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Sample records for cloud ic 1396n

  1. ICES IN THE QUIESCENT IC 5146 DENSE CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T. P.; Roellig, T. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Keane, J. V.; Lada, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 μm range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H 2 O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 ± 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH 3 OH and NH 3 in the ices, present at the ∼2% and ∼5% levels, respectively, relative to H 2 O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J - K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  2. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  3. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  4. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  5. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  6. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cola, and Orange Crush, for example), Kool-Aid, chocolate, and many fruits, fruit juices and drinks (including ... Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  7. Pregnancy and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have not already done so, try to identify foods, beverages, and supplements that are irritating to your bladder ... Other Medicines Over-the-counter Medicines Pain Management Management of IC ... Diet Food Diaries Least and Most Bothersome Foods IC-Friendly ...

  8. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Click to learn more about these and ...

  9. LD to IC

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    LC to IC – Publication of posts: Following the publication of new LD to IC posts, we regret that a large number of post descriptions are not available in both CERN official languages, English and French. Consequently, the Staff Association has decided to provide assistance to those who need it with the translation of one or more posts of interest. To do this, please contact the Staff Association secretariat, tel. 72819 or 72761 or 74224.

  10. The oiling of ICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The incident command system (ICS) works for oil spills. It should be the industry standard and some will argue that it already is. But there are a number of temptations to fiddle with it. Fueling these inclinations is the fundamental difference between oil spills and natural disasters: Oil spills make the perpetrator fix the problem - under heavy oversight. Add to this difference the public outcry that attends oil spills and the dual role of government as both helper and prosecutor. From these conditions emerge adaptations of ICS which both weaken and strengthen it. The benefits of ICS are diminished by deputy incident commanders who block unified commanders from access to section chiefs, over-zealous crisis managers who displace command post decisions or its information office, separate press offices with party line slants, government law enforcement activity mixed into spill response, nonstandard operations terminology and structure involving open-quotes containment and clean upclose quotes or open-quotes salvage,close quotes and the commingling of public and private response funds. ICS's application to oil spill response is strengthened by the use of trained unified commanders, deputy incident commanders who operate as staff rather than line, crisis managers who support on-scene objectives, joint information centers, and heavy involvement of skilled, prepared environmental assessment teams in the planning section who generate priorities, strategies, and (operationally coordinated) tactics. Technically, not all these points constitute alterations of ICS, but most do and the others come close. This mixed bag of strengthening and weakening tweaks to oil spill ICS provides an opportunity to take a new look at this faithful friend to the crisis responder

  11. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  12. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  13. Some new results on shock chemistry in IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNoyer, L.K.; Frerking, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    We have made new observations of CO, 13 CO, SiO, SO, H 2 CO, HCO + , N 2 H + , CS, OCS, HCN, and OH in the shocked clouds of IC 443. At position IC 443 B, we find (a) the shocked CO is optically thin, (b) the HCO + /CO abundance ratio is 4--9 x 10 -4 , a tenfold enhancement over normal interstellar clouds, (c) HCN/CO = 1--3 x 10 -4 and CS/CO = 2--3 x 10 -4 , consistent with abundances found in ordinary clouds, (d) no enhancements of SO or SiO as occur in Orion KL, (e) optically thin preshock OH, confirming a hundredfold enhancement of OH/CO in the shock, and (f) an OH main line anomaly, with T/sub ex/(1667)>T/sub ex/(1665) in the shocked region

  14. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  15. Shocked molecular hydrogen in the supernova remnant IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, M.G.; Brand, P.W.J.L.; Webster, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Emission from the υ = 1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen has been mapped over a section of the supernova remnant IC 443. The emission originates in a sinuous ridge where the expanding shell of the SNR is interacting with a molecular cloud. The relative intensities of the 1-0 S(1), 1-0 S(0) and 2-1 S(1) lines at 2.1-2.2 μm were measured and found to be characteristic of shock-excitation of the gas. The ridge shows bright spots which are possibly density enhancements in the molecular cloud. The total luminosity of the molecular hydrogen lines in the mapped region is estimated to be about 1000 times the solar luminosity, making IC 443 one of the most luminous galactic molecular hydrogen sources yet detected. (author)

  16. PELE-IC test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, E.Y.; Alexander, E.E.; McMaster, W.H.; Quinones, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report provides prospective users of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) fluid-structure interaction computer code, PELE-IC, a variety of test problems for verifying the code on CDC 7600 computer systems at facilities external to the LLL environment. The test problems have been successfully run on CDC 7600 computers at the LLL and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) computer centers

  17. CMOS Analog IC Design: Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended for use as the main textbook for an introductory course in CMOS analog integrated circuit design. It is aimed at electronics engineering students who have followed basic courses in mathematics, physics, circuit theory, electronics and signal processing. It takes the students directly from a basic level to a level where they can start working on simple analog IC design projects or continue their studies using more advanced textbooks in the field. A distinct feature of thi...

  18. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  19. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  20. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  1. Spitzer Observations Of IC 2118

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie et al. 2006) photometric data in an effort to segregate YSOs from background galaxies. While one previously known T...Spectral Typea Other names IRAS 04591−0856 05 01 30.2 −08 52 14 . . . HHL 17, G13 2MASS 05020630−0850467 05 02 06.3 −08 50 47 M2 IV . . . RXJ 0502.4−0744b...05 02 20.8 −07 44 10 . . . 2MASS 05022084−0744099 2MASS 05060574−0646151c 05 06 05.7 −06 46 15 G8: (May not be a member of IC 2118; see Kun et al

  2. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  3. Revealing the nebular properties and Wolf-Rayet population of IC10 with Gemini/GMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul A.; Archer, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC10 using Gemini North and GMOS to unveil its global Wolf-Rayet (WR) population. We obtain a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.045 ± 0.023 M⊙ yr-1, for IC10 from the nebular H α luminosity, which is comparable to the Small Magellanic Cloud. We also present a revised nebular oxygen abundance of log(O/H) + 12 = 8.40 ± 0.04, comparable to the LMC. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WR subtype-metallicity dependance seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population awaits discovery. Our search revealed three new WN stars, and six candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. The new global WR star total of 29 stars is consistent with the Large Magellanic Cloud population when scaled to the reduced SFR of IC10. For spectroscopically confirmed WR stars, the WC/WN ratio is lowered to 1.0; however, including all potential candidates, and assuming those unconfirmed to be WN stars, would reduce the ratio to ∼0.7. We attribute the high WC/WN ratio to the high star formation surface density of IC10 relative to the Magellanic Clouds, which enhances the frequency of high-mass stars capable of producing WC stars.

  4. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  5. STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have performed submillimeter and millimeter observations in CO lines toward supernova remnant (SNR) IC443. The CO molecular shell coincides well with the partial shell of the SNR detected in radio continuum observations. Broad emission lines and three 1720 MHz OH masers were detected in the CO molecular shell. The present observations have provided further evidence in support of the interaction between the SNR and the adjoining molecular clouds (MCs). The total mass of the MCs is 9.26 x 10 3 M sun . The integrated CO line intensity ratio (R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) ) for the whole MC is between 0.79 and 3.40. The average value is 1.58, which is much higher than previous measurements of individual Galactic MCs. Higher line ratios imply that shocks have driven into the MCs. We conclude that high R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) is identified as a good signature of the SNR-MC interacting system. Based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared database, 12 protostellar object and 1666 young stellar object (YSO) candidates (including 154 classical T Tauri stars and 419 Herbig Ae/Be stars) are selected. In the interacting regions, the significant enhancement of the number of protostellar objects and YSOs indicates the presence of some recently formed stars. After comparing the characteristic timescales of star formation with the age of IC443, we conclude that the protostellar objects and YSO candidates are not triggered by IC443. For the age of the stellar winds shell, we have performed our calculation on the basis of a stellar wind shell expansion model. The results and analysis suggest that the formation of these stars may be triggered by the stellar winds of the IC443 progenitor.

  6. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004

  7. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  8. Design Developing of IC- Model Using VHDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzar-Anas

    2005-01-01

    In present, the electronic design required to become simple, small and flexible. The physical dimension of IC and number of pin can be significantly reduced while the flexibility and compatibility of IC was not change. Implementation of VHDL(VHSIC Hardware Description Language) seem as a great progress in the design of digital circuit. By using this language designing of model can be more simple, flexible and efficient. This paper was purposed to introduce VHDL and its features. Sample in modeling to illustrate the advantage of VHDL will also be described. (author)

  9. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  10. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  11. Cloud Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing.......Denne præsentation beskriver fordele og værdier ved anvendelse af Cloud Computing. Endvidere inddrager resultater fra en række internationale analyser fra ISACA om Cloud Computing....

  12. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  13. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE

  14. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  15. Cloud Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  16. Cloud Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  17. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  18. COMET SHOWERS ARE NOT INDUCED BY INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    Encounters with interstellar clouds (IC) have been proposed by Rampino and Stothers as a cause of quasi-periodic intense comet showers leading to earth impacts, in order to explain the periodicity in marine mass extinctions found by Raup and Sepkoski. The model was described further, criticized and defended. The debate has centered on the question of whether the scale height of the clouds is small enough (in comparison to the amplitude of the oscillation of the solar system about the plane of the Galaxy) to produce a modulation in the rate of encounters. We wish to point out another serious, we believe fatal, defect in this model - the tidal fields of ICs are not strong enough to produce intense comet showers leading to earth impacts by bringing comets of the postulated inner Oort cloud into earth crossing orbits, except possibly during very rare encounters with very dense clouds. We will show that encounters with abundant clouds of low density cannot produce comet showers; cloud density N > 10{sup 3} atoms cm{sup -3} is needed to produce an intense comet shower leading to earth impacts. Furthermore, the tidal field of a dense cloud during a distant encounter is too weak to produce such showers. As a consequence, comet showers induced by ICs will be far less frequent than showers caused by passing stars. This conclusion is independent of assumptions about the radial distribution of comets in the inner Oort cloud.

  19. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process

  20. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  1. Studying Radiation Tolerant ICs for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Faccio, F; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Casas-cubillos, J; Gomes, P

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\In the recent years, intensive work has been carried out on the development of custom ICs for the readout electronics for LHC experiments. As far as radiation hardness is concerned, attention has been focussed on high total dose applications, mainly for the tracker systems. The dose foreseen in this inner region is estimated to be higher than 1~Mrad/year. In the framework of R&D projects (RD-9 and RD-20) and in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, the study of different radiation hard processes has been pursued and good contacts with the manufacturers have been established. The results of these studies have been discussed during the Microelectronics User Group (MUG) rad-hard meetings, and now some HEP groups are working to develop radiation hard ICs for the LHC experiments on some of the available rad-hard processes.\\\\ \\\\In addition, a lot of the standard commercial electronic components and ASICs which are planned to be installed near the LHC machine and in the detectors will receive total doses in ...

  2. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  3. Cloud Computing Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furht, Borko

    In the introductory chapter we define the concept of cloud computing and cloud services, and we introduce layers and types of cloud computing. We discuss the differences between cloud computing and cloud services. New technologies that enabled cloud computing are presented next. We also discuss cloud computing features, standards, and security issues. We introduce the key cloud computing platforms, their vendors, and their offerings. We discuss cloud computing challenges and the future of cloud computing.

  4. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  5. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Baun, Christian; Nimis, Jens; Tai, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for d

  6. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...... the IT scene. In line with the views presented by Nicolas Carr in 2003 (Carr, 2003), it is a popular assumption that cloud computing will be the next utility (like water, electricity and gas) (Buyya, Yeo, Venugopal, Broberg, & Brandic, 2009). However, this assumption disregards the fact that most IT production......), for instance, in establishing and maintaining trust between the involved parties (Sabherwal, 1999). So far, research in cloud computing has neglected this perspective and focused entirely on aspects relating to technology, economy, security and legal questions. While the core technologies of cloud computing (e...

