistical multiplexing.

  3. SiCloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Cathy Y.; Devore, Peter T.S.; Lonappan, Cejo Konuparamban

    2017-01-01

    The silicon photonics industry is projected to be a multibillion dollar industry driven by the growth of data centers. In this work, we present an interactive online tool for silicon photonics. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCCloud.org) is an easy to use instructional tool for optical properties...

  4. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  5. Seeding the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    For any institution looking to shift enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to the cloud, big savings can be achieved--but only if the school has properly prepped "before" negotiations begin. These three steps can help: (1) Mop up the mess first; (2) Understand the true costs for services; and (3) Calculate the cost of transition.

  6. Data in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to move from one representation of data to another is one of the key characteristics of expert mathematicians and scientists. Cloud computing will offer more opportunities to create and display multiple representations of data, making this skill even more important in the future. The advent of the Internet led to widespread…

  7. AIRS-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS Level 1b radiances spectra, CloudSat radar reflectivities, and MODIS...

  8. Development of a Survivable Cloud Multi-Robot Framework for Heterogeneous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osunmakinde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a paradigm that allows for robots to offload computationally intensive and data storage requirements into the cloud by providing a secure and customizable environment. The challenge for cloud robotics is the inherent problem of cloud disconnection. A major assumption made in the development of the current cloud robotics frameworks is that the connection between the cloud and the robot is always available. However, for multi-robots working in heterogeneous environments, the connection between the cloud and the robots cannot always be guaranteed. This work serves to assist with the challenge of disconnection in cloud robotics by proposing a survivable cloud multi-robotics (SCMR framework for heterogeneous environments. The SCMR framework leverages the combination of a virtual ad hoc network formed by robot-to-robot communication and a physical cloud infrastructure formed by robot-to-cloud communications. The quality of service (QoS on the SCMR framework was tested and validated by determining the optimal energy utilization and time of response (ToR on drivability analysis with and without cloud connection. The design trade-off, including the result, is between the computation energy for the robot execution and the offloading energy for the cloud execution.

  9. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. A comparison of shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions: effect of increased cloud density contrast on cloud evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, K. J. A.; Pittard, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    The similarities, or otherwise, of a shock or wind interacting with a cloud of density contrast χ = 10 were explored in a previous paper. Here, we investigate such interactions with clouds of higher density contrast. We compare the adiabatic hydrodynamic interaction of a Mach 10 shock with a spherical cloud of χ = 103 with that of a cloud embedded in a wind with identical parameters to the post-shock flow. We find that initially there are only minor morphological differences between the shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions, compared to when χ = 10. However, once the transmitted shock exits the cloud, the development of a turbulent wake and fragmentation of the cloud differs between the two simulations. On increasing the wind Mach number, we note the development of a thin, smooth tail of cloud material, which is then disrupted by the fragmentation of the cloud core and subsequent `mass-loading' of the flow. We find that the normalized cloud mixing time (tmix) is shorter at higher χ. However, a strong Mach number dependence on tmix and the normalized cloud drag time, t_{drag}^' }, is not observed. Mach-number-dependent values of tmix and t_{drag}^' } from comparable shock-cloud interactions converge towards the Mach-number-independent time-scales of the wind-cloud simulations. We find that high χ clouds can be accelerated up to 80-90 per cent of the wind velocity and travel large distances before being significantly mixed. However, complete mixing is not achieved in our simulations and at late times the flow remains perturbed.

  11. Expansion of dense particle clouds in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    A single-cell Lagrangian model has been developed for calculating the ionization and expansion dynamics of high-density clouds in magnetic fields or in magnetically confined plasmas. The model was tested by means of data from magnetospheric barium cloud experiments and approximately reproduced such global characteristics as expansion rate, stopping radius, stopping time, and magnetic cavity lifetime. Detailed calculations were performed for hydrogen clouds associated with the injection of frozen hydrogen pellets into tokamak plasmas. The dynamic characteristics of the cloud expansion, such as ionization radius, stopping time, lifetime, oscillation frequencies, and amplitudes, etc., are computed as functions of the magnetic field strength, the background plasma temperature, and the cloud mass. The results are analyzed and compared with experimental observations

  12. Cloud and traditional videoconferencing technology for telemedicine and distance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Kai; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Cloud-based videoconferencing versus traditional systems are described for possible use in telemedicine and distance learning. Differences between traditional and cloud-based videoconferencing systems are examined, and the methods for identifying and testing systems are explained. Findings are presented characterizing the cloud conferencing genre and its attributes versus traditional H.323 conferencing. Because the technology is rapidly evolving and needs to be evaluated in reference to local needs, it is strongly recommended that this or other reviews not be considered substitutes for personal hands-on experience. This review identifies key attributes of the technology that can be used to appraise the relevance of cloud conferencing technology and to determine whether migration from traditional technology to a cloud environment is warranted. An evaluation template is provided for assessing systems appropriateness.

  13. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  14. POINT CLOUD MANAGEMENT THROUGH THE REALIZATION OF THE INTELLIGENT CLOUD VIEWER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costantino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a software dedicated to the elaboration of point clouds, called Intelligent Cloud Viewer (ICV, made in-house by AESEI software (Spin-Off of Politecnico di Bari, allowing to view point cloud of several tens of millions of points, also on of “no” very high performance systems. The elaborations are carried out on the whole point cloud and managed by means of the display only part of it in order to speed up rendering. It is designed for 64-bit Windows and is fully written in C ++ and integrates different specialized modules for computer graphics (Open Inventor by SGI, Silicon Graphics Inc, maths (BLAS, EIGEN, computational geometry (CGAL, Computational Geometry Algorithms Library, registration and advanced algorithms for point clouds (PCL, Point Cloud Library, advanced data structures (BOOST, Basic Object Oriented Supporting Tools, etc. ICV incorporates a number of features such as, for example, cropping, transformation and georeferencing, matching, registration, decimation, sections, distances calculation between clouds, etc. It has been tested on photographic and TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner data, obtaining satisfactory results. The potentialities of the software have been tested by carrying out the photogrammetric survey of the Castel del Monte which was already available in previous laser scanner survey made from the ground by the same authors. For the aerophotogrammetric survey has been adopted a flight height of approximately 1000ft AGL (Above Ground Level and, overall, have been acquired over 800 photos in just over 15 minutes, with a covering not less than 80%, the planned speed of about 90 knots.

  15. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  16. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  17. Cloud database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, cloud computing is almost everywhere. However, one can hardly find a textbook that utilizes cloud computing for teaching database and application development. This cloud-based database development book teaches both the theory and practice with step-by-step instructions and examples. This book helps readers to set up a cloud computing environment for teaching and learning database systems. The book will cover adequate conceptual content for students and IT professionals to gain necessary knowledge and hands-on skills to set up cloud based database systems.

  18. Services for domain specific developments in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Horst; Gemuend, André

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and demonstrate the possibilities of new Cloud Services where the complete development of code is in the Cloud. We will discuss the possibilities of such services where the complete development cycle from programing to testing is in the cloud. This can be also combined with dedicated research domain specific services and hide the burden of accessing available infrastructures. As an example, we will show a service that is intended to complement the services of the VERCE projects infrastructure, a service that utilizes Cloud resources to offer simplified execution of data pre- and post-processing scripts. It offers users access to the ObsPy seismological toolbox for processing data with the Python programming language, executed on virtual Cloud resources in a secured sandbox. The solution encompasses a frontend with a modern graphical user interface, a messaging infrastructure as well as Python worker nodes for background processing. All components are deployable in the Cloud and have been tested on different environments based on OpenStack and OpenNebula. Deployments on commercial, public Clouds will be tested in the future.

  19. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: the role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes

  20. Atmospheric diffusion of large clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. V. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Radiation Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    1967-07-01

    Clouds of pollutants travel within a coordinate system that is fixed to the earth's surface, and they diffuse and grow within a coordinate system fixed to the cloud's center. This paper discusses an approach to predicting the cloud's properties, within the latter coordinate system, on space scales of a few hundred meters to a few hundred kilometers and for time periods of a few days. A numerical cloud diffusion model is presented which starts with a cloud placed arbitrarily within the troposphere. Similarity theories of atmospheric turbulence are used to predict the horizontal diffusivity as a function of initial cloud size, turbulent atmospheric dissipation, and time. Vertical diffusivity is input as a function of time and height. Therefore, diurnal variations of turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer and effects of temperature inversions, etc. can be modeled. Nondiffusive cloud depletion mechanisms, such as dry deposition, washout, and radioactive decay, are also a part of this numerical model. An effluent cloud, produced by a reactor run at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Nevada, is discussed in this paper. Measurements on this cloud, for a period of two days, are compared to calculations with the above numerical cloud diffusion model. In general, there is agreement. within a factor of two, for airborne concentrations, cloud horizontal area, surface air concentrations, and dry deposition as airborne concentration decreased by seven orders of magnitude during the two-day period. (author)

  1. Sahara Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24 A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean. These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward. In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005. In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the AIRS retrieved total water

  2. A Framework to Improve Communication and Reliability Between Cloud Consumer and Provider in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services consumers demand reliable methods for choosing appropriate cloud service provider for their requirements. Number of cloud consumer is increasing day by day and so cloud providers, hence requirement for a common platform for interacting between cloud provider and cloud consumer is also on the raise. This paper introduces Cloud Providers Market Platform Dashboard. This will act as not only just cloud provider discoverability but also provide timely report to consumer on cloud ser...

  3. Temporally rendered automatic cloud extraction (TRACE) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrero, Dennis M.; Yale, James G.; Davis, Roger E.; Rollins, John M.

    1999-10-01

    Smoke/obscurant testing requires that 2D cloud extent be extracted from visible and thermal imagery. These data are used alone or in combination with 2D data from other aspects to make 3D calculations of cloud properties, including dimensions, volume, centroid, travel, and uniformity. Determining cloud extent from imagery has historically been a time-consuming manual process. To reduce time and cost associated with smoke/obscurant data processing, automated methods to extract cloud extent from imagery were investigated. The TRACE system described in this paper was developed and implemented at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, UT by the Science and Technology Corporation--Acuity Imaging Incorporated team with Small Business Innovation Research funding. TRACE uses dynamic background subtraction and 3D fast Fourier transform as primary methods to discriminate the smoke/obscurant cloud from the background. TRACE has been designed to run on a PC-based platform using Windows. The PC-Windows environment was chosen for portability, to give TRACE the maximum flexibility in terms of its interaction with peripheral hardware devices such as video capture boards, removable media drives, network cards, and digital video interfaces. Video for Windows provides all of the necessary tools for the development of the video capture utility in TRACE and allows for interchangeability of video capture boards without any software changes. TRACE is designed to take advantage of future upgrades in all aspects of its component hardware. A comparison of cloud extent determined by TRACE with manual method is included in this paper.

  4. Cloud Impacts on Pavement Temperature in Energy Balance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Forecast systems provide decision support for end-users ranging from the solar energy industry to municipalities concerned with road safety. Pavement temperature is an important variable when considering vehicle response to various weather conditions. A complex, yet direct relationship exists between tire and pavement temperatures. Literature has shown that as tire temperature increases, friction decreases which affects vehicle performance. Many forecast systems suffer from inaccurate radiation forecasts resulting in part from the inability to model different types of clouds and their influence on radiation. This research focused on forecast improvement by determining how cloud type impacts the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and subsequent pavement temperatures. The study region was the Great Plains where surface solar radiation data were obtained from the High Plains Regional Climate Center's Automated Weather Data Network stations. Road pavement temperature data were obtained from the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System. Cloud properties and radiative transfer quantities were obtained from the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System mission via Aqua and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite products. An additional cloud data set was incorporated from the Naval Research Laboratory Cloud Classification algorithm. Statistical analyses using a modified nearest neighbor approach were first performed relating shortwave radiation variability with road pavement temperature fluctuations. Then statistical associations were determined between the shortwave radiation and cloud property data sets. Preliminary results suggest that substantial pavement forecasting improvement is possible with the inclusion of cloud-specific information. Future model sensitivity testing seeks to quantify the magnitude of forecast improvement.

  5. Evaluation of Decision Trees for Cloud Detection from AVHRR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Smadar; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing changes in radiation budgets associated with global climate change via remote sensing. Data products based on satellite imagery are available to the scientific community for studying trends in the Earth's atmosphere. The data products include pixel-based cloud masks that assign cloud-cover classifications to pixels. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees. The decision trees employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In a previous study we compared automatically learned decision trees to cloud masks included in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data products from the year 2000. In this paper we report the replication of the study for five-year data, and for a gold standard based on surface observations performed by scientists at weather stations in the British Islands. For our sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks p < 0.001.

  6. Molecular clouds in M31 and M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitz, L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the properties of the molecular clouds in nearby spiral galaxies, 49 H II regions in M31 and 6 H II regions in M33 were observed using the J = 1→0 transition of CO. Of these, 17 were detected in M31 and two in M33. For the CO detection in M31, = 0.14 K, = 12.5 km s -1 , and = 2.1 K km s -1 . The two detections in M33, which are toward the giant H II regions NGC 604 and NGC 595, are somewhat weaker than the mean values for clouds in M31, neither T(/sub R/ nor ΔV shows any gradient with galactic radius, but is a decreasing function of radius. The mean values of and are considerably larger than the values that would be obtained by extrapolating local giant molecular clouds to the distance of M31. It is suggested that most of the CO emission is from small clouds in the beam which overwhelm the emission from the giant molecular clouds. Some observational tests of this suggestion are proposed. Like the molecular clouds in the Milky Way, the giant molecular clouds in M31 appear to be tidally limited. In M33 the larger inclination angle would make the observed contribution from small molecular clouds less significant, which is consistent with the observations

  7. Cloud Computing Adoption Model for Universities to Increase ICT Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiya Okai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Universities around the world especially those in developing countries are faced with the problem of delivering the level of information and communications technology (ICT needed to facilitate teaching, learning, research, and development activities ideal in a typical university, which is needed to meet educational needs in-line with advancement in technology and the growing dependence on IT. This is mainly due to the high cost involved in providing and maintaining the needed hardware and software. A technology such as cloud computing that delivers on demand provisioning of IT resources on a pay per use basis can be used to address this problem. Cloud computing promises better delivery of IT services as well as availability whenever and wherever needed at reduced costs with users paying only as much as they consume through the services of cloud service providers. The cloud technology reduces complexity while increasing speed and quality of IT services provided; however, despite these benefits the challenges that come with its adoption have left many sectors especially the higher education skeptical in committing to this technology. This article identifies the reasons for the slow rate of adoption of cloud computing at university level, discusses the challenges faced and proposes a cloud computing adoption model that contains strategic guidelines to overcome the major challenges identified and a roadmap for the successful adoption of cloud computing by universities. The model was tested in one of the universities and found to be both useful and appropriate for adopting cloud computing at university level.