  7. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    A mobile cloud is a cooperative arrangement of dynamically connected communication nodes sharing opportunistic resources. In this book, authors provide a comprehensive and motivating overview of this rapidly emerging technology. The book explores how distributed resources can be shared by mobile...... users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... performance, improve utilization of resources and create flexible platforms to share resources in very novel ways. Energy efficient aspects of mobile clouds are discussed in detail, showing how being cooperative can bring mobile users significant energy saving. The book presents and discusses multiple...

  8. Nanometer CMOS ICs from basics to ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    J M Veendrick, Harry

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

  9. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  10. The time-dependence of the defective nature of ice Ic (cubic ice) and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Christian; Koza, Michael M.; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2010-05-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [5,6] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [7] and other group's work [8] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Recently, we have studied the time-dependency of the changes in both "cubicity" and particle size at various temperatures of relevance for cirrus clouds and contrails by in-situ neutron powder diffraction. The timescales over which changes occur (several to many hours) are similar to the life-time of cirrus clouds and contrails and suggest that the supersaturation situation may change within this time span in the natural environment too. Some accompanying results obtained by cryo-SEM (scanning electron microscopy) work will also be presented and suggest that stacking-faulty ice Ic has kinky surfaces providing many more active centres for heterogeneous reactions on the surface than in the usually assumed stable hexagonal form of ice Ih with its rather

  11. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  12. LES of Gas Exchange in IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As engine technologies become increasingly complex and engines are driven to new operating points, understanding transient phenomena is important to ensure reliable engine operation. Unlike Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS studies that only provide cycle-averaged information, Large Eddy Simulation (LES studies are capable of simulating cycle-to-cycle dynamics. In this work, a finite difference based structured methodology for LES of IC engines is presented. This structured approach allows for an efficient mesh generation process and provides potential for higher order numerical accuracy. An efficient parallel scalable block decomposition is done to overcome the challenges associated with the low ratio of fluid elements to overall mesh elements. The motion of the valves and piston is handled using a dynamic cell blanking approach and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE method, respectively. Modified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Conditions (NSCBC are used in the simulation to prescribe conditions in the manifolds. The accuracy of the simulation framework is validated using various canonical configurations. Flow bench simulations of an axisymmetric configuration and an actual engine geometry are done with the LES methodology. Simulations of the gas exchange in an engine under motored conditions are also performed. Overall, good agreement is obtained with experiments for all the cases. Therefore, this framework can be used for LES of engine simulations. In the future, reactive LES simulations will be performed using this framework.

  13. The H II regions of IC 1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, P.; Lee, M.G.; Gurwell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD H-alpha imaging of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has revealed a total of 77 H II regions, five of which are complexes of several smaller emission regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The H-alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, following a power law with an exponent of -1.6. The faintest H II regions are at the low-luminosity end of the generally observed luminosity function for H II regions in galaxies, with fluxes of only 10 to the 35th erg/sec. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 56 pc. The morphologies of different H II regions are discussed and compared to those in other galaxies. Published radio continuum maps compare well with the H-alpha emission distribution. The distribution of H I is also similar in the central areas to the H II with, however, a tendency for the H II regions to lie to one side of H I peaks. 31 refs

  14. Cloud Chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina

    Cloud Chamber takes its roots in a performance project, titled The Guests 做东, devised by Verina Gfader for the 11th Shanghai Biennale, ‘Why Not Ask Again: Arguments, Counter-arguments, and Stories’. Departing from the inclusion of the biennale audience to write a future folk tale, Cloud Chamber......: fiction and translation and translation through time; post literacy; world picturing-world typing; and cartographic entanglements and expressions of subjectivity; through the lens a social imaginary of worlding or cosmological quest. Art at its core? Contributions by Nikos Papastergiadis, Rebecca Carson...

  15. CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuki, Sumio; Kawabe, Ryohei; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Ishiguro, Masato

    1990-01-01

    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region.

  16. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  17. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... There are several types of services available on a cloud. We describe .... CPU speed has been doubling every 18 months at constant cost. Besides this ... Plain text (e.g., email) may be read by anyone who is able to access it.

  18. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  19. Cloud management and security

    CERN Document Server

    Abbadi, Imad M

    2014-01-01

    Written by an expert with over 15 years' experience in the field, this book establishes the foundations of Cloud computing, building an in-depth and diverse understanding of the technologies behind Cloud computing. In this book, the author begins with an introduction to Cloud computing, presenting fundamental concepts such as analyzing Cloud definitions, Cloud evolution, Cloud services, Cloud deployment types and highlighting the main challenges. Following on from the introduction, the book is divided into three parts: Cloud management, Cloud security, and practical examples. Part one presents the main components constituting the Cloud and federated Cloud infrastructure(e.g., interactions and deployment), discusses management platforms (resources and services), identifies and analyzes the main properties of the Cloud infrastructure, and presents Cloud automated management services: virtual and application resource management services. Part two analyzes the problem of establishing trustworthy Cloud, discuss...

  20. Cloud time

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The ‘Cloud’, hailed as a new digital commons, a utopia of collaborative expression and constant connection, actually constitutes a strategy of vitalist post-hegemonic power, which moves to dominate immanently and intensively, organizing our affective political involvements, instituting new modes of enclosure, and, crucially, colonizing the future through a new temporality of control. The virtual is often claimed as a realm of invention through which capitalism might be cracked, but it is precisely here that power now thrives. Cloud time, in service of security and profit, assumes all is knowable. We bear witness to the collapse of both past and future virtuals into a present dedicated to the exploitation of the spectres of both.

  1. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    challenge the development of IC: - The IC at the organizational level seems to diminish when innovation gets highly dispersed and is operated outside the core of the organization - The attractiveness of the organization to different ICA, which is one fundament to sustainable and successful innovation, seems...... to fall when the IC at the organizational core level diminishes The objective of this paper is therefore to understand 1) How the IC at the organizational core level may continue to be developed, when at the same time innovation is taking place in dispersed groups and projects. 2) How to motivate...... the different ICA´s to bring learning and knowledge back to the core with the purpose to develop IC at the organizational core level....

  2. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  3. HI observations of the irregular galaxy IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shostak, G.S.; Woerden, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The authors have made radio synthesis observations of the galaxy IC 10 with resolutions of 30 arcsec and 8 km/sec in the neutral hydrogen line using the Westerbork telescope. These confirm Shostak's (1974) result that, in the central region of IC 10, the velocity gradient is opposite to that later measured by single-dish in the outer regions. The suggestion by Cohen (1979) that the velocity gradient reversal is due to IC 10 being nearly face-on and warped is consistent with the new data. (Auth.)

  4. Cloud Computing, Tieto Cloud Server Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suikkanen, Saara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what is cloud computing. To be able to make wise decisions when moving to cloud or considering it, companies need to understand what cloud is consists of. Which model suits best to they company, what should be taken into account before moving to cloud, what is the cloud broker role and also SWOT analysis of cloud? To be able to answer customer requirements and business demands, IT companies should develop and produce new service models. IT house T...

  5. Gemini Follow-up of Two Massive H I Clouds Discovered with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Serra, Paolo; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Schirmer, Mischa; Spekkens, Kristine; Wang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) we search for optical counterparts of two massive (∼109 M ⊙) neutral hydrogen clouds near the spiral galaxy IC 5270, located in the outskirts of the IC 1459 group. These two H I clouds were recently discovered using the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). Two low surface brightness optical counterparts to one of these H I clouds are identified in the new Gemini data that reaches down to magnitudes of ∼27.5 mag in the g-band. The observed H I mass-to-light ratio derived with these new data, {M}{{H}{{I}}}/{L}g=242, is among the highest reported to date. We are also able to rule out that the two H I clouds are dwarf companions of IC 5270. Tidal interactions and ram pressure stripping are plausible explanations for the physical origin of these two clouds.

  6. Blue skies for CLOUD

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Through the recently approved CLOUD experiment, CERN will soon be contributing to climate research. Tests are being performed on the first prototype of CLOUD, an experiment designed to assess cosmic radiation influence on cloud formation.

  7. Formation of massive clouds and dwarf galaxies during tidal encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra M.

    1993-01-01

    Gerola et al. (1983) propose that isolated dwarf galaxies can form during galaxy interactions. As evidence of this process, Mirabel et al. (1991) find 10(exp 9) solar mass clouds and star formation complexes at the outer ends of the tidal arms in the Antennae and Superantennae galaxies. We describe observations of HI clouds with mass greater than 10(exp 8) solar mass in the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163/NGC 2207. This pair is important because we believe it represents an early stage in the formation of giant clouds during an encounter. We use a gravitational instability model to explain why the observed clouds are so massive and discuss a two-dimensional N-body simulation of an encounter that produces giant clouds.

  8. Virtual design and qualification of IC backend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van R.B.R.; Sluis, van der O.; Driel, van W.D.; Janssen, J.H.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2006-01-01

    For Integrated Circuit (IC) wafer backend development, process developers have to design robust backend structures that guarantee both functionality and reliability during waferfab processes, packaging, qualification tests and lifetime. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram for the design (and

  9. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  10. Study on Mine Emergency Mechanism based on TARP and ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jian; Wu, Zongzhi

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the experiences and practices of mine emergency in China and abroad, especially the United States and Australia, normative principle, risk management principle and adaptability principle of constructing mine emergency mechanism based on Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP) and Incident Command System (ICS) are summarized. Classification method, framework, flow and subject of TARP and ICS which are suitable for the actual situation of domestic mine emergency are proposed. The system dynamics model of TARP and ICS is established. The parameters such as evacuation ratio, response rate, per capita emergency capability and entry rate of rescuers are set up. By simulating the operation process of TARP and ICS, the impact of these parameters on the emergency process are analyzed, which could provide a reference and basis for building emergency capacity, formulating emergency plans and setting up action plans in the emergency process.

  11. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  12. Moving towards Cloud Security

    OpenAIRE

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki; Zoltán Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment th...

  13. Simulation of design dependent failure exposure levels for CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Rangavajjhala, V.; van der Molen, H.; Kerns, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The total dose exposure of CMOS ICs introduces bias-dependent parameter shifts in individual devices. The bias dependency of individual parameter shifts of devices cause different designs to behave differently under identical testing conditions. This paper studies the effect of design and bias on the radiation tolerance of ICs and presents an automated design tool that produces different designs for a logic function, and presents important parameters of each design to circuit designer for trade off analysis

  14. The EPOS Vision for the Open Science Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith; Harrison, Matt; Cocco, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Cloud computing offers dynamic elastic scalability for data processing on demand. For much research activity, demand for computing is uneven over time and so CLOUD computing offers both cost-effectiveness and capacity advantages. However, as reported repeatedly by the EC Cloud Expert Group, there are barriers to the uptake of Cloud Computing: (1) security and privacy; (2) interoperability (avoidance of lock-in); (3) lack of appropriate systems development environments for application programmers to characterise their applications to allow CLOUD middleware to optimize their deployment and execution. From CERN, the Helix-Nebula group has proposed the architecture for the European Open Science Cloud. They are discussing with other e-Infrastructure groups such as EGI (GRIDs), EUDAT (data curation), AARC (network authentication and authorisation) and also with the EIROFORUM group of 'international treaty' RIs (Research Infrastructures) and the ESFRI (European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures) RIs including EPOS. Many of these RIs are either e-RIs (electronic-RIs) or have an e-RI interface for access and use. The EPOS architecture is centred on a portal: ICS (Integrated Core Services). The architectural design already allows for access to e-RIs (which may include any or all of data, software, users and resources such as computers or instruments). Those within any one domain (subject area) of EPOS are considered within the TCS (Thematic Core Services). Those outside, or available across multiple domains of EPOS, are ICS-d (Integrated Core Services-Distributed) since the intention is that they will be used by any or all of the TCS via the ICS. Another such service type is CES (Computational Earth Science); effectively an ICS-d specializing in high performance computation, analytics, simulation or visualization offered by a TCS for others to use. Already discussions are underway between EPOS and EGI, EUDAT, AARC and Helix-Nebula for those offerings to be

  15. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  16. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  17. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVore, P. T. S.; Jiang, Y.; Lynch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths.......Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud.org) is the first silicon photonics interactive web tool. Here we report new features of this tool including mode propagation parameters and mode distribution galleries for user specified waveguide dimensions and wavelengths....