  8. Lean computing for the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Applies lean manufacturing principles across the cloud service delivery chain to enable application and infrastructure service providers to sustainably achieve the shortest lead time, best quality, and value This book focuses on lean in the context of cloud computing capacity management of applications and the physical and virtual cloud resources that support them. Lean Computing for the Cloud considers business, architectural and operational aspects of efficiently delivering valuable services to end users via cloud-based applications hosted on shared cloud infrastructure. The work also focuses on overall optimization of the service delivery chain to enable both application service and infrastructure service providers to adopt leaner, demand driven operations to serve end users more efficiently. The book’s early chapters analyze how capacity management morphs with cloud computing into interlocked physical infrastructure capacity management, virtual resou ce capacity management, and application capacity ma...

  9. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  10. Cloud vertical profiles derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat and a comparison with MODIS derived clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Sun-Mack, S.; Miller, W. F.; Rose, F. G.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.; Winker, D. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Charlock, T. P.; Collins, W. D.; Loeb, N. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Xu, K.

    2008-05-01

    CALIPSO and CloudSat from the a-train provide detailed information of vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols. The vertical distribution of cloud occurrence is derived from one month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data as a part of the effort of merging CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS with CERES data. This newly derived cloud profile is compared with the distribution of cloud top height derived from MODIS on Aqua from cloud algorithms used in the CERES project. The cloud base from MODIS is also estimated using an empirical formula based on the cloud top height and optical thickness, which is used in CERES processes. While MODIS detects mid and low level clouds over the Arctic in April fairly well when they are the topmost cloud layer, it underestimates high- level clouds. In addition, because the CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm is not able to detect multi-layer clouds and the empirical formula significantly underestimates the depth of high clouds, the occurrence of mid and low-level clouds is underestimated. This comparison does not consider sensitivity difference to thin clouds but we will impose an optical thickness threshold to CALIPSO derived clouds for a further comparison. The effect of such differences in the cloud profile to flux computations will also be discussed. In addition, the effect of cloud cover to the top-of-atmosphere flux over the Arctic using CERES SSF and FLASHFLUX products will be discussed.

  11. CN in dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.; Bieging, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have detected CN (N = 1--0) emission toward six locations in the Taurus dark cloud complex, but not toward L183 or B227. The two hyperfine components, F = 3/2--1/2 and F = 5/2--3/2 (of J = 3/2--1/2), have intensity ratios near unity toward four locations in Taurus, consistent with large line optical depths. CN column densities are found to be > or approx. =6 x 10 13 cm -2 in those directions where the hyperfine ratios are near unity. By comparing CN with NH 3 and C 18 O column densities, we find that the relative abundance of CN in the Taurus cloudlets is at least a factor of 10 greater than in L183. In this respect, CN fits the pattern of enhanced abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (in partricular the cyanopolyynes) in the Taurus cloudlets relative to similar dark clouds outside Taurus

  12. Satellite Cloud and Radiative Property Processing and Distribution System on the NASA Langley ASDC OpenStack and OpenShift Cloud Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Spangenberg, D.; Vakhnin, A.; Lutz, N. E.; Walter, J.; Kusterer, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud Computing offers new opportunities for large-scale scientific data producers to utilize Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) IT resources to process and deliver data products in an operational environment where timely delivery, reliability, and availability are critical. The NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is building and testing a private and public facing cloud for users in the Science Directorate to utilize as an everyday production environment. The NASA SatCORPS (Satellite ClOud and Radiation Property Retrieval System) team processes and derives near real-time (NRT) global cloud products from operational geostationary (GEO) satellite imager datasets. To deliver these products, we will utilize the public facing cloud and OpenShift to deploy a load-balanced webserver for data storage, access, and dissemination. The OpenStack private cloud will host data ingest and computational capabilities for SatCORPS processing. This paper will discuss the SatCORPS migration towards, and usage of, the ASDC Cloud Services in an operational environment. Detailed lessons learned from use of prior cloud providers, specifically the Amazon Web Services (AWS) GovCloud and the Government Cloud administered by the Langley Managed Cloud Environment (LMCE) will also be discussed.

  13. Carbon pellet cloud striations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fine scale striations, with alternating rows of bright and dark zones, have been observed in the ablation clouds of carbon pellets injected into the TEXT tokamak. The striations extend along the magnetic field for about 1 cm with quite regular cross-field variations characterized by a wavelength of a few mm. Their potential as a diagnostic tool for measuring q-profiles in tokamaks provides motivation for investigating the origin of the striations. The authors propose that the striations are not due to a sequence of high and low ablation rates because of the finite thermal magnetic islands localized at rational surfaces, q = m/n, would be responsible for reducing the electron flux to the pellet region; the length of the closed field line which forms the local magnetic axis of the island is too long to prevent a depletion of plasma electrons in a flux tube intercepting the pellet for the duration 2 rp / vp . Instead, they propose that striations are the manifestation of the saturated state of growing fluctuations inside the cloud. The instability is generated by E x B rotation of the ablation cloud. The outward centrifugal force points down the ablation density gradient inducing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The instability is not present for wave numbers along the field lines, which may explain why the striations are long and uniform in that direction. The E field develops inside the ablation cloud as a result of cold electron return currents which are induced to cancel the incoming hot plasma electron current streaming along the field lines

  14. Security in cloud computing and virtual environments

    OpenAIRE

    Aarseth, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a big buzzwords today. Just watch the commercials on TV and I can promise that you will hear the word cloud service at least once. With the growth of cloud technology steadily rising, and everything from cellphones to cars connected to the cloud, how secure is cloud technology? What are the caveats of using cloud technology? And how does it all work? This thesis will discuss cloud security and the underlying technology called Virtualization to ...

  15. IBM Cloud Computing Powering a Smarter Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinzy; Fang, Xing; Guo, Zhe; Niu, Meng Hua; Cao, Fan; Yue, Shuang; Liu, Qin Yu

    With increasing need for intelligent systems supporting the world's businesses, Cloud Computing has emerged as a dominant trend to provide a dynamic infrastructure to make such intelligence possible. The article introduced how to build a smarter planet with cloud computing technology. First, it introduced why we need cloud, and the evolution of cloud technology. Secondly, it analyzed the value of cloud computing and how to apply cloud technology. Finally, it predicted the future of cloud in the smarter planet.

  16. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  17. From clouds to stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    At the present time, the theory of star formation must be limited to what we know about the lowest density gas, or about the pre-main sequence stars themselves. We would like to understand two basic processes: 1) how star-forming clouds are created from the ambient interstellar gas in the first place, and 2) how small parts of these clouds condense to form individual stars. We are interested also in knowing what pre-main sequence stars are like, and how they can interact with their environment. These topics are reviewed in what follows. In this series of lectures, what we know about the formation of stars is tentatively described. The lectures begin with a description of the interstellar medium, and then they proceed along the same direction that a young star would follow during its creation, namely from clouds through the collapse phase and onto the proto-stellar phase. The evolution of viscous disks and two models for the formation of the solar system are described in the last lectures. The longest lectures, and the topics that are covered in most detail, are not necessarily the ones for which we have the most information. Physically intuitive explanations for the various processes are emphasized, rather then mathematical explanations. In some cases, the mathematical aspects are developed as well, but only when the equations can be used to give important numerical values for comparison with the observations

  18. ATLAS cloud R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Bejar, Jose Caballero; Hover, John; Zaytsev, Alexander; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Llamas, Ramon Medrano; Benjamin, Doug; Gable, Ian; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Hendrix, Val; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Walker, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R and D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  19. Cloud Computing Security: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa M. Khalil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging technology paradigm that migrates current technological and computing concepts into utility-like solutions similar to electricity and water systems. Clouds bring out a wide range of benefits including configurable computing resources, economic savings, and service flexibility. However, security and privacy concerns are shown to be the primary obstacles to a wide adoption of clouds. The new concepts that clouds introduce, such as multi-tenancy, resource sharing and outsourcing, create new challenges to the security community. Addressing these challenges requires, in addition to the ability to cultivate and tune the security measures developed for traditional computing systems, proposing new security policies, models, and protocols to address the unique cloud security challenges. In this work, we provide a comprehensive study of cloud computing security and privacy concerns. We identify cloud vulnerabilities, classify known security threats and attacks, and present the state-of-the-art practices to control the vulnerabilities, neutralize the threats, and calibrate the attacks. Additionally, we investigate and identify the limitations of the current solutions and provide insights of the future security perspectives. Finally, we provide a cloud security framework in which we present the various lines of defense and identify the dependency levels among them. We identify 28 cloud security threats which we classify into five categories. We also present nine general cloud attacks along with various attack incidents, and provide effectiveness analysis of the proposed countermeasures.

  20. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  1. A Service Brokering and Recommendation Mechanism for Better Selecting Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI

  2. A service brokering and recommendation mechanism for better selecting cloud services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yang, Chaowei; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Yu, Manzhu; Sun, Min; Zhou, Nanyin; Jin, Baoxuan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is becoming the new generation computing infrastructure, and many cloud vendors provide different types of cloud services. How to choose the best cloud services for specific applications is very challenging. Addressing this challenge requires balancing multiple factors, such as business demands, technologies, policies and preferences in addition to the computing requirements. This paper recommends a mechanism for selecting the best public cloud service at the levels of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS). A systematic framework and associated workflow include cloud service filtration, solution generation, evaluation, and selection of public cloud services. Specifically, we propose the following: a hierarchical information model for integrating heterogeneous cloud information from different providers and a corresponding cloud information collecting mechanism; a cloud service classification model for categorizing and filtering cloud services and an application requirement schema for providing rules for creating application-specific configuration solutions; and a preference-aware solution evaluation mode for evaluating and recommending solutions according to the preferences of application providers. To test the proposed framework and methodologies, a cloud service advisory tool prototype was developed after which relevant experiments were conducted. The results show that the proposed system collects/updates/records the cloud information from multiple mainstream public cloud services in real-time, generates feasible cloud configuration solutions according to user specifications and acceptable cost predication, assesses solutions from multiple aspects (e.g., computing capability, potential cost and Service Level Agreement, SLA) and offers rational recommendations based on user preferences and practical cloud provisioning; and visually presents and compares solutions through an interactive web Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  3. CloudSafetyNet: Detecting Data Leakage between Cloud Tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Pietzuch, PR; Priebe, C; Muthukumaran, D; O'Keeffe, D; Eyers, D; Shand, B; Kapitza, R

    2014-01-01

    01.12.14 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral. Copyright ? 2014 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM).When tenants deploy applications under the control of third-party cloud providers, they must trust the providers security mechanisms for inter-tenant isolation, resource sharing and access control. Despite a providers best efforts, accidental data leakage may occur due to misconfigurations or bugs in the cloud platform. Especially in Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) clouds...

  4. Military clouds: utilization of cloud computing systems at the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süleyman, Sarıkürk; Volkan, Karaca; İbrahim, Kocaman; Ahmet, Şirzai

    2012-05-01

    Cloud computing is known as a novel information technology (IT) concept, which involves facilitated and rapid access to networks, servers, data saving media, applications and services via Internet with minimum hardware requirements. Use of information systems and technologies at the battlefield is not new. Information superiority is a force multiplier and is crucial to mission success. Recent advances in information systems and technologies provide new means to decision makers and users in order to gain information superiority. These developments in information technologies lead to a new term, which is known as network centric capability. Similar to network centric capable systems, cloud computing systems are operational today. In the near future extensive use of military clouds at the battlefield is predicted. Integrating cloud computing logic to network centric applications will increase the flexibility, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility of network-centric capabilities. In this paper, cloud computing and network centric capability concepts are defined. Some commercial cloud computing products and applications are mentioned. Network centric capable applications are covered. Cloud computing supported battlefield applications are analyzed. The effects of cloud computing systems on network centric capability and on the information domain in future warfare are discussed. Battlefield opportunities and novelties which might be introduced to network centric capability by cloud computing systems are researched. The role of military clouds in future warfare is proposed in this paper. It was concluded that military clouds will be indispensible components of the future battlefield. Military clouds have the potential of improving network centric capabilities, increasing situational awareness at the battlefield and facilitating the settlement of information superiority.

  5. CLOUD DETECTION OF OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012 uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate

  6. Cloud Detection of Optical Satellite Images Using Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuan-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Cloud covers are generally present in optical remote-sensing images, which limit the usage of acquired images and increase the difficulty of data analysis, such as image compositing, correction of atmosphere effects, calculations of vegetation induces, land cover classification, and land cover change detection. In previous studies, thresholding is a common and useful method in cloud detection. However, a selected threshold is usually suitable for certain cases or local study areas, and it may be failed in other cases. In other words, thresholding-based methods are data-sensitive. Besides, there are many exceptions to control, and the environment is changed dynamically. Using the same threshold value on various data is not effective. In this study, a threshold-free method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed, which can avoid the abovementioned problems. A statistical model is adopted to detect clouds instead of a subjective thresholding-based method, which is the main idea of this study. The features used in a classifier is the key to a successful classification. As a result, Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm, which is based on physical characteristics of clouds, is used to distinguish the clouds and other objects. In the same way, the algorithm called Fmask (Zhu et al., 2012) uses a lot of thresholds and criteria to screen clouds, cloud shadows, and snow. Therefore, the algorithm of feature extraction is based on the ACCA algorithm and Fmask. Spatial and temporal information are also important for satellite images. Consequently, co-occurrence matrix and temporal variance with uniformity of the major principal axis are used in proposed method. We aim to classify images into three groups: cloud, non-cloud and the others. In experiments, images acquired by the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and images containing the landscapes of agriculture, snow area, and island are tested. Experiment results demonstrate the detection

  7. The semianalytical cloud retrieval algorithm for SCIAMACHY I. The validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kokhanovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed cloud retrieval algorithm for the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY is briefly presented and validated using independent and well tested cloud retrieval techniques based on the look-up-table approach for MODeration resolutIon Spectrometer (MODIS data. The results of the cloud top height retrievals using measurements in the oxygen A-band by an airborne crossed Czerny-Turner spectrograph and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument are compared with those obtained from airborne dual photography and retrievals using data from Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR-2, respectively.

  8. ATLAS computing activities and developments in the Italian Grid cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, L; Ciocca, C; K, M; Annovi, A; Antonelli, M; Martini, A; Barberis, D; Brunengo, A; Corosu, M; Barberis, S; Carminati, L; Campana, S; Di, A; Capone, V; Carlino, G; Doria, A; Esposito, R; Merola, L; De, A; Luminari, L

    2012-01-01

    The large amount of data produced by the ATLAS experiment needs new computing paradigms for data processing and analysis, which involve many computing centres spread around the world. The computing workload is managed by regional federations, called “clouds”. The Italian cloud consists of a main (Tier-1) center, located in Bologna, four secondary (Tier-2) centers, and a few smaller (Tier-3) sites. In this contribution we describe the Italian cloud facilities and the activities of data processing, analysis, simulation and software development performed within the cloud, and we discuss the tests of the new computing technologies contributing to evolution of the ATLAS Computing Model.

  9. Security prospects through cloud computing by adopting multiple clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schwenk, Jörg; Bohli, Jens Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Clouds impose new security challenges, which are amongst the biggest obstacles when considering the usage of cloud services. This triggered a lot of research activities in this direction, resulting in a quantity of proposals targeting the various security threats. Besides the security issues coming...... with the cloud paradigm, it can also provide a new set of unique features which open the path towards novel security approaches, techniques and architectures. This paper initiates this discussion by contributing a concept which achieves security merits by making use of multiple distinct clouds at the same time....

  10. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation

  11. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU, Y.; DAUM, P.H.; CHAI, S.K.; LIU, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments

  12. Feature-based attention is functionally distinct from relation-based attention: The double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Jiao, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The present study used a spatial blink task and a cuing task to examine the boundary between feature-based capture and relation-based capture. Feature-based capture occurs when distractors match the target feature such as target color. The occurrence of relation-based capture is contingent upon the feature relation between target and distractor (e.g., color relation). The results show that color distractors that match the target-nontarget color relation do not consistently capture attention when they appear outside of the attentional window, but distractors appearing outside the attentional window that match the target color consistently capture attention. In contrast, color distractors that best match the target-nontarget color relation but not the target color, are more likely to capture attention when they appear within the attentional window. Consistently, color cues that match the target-nontarget color relation produce a cuing effect when they appear within the attentional window, while target-color matched cues do not. Such a double dissociation between color-based capture and color-relation-based capture indicates functionally distinct mechanisms for these 2 types of attentional selection. This also indicates that the spatial blink task and the uninformative cuing task are measuring distinctive aspects of involuntary attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Studi Perbandingan Layanan Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdhal Afdhal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, cloud computing has became a dominant topic in the IT area. Cloud computing offers hardware, infrastructure, platform and applications without requiring end-users knowledge of the physical location and the configuration of providers who deliver the services. It has been a good solution to increase reliability, reduce computing cost, and make opportunities to IT industries to get more advantages. The purpose of this article is to present a better understanding of cloud delivery service, correlation and inter-dependency. This article compares and contrasts the different levels of delivery services and the development models, identify issues, and future directions on cloud computing. The end-users comprehension of cloud computing delivery service classification will equip them with knowledge to determine and decide which business model that will be chosen and adopted securely and comfortably. The last part of this article provides several recommendations for cloud computing service providers and end-users.

  14. Cloud data centers and cost modeling a complete guide to planning, designing and building a cloud data center

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Caesar

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Data Centers and Cost Modeling establishes a framework for strategic decision-makers to facilitate the development of cloud data centers. Just as building a house requires a clear understanding of the blueprints, architecture, and costs of the project; building a cloud-based data center requires similar knowledge. The authors take a theoretical and practical approach, starting with the key questions to help uncover needs and clarify project scope. They then demonstrate probability tools to test and support decisions, and provide processes that resolve key issues. After laying a foundati

  15. Data intensive ATLAS workflows in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This contribution reports on the feasibility of executing data intensive workflows on Cloud infrastructures. In order to assess this, the metric ETC = Events/Time/Cost is formed, which quantifies the different workflow and infrastructure configurations that are tested against each other. In these tests ATLAS reconstruction Jobs are run, examining the effects of overcommitting (more parallel processes running than CPU cores available), scheduling (staggered execution) and scaling (number of cores). The desirability of commissioning storage in the cloud is evaluated, in conjunction with a simple analytical model of the system, and correlated with questions about the network bandwidth, caches and what kind of storage to utilise. In the end a cost/benefit evaluation of different infrastructure configurations and workflows is undertaken, with the goal to find the maximum of the ETC value

  16. Data intensive ATLAS workflows in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00396985; The ATLAS collaboration; Keeble, Oliver; Quadt, Arnulf; Kawamura, Gen

    2017-01-01

    This contribution reports on the feasibility of executing data intensive workflows on Cloud infrastructures. In order to assess this, the metric ETC = Events/Time/Cost is formed, which quantifies the different workflow and infrastructure configurations that are tested against each other. In these tests ATLAS reconstruction Jobs are run, examining the effects of overcommitting (more parallel processes running than CPU cores available), scheduling (staggered execution) and scaling (number of cores). The desirability of commissioning storage in the Cloud is evaluated, in conjunction with a simple analytical model of the system, and correlated with questions about the network bandwidth, caches and what kind of storage to utilise. In the end a cost/benefit evaluation of different infrastructure configurations and workflows is undertaken, with the goal to find the maximum of the ETC value.

  17. Estimating cloud field coverage using morphological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Or, Rotem Z; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit

    2010-01-01

    The apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds ('the twilight zone') is often affected by undetectable weak signature clouds and humidified aerosols. It is suggested here to classify the atmosphere into two classes: cloud fields, and cloud-free (away from a cloud field), while detectable clouds are included in the cloud field class as a subset. Since the definition of cloud fields is ambiguous, a robust cloud field masking algorithm is presented here, based on the cloud spatial distribution. The cloud field boundaries are calculated then on the basis of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask products and the total cloud field area is estimated for the Atlantic Ocean (50 deg. S-50 deg. N). The findings show that while the monthly averaged cloud fraction over the Atlantic Ocean during July is 53%, the cloud field fraction may reach 97%, suggesting that cloud field properties should be considered in climate studies. A comparison between aerosol optical depth values inside and outside cloud fields reveals differences in the retrieved radiative properties of aerosols depending on their location. The observed mean aerosol optical depth inside the cloud fields is more than 10% higher than outside it, indicating that such convenient cloud field masking may contribute to better estimations of aerosol direct and indirect forcing.

  18. Cloud Services from Consumer Standpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Koski, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to clarify the use of cloud services and how they are used in practice. This thesis will first cover the history of cloud computing. At the early days of computing, services have been stored on servers locally and could be accessed through direct connections. After this, services have been on the users’ personal computers. Nowadays, services are stored in the cloud. This research paper focuses on four sub topics: communication services, healthcare se...

  19. Cloud Computing: Exploring the scope

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing refers to a paradigm shift to overall IT solutions while raising the accessibility, scalability and effectiveness through its enabling technologies. However, migrated cloud platforms and services cost benefits as well as performances are neither clear nor summarized. Globalization and the recessionary economic times have not only raised the bar of a better IT delivery models but also have given access to technology enabled services via internet. Cloud computing has va...

  20. Cloud Computing and Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan Jathanna; Dhanamma Jagli

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing has become one of the most interesting topics in the IT world today. Cloud model of computing as a resource has changed the landscape of computing as it promises of increased greater reliability, massive scalability, and decreased costs have attracted businesses and individuals alike. It adds capabilities to Information Technology’s. Over the last few years, cloud computing has grown considerably in Information Technology. As more and more information of individuals and compan...

  1. Studi Perbandingan Layanan Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Afdhal, Afdhal

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, cloud computing has became a dominant topic in the IT area. Cloud computing offers hardware, infrastructure, platform and applications without requiring end-users knowledge of the physical location and the configuration of providers who deliver the services. It has been a good solution to increase reliability, reduce computing cost, and make opportunities to IT industries to get more advantages. The purpose of this article is to present a better understanding of cloud d...

  2. Internet ware cloud computing :Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, S; Lal, Niranjan; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    After decades of engineering development and infrastructural investment, Internet connections have become commodity product in many countries, and Internet scale “cloud computing” has started to compete with traditional software business through its technological advantages and economy of scale. Cloud computing is a promising enabling technology of Internet ware Cloud Computing is termed as the next big thing in the modern corporate world. Apart from the present day software and technologies,...

  3. CHPS IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    K.L.Giridas; A.Shajin Nargunam

    2012-01-01

    Workflow have been utilized to characterize a various form of applications concerning high processing and storage space demands. So, to make the cloud computing environment more eco-friendly,our research project was aiming in reducing E-waste accumulated by computers. In a hybrid cloud, the user has flexibility offered by public cloud resources that can be combined to the private resources pool as required. Our previous work described the process of combining the low range and mid range proce...

  4. Context-aware distributed cloud computing using CloudScheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuster, R.; Leavett-Brown, CR; Casteels, K.; Driemel, C.; Paterson, M.; Ring, D.; Sobie, RJ; Taylor, RP; Weldon, J.

    2017-10-01

    The distributed cloud using the CloudScheduler VM provisioning service is one of the longest running systems for HEP workloads. It has run millions of jobs for ATLAS and Belle II over the past few years using private and commercial clouds around the world. Our goal is to scale the distributed cloud to the 10,000-core level, with the ability to run any type of application (low I/O, high I/O and high memory) on any cloud. To achieve this goal, we have been implementing changes that utilize context-aware computing designs that are currently employed in the mobile communication industry. Context-awareness makes use of real-time and archived data to respond to user or system requirements. In our distributed cloud, we have many opportunistic clouds with no local HEP services, software or storage repositories. A context-aware design significantly improves the reliability and performance of our system by locating the nearest location of the required services. We describe how we are collecting and managing contextual information from our workload management systems, the clouds, the virtual machines and our services. This information is used not only to monitor the system but also to carry out automated corrective actions. We are incrementally adding new alerting and response services to our distributed cloud. This will enable us to scale the number of clouds and virtual machines. Further, a context-aware design will enable us to run analysis or high I/O application on opportunistic clouds. We envisage an open-source HTTP data federation (for example, the DynaFed system at CERN) as a service that would provide us access to existing storage elements used by the HEP experiments.

  5. Seeding the cloud: Financial bootstrapping in the computer software sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mac An Bhaird, Ciarán; Lynn, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates resourcing of computer software companies that have adopted cloud computing for the development and delivery of application software. Use of this innovative technology potentially impacts firm financing because the initial infrastructure investment requirement is much lower than for packaged software, lead time to market is shorter, and cloud computing supports instant scalability. We test these predictions by conducting in-depth interviews with founders of 18 independ...

  6. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacentres (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing 'space in the cloud' from hosting companies (e.g., Dropbox, Salesforce). And it examines the business and private 'clouders' using these services. The first part of the paper argues that hosting companies, services providers and clouders have mutual informational (epistemic) obligations to provide and seek information about relevant issues such as consumer privacy, reliability of services, data mining and data ownership. The concept of interlucency is developed as an epistemic virtue governing ethically effective communication. The second part considers potential forms of government restrictions on or proscriptions against the development and use of cloud computing technology. Referring to the concept of technology neutrality, it argues that interference with hosting companies and cloud services providers is hardly ever necessary or justified. It is argued, too, however, that businesses using cloud services (e.g., banks, law firms, hospitals etc. storing client data in the cloud) will have to follow rather more stringent regulations.

  7. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  8. Cloud computing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Marinescu, Dan C

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice provides students and IT professionals with an in-depth analysis of the cloud from the ground up. Beginning with a discussion of parallel computing and architectures and distributed systems, the book turns to contemporary cloud infrastructures, how they are being deployed at leading companies such as Amazon, Google and Apple, and how they can be applied in fields such as healthcare, banking and science. The volume also examines how to successfully deploy a cloud application across the enterprise using virtualization, resource management and the ri

  9. Aerosols, cloud physics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of climate physics are discussed with special attention given to cases where cloud physics is relevant for the phase and microstructure of clouds and, therefore, in the optical properties of the planet. It is argued that aerosol particles, through their strong effect on cloud microphysics, influence the shortwave energy input to earth, and that cloud microphysics strongly influence rain formation. Therefore, through their influence on microphysics, the aerosols play a central role in the atmospheric water cycle and, thus, on the planet's outgoing radiation. 20 refs

  10. Towards Building Cloud Education Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Hadzhikoleva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the trends and prospects in higher education happening as a result of internationalization, as well as the possible risks and challenges. The training capabilities of cloud computing are examined. A review has been done of specific cloud services suitable for organizing and conducting educational and administrative activities. Some trends have been outlined, such as the probable consequences of building institutional education clouds and the opportunities for interoperability between them. The opportunities for building cloud education networks and their main characteristics are explored.

  11. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  12. Automated Grid Monitoring for the LHCb Experiment Through HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dice, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The HammerCloud system is used by CERN IT to monitor the status of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). HammerCloud automatically submits jobs to WLCG computing resources, closely replicating the workflow of Grid users (e.g. physicists analyzing data). This allows computation nodes and storage resources to be monitored, software to be tested (somewhat like continuous integration), and new sites to be stress tested with a heavy job load before commissioning. The HammerCloud system has been in use for ATLAS and CMS experiments for about five years. This summer's work involved porting the HammerCloud suite of tools to the LHCb experiment. The HammerCloud software runs functional tests and provides data visualizations. HammerCloud's LHCb variant is written in Python, using the Django web framework and Ganga/DIRAC for job management.