  18. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Physical Conditions in Shocked Interstellar Gas Interacting with the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Federman, Steven Robert; Jenkins, Edward B.; Caprioli, Damiano; Wallerstein, George

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed investigation into the physical conditions in interstellar material interacting with the supernova remnant IC 443. Our analysis is based on an examination of high-resolution HST/STIS spectra of two stars probing predominantly neutral gas located both ahead of and behind the supernova shock front. The pre-shock neutral gas is characterized by densities and temperatures typical of diffuse interstellar clouds, while the post-shock material exhibits a range of more extreme physical conditions, including high temperatures (>104 K) in some cases, which may require a sudden heating event to explain. The ionization level is enhanced in the high-temperature post-shock material, which could be the result of enhanced radiation from shocks or from an increase in cosmic-ray ionization. The gas-phase abundances of refractory elements are also enhanced in the high-pressure gas, suggesting efficient destruction of dust grains by shock sputtering. Observations of highly-ionized species at very high velocity indicate a post-shock temperature of 107 K for the hot X-ray emitting plasma of the remnant’s interior, in agreement with studies of thermal X-ray emission from IC 443.

  20. Infrared studies of two dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The IC5146 dark cloud complex was surveyed in the infrared in order to identify and study associated young stellar objects. Most of the objects detected in the survey appears to be field stars, predominantly late-type giants. Three young objects were detected in the survey: the BO star BD + 46 x 3474, the Ae star BD + 46 x 3471, and a previously unidentified object which appear to be a heavily obscured FU Ori star. The properties of the last two objects are examined in detail, and an attempt is made to produce reasonable models for them. It is suggested that FU Ori stars are binaries, and some consequences of this model are described. Photometry of the brighter stars in the IC5146 cluster was used to establish a distance to the cluster of 900 +- 100 pc. A near-infrared survey was also conducted of nearly 18 square degrees of the Ophiuchus dark cloud complex. Additional observations were made of selected objects found in this region, in order to identify and study the young stars associated with the cloud. These observations show that very recent star formation has been largely restricted to a small region no more than a few parsecs in extent at the center of the dark cloud complex. Most of the young stars do not appear to be main sequence stars. At least three of these objects appear to be surrounded by infrared reflection nebulae. Many of the objects studies are background K and M giants which can be used to determine the near-infrared extinction due to the dark cloud

  1. The CLOUD experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment as shown by Jasper Kirkby (spokesperson). Kirkby shows a sketch to illustrate the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formations. The CLOUD experiment uses beams from the PS accelerator at CERN to simulate the effect of cosmic rays on cloud formations in the Earth's atmosphere. It is thought that cosmic ray intensity is linked to the amount of low cloud cover due to the formation of aerosols, which induce condensation.

  2. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN CLOUD

    OpenAIRE

    Celina M. Olszak

    2014-01-01

    . The paper reviews and critiques current research on Business Intelligence (BI) in cloud. This review highlights that organizations face various challenges using BI cloud. The research objectives for this study are a conceptualization of the BI cloud issue, as well as an investigation of some benefits and risks from BI cloud. The study was based mainly on a critical analysis of literature and some reports on BI cloud using. The results of this research can be used by IT and business leaders ...

  3. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  4. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  5. Cloud Processed CCN Suppress Stratus Cloud Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate within cloud droplets increases the sizes and decreases the critical supersaturation, Sc, of cloud residual particles that had nucleated the droplets. Since other particles remain at the same sizes and Sc a size and Sc gap is often observed. Hudson et al. (2015) showed higher cloud droplet concentrations (Nc) in stratus clouds associated with bimodal high-resolution CCN spectra from the DRI CCN spectrometer compared to clouds associated with unimodal CCN spectra (not cloud processed). Here we show that CCN spectral shape (bimodal or unimodal) affects all aspects of stratus cloud microphysics and drizzle. Panel A shows mean differential cloud droplet spectra that have been divided according to traditional slopes, k, of the 131 measured CCN spectra in the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) off the Central California coast. K is generally high within the supersaturation, S, range of stratus clouds (< 0.5%). Because cloud processing decreases Sc of some particles, it reduces k. Panel A shows higher concentrations of small cloud droplets apparently grown on lower k CCN than clouds grown on higher k CCN. At small droplet sizes the concentrations follow the k order of the legend, black, red, green, blue (lowest to highest k). Above 13 µm diameter the lines cross and the hierarchy reverses so that blue (highest k) has the highest concentrations followed by green, red and black (lowest k). This reversed hierarchy continues into the drizzle size range (panel B) where the most drizzle drops, Nd, are in clouds grown on the least cloud-processed CCN (blue), while clouds grown on the most processed CCN (black) have the lowest Nd. Suppression of stratus cloud drizzle by cloud processing is an additional 2nd indirect aerosol effect (IAE) that along with the enhancement of 1st IAE by higher Nc (panel A) are above and beyond original IAE. However, further similar analysis is needed in other cloud regimes to determine if MASE was

  6. Considerations in applying on-line IC techniques to BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleda, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ion-Chromatography (IC) has moved from its traditional role as a laboratory analytical tool to a real time, dynamic, on-line measurement device to follow ppb and sub-ppb concentrations of deleterious impurities in nuclear power plants. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), individual utilities, and industry all have played significant roles in effecting the transition. This paper highlights considerations and the evolution in current on-line Ion Chromatography systems. The first applications of on-line techniques were demonstrated by General Electric (GE) under EPRI sponsorship at Rancho Seco (1980), Calvert Cliffs, and McGuire nuclear units. The primary use was for diagnostic purposes. Today the on-line IC applications have been expanded to include process control and routine plant monitoring. Current on-line IC's are innovative in design, promote operational simplicity, are modular for simplified maintenance and repair, and use field-proven components which enhance reliability. Conductivity detection with electronic or chemical suppression and spectrometric detection techniques are intermixed in applications. Remote multi-point sample systems have addressed memory effects. Early applications measured ionic species in the part per billion range. Today reliable part per trillion measurements are common for on-line systems. Current systems are meeting the challenge of EPRI guideline requirements. Today's on-line IC's, with programmed sampling systems, monitor fluid streams throughout a power plant, supplying data that can be trended, stored and retrieved easily. The on-line IC has come of age. Many technical challenges were overcome to achieve today's IC

  7. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.J.; Czajkowski, D.R.; Layton, P.; Shanken, S.

    1999-01-01

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  8. Transient SEU characterization of analog IC's for ESA's satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harboe-Soerensen, R.; Van Dooren, J.; Guerre, F.X.; Constans, H.; Berger, G.; Hajdas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Data analysis of four self switch-off power supply events in the SOHO satellite pointed strongly in the direction of being Cosmic Ray or Proton induced. Further analysis of the relevant power supply schematics identified a number of analog IC's capable of causing or contributing to such events. This paper concentrates on the testing aspects of these analog IC's and presents the results of a Single Event Effects (SEEs) test program. Ground testing, simulating the flight conditions, were carried out at both heavy ion and proton accelerators. (authors)

  9. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  10. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Liu; W. Wu; M. P. Jensen; T. Toto

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surfaced-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fractio...

  11. Cloud CCN feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Cloud microphysics affects cloud albedo precipitation efficiency and the extent of cloud feedback in response to global warming. Compared to other cloud parameters, microphysics is unique in its large range of variability and the fact that much of the variability is anthropogenic. Probably the most important determinant of cloud microphysics is the spectra of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) which display considerable variability and have a large anthropogenic component. When analyzed in combination three field observation projects display the interrelationship between CCN and cloud microphysics. CCN were measured with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer. Cloud microphysical measurements were obtained with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Lockheed Electra. Since CCN and cloud microphysics each affect the other a positive feedback mechanism can result

  12. El contenido de los mensajes icónicos: El discurso icónico como totalidad (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Raymond Colle

    1999-01-01

    En el capítulo anterior, hemos hablado de los códigos icónicos de modo general, por cuanto tienen algunas características comunes, en particular el uso de figuras como factores de los significantes. Sin embargo, como lo hemos señalado al final, no todos se construyen ni articulan de la misma manera. Tal como las lenguas son muchas y los códigos lingüísticos se rigen por diferentes reglas -aunque sobre la base de fonemas unidos secuencialmente-, los códigos icónicos son también variados y regi...

  13. Performance of Naturally Aspirating IC Engines Operating at High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The loss of power and the increase of fuel consumption of naturally aspirating IC engines operating with low atmospheric pressure at high altitude as well as changes in the mixture quality with non adapting mixture formation systems are principally known. Other effects like the additional advance of ignition timing in petrol ...

  14. Measures of interaction contrast (biological interaction) - ic, ici and icp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    in Hosmer & Lemeshow (1992) and Alfredsson et all (2005) purely in Stata.These two sources however both uses odds ratios as approximations for relational risks. This code on the other hand opens up for using proper estimates of relational risks. To install type "ssc install ic" in the Stata command...

  15. Analog IC Design at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    This article describes some recent research results from the IC Design group of the University of Twente, located in Enschede, The Netherlands. Our research focuses on analog CMOS circuit design with emphasis on high frequency and broadband circuits. With the trend of system integration in mind, we

  16. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a...

  17. Development of an ASD IC for the Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Orito, R; Kubo, H; Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Okada, Y; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M

    2004-01-01

    A new amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and manufactured for the Micro Pixel Chamber ($\\mu$-PIC). The design of this ASD IC is based on the ASD IC (TGC-ASD) for the Thin Gap Chamber in the LHC Atlas Experiment. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 5-times longer than that of the TGC-ASD, and some other modifications have been made in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the $\\mu$-PIC. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 80 ns and its gain is approximately 0.8 V/pC. The output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. A baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier, and the current used for the baseline restoration is 5-times smaller than that of the TGC-ASD. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The ASD...

  18. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  19. Cloud Computing and Agile Organization Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3rd millennium economy, defined by globalization and continuous reduction of natural resources, the economic organization becomes the main actor in the phenomenon of transfor-mation and adaptation to new conditions. Even more, the economic environment, which is closely related to the social environment, undergoes complex metamorphoses, especially in the management area. In this dynamic and complex social and environmental context, the econom-ic organization must possess the ability to adapt, becoming a flexible and agile answer to new market opportunities. Considering the spectacular evolution of information and communica-tions technology, one of the solutions to ensure organization agility is cloud computing. Just like the development of any science requires adaptation to theories and instruments specific to other fields, a cloud computing paradigm for the agile organization must appeal to models from management, cybernetics, mathematics, structuralism and information theory (or information systems theory.

  20. Hybrid cloud for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hurwitz, Judith; Halper, Fern; Kirsch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Understand the cloud and implement a cloud strategy for your business Cloud computing enables companies to save money by leasing storage space and accessing technology services through the Internet instead of buying and maintaining equipment and support services. Because it has its own unique set of challenges, cloud computing requires careful explanation. This easy-to-follow guide shows IT managers and support staff just what cloud computing is, how to deliver and manage cloud computing services, how to choose a service provider, and how to go about implementation. It also covers security and

  1. Secure cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Singhal, Anoop; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a range of cloud computing security challenges and promising solution paths. The first two chapters focus on practical considerations of cloud computing. In Chapter 1, Chandramouli, Iorga, and Chokani describe the evolution of cloud computing and the current state of practice, followed by the challenges of cryptographic key management in the cloud. In Chapter 2, Chen and Sion present a dollar cost model of cloud computing and explore the economic viability of cloud computing with and without security mechanisms involving cryptographic mechanisms. The next two chapters addres

  2. Clouds of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollenberg, R G [Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301, U.S.A.; Hansen, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Ragent, B [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Calif. (USA). Ames Research Center; Martonchik, J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA); Tomasko, M [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA)

    1977-05-01

    The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.