  13. Implementasi Cloud Computing Menggunakan Metode Pengembangan Sistem Agile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much Aziz Muslim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing merupakan sebuah teknologi yang menyediakan layanan terhadap sumber daya komputasi melalui sebuah jaringan. Sumber daya yang di sediakan di dalam cloud computing meliputi mesin, media penyimpanan data, sistem operasi dan program aplikasi. Fitur dari cloud computing dipercaya akan jauh lebih hemat dan memuaskan. Masalah yang muncul adalah bagaimana mengimplementasi Cloud Computing dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan bagaimana provisioning Windows Azure Pack SQL Database. Fokus pada penelitian ini adalah pada proses deploying dan provisioning SQL Database Server. Pengimplementasian cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile dengan langkah-langkah meliputi perencanaan, implementasi, pengujian (test, dokumentasi, deployment dan pemeliharaan. Untuk menjalankan proses tersebut kebutuhan perangkat yang dipersiapkan meliputi perangkat keras seperti PC Server Cisco UCS C240 M3S2, Hardisk 8753 GB, 256 GB RAM, bandwith minimal 1 Mbps dan kebutuhan perangkat lunak meliputi Windows Server 2012 R2, VMM, Windows Azure Pack, IIS, SQL Server 2012 dan Web Patform Installer. Hasil dari implementasi cloud computing menggunakan metode pengembangan sistem agile adalah terbentuknya sebuah sistem cloud hosting provider dengan menggunakan Windows Azure Pack dan SQL Server 2012 sebagai sistem utama dan pengelolaan database menggunakan Microsoft SQL Server Management 

  14. Non-linear Q-clouds around Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen; Rúnarsson, Helgi

    2014-01-01

    Q-balls are regular extended ‘objects’ that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr) black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. We focus on a complex massive scalar field with quartic plus hexic self-interactions. Without the self-interactions, linear clouds have been shown to exist, in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon, along 1-dimensional subspaces – existence lines – of the Kerr 2-dimensional parameter space. They are zero modes of the superradiant instability. Non-linear Q-clouds, on the other hand, are also in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon; but they exist on a 2-dimensional subspace, delimited by a minimal horizon angular velocity and by an appropriate existence line, wherein the non-linear terms become irrelevant and the Q-cloud reduces to a linear cloud. Thus, Q-clouds provide an example of scalar bound states around Kerr black holes which, generically, are not zero modes of the superradiant instability. We describe some physical properties of Q-clouds, whose backreaction leads to a new family of hairy black holes, continuously connected to the Kerr family

  15. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  16. Heroku cloud application development

    CERN Document Server

    Hanjura, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, hands-on guide that clearly explains the various components of the Heroku platform and provides step-by-step guidance as well as numerous examples on how to build and troubleshoot robust and scalable production-ready web applications on the Heroku platform.This book is intended for those who want to learn Heroku the right way. Perhaps you are new to Heroku or are someone who has heard about Heroku but have not built anything significant with it. You should have knowledge or familiarity with cloud computing and basic knowledge of database and network deployment.

  17. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  18. Defining the cloud battlefield - supporting security assessments by cloud customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Mastelic, Toni; Pape, Sebastian; Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.

    Cloud computing is becoming more and more popular, but security concerns overshadow its technical and economic benefits. In particular, insider attacks and malicious insiders are considered as one of the major threats and risks in cloud computing. As physical boundaries disappear and a variety of

  19. Flying to the Cloud : Governments Seek Gains from Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Melhem, Samia; Kim, Seunghyun

    2016-01-01

    The transition to cloud computing broadly means shifting programs and data from personal or office hardware to shared hardware that many individuals and organizations access over the Internet. That migration is happening fast. By 2019, according to the information technology company Cisco, 83 percent of all global data center traffic will come from cloud services. And the profitability of ...

  20. Neural network cloud top pressure and height for MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Nina; Adok, Claudia; Thoss, Anke; Scheirer, Ronald; Hörnquist, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments is important for nowcasting and for satellite climate data records. A neural network approach for cloud top height retrieval from the imager instrument MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is presented. The neural networks are trained using cloud top layer pressure data from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) dataset. Results are compared with two operational reference algorithms for cloud top height: the MODIS Collection 6 Level 2 height product and the cloud top temperature and height algorithm in the 2014 version of the NWC SAF (EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facility on Support to Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting) PPS (Polar Platform System). All three techniques are evaluated using both CALIOP and CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar for CloudSat (CLOUD SATellite)) height. Instruments like AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) contain fewer channels useful for cloud top height retrievals than MODIS, therefore several different neural networks are investigated to test how infrared channel selection influences retrieval performance. Also a network with only channels available for the AVHRR1 instrument is trained and evaluated. To examine the contribution of different variables, networks with fewer variables are trained. It is shown that variables containing imager information for neighboring pixels are very important. The error distributions of the involved cloud top height algorithms are found to be non-Gaussian. Different descriptive statistic measures are presented and it is exemplified that bias and SD (standard deviation) can be misleading for non-Gaussian distributions. The median and mode are found to better describe the tendency of the error distributions and IQR (interquartile range) and MAE (mean absolute error) are found

  1. The Development of Cloud Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chi Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy management service (EMS has been utilized for saving energy since 1982 by managing the energy usage of site or facilities through the microprocessor, computer, Ethernet, internet, and wireless sensor network. The development and represented function groups of EMS are illustrated in the supplementary file of this paper. Along with this tendency, a cloud EMS, named the intelligent energy management network (iEN, was launched by Chunghwa Telecom in 2011 and tested during a pilot run from 2012 to 2013. The cloud EMS integrated three service modes together, including infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS, and software as a service (SaaS. This cloud EMS could reduce the facility cost and enable a continuously improved service for energy conservation. From the literature review, 32 selected EMS cases of whole site and single facility were chosen for calculating the energy savings and payback rate. According to the literature, the average energy savings by applying EMS are 11.6% and 21.4% for the whole site and single facility, respectively. The iEN was applied on 55 demo sites with the similar scale, the same kind of machines and approaching conditions. The testing sites include a factory, a complex building, and a residual building, 12 lighting systems and 8 air conditioning systems. According to the testing results, the average energy savings by applying iEN are 10% and 23.5% for the whole site and single facility, respectively. Comparing with the reported EMS cases, it was found that the energy savings by adopting the cloud EMS were only 70%–80% compared with those using the traditional EMS. Although the cloud EMS presented less energy savings, it revolutionized the traditional EMS by its innovative business model. Compared with the averaged 1.7 years payback period of the traditional EMS, more than 70% of the cloud EMS cases could pay back immediately for the service fees and without the equipment investment.

  2. Cloud ERP and Cloud Accounting Software in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina MIHAI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud Computing becomes a more and more fashionable concept in the IT environment. There is no unanimous opinion on the definition of this concept, as it covers several versions of the newly emerged stage in the IT. But in fact, Cloud Computing should not suggest anything else than simplicity. Thus, in short, simple terms, Cloud Computing can be defined as a solution to use external IT resources (servers, storage media, applications and services, via Internet. Cloud computing is nothing more than the promise of an easy accessible technology. If the promise will eventually turn into something certain yet remains to be seen. In our opinion it is too early to make an assertion. In this article, our purpose is to find out what is the Romanian offer of ERP and Accounting software applications in Cloud and / or as services in SaaS version. Thus, we conducted an extensive study whose results we’ll present in the following.

  3. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology a...

  4. Aerosol-Induced Changes of Convective Cloud Anvils Produce Strong Climate Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Altaratz, O.; Martins, J. V.; Davidi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm(exp-2) . Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing. We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvi1 clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming) at top-of-atmosphere. Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (r), cloud height (Z) forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene. Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds; increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.

  5. Aerosol-induced changes of convective cloud anvils produce strong climate warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm−2. Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing.

    We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvil clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming at top-of-atmosphere.

    Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (τ, cloud height (Z forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene.

    Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds, increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.

  6. DeepSAT's CloudCNN: A Deep Neural Network for Rapid Cloud Detection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, S.; Li, S.; Ganguly, S.; Nemani, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud and cloud shadow detection has important applications in weather and climate studies. It is even more crucial when we introduce geostationary satellites into the field of terrestrial remotesensing. With the challenges associated with data acquired in very high frequency (10-15 mins per scan), the ability to derive an accurate cloud/shadow mask from geostationary satellite data iscritical. The key to the success for most of the existing algorithms depends on spatially and temporally varying thresholds, which better capture local atmospheric and surface effects.However, the selection of proper threshold is difficult and may lead to erroneous results. In this work, we propose a deep neural network based approach called CloudCNN to classifycloud/shadow from Himawari-8 AHI and GOES-16 ABI multispectral data. DeepSAT's CloudCNN consists of an encoder-decoder based architecture for binary-class pixel wise segmentation. We train CloudCNN on multi-GPU Nvidia Devbox cluster, and deploy the prediction pipeline on NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) Pleiades supercomputer. We achieved an overall accuracy of 93.29% on test samples. Since, the predictions take only a few seconds to segment a full multi-spectral GOES-16 or Himawari-8 Full Disk image, the developed framework can be used for real-time cloud detection, cyclone detection, or extreme weather event predictions.

  7. Formation of massive, dense cores by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Ken; Shima, Kazuhiro; Habe, Asao; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2018-05-01

    We performed sub-parsec (˜ 0.014 pc) scale simulations of cloud-cloud collisions of two idealized turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) with different masses in the range of (0.76-2.67) × 104 M_{⊙} and with collision speeds of 5-30 km s-1. Those parameters are larger than in Takahira, Tasker, and Habe (2014, ApJ, 792, 63), in which study the colliding system showed a partial gaseous arc morphology that supports the NANTEN observations of objects indicated to be colliding MCs using numerical simulations. Gas clumps with density greater than 10-20 g cm-3 were identified as pre-stellar cores and tracked through the simulation to investigate the effects of the mass of colliding clouds and the collision speeds on the resulting core population. Our results demonstrate that the smaller cloud property is more important for the results of cloud-cloud collisions. The mass function of formed cores can be approximated by a power-law relation with an index γ = -1.6 in slower cloud-cloud collisions (v ˜ 5 km s-1), and is in good agreement with observation of MCs. A faster relative speed increases the number of cores formed in the early stage of collisions and shortens the gas accretion phase of cores in the shocked region, leading to the suppression of core growth. The bending point appears in the high-mass part of the core mass function and the bending point mass decreases with increase in collision speed for the same combination of colliding clouds. The higher-mass part of the core mass function than the bending point mass can be approximated by a power law with γ = -2-3 that is similar to the power index of the massive part of the observed stellar initial mass function. We discuss implications of our results for the massive-star formation in our Galaxy.

  8. Cloud Native Java

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    “It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory.” -W. Edwards Deming Work takes time to flow through an organization and ultimately be deployed to production where it captures value. It’s critical to reduce time-to-production. Software – for many organizations and industries – is a competitive advantage. Organizations break their larger software ambitions into smaller, independently deployable, feature -centric batches of work – microservices. In order to reduce the round-trip between stations of work, organizations collapse or consolidate as much of them as possible and automate the rest; developers and operations beget “devops,” cloud-based services and platforms (like Cloud Foundry) automate operations work and break down the need for ITIL tickets and change management boards. But velocity, for velocity’s sake, is dangerous. Microservices invite architectural complexity that few are prepared to address. In this talk, we’ll look at how high performance organizations like Tic...

  9. Identity Management issues in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Smita; Mann, Deep

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is providing a low cost on demand services to the users, omnipresent network,large storage capacity due to these features of cloud computing web applications are moving towards the cloud and due to this migration of the web application,cloud computing platform is raised many issues like privacy, security etc. Privacy issue are major concern for the cloud computing. Privacy is to preserve the sensitive information of the cloud consumer and the major issues to the privacy are un...

  10. Cloud computing: Overview of available solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Feňko, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The paper Works describes concept of cloud computing, his main characteristics. Cloud computing is new trend in IT. The company doesn't have your own servers and data centres, but everything is situated in cloud -- in set of pc and server. The owners of these are suppliers of these services. The aim of the thesis is defined Cloud Computing concepts and evaluate by criterion if cloud computing application can compete to classic application. Introduction of the Works describe the gist of cloud ...

  11. Hybrid Cloud Computing Environment for EarthCube and Geoscience Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. P.; Qin, H.

    2016-12-01

    The NSF EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) has built a hybrid cloud computing environment to provides cloud resources from private cloud environments by using cloud system software - OpenStack and Eucalyptus, and also manages public cloud - Amazon Web Service that allow resource synchronizing and bursting between private and public cloud. On ECITE hybrid cloud platform, EarthCube and geoscience community can deploy and manage the applications by using base virtual machine images or customized virtual machines, analyze big datasets by using virtual clusters, and real-time monitor the virtual resource usage on the cloud. Currently, a number of EarthCube projects have deployed or started migrating their projects to this platform, such as CHORDS, BCube, CINERGI, OntoSoft, and some other EarthCube building blocks. To accomplish the deployment or migration, administrator of ECITE hybrid cloud platform prepares the specific needs (e.g. images, port numbers, usable cloud capacity, etc.) of each project in advance base on the communications between ECITE and participant projects, and then the scientists or IT technicians in those projects launch one or multiple virtual machines, access the virtual machine(s) to set up computing environment if need be, and migrate their codes, documents or data without caring about the heterogeneity in structure and operations among different cloud platforms.

  12. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  13. Emerging Cloud Computing Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmat, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the latest emerging innovations of the modern internet and technological landscape. With everyone from the White house to major online technological leaders like Amazon and Google using or offering cloud computing services it is truly presents itself as an exciting and innovative method to store and use data on the internet.

  14. Privacy proof in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessen, Veerle; Weigand, Hans; Mouratidis, Haris

    Cloud computing has been a frequently researched subject as it brings many advantages, such as the ability to store data remotely and scale rapidly, but also comes with several issues, including privacy, trust and security. The decision whether it is best to go `into the cloud' or to `stay inside'

  15. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  16. Teaching Cybersecurity Using the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Khaled; Hammoud, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing platforms can be highly attractive to conduct course assignments and empower students with valuable and indispensable hands-on experience. In particular, the cloud can offer teaching staff and students (whether local or remote) on-demand, elastic, dedicated, isolated, (virtually) unlimited, and easily configurable virtual machines.…

  17. Cloud computing and services science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This book is essentially a collection of the best papers of the International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER), which was held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands on May 7–9, 2011. The conference addressed technology trends in the domain of cloud computing in relation to a

  18. Enhancing accountability in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaatun, M.; Pearson, S.; Gittler, F.; Leenes, Ronald; van der Zwet, Maartje

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of accountability within information management, particularly in cloud computing contexts. Key to this notion is that an accountable Cloud Provider must demonstrate both willingness and capacity for being a responsible steward of other people's data. More generally,

  19. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON CLOUD ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud technologies have developed intensively during the last years. Cloud computing allows the customers to interact with their data and applications at any time, from any location, while the providers host these resources. A client company may choose to run in the cloud a part of its business (sales by agents, payroll, etc., or even the entire business. The company can get access to a large category of cloud-based software, including accounting software. Cloud solutions are especially recommended for small companies that do not have enough financial resources to invest in the IT infrastructure and in expensive accounting software. However, a special attention is required in the case of sensitive data, which should not be placed in a public cloud. All these aspects need to be discussed with the students, who should acquire the qualifications needed for operating with cloud applications. Our paper considers all the above issues regarding cloud computing for accountants and suggests some possibilities to approach these topics with the students.

  20. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  1. How to govern the cloud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Diamond, S.; Wainwright, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies economic governance theory to the cloud computing industry. We analyze which governance institution may be best suited to solve the problems stemming from asymmetric information about the true level of data protection, security, and accountability offered by cloud service

  2. The ethics of cloud computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the

  3. Next generation aerosol-cloud microphysics for advanced high-resolution climate predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennartz, Ralf; Hamilton, Kevin P; Phillips, Vaughan T.J.; Wang, Yuqing; Brenguier, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-14

    The three top-level project goals are: -We proposed to develop, test, and run a new, physically based, scale-independent microphysical scheme for those cloud processes that most strongly affect greenhouse gas scenarios, i.e. warm cloud microphysics. In particular, we propsed to address cloud droplet activation, autoconversion, and accretion. -The new, unified scheme was proposed to be derived and tested using the University of Hawaii's IPRC Regional Atmospheric Model (iRAM). -The impact of the new parameterizations on climate change scenarios will be studied. In particular, the sensitivity of cloud response to climate forcing from increased greenhouse gas concentrations will be assessed.

  4. The Future of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaroa SIclovan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offeredto the consumers as a product delivered online. This represents an advantage for the organization both regarding the cost and the opportunity for the new business. This paper presents the future perspectives in cloud computing. The paper presents some issues of the cloud computing paradigm. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud Computing, Pay-per-use

  5. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  6. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  7. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbal Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM. Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  8. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  9. Security and Cloud Outsourcing Framework for Economic Dispatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Mushfiqur R.; Wang, Jianhui

    2017-01-01

    The computational complexity and problem sizes of power grid applications have increased significantly with the advent of renewable resources and smart grid technologies. The current paradigm of solving these issues consist of inhouse high performance computing infrastructures, which have drawbacks of high capital expenditures, maintenance, and limited scalability. Cloud computing is an ideal alternative due to its powerful computational capacity, rapid scalability, and high cost-effectiveness. A major challenge, however, remains in that the highly confidential grid data is susceptible for potential cyberattacks when outsourced to the cloud. In this work, a security and cloud outsourcing framework is developed for the Economic Dispatch (ED) linear programming application. As a result, the security framework transforms the ED linear program into a confidentiality-preserving linear program, that masks both the data and problem structure, thus enabling secure outsourcing to the cloud. Results show that for large grid test cases the performance gain and costs outperforms the in-house infrastructure.

  10. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Zrnec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database using Amazon S3 and EC2 cloud services. The costs estimation was performed on the basis of the prices published on Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2 sites.

  11. Is evaporative colling important for shallow clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Park, S. B.; Davini, P.; D'Andrea, F.

    2017-12-01

    We here investigate and test using large-eddy simulations the hypothesis that evaporative cooling might not be crucial for shallow clouds. Results from various Shallow convection and stratocumulus LES experiments show that the influence of evaporative cooling is secondary compared to turbulent mixing, which dominates the buoyancy reversal. In shallow cumulus subising shells are not due to evaporative cooling but rather reflect a vortical structure, with a postive buoyancy anomaly in the core due to condensation. Disabling evaporative cooling has negligible impact on this vortical structure and on buoyancy reversal. Similarly in non-precipitating stratocumuli evaporative cooling is negeligible copmared to other factors, especially turbulent mixing and pressure effects. These results emphasize that it may not be critical to icnlude evaporative cooling in parameterizations of shallow clouds and that it does not alter entrainment.

  12. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  13. Galaxy CloudMan: delivering cloud compute clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; Coraor, Nate; Chapman, Brad; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-12-21

    Widespread adoption of high-throughput sequencing has greatly increased the scale and sophistication of computational infrastructure needed to perform genomic research. An alternative to building and maintaining local infrastructure is "cloud computing", which, in principle, offers on demand access to flexible computational infrastructure. However, cloud computing resources are not yet suitable for immediate "as is" use by experimental biologists. We present a cloud resource management system that makes it possible for individual researchers to compose and control an arbitrarily sized compute cluster on Amazon's EC2 cloud infrastructure without any informatics requirements. Within this system, an entire suite of biological tools packaged by the NERC Bio-Linux team (http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/tools/bio-linux) is available for immediate consumption. The provided solution makes it possible, using only a web browser, to create a completely configured compute cluster ready to perform analysis in less than five minutes. Moreover, we provide an automated method for building custom deployments of cloud resources. This approach promotes reproducibility of results and, if desired, allows individuals and labs to add or customize an otherwise available cloud system to better meet their needs. The expected knowledge and associated effort with deploying a compute cluster in the Amazon EC2 cloud is not trivial. The solution presented in this paper eliminates these barriers, making it possible for researchers to deploy exactly the amount of computing power they need, combined with a wealth of existing analysis software, to handle the ongoing data deluge.

  14. A European Federated Cloud: Innovative distributed computing solutions by EGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Gergely; Turilli, Matteo; Newhouse, Steven; Kacsuk, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) is the result of pioneering work that has, over the last decade, built a collaborative production infrastructure of uniform services through the federation of national resource providers that supports multi-disciplinary science across Europe and around the world. This presentation will provide an overview of the recently established 'federated cloud computing services' that the National Grid Initiatives (NGIs), operators of EGI, offer to scientific communities. The presentation will explain the technical capabilities of the 'EGI Federated Cloud' and the processes whereby earth and space science researchers can engage with it. EGI's resource centres have been providing services for collaborative, compute- and data-intensive applications for over a decade. Besides the well-established 'grid services', several NGIs already offer privately run cloud services to their national researchers. Many of these researchers recently expressed the need to share these cloud capabilities within their international research collaborations - a model similar to the way the grid emerged through the federation of institutional batch computing and file storage servers. To facilitate the setup of a pan-European cloud service from the NGIs' resources, the EGI-InSPIRE project established a Federated Cloud Task Force in September 2011. The Task Force has a mandate to identify and test technologies for a multinational federated cloud that could be provisioned within EGI by the NGIs. A guiding principle for the EGI Federated Cloud is to remain technology neutral and flexible for both resource providers and users: • Resource providers are allowed to use any cloud hypervisor and management technology to join virtualised resources into the EGI Federated Cloud as long as the site is subscribed to the user-facing interfaces selected by the EGI community. • Users can integrate high level services - such as brokers, portals and customised Virtual Research

  15. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  16. A study of the link between cosmic rays and clouds with a cloud chamber at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Fastrup, B; Lillestøl, Egil; Thorn, E; Bosteels, Michel; Gonidec, A; Harigel, G G; Kirkby, Jasper; Mele, S; Minginette, P; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Schinzel, D; Seidl, W; Grundsøe, P; Marsh, N D; Polny, J; Svensmark, H; Viisanen, Y; Kurvinen, K L; Orava, Risto; Hämeri, K; Kulmala, M; Laakso, I; Mäkelä, J M; O'Dowd, C D; Afrosimov, V; Basalaev, A; Panov, M; Laaksonen, B D; Joutsensaari, J; Ermakov, V; Makhmutov, V S; Maksumov, O; Pokrevsky, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Svirzhevsky, N S; Carslaw, K; Yin, Y; Trautmann, T; Arnold, F; Wohlfrom, K H; Hagen, D; Schmitt, J; Whitefield, P; Aplin, K; Harrison, R G; Bingham, R; Close, Francis Edwin; Gibbins, C; Irving, A; Kellett, B; Lockwood, M; Petersen, D; Szymanski, W W; Wagner, P E; Vrtala, A; CERN. Geneva. SPS-PS Experiments Committee

    2000-01-01

    Recent satellite data have revealed a surprising correlation between galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and the fraction of the Earth covered by clouds. If this correlation were to be established by a causal mechanism, it could provide a crucial step in understanding the long-sought mechanism connecting solar and climate variability. The Earth's climate seems to be remarkably sensitive to solar activity, but variations of the Sun's electromagnetic radiation appear to be too small to account for the observed climate variability. However, since the GCR intensity is strongly modulated by the solar wind, a GCR-cloud link may provide a sufficient amplifying mechanism. Moreover if this connection were to be confirmed, it could have profound consequences for our understanding of the solar contributions to the current global warming. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) project proposes to test experimentally the existence a link between cosmic rays and cloud formation, and to understand the microphysical me...

  17. A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple Field-of-View Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Nicola L.; Hogan, Robin J.; Varnai, Tamas; Battaglia, Alessandro; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    While liquid clouds playa very important role in the global radiation budget, it's been very difficult to remotely determine their internal cloud structure. Ordinary lidar instruments (similar to radars but using visible light pulses) receive strong signals from such clouds, but the information is limited to a thin layer near the cloud boundary. Multiple field-of-view (FOV) lidars offer some new hope as they are able to isolate photons that were scattered many times by cloud droplets and penetrated deep into a cloud before returning to the instrument. Their data contains new information on cloud structure, although the lack of fast simulation methods made it challenging to interpret the observations. This paper describes a fast new technique that can simulate multiple-FOV lidar signals and can even estimate the way the signals would change in response to changes in cloud properties-an ability that allows quick refinements in our initial guesses of cloud structure. Results for a hypothetical airborne three-FOV lidar suggest that this approach can help determine cloud structure for a deeper layer in clouds, and can reliably determine the optical thickness of even fairly thick liquid clouds. The algorithm is also applied to stratocumulus observations by the 8-FOV airborne "THOR" lidar. These tests demonstrate that the new method can determine the depth to which a lidar provides useful information on vertical cloud structure. This work opens the way to exploit data from spaceborne lidar and radar more rigorously than has been possible up to now.

  18. Evolution of Cloud Storage as Cloud Computing Infrastructure Service

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Arokia Paul; Shanmugapriyaa

    2013-01-01

    Enterprises are driving towards less cost, more availability, agility, managed risk - all of which is accelerated towards Cloud Computing. Cloud is not a particular product, but a way of delivering IT services that are consumable on demand, elastic to scale up and down as needed, and follow a pay-for-usage model. Out of the three common types of cloud computing service models, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a service model that provides servers, computing power, network bandwidth and S...

  19. Importance of including ammonium sulfate ((NH42SO4 aerosols for ice cloud parameterization in GCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Bhattacharjee

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A common deficiency of many cloud-physics parameterizations including the NASA's microphysics of clouds with aerosol-cloud interactions (hereafter called McRAS-AC is that they simulate lesser (larger than the observed ice cloud particle number (size. A single column model (SCM of McRAS-AC physics of the GEOS4 Global Circulation Model (GCM together with an adiabatic parcel model (APM for ice-cloud nucleation (IN of aerosols were used to systematically examine the influence of introducing ammonium sulfate (NH42SO4 aerosols in McRAS-AC and its influence on the optical properties of both liquid and ice clouds. First an (NH42SO4 parameterization was included in the APM to assess its effect on clouds vis-à-vis that of the other aerosols. Subsequently, several evaluation tests were conducted over the ARM Southern Great Plain (SGP and thirteen other locations (sorted into pristine and polluted conditions distributed over marine and continental sites with the SCM. The statistics of the simulated cloud climatology were evaluated against the available ground and satellite data. The results showed that inclusion of (NH42SO4 into McRAS-AC of the SCM made a remarkable improvement in the simulated effective radius of ice cloud particulates. However, the corresponding ice-cloud optical thickness increased even more than the observed. This can be caused by lack of horizontal cloud advection not performed in the SCM. Adjusting the other tunable parameters such as precipitation efficiency can mitigate this deficiency. Inclusion of ice cloud particle splintering invoked empirically further reduced simulation biases. Overall, these changes make a substantial improvement in simulated cloud optical properties and cloud distribution particularly over the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ in the GCM.

  20. Cloud Computing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    regardless of  access point or the device being used across the Global Information Grid ( GIG ).  These data  centers will host existing applications...state.  It  illustrates that the DoD Enterprise Cloud is an integrated environment on the  GIG , consisting of  DoD Components, commercial entities...Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs by  leveraging  economies  of scale, and automate monitoring and provisioning to reduce the  human cost of service

  1. Comparison of Cloud vs. Tape Backup Performance and Costs with Oracle Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbič, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Ora...

  2. SnowCloud - a Framework to Predict Streamflow in Snowmelt-dominated Watersheds Using Cloud-based Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Crumley, R. L.; Nolin, A. W.; Mar, E.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow in snowy mountain regions is extraordinarily challenging to forecast, and prediction efforts are hampered by the lack of timely snow data—particularly in data sparse regions. SnowCloud is a prototype web-based framework that integrates remote sensing, cloud computing, interactive mapping tools, and a hydrologic model to offer a new paradigm for delivering key data to water resource managers. We tested the skill of SnowCloud to forecast monthly streamflow with one month lead time in three snow-dominated headwaters. These watersheds represent a range of precipitation/runoff schemes: the Río Elqui in northern Chile (200 mm/yr, entirely snowmelt); the John Day River, Oregon, USA (635 mm/yr, primarily snowmelt); and the Río Aragon in the northern Spain (850 mm/yr, snowmelt dominated). Model skill corresponded to snowpack contribution with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.86, 0.52, and 0.21 respectively. SnowCloud does not require the user to possess advanced programming skills or proprietary software. We access NASA's MOD10A1 snow cover product to calculate the snow metrics globally using Google Earth Engine's geospatial analysis and cloud computing service. The analytics and forecast tools are provided through a web-based portal that requires only internet access and minimal training. To test the efficacy of SnowCloud we provided the tools and a series of tutorials in English and Spanish to water resource managers in Chile, Spain, and the United States. Participants assessed their user experience and provided feedback, and the results of our multi-cultural assessment are also presented. While our results focus on SnowCloud, they outline methods to develop cloud-based tools that function effectively across cultures and languages. Our approach also addresses the primary challenges of science-based computing; human resource limitations, infrastructure costs, and expensive proprietary software. These challenges are particularly problematic in developing

  3. Creating cloud-free Landsat ETM+ data sets in tropical landscapes: cloud and cloud-shadow removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Clouds and cloud shadows are common features of visible and infrared remotelysensed images collected from many parts of the world, particularly in humid and tropical regions. We have developed a simple and semiautomated method to mask clouds and shadows in Landsat ETM+ imagery, and have developed a recent cloud-free composite of multitemporal images for Puerto Rico and...