  3. A search for extragalactic pulsars in the local group galaxies IC 10 and Barnard’s galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Noori, H; Roberts, M S E; Champion, D; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, Scott; Ray, P S

    2017-01-01

    As of today, more than 2500 pulsars have been found, nearly all in the Milky Way, with the exception of ∼28 pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. However, there have been few published attempts to search for pulsars deeper in our Galactic neighborhood. Two of the more promising Local Group galaxies are IC 10 and NGC 6822 (also known as Barnard’s Galaxy) due to their relatively high star formation rate and their proximity to our galaxy. IC 10 in particular, holds promise as it is the closest starburst galaxy to us and harbors an unusually high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, implying the presence of many neutron stars. We observed IC 10 and NGC 6822 at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope for ∼15 and 5 hours respectively, and put a strong upper limit of 0.1 mJy on pulsars in either of the two galaxies. We also performed single pulse searches of both galaxies with no firm detections. (paper)

  4. Radiative properties of clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1993-01-01

    The climatic effects of condensation nuclei in the formation of cloud droplets and the subsequent role of the cloud droplets as contributors to the planetary short-wave albedo is emphasized. Microphysical properties of clouds, which can be greatly modified by the degree of mixing with cloud-free air from outside, are discussed. The effect of clouds on visible radiation is assessed through multiple scattering of the radiation. Cloudwater or ice absorbs more with increasing wavelength in the near-infrared region, with water vapor providing the stronger absorption over narrower wavelength bands. Cloud thermal infrared absorption can be solely related to liquid water content at least for shallow clouds and clouds in the early development state. Three-dimensional general circulation models have been used to study the climatic effect of clouds. It was found for such studies (which did not consider variations in cloud albedo) that the cooling effects due to the increase in planetary short-wave albedo from clouds were offset by heating effects due to thermal infrared absorption by the cloud. Two permanent direct effects of increased pollution are discussed in this chapter: (a) an increase of absorption in the visible and near infrared because of increased amounts of elemental carbon, which gives rise to a warming effect climatically, and (b) an increased optical thickness of clouds due to increasing cloud droplet number concentration caused by increasing cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, which gives rise to a cooling effect climatically. An increase in cloud albedo from 0.7 to 0.87 produces an appreciable climatic perturbation of cooling up to 2.5 K at the ground, using a hemispheric general circulation model. Effects of pollution on cloud thermal infrared absorption are negligible

  5. K/sub Ic/ and J/sub Ic/ of Westerly granite: effects of thickness and in-plane dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Lutz, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is described in which tensile properties, fracture toughness, and critical J integral are measured for Westerly granite, a rock that is widely used in rock mechanics studies. This was primarily a parameter sensitivity study in which the effects of specimen dimensions and testing techniques were assessed. It is hoped that this study will aid in establishing tentative standards and guidelines for fracture toughness testing of rock as well as indicate the feasibility of using a J integral fracture criterion for this material. ASTM standard specimen configurations of the compact and bend types were tested with compact specimens ranging in width from W = 25.4 mm to W = 406.4 mm (0.5T to 8T) and with thickness ranging from 13 mm to 100 mm. A series of 4T compact specimens were tested to assess the effects of thickness and fatigue precracking. Techniques are described that enable several values of K/sub Ic/, a complete J vs crack growth curve, and a J/sub Ic/ value to be obtained from each sample. Direct-pull tension tests on shaped specimens of Westerly granite are described which indicate a high degree of nonlinear, inelastic behavior. This fact raises questions about the use of LEFM, but the J/sub Ic/ data presented appear to validate the K/sub Ic/ measurements

  6. Moving towards Cloud Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Szilvia Rubóczki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing hosts and delivers many different services via Internet. There are a lot of reasons why people opt for using cloud resources. Cloud development is increasing fast while a lot of related services drop behind, for example the mass awareness of cloud security. However the new generation upload videos and pictures without reason to a cloud storage, but only few know about data privacy, data management and the proprietary of stored data in the cloud. In an enterprise environment the users have to know the rule of cloud usage, however they have little knowledge about traditional IT security. It is important to measure the level of their knowledge, and evolve the training system to develop the security awareness. The article proves the importance of suggesting new metrics and algorithms for measuring security awareness of corporate users and employees to include the requirements of emerging cloud security.

  7. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  8. Cloud Computing for radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, SS; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future

  9. Cloud computing for radiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  10. Dimethylamine and ammonia measurements with ion chromatography during the CLOUD4 campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Praplan, A P; Dommen, J; Baltensperger, U

    2012-01-01

    The CLOUD project investigates the influence of galactic cosmic rays on the nucleation of new particles in an environmental chamber at CERN. Dimethylamine (DMA) was injected intentionally into the CLOUD chamber to reach atmospherically relevant levels away from sources (up to 100 pptv) in order to study its effect on nucleation with sulphuric acid and water at 278 K. Quantification of DMA and also background ammonia (NH 3 ) was performed with ion chromatography (IC). The IC method used together with the sampling line developed for CLOUD in order to measure NH 3 and DMA at low pptv levels is described; the overall sampling efficiency of the method is discussed; and, finally, mixing ratios of NH 3 and DMA measured during CLOUD4 are reported.

  11. Marine cloud brightening

    OpenAIRE

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identi...

  12. Cloud computing strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2011-01-01

    A guide to managing cloud projects, Cloud Computing Strategies provides the understanding required to evaluate the technology and determine how it can be best applied to improve business and enhance your overall corporate strategy. Based on extensive research, it examines the opportunities and challenges that loom in the cloud. It explains exactly what cloud computing is, what it has to offer, and calls attention to the important issues management needs to consider before passing the point of no return regarding financial commitments.

  13. Towards Indonesian Cloud Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Thamrin, Taqwan; Lukman, Iing; Wahyuningsih, Dina Ika

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Cloud Computing is most discussed term in business and academic environment.Cloud campus has many benefits such as accessing the file storages, e-mails, databases,educational resources, research applications and tools anywhere for faculty, administrators,staff, students and other users in university, on demand. Furthermore, cloud campus reduces universities’ IT complexity and cost.This paper discuss the implementation of Indonesian cloud campus and various opportunies and benefits...

  14. Cloud Infrastructure Security

    OpenAIRE

    Velev , Dimiter; Zlateva , Plamena

    2010-01-01

    Part 4: Security for Clouds; International audience; Cloud computing can help companies accomplish more by eliminating the physical bonds between an IT infrastructure and its users. Users can purchase services from a cloud environment that could allow them to save money and focus on their core business. At the same time certain concerns have emerged as potential barriers to rapid adoption of cloud services such as security, privacy and reliability. Usually the information security professiona...

  15. Cloud services in organization

    OpenAIRE

    FUXA, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the definition of the word cloud computing, cloud computing models, types, advantages, disadvantages, and comparing SaaS solutions such as: Google Apps and Office 365 in the area of electronic communications. The work deals with the use of cloud computing in the corporate practice, both good and bad practice. The following section describes the methodology for choosing the appropriate cloud service organization. Another part deals with analyzing the possibilities of SaaS i...

  16. Orchestrating Your Cloud Orchestra

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, Abram

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing potentially ushers in a new era of computer music performance with exceptionally large computer music instruments consisting of 10s to 100s of virtual machines which we propose to call a `cloud-orchestra'. Cloud computing allows for the rapid provisioning of resources, but to deploy such a complicated and interconnected network of software synthesizers in the cloud requires a lot of manual work, system administration knowledge, and developer/operator skills. This is a barrier ...

  17. Cloud security mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has brought great benefits in cost and flexibility for provisioning services. The greatest challenge of cloud computing remains however the question of security. The current standard tools in access control mechanisms and cryptography can only partly solve the security challenges of cloud infrastructures. In the recent years of research in security and cryptography, novel mechanisms, protocols and algorithms have emerged that offer new ways to create secure services atop cloud...

  18. Cloud computing for radiologists

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amjad Safvi; S S Thind; Amarjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as...

  19. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  20. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  1. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.; Boggs, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Ghandi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/ X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition from a Compton-thick (NH approx. = 2 x10(exp 24)/sq cm) to a Compton-thin ( N(sub H) approx. = 4 x10(exp 23)/sq cm) state on timescales of < or approx.3 months, which makes IC 751 the first changing look AGN discovered by NuSTAR. Changes of the line of sight column density at the approx.2 (sigma) level are also found on a timescale of approx. 48 hr (delta N(sub H approx. 10(exp 23)/sq cm). From the lack of spectral variability on timescales of approx.100 ks, we infer that the varying absorber is located beyond the emission-weighted average radius of the broad-line region (BLR), and could therefore be related either to the external part of the BLR or a clumpy molecular torus. By adopting a physical torus X-ray spectral model, we are able to disentangle the column density of the non-varying absorber (N(sub H) approx. 3.8 x10(exp 23)/sq cm) from that of the varying clouds [N(sub H) approx. (1- 150) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm], and to constrain that of the material responsible for the reprocessed X-ray radiation (N(sub H approx. 6 x 10(exp 24)/sq cm).24 -2). We find evidence of significant intrinsic X-ray variability, with the flux varying by a factor of five on timescales of a few months in the 2-10 and 10-50 keV band.

  2. Chargeback for cloud services.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.; Khadka, R.; Stefanov, H.; Jansen, S.; Batenburg, R.; Heusden, E. van

    2014-01-01

    With pay-per-use pricing models, elastic scaling of resources, and the use of shared virtualized infrastructures, cloud computing offers more efficient use of capital and agility. To leverage the advantages of cloud computing, organizations have to introduce cloud-specific chargeback practices.

  3. On CLOUD nine

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The team from the CLOUD experiment - the world’s first experiment using a high-energy particle accelerator to study the climate - were on cloud nine after the arrival of their new three-metre diameter cloud chamber. This marks the end of three years’ R&D and design, and the start of preparations for data taking later this year.

  4. Cloud Computing Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  5. Greening the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, G.; Lago, P.; Grosso, Paola; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and lms (Spotify and Net ix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs). The cloud forms a massive storage and processing

  6. Security in the cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  7. Mapping of the extinction in Giant Molecular Clouds using optical star counts

    OpenAIRE

    Cambresy, L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents large scale extinction maps of most nearby Giant Molecular Clouds of the Galaxy (Lupus, rho-Ophiuchus, Scorpius, Coalsack, Taurus, Chamaeleon, Musca, Corona Australis, Serpens, IC 5146, Vela, Orion, Monoceros R1 and R2, Rosette, Carina) derived from a star count method using an adaptive grid and a wavelet decomposition applied to the optical data provided by the USNO-Precision Measuring Machine. The distribution of the extinction in the clouds leads to estimate their total...

  8. IN-SYNC. III. THE DYNAMICAL STATE OF IC 348—A SUPER-VIRIAL VELOCITY DISPERSION AND A PUZZLING SIGN OF CONVERGENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R.; Covey, Kevin R.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Rio, Nicola da; Nidever, David L.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steve; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Most field stars will have encountered the highest stellar density and hence the largest number of interactions in their birth environment. Yet the stellar dynamics during this crucial phase are poorly understood. Here we analyze the radial velocities measured for 152 out of 380 observed stars in the 2–6 Myr old star cluster IC 348 as part of the SDSS-III APOGEE. The radial velocity distribution of these stars is fitted with one or two Gaussians, convolved with the measurement uncertainties including binary orbital motions. Including a second Gaussian improves the fit; the high-velocity outliers that are best fit by this second component may either (1) be contaminants from the nearby Perseus OB2 association, (2) be a halo of ejected or dispersing stars from IC 348, or (3) reflect that IC 348 has not relaxed to a Gaussian velocity distribution. We measure a velocity dispersion for IC 348 of 0.72 ± 0.07 km s −1 (or 0.64 ± 0.08 km s −1 if two Gaussians are fitted), which implies a supervirial state, unless the gas contributes more to the gravitational potential than expected. No evidence is found for a dependence of this velocity dispersion on distance from the cluster center or stellar mass. We also find that stars with lower extinction (in the front of the cloud) tend to be redshifted compared with stars with somewhat higher extinction (toward the back of the cloud). This data suggest that the stars in IC 348 are converging along the line of sight. We show that this correlation between radial velocity and extinction is unlikely to be spuriously caused by the small cluster rotation of 0.024 ± 0.013 km s −1 arcmin −1 or by correlations between the radial velocities of neighboring stars. This signature, if confirmed, will be the first detection of line of sight convergence in a star cluster. Possible scenarios for reconciling this convergence with IC 348's observed supervirial state include: (a) the cluster is fluctuating around a new virial

  9. Physical IC debug ─ backside approach and nanoscale challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kerst

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside. Based upon typical global backside preparation with 50–100 µm moderate silicon thickness remaining, a state of the art of the analysis techniques available for this purpose is presented and evaluated for functional analysis and layout pattern resolution potential. A circuit edit technique valid for nano technology ICs, is also presented that is based upon the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI as endpoint for Focused Ion Beam (FIB milling. As a derivative from this process, a locally ultra thin silicon device can be processed, creating a back surface as work bench for breakthrough applications of nanoscale analysis techniques to a fully functional circuit through chip backside. Several applications demonstrate the power and potential of this new approach.