  4. Relation of Cloud Occurrence Frequency, Overlap, and Effective Thickness Derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat Merged Cloud Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profile derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical pro les can be related by a set of equations when the correlation distance of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches the random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from the random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data support these assumptions. However, the correlation distance sometimes becomes large, which might be an indication of precipitation. The cloud correlation distance is equivalent to the de-correlation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth [2000] when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same.

  5. A multilinear regression methodology to analyze the effect of atmospheric and surface forcing on Arctic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, R.; Taylor, P. C.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic cloud amount as simulated in CMIP5 models displays large intermodel spread- models disagree on the processes important for cloud formation as well as the radiative impact of clouds. The radiative response to cloud forcing can be better assessed when the drivers of Arctic cloud formation are known. Arctic cloud amount (CA) is a function of both atmospheric and surface conditions, and it is crucial to separate the influences of unique processes to understand why the models are different. This study uses a multilinear regression methodology to determine cloud changes using 3 variables as predictors: lower tropospheric stability (LTS), 500-hPa vertical velocity (ω500), and sea ice concentration (SIC). These three explanatory variables were chosen because their effects on clouds can be attributed to unique climate processes: LTS is a thermodynamic indicator of the relationship between clouds and atmospheric stability, SIC determines the interaction between clouds and the surface, and ω500 is a metric for dynamical change. Vertical, seasonal profiles of necessary variables are obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) historical simulation, an ocean-atmosphere couple model forced with the best-estimate natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing from 1850-2005, and statistical significance tests are used to confirm the regression equation. A unique heuristic model will be constructed for each climate model and for observations, and models will be tested by their ability to capture the observed cloud amount and behavior. Lastly, the intermodel spread in Arctic cloud amount will be attributed to individual processes, ranking the relative contributions of each factor to shed light on emergent constraints in the Arctic cloud radiative effect.

  6. Molecular clouds without detectable CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitz, L.; Bazell, D.; Desert, F.X.

    1990-01-01

    The clouds identified by Desert, Bazell, and Boulanger (DBB clouds) in their search for high-latitude molecular clouds were observed in the CO (J = 1-0) line, but only 13 percent of the sample was detected. The remaining 87 percent are diffuse molecular clouds with CO abundances of about 10 to the -6th, a typical value for diffuse clouds. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with Copernicus data. The DBB clouds are shown to be an essentially complete catalog of diffuse molecular clouds in the solar vicinity. The total molecular surface density in the vicinity of the sun is then only about 20 percent greater than the 1.3 solar masses/sq pc determined by Dame et al. (1987). Analysis of the CO detections indicates that there is a sharp threshold in extinction of 0.25 mag before CO is detectable and is derived from the IRAS I(100) micron threshold of 4 MJy/sr. This threshold is presumably where the CO abundance exhibits a sharp increase 18 refs

  7. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Love, P; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  8. Study of tropical clouds feedback to a climate warming as simulated by climate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, Florent

    2012-01-01

    amplitude of cloud feedback is proportional to the cloud cooling effect in the present climate. This effect is influenced by uncertain parameters of model physics which modify intensity of the positive β feedback between cloud radiative cooling, relative humidity and cloud fraction (self-maintenance of low clouds) In order to assess the generality of this feedback mechanism, we perform among several atmospheric CMIP5 models. Those models simulate a robust positive tropical low cloud feedback. The use of seasonal variability to anticipate amplitudes of low-cloud response under global warming, and to design an observational test for their evaluation will be discussed. (author)

  9. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs.Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implementation of data mining techniques through Cloud computing will allow the users to retrieve meaningful information from virtually integrated data warehouse that reduces the costs of infrastructure and storage.

  10. Cloud Computing:Strategies for Cloud Computing Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Shimba, Faith

    2010-01-01

    The advent of cloud computing in recent years has sparked an interest from different organisations, institutions and users to take advantage of web applications. This is a result of the new economic model for the Information Technology (IT) department that cloud computing promises. The model promises a shift from an organisation required to invest heavily for limited IT resources that are internally managed, to a model where the organisation can buy or rent resources that are managed by a clo...

  11. CloudGC: Recycling Idle Virtual Machines in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Bo; Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Rouvoy , Romain; Paraiso , Fawaz; Seinturier , Lionel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cloud computing conveys the image of a pool of unlimited virtual resources that can be quickly and easily provisioned to accommodate the user requirements. However, this flexibility may require to adjust physical resources at the infrastructure level to keep the pace of user requests. While elasticity can be considered as the de facto solution to support this issue, this elasticity can still be broken by budget requirements or physical limitations of a private cloud. I...

  12. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R&D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a "cloud factory" for managing cloud VM instances. Ne...

  13. Using Cloud Services for Library IT Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing comes in several different forms and this article documents how service, platform, and infrastructure forms of cloud computing have been used to serve library needs. Following an overview of these uses the article discusses the experience of one library in migrating IT infrastructure to a cloud environment and concludes with a model for assessing cloud computing.

  14. Towards a service centric contextualized vehicular cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Xiping; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Zhengguo; TalebiFard, Peyman; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jia; Leung, Victor C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a service-centric contextualized vehicular (SCCV) cloud platform to facilitate the deployment and delivery of cloud-based mobile applications over vehicular networks. SCCV cloud employs a multi-tier architecture that consists of the network, mobile device, and cloud tiers. Based

  15. On the existence of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Langhans, W.; Romps, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the deep tropics, extensive anvil clouds produce a peak in cloud cover below the tropopause. The dominant paradigm for cloud cover attributes this anvil peak to a layer of enhanced mass convergence in the clear-sky upper-troposphere, which is presumed to force frequent detrainment of convective anvils. However, cloud cover also depends on the lifetime of cloudy air after it detrains, which raises the possibility that anvil clouds may be the signature of slow cloud decay rather than enhanced detrainment. Here we measure the cloud decay timescale in cloud-resolving simulations, and find that cloudy updrafts that detrain in the upper troposphere take much longer to dissipate than their shallower counterparts. We show that cloud lifetimes are long in the upper troposphere because the saturation specific humidity becomes orders of magnitude smaller than the typical condensed water loading of cloudy updrafts. This causes evaporative cloud decay to act extremely slowly, thereby prolonging cloud lifetimes in the upper troposphere. As a consequence, extensive anvil clouds still occur in a convecting atmosphere that is forced to have no preferential clear-sky convergence layer. On the other hand, when cloud lifetimes are fixed at a characteristic lower-tropospheric value, extensive anvil clouds do not form. Our results support a revised understanding of tropical anvil clouds, which attributes their existence to the microphysics of slow cloud decay rather than a peak in clear-sky convergence.

  16. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing

  17. Hidden in the Clouds: New Ideas in Cloud Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Cloud computing has become a hot topic. But 'cloud' is no newer in 2013 than MapReduce was in 2005: We've been doing both for years. So why is cloud more relevant today than it ever has been? In this presentation, we will introduce the (current) central thesis of cloud computing, and explore how and why (or even whether) the concept has evolved. While we will cover a little light background, our primary focus will be on the consequences, corollaries and techniques introduced by some of the leading cloud developers and organizations. We each have a different deployment model, different applications and workloads, and many of us are still learning to efficiently exploit the platform services offered by a modern implementation. The discussion will offer the opportunity to share these experiences and help us all to realize the benefits of cloud computing to the fullest degree. Please bring questions and opinions, and be ready to share both!   Bio: S...

  18. Continuous growth of cloud droplets in cumulus cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Suehiro, Tamotsu; Saito, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    A new method to seamlessly simulate the continuous growth of droplets advected by turbulent flow inside a cumulus cloud was developed from first principle. A cubic box ascending with a mean updraft inside a cumulus cloud was introduced and the updraft velocity was self-consistently determined in such a way that the mean turbulent velocity within the box vanished. All the degrees of freedom of the cloud droplets and turbulence fields were numerically integrated. The box ascended quickly inside the cumulus cloud due to the updraft and the mean radius of the droplets grew from 10 to 24 μ m for about 10 min. The turbulent flow tended to slow down the time evolutions of the updraft velocity, the box altitude and the mean cloud droplet radius. The size distribution of the cloud droplets in the updraft case was narrower than in the absence of the updraft. It was also found that the wavenumeber spectra of the variances of the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio were nearly constant in the low wavenumber range. The future development of the new method was argued. (paper)

  19. Bubbles, jets, and clouds in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Smarr, L.; Norman, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Blandford and Reese 1974 fluid twin-exhaust model for jet formation is thoroughly investigated. We perform detailed analytic calculations of all aspects of the cavity-nozzle structures for the nonrelativistic case: the preshock flow, the central shock, cavity flow, and the nozzle. Our analytic results are in excellent agreement with recent sophisticated numerical calculations. We find that for a given central confining gas cloud, only a finite range of jet powers is possible. The sound speed ratio between cavity and cloud must be less than 30. Central masses of approx.10 9 M/sub sun/ within 1 pc are necessary for high-powered (10 46 ergs s -1 ) extragalactic jets. For a fixed confining cloud sound speed C 0 , there are three regimes determined by the central engine's luminosity. For low luminosity, a stream of bubbles emerges; for a middle range of luminosities, a jet forms; for too high a luminosity, large clouds are emitted. In the jet regime we find that L/sub j/approx.C 0 5 . The critical dependence of jet power on confining cloud sound speed enables a schematic picture for active galactic nuclei to be proposed. Seyfert galaxies and quasars are placed in the bubble regime. Variable compact radio sources reach the cloud regime. Evolutionary paths are suggested and may provide an indirect test for this picture

  20. Toward ubiquitous healthcare services with a novel efficient cloud platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Fan, Xiaomao; Li, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous healthcare services are becoming more and more popular, especially under the urgent demand of the global aging issue. Cloud computing owns the pervasive and on-demand service-oriented natures, which can fit the characteristics of healthcare services very well. However, the abilities in dealing with multimodal, heterogeneous, and nonstationary physiological signals to provide persistent personalized services, meanwhile keeping high concurrent online analysis for public, are challenges to the general cloud. In this paper, we proposed a private cloud platform architecture which includes six layers according to the specific requirements. This platform utilizes message queue as a cloud engine, and each layer thereby achieves relative independence by this loosely coupled means of communications with publish/subscribe mechanism. Furthermore, a plug-in algorithm framework is also presented, and massive semistructure or unstructured medical data are accessed adaptively by this cloud architecture. As the testing results showing, this proposed cloud platform, with robust, stable, and efficient features, can satisfy high concurrent requests from ubiquitous healthcare services.

  1. MAGNETIZED GAS IN THE SMITH HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Alex S.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Mao, S. A.; Benjamin, Robert A.; Lockman, Felix J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first detection of magnetic fields associated with the Smith High Velocity Cloud. We use a catalog of Faraday rotation measures toward extragalactic radio sources behind the Smith Cloud, new H I observations from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, and a spectroscopic map of Hα from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey. There are enhancements in rotation measure (RM) of ≈100 rad m –2 which are generally well correlated with decelerated Hα emission. We estimate a lower limit on the line-of-sight component of the field of ≈8 μG along a decelerated filament; this is a lower limit due to our assumptions about the geometry. No RM excess is evident in sightlines dominated by H I or Hα at the velocity of the Smith Cloud. The smooth Hα morphology of the emission at the Smith Cloud velocity suggests photoionization by the Galactic ionizing radiation field as the dominant ionization mechanism, while the filamentary morphology and high (≈1 Rayleigh) Hα intensity of the lower-velocity magnetized ionized gas suggests an ionization process associated with shocks due to interaction with the Galactic interstellar medium. The presence of the magnetic field may contribute to the survival of high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud as they move from the Galactic halo to the disk. We expect these data to provide a test for magnetohydrodynamic simulations of infalling gas

  2. A State-of-the-Art Review of Cloud Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing and digital forensics are emerging fields of technology. Unlike traditional digital forensics where the target environment can be almost completely acquired, isolated and can be under the investigators control; in cloud environments, the distribution of computation and storage poses unique and complex challenges to the investigators.Recently, the term "cloud forensics" has an increasing presence in the field of digital forensics. In this state-of-the-art review, we included the most recent research efforts that used "cloud forensics" as a keyword and then classify the literature in to three dimensions, (1 survey-based, (2 technology-based and (3 forensics procedural-based.We discuss widely accepted international standard bodies and their efforts to cope with the current trend of cloud forensics. Our aim is not only to reference related work based on the discussed dimensions, but also to analyze them and generate a mind map that will help in identifying research gaps. Finally, we summarize existing digital forensics tools and, the available simulation environments that can be used for evidence acquisition, examination and cloud forensics test purposes.

  3. Application of microarray analysis on computer cluster and cloud platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernau, C; Boulesteix, A-L; Knaus, J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of recent high-dimensional biological data tends to be computationally intensive as many common approaches such as resampling or permutation tests require the basic statistical analysis to be repeated many times. A crucial advantage of these methods is that they can be easily parallelized due to the computational independence of the resampling or permutation iterations, which has induced many statistics departments to establish their own computer clusters. An alternative is to rent computing resources in the cloud, e.g. at Amazon Web Services. In this article we analyze whether a selection of statistical projects, recently implemented at our department, can be efficiently realized on these cloud resources. Moreover, we illustrate an opportunity to combine computer cluster and cloud resources. In order to compare the efficiency of computer cluster and cloud implementations and their respective parallelizations we use microarray analysis procedures and compare their runtimes on the different platforms. Amazon Web Services provide various instance types which meet the particular needs of the different statistical projects we analyzed in this paper. Moreover, the network capacity is sufficient and the parallelization is comparable in efficiency to standard computer cluster implementations. Our results suggest that many statistical projects can be efficiently realized on cloud resources. It is important to mention, however, that workflows can change substantially as a result of a shift from computer cluster to cloud computing.