  10. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  11. Droplet-Wall/Film Impact in IC Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Report: Droplet-Wall/ Film Impact in IC Engine Applications (ARO Topic 1.4.1 under ARO’s Dr. Ralph A. Anthenien) The views, opinions and/or findings...Participants: RPPR Final Report as of 12-Oct-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0449 Organization: Princeton University Title: Droplet-Wall/ Film Impact...droplets impacting a wet surface under various film thickness, which plays a critical role in controlling the efficiency of applications such as those

  12. The unusual kinematics of the galaxy IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen emission from the galaxy IC 10 show a large outer envelope of gas more than 1 0 in extent. The emission has a velocity gradient along the major axis in the opposite sense to that of the central concentration mapped by Shostak. This unusual velocity reversal can be interpreted in terms of a warped gas-layer in normal rotation and seen face-on. (author)

  13. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Halted PhilcoT xong, 43 o Flex b ru.an I ery t92." PrutptEnt,"e Electro nic -News; p. 34 --(M a~y 20, 1974). 355. 4t3fAtil, No 2(estbgru sey SpesHg-o e...and No. 4, 78 (1974). *J. G. Biddle Co., Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462. 222 NARROW AND WIDE INTERFERENCE CONTOUR 2 4 6 IC PE LLET Bonding pad oxide area

  14. IC modelling in the IRSN EPR level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today in France, an EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) Unit is under construction at the Flamanville site. The creation authorization was granted in April 2007 and the plant commissioning is planned for 2012. The plant operator (EDF) provided for the construction license several PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies. IRSN, as TSO (Technical Safety Organisation), wishes to dispose of the appropriate knowledge and tools for the independent verification of the operator studies and so developed its own model of PSA level 1. The goal is not to rebuild the plant operator PSA (with a full scope...) but to dispose of a simplified model able to clearly point out specific important issues. In the IRSN model a particular effort has recently been done on the Digital IC modelling. The IC (Instrumentation and Control) is modelled in the IRSN EPR PSA by using Fault Trees. Instead, EDF EPR PSA applies the COMPACT model to simplify the command and instrumentation logics. The IRSN model is more detailed in order to be more accurate in the global analysis of the Digital IC. For instance the communication ways between automates are considered as well as the failure of support systems. The model is still under development mainly in order to define the CCF (Common Cause Failure) which may be considered. (authors)

  15. Protecting ICS Systems Within the Energy Sector from Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Shaquille

    Advance persistent threat (APT) groups are continuing to attack the energy sector through cyberspace, which poses a risk to our society, national security, and economy. Industrial control systems (ICSs) are not designed to handle cyber-attacks, which is why asset owners need to implement the correct proactive and reactive measures to mitigate the risk to their ICS environments. The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) responded to 290 incidents for fiscal year 2016, where 59 of those incidents came from the Energy Sector. APT groups know how vulnerable energy sector ICS systems are and the destruction they can cause when they go offline such as loss of production, loss of life, and economic impact. Defending against APT groups requires more than just passive controls such as firewalls and antivirus solutions. Asset owners should implement a combination of best practices and active defense in their environment to defend against APT groups. Cyber-attacks against critical infrastructure will become more complex and harder to detect and respond to with traditional security controls. The purpose of this paper was to provide asset owners with the correct security controls and methodologies to help defend against APT groups.

  16. AGB stars as tracers to IC 1613 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.

    We are going to apply AGB stars to find star formation history for IC 1613 galaxy; this a new and simple method that works well for nearby galaxies. IC 1613 is a Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy that is located at distance of 750 kpc, a gas rich and isolated dwarf galaxy that has a low foreground extinction. We use the long period variable stars (LPVs) that represent the very final stage of evolution of stars with low and intermediate mass at the AGB phase and are very luminous and cool so that they emit maximum brightness in near-infrared bands. Thus near-infrared photometry with using stellar evolutionary models help us to convert brightness to birth mass and age and from this drive star formation history of the galaxy. We will use the luminosity distribution of the LPVs to reconstruct the star formation history-a method we have successfully applied in other Local Group galaxies. Our analysis shows that the IC 1613 has had a nearly constant star formation rate, without any dominant star formation episode.

  17. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Wen-Jie; Li Hong-Nian; Zhang Wen-Hua; Zhu Jun-Fa; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C 60 , C 70 and PC 61 BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (E ICT− ), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC 71 BM. The E ICT− of IC 60 BA is smaller than 4.14 eV

  18. CLOUD STORAGE SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is a hot topic in recent research and applications. Because it is widely used in various fields. Up to now, Google, Microsoft, IBM, Amazon and other famous co partnership have proposed their cloud computing application. Look upon cloud computing as one of the most important strategy in the future. Cloud storage is the lower layer of cloud computing system which supports the service of the other layers above it. At the same time, it is an effective way to store and manage heavy...

  19. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  20. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  1. The Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As the two galaxies nearest to our own, the Magellanic Clouds hold a special place in studies of the extragalactic distance scale, of stellar evolution and the structure of galaxies. In recent years, results from the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and elsewhere have shown that it is possible to begin understanding the three dimensional structure of the Clouds. Studies of Magellanic Cloud Cepheids have continued, both to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the Clouds and to learn more about Cepheids and their use as extragalactic distance indicators. Other research undertaken at SAAO includes studies on Nova LMC 1988 no 2 and red variables in the Magellanic Clouds

  2. Cloud Computing Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Sosinsky, Barrie

    2010-01-01

    The complete reference guide to the hot technology of cloud computingIts potential for lowering IT costs makes cloud computing a major force for both IT vendors and users; it is expected to gain momentum rapidly with the launch of Office Web Apps later this year. Because cloud computing involves various technologies, protocols, platforms, and infrastructure elements, this comprehensive reference is just what you need if you'll be using or implementing cloud computing.Cloud computing offers significant cost savings by eliminating upfront expenses for hardware and software; its growing popularit

  3. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan IOVAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing reprentes the software applications offered as a service online, but also the software and hardware components from the data center.In the case of wide offerd services for any type of client, we are dealing with a public cloud. In the other case, in wich a cloud is exclusively available for an organization and is not available to the open public, this is consider a private cloud [1]. There is also a third type, called hibrid in which case an user or an organization might use both services available in the public and private cloud. One of the main challenges of cloud computing are to build the trust and ofer information privacy in every aspect of service offerd by cloud computingle. The variety of existing standards, just like the lack of clarity in sustenability certificationis not a real help in building trust. Also appear some questions marks regarding the efficiency of traditionsecurity means that are applied in the cloud domain. Beside the economic and technology advantages offered by cloud, also are some advantages in security area if the information is migrated to cloud. Shared resources available in cloud includes the survey, use of the "best practices" and technology for advance security level, above all the solutions offered by the majority of medium and small businesses, big companies and even some guvermental organizations [2].

  4. Toward the Understanding of the Physical Origin of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Okon, Hiromichi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go

    2017-12-01

    We perform a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of X-ray emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 with Suzaku. All of the spectra are well reproduced by a model consisting of a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) and two recombining plasma (RP) components. Although previous X-ray studies found an RP in the northeastern region, this is the first report on RPs in the other parts of the remnant. The electron temperature, kT e , of the CIE component is almost uniform at ∼0.2 keV across the remnant. The CIE plasma has metal abundances consistent with solar and is concentrated toward the rim of the remnant, suggesting that it is of shocked interstellar medium origin. The two RP components have different kT e : one in the range of 0.16–0.28 keV and the other in the range of 0.48–0.67 keV. The electron temperatures of both RP components decrease toward the southeast, where the SNR shock is known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. We also find the normalization ratio of the lower-kT e RP to higher-kT e RP components increases toward the southeast. Both results suggest the X-ray emitting plasma in the southeastern region is significantly cooled by some mechanism. One of the plausible cooling mechanisms is a thermal conduction between the hot plasma and the molecular cloud. If the cooling proceeds faster than the recombination timescale of the plasma, the same mechanism can account for the recombining plasma as well.

  5. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2017-01-01

    , largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted following a genealogical exercise carried out on the 102...... with a recognised reporting vehicle such as the annual report, were also encountered. Research limitations/implications – The implications of this study are that timely, value-relevant IC disclosures and compliant reporting, primarily for accountability purposes, have the potential to coexist. In addition...... to the usual limitations of a semi-structured interview research design, respondents’ difficulties in clearly recalling events during the project after some 10-12 years is a further potential limitation. Additionally, the use of internet-based communication channels for disclosure purposes was in its infancy...

  6. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  7. Searchable Encryption in Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ren-Junn Hwang; Chung-Chien Lu; Jain-Shing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Cloud outsource storage is one of important services in cloud computing. Cloud users upload data to cloud servers to reduce the cost of managing data and maintaining hardware and software. To ensure data confidentiality, users can encrypt their files before uploading them to a cloud system. However, retrieving the target file from the encrypted files exactly is difficult for cloud server. This study proposes a protocol for performing multikeyword searches for encrypted cloud data by applying ...

  8. Enterprise Cloud Adoption - Cloud Maturity Assessment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, Gerry; Doherty, Eileen; Carcary, Marian; Crowley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The introduction and use of cloud computing by an organization has the promise of significant benefits that include reduced costs, improved services, and a pay-per-use model. Organizations that successfully harness these benefits will potentially have a distinct competitive edge, due to their increased agility and flexibility to rapidly respond to an ever changing and complex business environment. However, as cloud technology is a relatively new ph...

  9. Star clouds of Magellan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds are two irregular galaxies belonging to the local group which the Milky Way belongs to. By studying the Clouds, astronomers hope to gain insight into the origin and composition of the Milky Way. The overall structure and dynamics of the Clouds are clearest when studied in radio region of the spectrum. One benefit of directly observing stellar luminosities in the Clouds has been the discovery of the period-luminosity relation. Also, the Clouds are a splendid laboratory for studying stellar evolution. It is believed that both Clouds may be in the very early stage in the development of a regular, symmetric galaxy. This raises a paradox because some of the stars in the star clusters of the Clouds are as old as the oldest stars in our galaxy. An explanation for this is given. The low velocity of the Clouds with respect to the center of the Milky Way shows they must be bound to it by gravity. Theories are given on how the Magellanic Clouds became associated with the galaxy. According to current ideas the Clouds orbits will decay and they will spiral into the Galaxy

  10. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Karkošková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is unclear how to achieve them. Cloud computing governance helps to create business value through obtain benefits from use of cloud computing services while optimizing investment and risk. Challenge, which organizations are facing in relation to governing of cloud services, is how to design and implement cloud computing governance to gain expected benefits. This paper aims to provide guidance on implementation activities of proposed Cloud computing governance lifecycle from cloud consumer perspective. Proposed model is based on SOA Governance Framework and consists of lifecycle for implementation and continuous improvement of cloud computing governance model.

  11. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 ± 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of ∼ 10 5 M sun , rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A K > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H 2 ) ∼ a few x 10 4 cm -3 .

  12. uvby and Hβ photometry of the open cluster IC 4996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.J.; Delgado, A.J.; Garcia-Pelayo, J.M.; Garrido, R.; Saez, M.