  4. Impact of Antarctic mixed-phase clouds on climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, R Paul; Gettelman, Andrew

    2014-12-23

    Precious little is known about the composition of low-level clouds over the Antarctic Plateau and their effect on climate. In situ measurements at the South Pole using a unique tethered balloon system and ground-based lidar reveal a much higher than anticipated incidence of low-level, mixed-phase clouds (i.e., consisting of supercooled liquid water drops and ice crystals). The high incidence of mixed-phase clouds is currently poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). As a result, the effects that mixed-phase clouds have on climate predictions are highly uncertain. We modify the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) GCM to align with the new observations and evaluate the radiative effects on a continental scale. The net cloud radiative effects (CREs) over Antarctica are increased by +7.4 Wm(-2), and although this is a significant change, a much larger effect occurs when the modified model physics are extended beyond the Antarctic continent. The simulations show significant net CRE over the Southern Ocean storm tracks, where recent measurements also indicate substantial regions of supercooled liquid. These sensitivity tests confirm that Southern Ocean CREs are strongly sensitive to mixed-phase clouds colder than -20 °C.

  5. A general theory for the lifetimes of giant molecular clouds under the influence of galactic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreson, Sarah M. R.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik

    2018-05-01

    We propose a simple analytic theory for environmentally dependent molecular cloud lifetimes, based on the large-scale (galactic) dynamics of the interstellar medium. Within this theory, the cloud lifetime is set by the time-scales for gravitational collapse, galactic shear, spiral arm interactions, epicyclic perturbations, and cloud-cloud collisions. It is dependent on five observable quantities, accessible through measurements of the galactic rotation curve, the gas and stellar surface densities, and the gas and stellar velocity dispersions of the host galaxy. We determine how the relative importance of each dynamical mechanism varies throughout the space of observable galactic properties, and conclude that gravitational collapse and galactic shear play the greatest role in setting the cloud lifetime for the considered range of galaxy properties, while cloud-cloud collisions exert a much lesser influence. All five environmental mechanisms are nevertheless required to obtain a complete picture of cloud evolution. We apply our theory to the galaxies M31, M51, M83, and the Milky Way, and find a strong dependence of the cloud lifetime upon galactocentric radius in each case, with a typical cloud lifetime between 10 and 50 Myr. Our theory is ideally suited for systematic observational tests with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre array.

  6. Spatiotemporal High-Resolution Cloud Mapping with a Ground-Based IR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high spatiotemporal variability of clouds requires automated monitoring systems. This study presents a retrieval algorithm that evaluates observations of a hemispherically scanning thermal infrared radiometer, the NubiScope, to produce georeferenced, spatially explicit cloud maps. The algorithm uses atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and an atmospheric radiative transfer code to differentiate between cloudy and cloudless measurements. In case of a cloud, it estimates its position by using the temperature profile and viewing geometry. The proposed algorithm was tested with 25 cloud maps generated by the Fmask algorithm from Landsat 7 images. The overall cloud detection rate was ranging from 0.607 for zenith angles of 0 to 10° to 0.298 for 50–60° on a pixel basis. The overall detection of cloudless pixels was 0.987 for zenith angles of 30–40° and much more stable over the whole range of zenith angles compared to cloud detection. This proves the algorithm’s capability in detecting clouds, but even better cloudless areas. Cloud-base height was best estimated up to a height of 4000 m compared to ceilometer base heights but showed large deviation above that level. This study shows the potential of the NubiScope system to produce high spatial and temporal resolution cloud maps. Future development is needed for a more accurate determination of cloud height with thermal infrared measurements.

  7. Manifestations of electric currents in interstellar molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.; Gahm, G.F.

    1991-12-01

    We draw the attention to filamentary structures in molecular clouds and point out the existence of subfilaments of sinusoidal shape and also of helix-like structures. For two dark clouds, the Lynds 204 complex and the Sandqvist 187-188 complex (The Norma 'sword') we make a detailed study of such shapes and in addition we find the possible existence of helices wound around the main filaments. All these features are highly reminiscent of morphologies encountered in solar ascending prominences and in experiments in plasma physics and suggest the existence of electric currents and magnetic fields in these clouds. On the basis of a generalization of the Bennett pinch model, we derive the magnitudes of the currents expected to flow in the filaments. Values of column densities, magnetic field strengths, and direction of the fields are derived from observations. Magnetic fields with both toroidal and axial components are considered. This study shows that axial currents of the order of a few times 10 13 A are necessary for the clouds to be in equilibrium. The corresponding mean current densities are very small and even at the very low values of the fractional abundance of electrons encountered in these clouds, the mean electron velocities are of the order of 10 -2 -10 -5 m s -1 , much lower than the thermal velocities in the clouds. We suggest that helical structures may evolve as a result of various instabilities in the pinched clouds. We also call the attention to the kink intability in connection with the sinusoidal shapes. The existence of electromagnetically controlled features in the interstellar clouds can be tested by further observations. (au)

  8. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  9. Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrina Tahsin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is a widely used index to monitor vegetation and land use change. NDVI can be retrieved from publicly available data repositories of optical sensors such as Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and several commercial satellites. Studies that are heavily dependent on optical sensors are subject to data loss due to cloud coverage. Specifically, cloud contamination is a hindrance to long-term environmental assessment when using information from satellite imagery retrieved from visible and infrared spectral ranges. Landsat has an ongoing high-resolution NDVI record starting from 1984. Unfortunately, this long time series NDVI data suffers from the cloud contamination issue. Though both simple and complex computational methods for data interpolation have been applied to recover cloudy data, all the techniques have limitations. In this paper, a novel Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery (OCPR method is proposed to repair cloudy pixels from the time-space-spectrum continuum using a Random Forest (RF trained and tested with multi-parameter hydrologic data. The RF-based OCPR model is compared with a linear regression model to demonstrate the capability of OCPR. A case study in Apalachicola Bay is presented to evaluate the performance of OCPR to repair cloudy NDVI reflectance. The RF-based OCPR method achieves a root mean squared error of 0.016 between predicted and observed NDVI reflectance values. The linear regression model achieves a root mean squared error of 0.126. Our findings suggest that the RF-based OCPR method is effective to repair cloudy pixels and provides continuous and quantitatively reliable imagery for long-term environmental analysis.

  10. Research computing in a distributed cloud environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransham, K; Agarwal, A; Armstrong, P; Bishop, A; Charbonneau, A; Desmarais, R; Hill, N; Gable, I; Gaudet, S; Goliath, S; Impey, R; Leavett-Brown, C; Ouellete, J; Paterson, M; Pritchet, C; Penfold-Brown, D; Podaima, W; Schade, D; Sobie, R J

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in availability of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) computing clouds provides a new way for researchers to run complex scientific applications. However, using cloud resources for a large number of research jobs requires significant effort and expertise. Furthermore, running jobs on many different clouds presents even more difficulty. In order to make it easy for researchers to deploy scientific applications across many cloud resources, we have developed a virtual machine resource manager (Cloud Scheduler) for distributed compute clouds. In response to a user's job submission to a batch system, the Cloud Scheduler manages the distribution and deployment of user-customized virtual machines across multiple clouds. We describe the motivation for and implementation of a distributed cloud using the Cloud Scheduler that is spread across both commercial and dedicated private sites, and present some early results of scientific data analysis using the system.

  11. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing.

  12. Magellanic Clouds Cepheids: Thorium Abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuncheol Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the high-resolution spectra of 31 Magellanic Clouds Cepheid variables enabled the identification of thorium lines. The abundances of thorium were found with spectrum synthesis method. The calculated thorium abundances exhibit correlations with the abundances of other chemical elements and atmospheric parameters of the program stars. These correlations are similar for both Clouds. The correlations of iron abundances of thorium, europium, neodymium, and yttrium relative to the pulsational periods are different in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, namely the correlations are negative for LMC and positive or close to zero for SMC. One of the possible explanations can be the higher activity of nucleosynthesis in SMC with respect to LMC in the recent several hundred million years.

  13. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Hielsberg, Matthew; Owens, Luke; Clack, Billy; Sood, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Cloud Detection Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, M. E.; Alliss, R. J.; Mason, M.

    2017-12-01

    show 97% accuracy during the daytime, 94% accuracy at night, and 95% accuracy for all times. The total time to train, tune and test was approximately one week. The improved performance and reduced time to produce results is testament to improved computer technology and the use of machine learning as a more efficient and accurate methodology of cloud detection.

  15. Unidata Cyberinfrastructure in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Data services, software, and user support are critical components of geosciences cyber-infrastructure to help researchers to advance science. With the maturity of and significant advances in cloud computing, it has recently emerged as an alternative new paradigm for developing and delivering a broad array of services over the Internet. Cloud computing is now mature enough in usability in many areas of science and education, bringing the benefits of virtualized and elastic remote services to infrastructure, software, computation, and data. Cloud environments reduce the amount of time and money spent to procure, install, and maintain new hardware and software, and reduce costs through resource pooling and shared infrastructure. Given the enormous potential of cloud-based services, Unidata has been moving to augment its software, services, data delivery mechanisms to align with the cloud-computing paradigm. To realize the above vision, Unidata has worked toward: * Providing access to many types of data from a cloud (e.g., via the THREDDS Data Server, RAMADDA and EDEX servers); * Deploying data-proximate tools to easily process, analyze, and visualize those data in a cloud environment cloud for consumption by any one, by any device, from anywhere, at any time; * Developing and providing a range of pre-configured and well-integrated tools and services that can be deployed by any university in their own private or public cloud settings. Specifically, Unidata has developed Docker for "containerized applications", making them easy to deploy. Docker helps to create "disposable" installs and eliminates many configuration challenges. Containerized applications include tools for data transport, access, analysis, and visualization: THREDDS Data Server, Integrated Data Viewer, GEMPAK, Local Data Manager, RAMADDA Data Server, and Python tools; * Leveraging Jupyter as a central platform and hub with its powerful set of interlinking tools to connect interactively data servers

  16. Distributed Processing in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Ilias; Karatza, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Proceedings of the First PhD Symposium on Sustainable Ultrascale Computing Systems (NESUS PhD 2016) Timisoara, Romania. February 8-11, 2016. Cloud computing offers a wide range of resources and services through the Internet that can been used for various purposes. The rapid growth of cloud computing has exempted many companies and institutions from the burden of maintaining expensive hardware and software infrastructure. With characteristics like high scalability, availability ...

  17. Cloud Computing: Architecture and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ravneet Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid. It is a method for delivering information technology (IT) services where resources are retrieved from the Internet through web-based tools and applications, as opposed to a direct connection to a server. Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage device, cloud-based storage makes it possib...

  18. Privacy Protection in Cloud Using Rsa Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Kaur; Manpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    The cloud computing architecture has been on high demand nowadays. The cloud has been successful over grid and distributed environment due to its cost and high reliability along with high security. However in the area of research it is observed that cloud computing still has some issues in security regarding privacy. The cloud broker provide services of cloud to general public and ensures that data is protected however they sometimes lag security and privacy. Thus in this work...

  19. Security Audit Compliance for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Doelitzscher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has grown largely over the past three years and is widely popular amongst today's IT landscape. In a comparative study between 250 IT decision makers of UK companies they said, that they already use cloud services for 61% of their systems. Cloud vendors promise "infinite scalability and resources" combined with on-demand access from everywhere. This lets cloud users quickly forget, that there is still a real IT infrastructure behind a cloud. Due to virtualization and multi-ten...

  20. Secure Data Service Outsourcing with Untrusted Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing data services to the cloud is a nature fit for cloud usage. However, increasing security and privacy concerns from both enterprises and individuals on their outsourced data inhibit this trend. In this dissertation, we introduce service-centric solutions to address two types of security threats existing in the current cloud environments: semi-honest cloud providers and malicious cloud customers. Our solution aims not only to provide confidentiality and access controllability of out...

  1. MULTI TENANCY SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Manjinder Singh*, Charanjit Singh

    2017-01-01

    The word Cloud is used as a metaphor for the internet, based on standardised use of a cloud like shape to denote a network. Cloud Computing is advanced technology for resource sharing through network with less cost as compare to other technologies. Cloud infrastructure supports various models IAAS, SAAS, PAAS. The term virtualization in cloud computing is very useful today. With the help of virtualization, more than one operating system is supported with all resources on single H/W. We can al...

  2. VMware vCloud director cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    VMware vCloud Director Cookbook will adopt a Cookbook-based approach. Packed with illustrations and programming examples, this book explains the simple as well as the complex recipes in an easy-to-understand language.""VMware vCloud Director Cookbook"" is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments. Familiarity with cloud computing platforms and some knowledge of virtualization and managing cloud environments is expected.

  3. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  4. OCCI-Compliant Cloud Configuration Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed-Nacer , Mehdi; Gaaloul , Walid; Tata , Samir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years many organizations such as, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, have accelerated the development of their cloud computing ecosystem. This rapid development has created a plethora of cloud resource management interfaces for provisioning, supervising, and managing cloud resources. Thus, there is an obvious need for the standardization of cloud resource management interfaces to cope with the prevalent issues of heterogeneity, integration, and portability issues.To this end, Open Cloud Com...

  5. LSAH: a fast and efficient local surface feature for point cloud registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongrong; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Qingxiao; Kong, Yanzi

    2018-04-01

    Point cloud registration is a fundamental task in high level three dimensional applications. Noise, uneven point density and varying point cloud resolutions are the three main challenges for point cloud registration. In this paper, we design a robust and compact local surface descriptor called Local Surface Angles Histogram (LSAH) and propose an effectively coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The LSAH descriptor is formed by concatenating five normalized sub-histograms into one histogram. The five sub-histograms are created by accumulating a different type of angle from a local surface patch respectively. The experimental results show that our LSAH is more robust to uneven point density and point cloud resolutions than four state-of-the-art local descriptors in terms of feature matching. Moreover, we tested our LSAH based coarse to fine algorithm for point cloud registration. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust and efficient as well.

  6. Attacks and Intrusion Detection in Cloud Computing Using Neural Networks and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shokuh Saljoughi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, cloud computing has become popular among users in organizations and companies. Security and efficiency are the two major issues facing cloud service providers and their customers. Since cloud computing is a virtual pool of resources provided in an open environment (Internet, cloud-based services entail security risks. Detection of intrusions and attacks through unauthorized users is one of the biggest challenges for both cloud service providers and cloud users. In the present study, artificial intelligence techniques, e.g. MLP Neural Network sand particle swarm optimization algorithm, were used to detect intrusion and attacks. The methods were tested for NSL-KDD, KDD-CUP datasets. The results showed improved accuracy in detecting attacks and intrusions by unauthorized users.