    1985-01-01

    Photoelectric uvby and Hβ observations have been obtained for 15 stars in the field of the open cluster IC 4996. An average colour excess of E(b-y)=0.473 is estimated for six observed members of the cluster, in good agreement with previous results. A comparison between the β-Msub(v) calibrations given by Crawford and by Eggen suggests that the first one takes better into account the evolutionary effects on the Hβ index. We have calculated a true distance modulus of 11.43 and an age of 7.5x10 6 years

  13. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H.; Denisov, G.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Mukherjee, A.; Rasmussen, D.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Sakamoto, K.; Tanga, A.

    2010-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  14. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  15. Encyclopedia of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bojanova, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Cloud Computing provides IT professionals, educators, researchers and students with a compendium of cloud computing knowledge. Authored by a spectrum of subject matter experts in industry and academia, this unique publication, in a single volume, covers a wide range of cloud computing topics, including technological trends and developments, research opportunities, best practices, standards, and cloud adoption. Providing multiple perspectives, it also addresses questions that stakeholders might have in the context of development, operation, management, and use of clouds. Furthermore, it examines cloud computing's impact now and in the future. The encyclopedia presents 56 chapters logically organized into 10 sections. Each chapter covers a major topic/area with cross-references to other chapters and contains tables, illustrations, side-bars as appropriate. Furthermore, each chapter presents its summary at the beginning and backend material, references and additional resources for further i...

  16. Considerations for Cloud Security Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cusick, James

    2016-01-01

    Information Security in Cloud Computing environments is explored. Cloud Computing is presented, security needs are discussed, and mitigation approaches are listed. Topics covered include Information Security, Cloud Computing, Private Cloud, Public Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, ISO 27001, OWASP, Secure SDLC.

  17. Evaluating statistical cloud schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Grützun, Verena; Quaas, Johannes; Morcrette , Cyril J.; Ament, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cloud schemes with prognostic probability distribution functions have become more important in atmospheric modeling, especially since they are in principle scale adaptive and capture cloud physics in more detail. While in theory the schemes have a great potential, their accuracy is still questionable. High-resolution three-dimensional observational data of water vapor and cloud water, which could be used for testing them, are missing. We explore the potential of ground-based re...

  18. Cloud Computing Governance Lifecycle

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Karkošková; George Feuerlicht

    2016-01-01

    Externally provisioned cloud services enable flexible and on-demand sourcing of IT resources. Cloud computing introduces new challenges such as need of business process redefinition, establishment of specialized governance and management, organizational structures and relationships with external providers and managing new types of risk arising from dependency on external providers. There is a general consensus that cloud computing in addition to challenges brings many benefits but it is uncle...

  19. Security in cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Martín, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    Security in Cloud Computing is becoming a challenge for next generation Data Centers. This project will focus on investigating new security strategies for Cloud Computing systems. Cloud Computingisarecent paradigmto deliver services over Internet. Businesses grow drastically because of it. Researchers focus their work on it. The rapid access to exible and low cost IT resources on an on-demand fashion, allows the users to avoid planning ahead for provisioning, and enterprises to save money ...

  20. CLOUD TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Dukkardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the review of main features of cloud computing that can be used in education. Particular attention is paid to those learning and supportive tasks, that can be greatly improved in the case of the using of cloud services. Several ways to implement this approach are proposed, based on widely accepted models of providing cloud services. Nevertheless, the authors have not ignored currently existing problems of cloud technologies , identifying the most dangerous risks and their impact on the core business processes of the university. 

  1. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  2. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhamrit Kaur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computing to genomics are like easy access and sharing of data security of data less cost to pay for resources but still there are some demerits like large time needed to transfer data less network bandwidth.

  3. Instantaneous flywheel torque of IC engine grey-box identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milašinović, A.; Knežević, D.; Milovanović, Z.; Škundrić, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical model developed for the identification of excitation torque acting on the IC engine flywheel is presented. The excitation torque gained through internal combustion of the fuel in the IC engine is transmitted from the flywheel to the transmission. The torque is not constant but variable and is a function of the crank angle. The verification of the mathematical model was done on a 4-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine for which the in-cylinder pressure was measured in one cylinder and the instantaneous angular speed of the crankshaft at its free end. The research was conducted on a hydraulic engine brake. Inertial forces of all rotational parts, from flywheel to the turbine wheel of the engine brake, are acting on the flywheel due to the nonuniform motion of the flywheel. It is known from the theory of turbomachinery that the torque on the hydraulic brake is a quadratic function of angular speed. Due to that and the variable angular speed of the turbine wheel of the engine brake, the torque during one engine cycle is also variable. The motivation for this research was the idea (intention) to determine the instantaneous torque acting on the flywheel as a function of the crank angle with a mathematical model without any measuring and based on this to determine the quality of work of specific cylinders of the multi-cylinder engine. The crankshaft was considered elastic and also its torsional vibrations were taken into account.

  4. Review of Cloud Computing and existing Frameworks for Cloud adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Victor; Walters, Robert John; Wills, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a selected review for Cloud Computing and explains the benefits and risks of adopting Cloud Computing in a business environment. Although all the risks identified may be associated with two major Cloud adoption challenges, a framework is required to support organisations as they begin to use Cloud and minimise risks of Cloud adoption. Eleven Cloud Computing frameworks are investigated and a comparison of their strengths and limitations is made; the result of the comparison...

  5. +Cloud: An Agent-Based Cloud Computing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    González, Roberto; Hernández de la Iglesia, Daniel; de la Prieta Pintado, Fernando; Gil González, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is revolutionizing the services provided through the Internet, and is continually adapting itself in order to maintain the quality of its services. This study presents the platform +Cloud, which proposes a cloud environment for storing information and files by following the cloud paradigm. This study also presents Warehouse 3.0, a cloud-based application that has been developed to validate the services provided by +Cloud.

  6. Lost in Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  7. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4GHz=3 ×1023 W Hz-1). The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (˜ 1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling of the gas after the passage of a shock and that it is the end product of the cooling process.

  8. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. I. A Calibration in the Isolated Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Hatt, Dylan; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Based on observations from the FourStar near-infrared camera on the 6.5 m Baade-Magellan telescope at Las Campanas, Chile, we present calibrations of the JHK luminosities of stars defining the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the halo of the Local Group dwarf galaxy IC 1613. We employ metallicity-independent (rectified) T-band magnitudes—constructed using J-, H-, and K-band magnitudes and both (J ‑ H) and (J ‑ K) colors to flatten the upward-sloping red giant branch tips as otherwise seen in their apparent color–magnitude diagrams. We describe and quantify the advantages of working at these particular near-infrared wavelengths, which are applicable to both the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We also note that these same wavelengths can be accessed from the ground for an eventual tie-in to Gaia for absolute astrometry and parallaxes to calibrate the intrinsic luminosity of the TRGB. Adopting the color terms derived from the IC 1613 data, as well as the zero points from a companion study of the Large Magellanic Cloud, whose distance is anchored to the geometric distances of detached eclipsing binaries, we find a true distance modulus of 24.32 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.05 mag (systematic) for IC 1613, which compares favorably with the recently published multi-wavelength, multi-method consensus modulus of 24.30 ± 0.05 mag by Hatt et al.

  9. SN 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp: An example of residual helium in a type Ic supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, S. J.; Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Zhang, J.-J.; James, P. A.; Wang, X.-F.; Vinkó, J.; Percival, S.; Short, L.; Piascik, A.; Huang, F.; Mo, J.; Rui, L.-M.; Wang, J.-G.; Xiang, D.-F.; Xin, Y.-X.; Yi, W.-M.; Yu, X.-G.; Zhai, Q.; Zhang, T.-M.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Cseh, B.; Hanyecz, O.; Kriskovics, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Székely, P.; Varga-Verebélyi, E.; Vida, K.; Bradac, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Sand, D.; Tartaglia, L.

    2018-05-01

    The optical observations of Ic-4 supernova (SN) 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp, from ˜2 to ˜450 days after explosion, are presented along with analysis of its physical properties. The SN shows the broad lines associated with SNe Ic-3/4 but with a key difference. The early spectra display a strong absorption feature at ˜5400 Åwhich is not seen in other SNe Ic-3/4 at this epoch. This feature has been attributed to HeIin the literature. Spectral modelling of the SN in the early photospheric phase suggests the presence of residual He in a C/O dominated shell. However, the behaviour of the HeIlines is unusual when compared with He-rich SNe, showing relatively low velocities and weakening rather than strengthening over time. The SN is found to rise to peak ˜16 d after core-collapse reaching a bolometric luminosity of Lp ˜ 3 × 1042 erg s-1. Spectral models, including the nebular epoch, show that the SN ejected 2.5 - 4 M⊙of material, with ˜1.5 M⊙below 5000 km s-1, and with a kinetic energy of (4.5 - 7) × 1051 erg. The explosion synthesised ˜0.14 M⊙of 56Ni. There are significant uncertainties in E(B - V)host and the distance however, which will affect Lp and MNi. SN 2016coi exploded in a host similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and away from star-forming regions. The properties of the SN and the host-galaxy suggest that the progenitor had MZAMS of 23 - 28 M⊙and was stripped almost entirely down to its C/O core at explosion.

  10. Research on cloud computing solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas; Vaida Zdanytė

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, ...

  11. VMware vCloud security

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Prasenjit

    2013-01-01

    VMware vCloud Security provides the reader with in depth knowledge and practical exercises sufficient to implement a secured private cloud using VMware vCloud Director and vCloud Networking and Security.This book is primarily for technical professionals with system administration and security administration skills with significant VMware vCloud experience who want to learn about advanced concepts of vCloud security and compliance.

  12. Security Architecture of Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    V.KRISHNA REDDY; Dr. L.S.S.REDDY

    2011-01-01

    The Cloud Computing offers service over internet with dynamically scalable resources. Cloud Computing services provides benefits to the users in terms of cost and ease of use. Cloud Computing services need to address the security during the transmission of sensitive data and critical applications to shared and public cloud environments. The cloud environments are scaling large for data processing and storage needs. Cloud computing environment have various advantages as well as disadvantages o...

  13. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  14. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  15. Cloud security in vogelvlucht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is dé hype in IT op het moment, en hoewel veel aspecten niet nieuw zijn, leidt het concept wel tot de noodzaak voor nieuwe vormen van beveiliging. Het idee van cloud computing biedt echter ook juist kansen om hierover na te denken: wat is de rol van informatiebeveiliging in een

  16. CLOUD SERVICES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Seydametova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the on-line services based on cloud computing, provided by Google to educational institutions. We describe the own experience of the implementing the Google Apps Education Edition in the educational process. We analyzed and compared the other universities experience of using cloud technologies.

  17. Cloud MicroAtlas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by outlining the life cycle of a tall cloud, and thenbriefly discuss cloud systems. We choose one aspect of thislife cycle, namely, the rapid growth of water droplets in ice freeclouds, to then discuss in greater detail. Taking a singlevortex to be a building block of turbulence, we demonstrateone mechanism by which ...

  18. Greening the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoed, Robert; Hoekstra, Eric; Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Lago, Patricia; Grosso, Paolo; Taal, Arie; Grosskop, Kay; van Bergen, Esther

    The cloud has become an essential part of our daily lives. We use it to store our documents (Dropbox), to stream our music and films (Spotify and Netflix) and without giving it any thought, we use it to work on documents in the cloud (Google Docs).

  19. Learning in the Clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  20. Kernel structures for Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Eugene H.; Mckendry, Martin S.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the internal structure of the Clouds kernel was presented. An indication of how these structures will interact in the prototype Clouds implementation is given. Many specific details have yet to be determined and await experimentation with an actual working system.

  1. Cloud computing basics

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, S

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing Basics covers the main aspects of this fast moving technology so that both practitioners and students will be able to understand cloud computing. The author highlights the key aspects of this technology that a potential user might want to investigate before deciding to adopt this service. This book explains how cloud services can be used to augment existing services such as storage, backup and recovery. Addressing the details on how cloud security works and what the users must be prepared for when they move their data to the cloud. Also this book discusses how businesses could prepare for compliance with the laws as well as industry standards such as the Payment Card Industry.

  2. Solar variability and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2000-01-01

    Satellite observations have revealed a surprising imprint of the 11- year solar cycle on global low cloud cover. The cloud data suggest a correlation with the intensity of Galactic cosmic rays. If this apparent connection between cosmic rays and clouds is real, variations of the cosmic ray flux caused by long-term changes in the solar wind could have a significant influence on the global energy radiation budget and the climate. However a direct link between cosmic rays and clouds has not been unambiguously established and, moreover, the microphysical mechanism is poorly understood. New experiments are being planned to find out whether cosmic rays can affect cloud formation, and if so how. (37 refs).

  3. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  4. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Mukherjee, K.; Twarog, B.A.; Caldwell, N.

    1988-01-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987). 16 references

  6. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  7. VLA observations of circumnebular neutral hydrogen in IC 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Gussie, G.T.; Goss, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of the planetary nebula IC 418 have been made with the Very Large Array. These images show H I emission and absorption in close association with the nebula. Assuming a distance of 1 kpc, the total mass of circumnebular neutral hydrogen is 0.35 + or - 0.05 solar mass. Model fits to the data indicate that the neutral gas falls as a 1/r-squared density distribution, with outflow velocity about 5 km/s less than the expansion rate of the ionized gas. The observations also indicate that there is a region devoid of H I emission between the outer edge of the H II nebula and the inner edge of the H I shell. It is suggested that this gap is comprised of molecular hydrogen and that the surrounding H I shell is produced by photodissociation of H2 by the interstellar radiation field. Physical parameters of the H I gas are derived. 25 refs

  8. Charge-sensitive preamplifier IC for silicon calorimetry at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Chekhovsky, V.A.; Emel'yanchik, I.F.; Shumeiko, N.M.; Golutvin, I.A.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    Four versions of a fast monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) were designed using microwave BJT-JFET technology. The best one has a 3.5 ns rise time for input detector capacitance C d =100 pF and approximately 8 mW power dissipation for 5 V supply voltage. The ENC performance at shaping time 30 ns is 1350 e+17 e/pF for C d up to 600 pF. Crosstalk in a four-channel amplifier made in the same chip was measured to be about -46 dB for C d =100 pF. The linear output voltage swing is 0.8 V for voltage supply 5 V. The IC has revealed good radiation hardness to neutron irradiation. ((orig.))

  9. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni (DET), Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  10. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  11. Formation of Massive Molecular Cloud Cores by Cloud-cloud Collision

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by the cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive mol...

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0102 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0102 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC01...02F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0102F 434 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0102 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ...ID FC-IC0102 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dict... (bits) Value N AB088483 |AB088483.1 Dictyostelium discoideum gene for gamete and mating-type specific prote...oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value AB088483_1( AB088483 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum gmsA g

  13. Profiles of the N II 6584 A line over the giant H II regions IC 1318b and c, NGC 7000 and IC 5070. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Johnson, P G; Meaburn, J; Mikhail, J S; Terrett, D L; White, N J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy

    1979-06-01

    Previously (Paper I) large-scale splitting of the (N II) line was discovered over an area of IC 1318b. The motions of the ionized material have now been mapped over a much larger region of this nebula and also IC 1318c. The splitting reaches a maximum value of 53 km/s over the faintest regions of IC 1318b and occurs over an area approximately > 20 pc across. However, few split (N II) lines were found over IC 1318c, but the motions of this whole ionized and neutral complex have been shown to be closely related. Wind-driven flows along neutral and ionized shells are proposed to explain the observations. Similar measurements have also been made on either side of the dark lane separating NGC 7000 from IC 5070.

  14. Making and Breaking Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Molecular clouds which youre likely familiar with from stunning popular astronomy imagery lead complicated, tumultuous lives. A recent study has now found that these features must be rapidly built and destroyed.Star-Forming CollapseA Hubble view of a molecular cloud, roughly two light-years long, that has broken off of the Carina Nebula. [NASA/ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley)/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]Molecular gas can be found throughout our galaxy in the form of eminently photogenic clouds (as featured throughout this post). Dense, cold molecular gas makes up more than 20% of the Milky Ways total gas mass, and gravitational instabilities within these clouds lead them to collapse under their own weight, resulting in the formation of our galaxys stars.How does this collapse occur? The simplest explanation is that the clouds simply collapse in free fall, with no source of support to counter their contraction. But if all the molecular gas we observe collapsed on free-fall timescales, star formation in our galaxy would churn a rate thats at least an order of magnitude higher than the observed 12 solar masses per year in the Milky Way.Destruction by FeedbackAstronomers have theorized that there may be some mechanism that supports these clouds against gravity, slowing their collapse. But both theoretical studies and observations of the clouds have ruled out most of these potential mechanisms, and mounting evidence supports the original interpretation that molecular clouds are simply gravitationally collapsing.A sub-mm image from ESOs APEX telescope of part of the Taurus molecular cloud, roughly ten light-years long, superimposed on a visible-light image of the region. [ESO/APEX (MPIfR/ESO/OSO)/A. Hacar et al./Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]If this is indeed the case, then one explanation for our low observed star formation rate could be that molecular clouds are rapidly destroyed by feedback from the very stars

  15. Advances in Grid Computing for the FabrIc for Frontier Experiments Project at Fermialb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herner, K. [Fermilab; Alba Hernandex, A. F. [Fermilab; Bhat, S. [Fermilab; Box, D. [Fermilab; Boyd, J. [Fermilab; Di Benedetto, V. [Fermilab; Ding, P. [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Fattoruso, M. [Fermilab; Garzoglio, G. [Fermilab; Kirby, M. [Fermilab; Kreymer, A. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Mazzacane, A. [Fermilab; Mengel, M. [Fermilab; Mhashilkar, P. [Fermilab; Podstavkov, V. [Fermilab; Retzke, K. [Fermilab; Sharma, N. [Fermilab; Teheran, J. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The FabrIc for Frontier Experiments (FIFE) project is a major initiative within the Fermilab Scientic Computing Division charged with leading the computing model for Fermilab experiments. Work within the FIFE project creates close collaboration between experimenters and computing professionals to serve high-energy physics experiments of diering size, scope, and physics area. The FIFE project has worked to develop common tools for job submission, certicate management, software and reference data distribution through CVMFS repositories, robust data transfer, job monitoring, and databases for project tracking. Since the projects inception the experiments under the FIFE umbrella have signicantly matured, and present an increasingly complex list of requirements to service providers. To meet these requirements, the FIFE project has been involved in transitioning the Fermilab General Purpose Grid cluster to support a partitionable slot model, expanding the resources available to experiments via the Open Science Grid, assisting with commissioning dedicated high-throughput computing resources for individual experiments, supporting the eorts of the HEP Cloud projects to provision a variety of back end resources, including public clouds and high performance computers, and developing rapid onboarding procedures for new experiments and collaborations. The larger demands also require enhanced job monitoring tools, which the project has developed using such tools as ElasticSearch and Grafana. in helping experiments manage their large-scale production work ows. This group in turn requires a structured service to facilitate smooth management of experiment requests, which FIFE provides in the form of the Production Operations Management Service (POMS). POMS is designed to track and manage requests from the FIFE experiments to run particular work ows, and support troubleshooting and triage in case of problems. Recently a new certicate management infrastructure called Distributed

  16. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Sarga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As cloud computing is gaining acclaim as a cost-effective alternative to acquiring processing resources for corporations, scientific applications and individuals, various challenges are rapidly coming to the fore. While academia struggles to procure a concise definition, corporations are more interested in competitive advantages it may generate and individuals view it as a way of speeding up data access times or a convenient backup solution. Properties of the cloud architecture largely preclude usage of existing practices while achieving end-users’ and companies’ compliance requires considering multiple infrastructural as well as commercial factors, such as sustainability in case of cloud-side interruptions, identity management and off-site corporate data handling policies. The article overviews recent attempts at formal definitions of cloud computing, summarizes and critically evaluates proposed delimitations, and specifies challenges associated with its further proliferation. Based on the conclusions, future directions in the field of cloud computing are also briefly hypothesized to include deeper focus on community clouds and bolstering innovative cloud-enabled platforms and devices such as tablets, smart phones, as well as entertainment applications.

  17. Cloud Computing Law

    CERN Document Server

    Millard, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the legal implications of cloud computing. In essence, ‘the cloud’ is a way of delivering computing resources as a utility service via the internet. It is evolving very rapidly with substantial investments being made in infrastructure, platforms and applications, all delivered ‘as a service’. The demand for cloud resources is enormous, driven by such developments as the deployment on a vast scale of mobile apps and the rapid emergence of ‘Big Data’. Part I of this book explains what cloud computing is and how it works. Part II analyses contractual relationships between cloud service providers and their customers, as well as the complex roles of intermediaries. Drawing on primary research conducted by the Cloud Legal Project at Queen Mary University of London, cloud contracts are analysed in detail, including the appropriateness and enforceability of ‘take it or leave it’ terms of service, as well as the scope for negotiating cloud deals. Specific arrangements for public sect...

  18. Community Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  19. Diffuse interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author defines and discusses the nature of diffuse interstellar clouds. He discusses how they contribute to the general extinction of starlight. The atomic and molecular species that have been identified in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared regions of the spectrum of a diffuse cloud are presented. The author illustrates some of the practical considerations that affect absorption line observations of interstellar atoms and molecules. Various aspects of the theoretical description of diffuse clouds required for a full interpretation of the observations are discussed

  20. Cloud Computing Security

    OpenAIRE

    Ngongang, Guy

    2011-01-01

    This project aimed to show how possible it is to use a network intrusion detection system in the cloud. The security in the cloud is a concern nowadays and security professionals are still finding means to make cloud computing more secure. First of all the installation of the ESX4.0, vCenter Server and vCenter lab manager in server hardware was successful in building the platform. This allowed the creation and deployment of many virtual servers. Those servers have operating systems and a...

  1. Aerosols, clouds and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, S [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (USA). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1991-01-01

    Most of the so-called 'CO{sub 2} effect' is, in fact, an 'H{sub 2}O effect' brought into play by the climate modeler's assumption that planetary average temperature dictates water-vapor concentration (following Clapeyron-Clausius). That assumption ignores the removal process, which cloud physicists know to be influenced by the aerosol, since the latter primarily controls cloud droplet number and size. Droplet number and size are also influential for shortwave (solar) energy. The reflectance of many thin to moderately thick clouds changes when nuclei concentrations change and make shortwave albedo susceptible to aerosol influence.

  2. Trusted cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Krcmar, Helmut; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This book documents the scientific results of the projects related to the Trusted Cloud Program, covering fundamental aspects of trust, security, and quality of service for cloud-based services and applications. These results aim to allow trustworthy IT applications in the cloud by providing a reliable and secure technical and legal framework. In this domain, business models, legislative circumstances, technical possibilities, and realizable security are closely interwoven and thus are addressed jointly. The book is organized in four parts on "Security and Privacy", "Software Engineering and

  3. The OptIC Data Assimilation Intercomparison: A Statistical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Clisby, N.

    2008-12-01

    The development of improved terrestrial carbon models has assumed great importance because of concerns about significant climate-to-carbon feedback processes. The complexity of the interactions leads to considerable difficulties in the process of model calibration. The OptIC intercomparison explored some aspects of model calibration, using an idealised terrestrial carbon model. Participants were invited to estimate model parameters in various cases defined by specified time series of the model state, with various forms of added noise. The study identified the crucial importance of the choice of cost function. The present analysis revisits the OptIC study, by considering it as an exercise in statistical estimation. This treats the observations as random variables. Consequently parameter estimates, â, based on observations will also be random variables whose distribution is known as the 'sampling distribution'. Key questions for any specific case are: Are departures from â/a_true =1 indication of bias or sampling error? Under what circumstance are uncertainty estimates (of Var[â]) reliable? We consider cases where the estimate is obtained by minimising a cost function, ΘX. Assuming that we know the true form of ℓ, the log likelihood, there are three different characterisations of uncertainty that should be distinguished: (i) The uncertainty from maximum-likelihood estimates, corresponding (either exactly or asymptotically) to the Cramer-Rao bound. In a realistic calibration situation, we won't be able to determine this because the 'true' form of the likelihood is unknown. (ii) The actual uncertainty associated with using a particular cost function. If the true noise distribution is known, this can be calculated in simple cases and determined from simulations in more complicated cases. (iii) The 'formal uncertainty' based on assuming (usually incorrectly) that ΘX is the true likelihood. In the first stage of the analysis, the distinctions are illustrated by

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND MOBILE CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Rajak*, Diwakar Shukla

    2018-01-01

    Present era is of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and there are number of researches are going on Cloud Computing and Mobile Cloud Computing such security issues, data management, load balancing and so on. Cloud computing provides the services to the end user over Internet and the primary objectives of this computing are resource sharing and pooling among the end users. Mobile Cloud Computing is a combination of Cloud Computing and Mobile Computing. Here, data is stored in...