  7. Cloud computing task scheduling strategy based on improved differential evolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Junwei; He, Qian; Fang, Yiqiu

    2017-04-01

    In order to optimize the cloud computing task scheduling scheme, an improved differential evolution algorithm for cloud computing task scheduling is proposed. Firstly, the cloud computing task scheduling model, according to the model of the fitness function, and then used improved optimization calculation of the fitness function of the evolutionary algorithm, according to the evolution of generation of dynamic selection strategy through dynamic mutation strategy to ensure the global and local search ability. The performance test experiment was carried out in the CloudSim simulation platform, the experimental results show that the improved differential evolution algorithm can reduce the cloud computing task execution time and user cost saving, good implementation of the optimal scheduling of cloud computing tasks.

  8. Exploration of cloud computing late start LDRD #149630 : Raincoat. v. 2.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeverria, Victor T.; Metral, Michael David; Leger, Michelle A.; Gabert, Kasimir Georg; Edgett, Patrick Garrett; Thai, Tan Q.

    2010-09-01

    This report contains documentation from an interoperability study conducted under the Late Start LDRD 149630, Exploration of Cloud Computing. A small late-start LDRD from last year resulted in a study (Raincoat) on using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to enhance security in a hybrid cloud environment. Raincoat initially explored the use of OpenVPN on IPv4 and demonstrates that it is possible to secure the communication channel between two small 'test' clouds (a few nodes each) at New Mexico Tech and Sandia. We extended the Raincoat study to add IPSec support via Vyatta routers, to interface with a public cloud (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2)), and to be significantly more scalable than the previous iteration. The study contributed to our understanding of interoperability in a hybrid cloud.

  9. A Neural Network Approach to Infer Optical Depth of Thick Ice Clouds at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Hong, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Yan; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    One of the roadblocks to continuously monitoring cloud properties is the tendency of clouds to become optically black at cloud optical depths (COD) of 6 or less. This constraint dramatically reduces the quantitative information content at night. A recent study found that because of their diffuse nature, ice clouds remain optically gray, to some extent, up to COD of 100 at certain wavelengths. Taking advantage of this weak dependency and the availability of COD retrievals from CloudSat, an artificial neural network algorithm was developed to estimate COD values up to 70 from common satellite imager infrared channels. The method was trained using matched 2007 CloudSat and Aqua MODIS data and is tested using similar data from 2008. The results show a significant improvement over the use of default values at night with high correlation. This paper summarizes the results and suggests paths for future improvement.

  10. A simple biota removal algorithm for 35 GHz cloud radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapureddy, Madhu Chandra R.; Sukanya, Patra; Das, Subrata K.; Deshpande, Sachin M.; Pandithurai, Govindan; Pazamany, Andrew L.; Ambuj K., Jha; Chakravarty, Kaustav; Kalekar, Prasad; Krishna Devisetty, Hari; Annam, Sreenivas

    2018-03-01

    Cloud radar reflectivity profiles can be an important measurement for the investigation of cloud vertical structure (CVS). However, extracting intended meteorological cloud content from the measurement often demands an effective technique or algorithm that can reduce error and observational uncertainties in the recorded data. In this work, a technique is proposed to identify and separate cloud and non-hydrometeor echoes using the radar Doppler spectral moments profile measurements. The point and volume target-based theoretical radar sensitivity curves are used for removing the receiver noise floor and identified radar echoes are scrutinized according to the signal decorrelation period. Here, it is hypothesized that cloud echoes are observed to be temporally more coherent and homogenous and have a longer correlation period than biota. That can be checked statistically using ˜ 4 s sliding mean and standard deviation value of reflectivity profiles. The above step helps in screen out clouds critically by filtering out the biota. The final important step strives for the retrieval of cloud height. The proposed algorithm potentially identifies cloud height solely through the systematic characterization of Z variability using the local atmospheric vertical structure knowledge besides to the theoretical, statistical and echo tracing tools. Thus, characterization of high-resolution cloud radar reflectivity profile measurements has been done with the theoretical echo sensitivity curves and observed echo statistics for the true cloud height tracking (TEST). TEST showed superior performance in screening out clouds and filtering out isolated insects. TEST constrained with polarimetric measurements was found to be more promising under high-density biota whereas TEST combined with linear depolarization ratio and spectral width perform potentially to filter out biota within the highly turbulent shallow cumulus clouds in the convective boundary layer (CBL). This TEST technique is

  11. Cloud-turbulence interactions: Sensitivity of a general circulation model to closure assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkop, S.; Roeckner, E.

    1993-01-01

    Several approaches to parameterize the turbulent transport of momentum, heat, water vapour and cloud water for use in a general circulation model (GCM) have been tested in one-dimensional and three-dimensional model simulations. The schemes differ with respect to their closure assumptions (conventional eddy diffusivity model versus turbulent kinetic energy closure) and also regarding their treatment of cloud-turbulence interactions. The basis properties of these parameterizations are discussed first in column simulations of a stratocumulus-topped atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) under a strong subsidence inversion during the KONTROL experiment in the North Sea. It is found that the K-models tend to decouple the cloud layer from the adjacent layers because the turbulent activity is calculated from local variables. The higher-order scheme performs better in this respect because internally generated turbulence can be transported up and down through the action of turbulent diffusion. Thus, the TKE-scheme provides not only a better link between the cloud and the sub-cloud layer but also between the cloud and the inversion as a result of cloud-top entrainment. In the stratocumulus case study, where the cloud is confined by a pronounced subsidence inversion, increased entrainment favours cloud dilution through enhanced evaporation of cloud droplets. In the GCM study, however, additional cloud-top entrainment supports cloud formation because indirect cloud generating processes are promoted through efficient ventilation of the ABL, such as the enhanced moisture supply by surface evaporation and the increased depth of the ABL. As a result, tropical convection is more vigorous, the hydrological cycle is intensified, the whole troposphere becomes warmer and moister in general and the cloudiness in the upper part of the ABL is increased. (orig.)

  12. Considerations about Cloud Services: Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cognini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud services are ubiquitous: for small to large companies the phenomenon of cloud service is nowadays a standard business practice. This paper would compile an analysis over a possible implementation of a cloud system, treating especially the legal aspect of this theme. In the Italian market has a large number of issues arise form cloud computing. First of all, this paper investigates the legal issues associated to cloud computing, specific contractual scheme that is able to define rights a duties both of user (private and/or public body and cloud provider. On one side there is all the EU legislative production related to privacy over electronic communication and, furthermore, the Privacy Directive is under a revision process to be more adaptable to new challenges of decentralized data treatment, but concretely there are no any structured and well defined legal instruments. Objectives: we present a possible solution to address the uncertainty of this area, starting from the EU legislative production with the help of the specific Italian scenario that could offer an operative solution. Indeed the Italian legal system is particularly adaptable to changing technologies and it could use as better as possible to adapt the already existing legal tools to this new technological era. Prior work: after an introduction to the state of the art, we show the main issues and their critical points that must be solved. Approach: observation of the state of the art to propose a new approach to find the suitable disciple

  13. The ARM-GCSS Intercomparison Study of Single-Column Models and Cloud System Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederwall, R.T.; Rodriques, D.J.; Krueger, S.K.; Randall, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Single-Column Model (SCM) Working Group (WC) and the Cloud Working Group (CWG) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program have begun a collaboration with the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) WGs. The forcing data sets derived from the special ARM radiosonde measurements made during the SCM Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs), the wealth of cloud and related data sets collected by the ARM Program, and the ARM infrastructure support of the SCM WG are of great value to GCSS. In return, GCSS brings the efforts of an international group of cloud system modelers to bear on ARM data sets and ARM-related scientific questions. The first major activity of the ARM-GCSS collaboration is a model intercomparison study involving SCMs and cloud system models (CSMs), also known as cloud-resolving or cloud-ensemble models. The SCM methodologies developed in the ARM Program have matured to the point where an intercomparison will help identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches. CSM simulations will bring much additional information about clouds to evaluate cloud parameterizations used in the SCMs. CSMs and SCMs have been compared successfully in previous GCSS intercomparison studies for tropical conditions. The ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site offers an opportunity for GCSS to test their models in continental, mid-latitude conditions. The Summer 1997 SCM IOP has been chosen since it provides a wide range of summertime weather events that will be a challenging test of these models

  14. Enhancing a Simple MODIS Cloud Mask Algorithm for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael J.; Oreopoulos, Lazarous

    2011-01-01

    The presence of clouds in images acquired by the Landsat series of satellites is usually an undesirable, but generally unavoidable fact. With the emphasis of the program being on land imaging, the suspended liquid/ice particles of which clouds are made of fully or partially obscure the desired observational target. Knowing the amount and location of clouds in a Landsat scene is therefore valuable information for scene selection, for making clear-sky composites from multiple scenes, and for scheduling future acquisitions. The two instruments in the upcoming Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) will include new channels that will enhance our ability to detect high clouds which are often also thin in the sense that a large fraction of solar radiation can pass through them. This work studies the potential impact of these new channels on enhancing LDCM's cloud detection capabilities compared to previous Landsat missions. We revisit a previously published scheme for cloud detection and add new tests to capture more of the thin clouds that are harder to detect with the more limited arsenal channels. Since there are no Landsat data yet that include the new LDCM channels, we resort to data from another instrument, MODIS, which has these bands, as well as the other bands of LDCM, to test the capabilities of our new algorithm. By comparing our revised scheme's performance against the performance of the official MODIS cloud detection scheme, we conclude that the new scheme performs better than the earlier scheme which was not very good at thin cloud detection.

  15. Contrasting Cloud Composition Between Coupled and Decoupled Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Z.; Mora, M.; Dadashazar, H.; MacDonald, A.; Crosbie, E.; Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Craven, J. S.; Xian, P.; Campbell, J. R.; AzadiAghdam, M.; Woods, R. K.; Jonsson, H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.; Sorooshian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds often become decoupled from the vertical layer immediately above the ocean surface. This study contrasts cloud chemical composition between coupled and decoupled marine stratocumulus clouds. Cloud water and droplet residual particle composition were measured in clouds off the California coast during three airborne experiments in July-August of separate years (E-PEACE 2011, NiCE 2013, BOAS 2015). Decoupled clouds exhibited significantly lower overall mass concentrations in both cloud water and droplet residual particles, consistent with reduced cloud droplet number concentration and sub-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) number concentration, owing to detachment from surface sources. Non-refractory sub-micrometer aerosol measurements show that coupled clouds exhibit higher sulfate mass fractions in droplet residual particles, owing to more abundant precursor emissions from the ocean and ships. Consequently, decoupled clouds exhibited higher mass fractions of organics, nitrate, and ammonium in droplet residual particles, owing to effects of long-range transport from more distant sources. Total cloud water mass concentration in coupled clouds was dominated by sodium and chloride, and their mass fractions and concentrations exceeded those in decoupled clouds. Conversely, with the exception of sea salt constituents (e.g., Cl, Na, Mg, K), cloud water mass fractions of all species examined were higher in decoupled clouds relative to coupled clouds. These results suggest that an important variable is the extent to which clouds are coupled to the surface layer when interpreting microphysical data relevant to clouds and aerosol particles.

  16. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  17. Examining the Impact of Overlying Aerosols on the Retrieval of Cloud Optical Properties from Passive Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-01-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space ]based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below ]aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol ]induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 microns) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS ]retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 microns, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  18. Examining the impact of overlying aerosols on the retrieval of cloud optical properties from passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, O. M.; Pilewskie, P.; Redemann, J.; Platnick, S.; Russell, P. B.; Schmidt, K. S.; Gore, W. J.; Livingston, J.; Wind, G.; Vukicevic, T.

    2010-05-01

    Haywood et al. (2004) show that an aerosol layer above a cloud can cause a bias in the retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius. Monitoring for this potential bias is difficult because space-based passive remote sensing cannot unambiguously detect or characterize aerosol above cloud. We show that cloud retrievals from aircraft measurements above cloud and below an overlying aerosol layer are a means to test this bias. The data were collected during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-A) study based out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, United States, above extensive, marine stratus cloud banks affected by industrial outflow. Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) irradiance measurements taken along a lower level flight leg above cloud and below aerosol were unaffected by the overlying aerosol. Along upper level flight legs, the irradiance reflected from cloud top was transmitted through an aerosol layer. We compare SSFR cloud retrievals from below-aerosol legs to satellite retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in order to detect an aerosol-induced bias. In regions of small variation in cloud properties, we find that SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness compares within the uncertainty range for each instrument while SSFR effective radius tend to be smaller than MODIS values (by 1-2 μm) and at the low end of MODIS uncertainty estimates. In regions of large variation in cloud properties, differences in SSFR and MODIS-retrieved cloud optical thickness and effective radius can reach values of 10 and 10 μm, respectively. We include aerosols in forward modeling to test the sensitivity of SSFR cloud retrievals to overlying aerosol layers. We find an overlying absorbing aerosol layer biases SSFR cloud retrievals to smaller effective radii and optical thickness while nonabsorbing aerosols had no impact.

  19. Comparison of electron cloud mitigating coatings using retarding field analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvey, J.R., E-mail: jrc97@cornell.edu; Hartung, W.; Li, Y.; Livezey, J.A.; Makita, J.; Palmer, M.A.; Rubin, D.

    2014-10-01

    In 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) was reconfigured to serve as a test accelerator (CESRTA) for next generation lepton colliders, in particular for the ILC damping ring. A significant part of this program has been the installation of diagnostic devices to measure and quantify the electron cloud effect, a potential limiting factor in these machines. One such device is the Retarding Field Analyzer (RFA), which provides information on the local electron cloud density and energy distribution. Several different styles of RFAs have been designed, tested, and deployed throughout the CESR ring. They have been used to study the growth of the cloud in different beam conditions, and to evaluate the efficacy of different mitigation techniques. This paper will provide an overview of RFA results obtained in a magnetic field free environment.

  20. Improving ATLAS computing resource utilization with HammerCloud

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, Jaroslava; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    HammerCloud is a framework to commission, test, and benchmark ATLAS computing resources and components of various distributed systems with realistic full-chain experiment workflows. HammerCloud contributes to ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) Operations and automation efforts, providing the automated resource exclusion and recovery tools, that help re-focus operational manpower to areas which have yet to be automated, and improve utilization of available computing resources. We present recent evolution of the auto-exclusion/recovery tools: faster inclusion of new resources in testing machinery, machine learning algorithms for anomaly detection, categorized resources as master vs. slave for the purpose of blacklisting, and a tool for auto-exclusion/recovery of resources triggered by Event Service job failures that is being extended to other workflows besides the Event Service. We describe how HammerCloud helped commissioning various concepts and components of distributed systems: simplified configuration of qu...