  5. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootten, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  6. Taxonomy of cloud computing services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefer, C.N.; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is a highly discussed topic, and many big players of the software industry are entering the development of cloud services. Several companies want to explore the possibilities and benefits of cloud computing, but with the amount of cloud computing services increasing quickly, the need

  7. Cloud Computing (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing, the recent years buzzword for distributed computing, continues to attract and keep the interest of both the computing and business world. These lectures aim at explaining "What is Cloud Computing?" identifying and analyzing it's characteristics, models, and applications. The lectures will explore different "Cloud definitions" given by different authors and use them to introduce the particular concepts. The main cloud models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS), cloud types (public, private, hybrid), cloud standards and security concerns will be presented. The borders between Cloud Computing and Grid Computing, Server Virtualization, Utility Computing will be discussed and analyzed.

  8. Cloud Computing (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing, the recent years buzzword for distributed computing, continues to attract and keep the interest of both the computing and business world. These lectures aim at explaining "What is Cloud Computing?" identifying and analyzing it's characteristics, models, and applications. The lectures will explore different "Cloud definitions" given by different authors and use them to introduce the particular concepts. The main cloud models (SaaS, PaaS, IaaS), cloud types (public, private, hybrid), cloud standards and security concerns will be presented. The borders between Cloud Computing and Grid Computing, Server Virtualization, Utility Computing will be discussed and analyzed.

  9. IBM SmartCloud essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schouten, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    A practical, user-friendly guide that provides an introduction to cloud computing using IBM SmartCloud, along with a thorough understanding of resource management in a cloud environment.This book is great for anyone who wants to get a grasp of what cloud computing is and what IBM SmartCloud has to offer. If you are an IT specialist, IT architect, system administrator, or a developer who wants to thoroughly understand the cloud computing resource model, this book is ideal for you. No prior knowledge of cloud computing is expected.

  10. Cloud MicroAtlas∗

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ∗Any resemblance to the title of David Mitchell's book is purely intentional! RESONANCE | March 2017. 269 .... The most comprehensive reference we know of on the subject of cloud microphysics is the book .... Economic and. Political Weekly ...

  11. Experimental project - Cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour, Elena; Quinchard, Gregory; Soudon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This document reports an academic experimental project dealing with the general concepts of radioactivity and their application to the cloud room experiment. The author first recalls the history of the design and development of a cloud room, and some definitions and characteristics of cosmic radiation, and proposes a description of the principle and physics of a cloud room. The second part is a theoretical one, and addresses the involved particles, the origins of electrons, and issues related to the transfer of energy (Bremsstrahlung effect, Bragg peak). The third part reports the experimental work with the assessment of a cloud droplet radius, the identification of a trace for each particle (alphas and electrons), and the study of the magnetic field deviation

  12. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  13. Entangled Cloud Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ateniese, Giuseppe; Dagdelen, Özgür; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    keeps the files in it private but still lets each client P_i recover his own data by interacting with S; no cooperation from other clients is needed. At the same time, the cloud provider is discouraged from altering or overwriting any significant part of c as this will imply that none of the clients can......Entangled cloud storage enables a set of clients {P_i} to “entangle” their files {f_i} into a single clew c to be stored by a (potentially malicious) cloud provider S. The entanglement makes it impossible to modify or delete significant part of the clew without affecting all files in c. A clew...... recover their files. We provide theoretical foundations for entangled cloud storage, introducing the notion of an entangled encoding scheme that guarantees strong security requirements capturing the properties above. We also give a concrete construction based on privacy-preserving polynomial interpolation...

  14. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  15. Plasma end-loss studies on Scylla I-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.; York, T.M.

    1976-08-01

    The end-loss process in the collision dominated Scylla I-C plasma has been investigated with a local pressure sensitive diagnostic, integrated density measurement and axially arrayed diamagnetic loop probes. The development of a plasma loss orifice, well within the theta-pinch coil, has been identified. The magnitude of the observed orifice is found to be in excellent agreement with that predicted from collisional MHD theories. The axially flowing plasma is well confined until it flows through the loss orifice. After passing through the orifice, rapid axial expansion is observed. An indication of the existence of inward traveling rarefaction waves has been observed from the plasma midplane temperature data; an abrupt decrease in the plasma temperature at t approximately equal to 6.5 μs corresponds to the predicted time of arrival of rarefaction waves at the coil midplane. The plasma loss rate derived from the pressure data indicates an initial period (t 4 μs) of gradual decay in the loss rate. This initial period of high loss rate is predicted from the MHD flow theories when the measured, time dependent plasma parameters are substituted into the analytical models. The loss rate determined from the end-on interferograms does not respond to the detailed structure of the plasma loss process

  16. IRNSS/NavIC L5 Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Zaminpardaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS has recently (May 2016 become fully-operational and has been provided with the operational name of NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation. It has been developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO with the objective of offering positioning, navigation and timing (PNT to the users in its service area. This contribution provides for the first time an assessment of the IRNSS L5-signal capability to achieve instantaneous attitude determination on the basis of data collected in Perth, Australia. Our evaluations are conducted for both a linear array of two antennas and a planar array of three antennas. A pre-requisite for precise and fast IRNSS attitude determination is the successful resolution of the double-differenced (DD integer carrier-phase ambiguities. In this contribution, we will compare the performances of different such methods, amongst which the unconstrained and the multivariate-constrained LAMBDA method for both linear and planar arrays. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous ambiguity success rates increase from 15% to 90% for the linear array and from 5% to close to 100% for the planar array, thus showing that standalone IRNSS can realize 24-h almost instantaneous precise attitude determination with heading and elevation standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.10 degrees, respectively.

  17. IC 630: Piercing the Veil of the Nuclear Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy; Schartmann, Marc; Ashraf Uddin, Syed; Cotter, Garrett

    2017-04-01

    IC 630 is a nearby early-type galaxy with a mass of 6× {10}10 M ⊙ with an intense burst of recent (6 Myr) star formation (SF). It shows strong nebular emission lines, with radio and X-ray emission, which classifies it as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). With VLT-SINFONI and Gemini North-NIFS adaptive optics observations (plus supplementary ANU 2.3 m WiFeS optical IFU observations), the excitation diagnostics of the nebular emission species show no sign of standard AGN engine excitation; the stellar velocity dispersion also indicates that a supermassive black hole (if one is present) is small ({M}\\bullet =2.25× {10}5 {M}⊙ ). The luminosity at all wavelengths is consistent with SF at a rate of about 1-2 M ⊙ yr-1. We measure gas outflows driven by SF at a rate of 0.18 M ⊙ yr-1 in a face-on truncated cone geometry. We also observe a nuclear cluster or disk and other clusters. Photoionization from young, hot stars is the main excitation mechanism for [Fe II] and hydrogen, whereas shocks are responsible for the H2 excitation. Our observations are broadly comparable with simulations where a Toomre-unstable, self-gravitating gas disk triggers a burst of SF, peaking after about 30 Myr and possibly cycling with a period of about 200 Myr.

  18. FinFET modeling for IC simulation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chenming; Lu, Darsen D

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard - BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: * Why you should use FinFET* The physics and operation of FinFET* Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG)* Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG* FinFET circuit design and simulation * Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts' insight into the specifications of the standard* The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM...

  19. Marine Cloud Brightening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  20. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality ...

  1. Marine cloud brightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  2. Cloud benchmarking for performance

    OpenAIRE

    Varghese, Blesson; Akgun, Ozgur; Miguel, Ian; Thai, Long; Barker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Date of Acceptance: 20/09/2014 How can applications be deployed on the cloud to achieve maximum performance? This question has become significant and challenging with the availability of a wide variety of Virtual Machines (VMs) with different performance capabilities in the cloud. The above question is addressed by proposing a six step benchmarking methodology in which a user provides a set of four weights that indicate how important each of the following groups: memory, processor, computa...

  3. Toward Cloud Computing Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, Heru; Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil; Kang, Chen Chin

    2012-01-01

    -Information Technology (IT) shaped the success of organizations, giving them a solid foundation that increases both their level of efficiency as well as productivity. The computing industry is witnessing a paradigm shift in the way computing is performed worldwide. There is a growing awareness among consumers and enterprises to access their IT resources extensively through a "utility" model known as "cloud computing." Cloud computing was initially rooted in distributed grid-based computing. ...

  4. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  5. On Cloud-based Oversubscription

    OpenAIRE

    Householder, Rachel; Arnold, Scott; Green, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rising trends in the number of customers turning to the cloud for their computing needs has made effective resource allocation imperative for cloud service providers. In order to maximize profits and reduce waste, providers have started to explore the role of oversubscribing cloud resources. However, the benefits of cloud-based oversubscription are not without inherent risks. This paper attempts to unveil the incentives, risks, and techniques behind oversubscription in a cloud infrastructure....

  6. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON CLOUD ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Pacurari; Elena Nechita

    2013-01-01

    Cloud technologies have developed intensively during the last years. Cloud computing allows the customers to interact with their data and applications at any time, from any location, while the providers host these resources. A client company may choose to run in the cloud a part of its business (sales by agents, payroll, etc.), or even the entire business. The company can get access to a large category of cloud-based software, including accounting software. Cloud solutions are especially reco...

  7. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  8. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mou; Dong Xiang; Guanghong Duan

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the ...

  9. The integrated circuit IC EMP transient state disturbance effect experiment method investigates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Transient state disturbance characteristic study on the integrated circuit, IC, need from its coupling path outset. Through cable (aerial) coupling, EMP converts to an pulse current voltage and results in the impact to the integrated circuit I/O orifice passing the cable. Aiming at the armament system construction feature, EMP effect to the integrated circuit, IC inside the system is analyzed. The integrated circuit, IC EMP effect experiment current injection method is investigated and a few experiments method is given. (authors)

  10. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  11. Prediction of fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ of steel from Charpy impact test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadate, Tadao; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Takemata, Hiroyuki; Terashima, Shuhei

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ and/or K/sub Id/ of steels using their Charpy impact test results and tensile properties. The fracture toughness, Charpy impact and tensile properties of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo, ASTM A508 Cl.1, A508 Cl.2 A508 Cl.3 and A533 Gr.B Cl.1 steels were measured and analysed on the basis of the excess temperature (test temperature minus FATT) and Rolfe-Novak correlation. The relationship between K/sub Ic//K/sub Ic-us/ and the excess temperature, where K/sub Ic-us/ is the upper-shelf fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ predicted by Rolfe-Novak correlation, discloses that the K/sub Ic/ transition curves of several steels are representable by only one trend curve of K/sub Ic//K/sub Ic-us/ or K/sub Id//K/sub Id-us/ versus excess temperature relation. This curve is denoted as a ''master curve''. By using this curve, the fracture toughness of steel can be predicted using Charpy impact and tensile test results. By taking account of the scattering of both the fracture toughness and Charpy impact test results, the confidence limits of the master curve were also determined. Another approach to develop more general procedure of predicting the fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ is also discussed.

  12. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  13. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  14. The influence of the stress state on Ksub(Ic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Helms, R.; Schmidt, P.; Veith, H.; Ziebs, J.

    1977-01-01

    To get a first impression of the influence of stress states of higher multi-axiality than plane strain on Ksub(c) a specimen has been created, in which a bi-axial nominal stress state arises by uniaxial tension. This is attained by tension superimposed by transverse bending stress. The stress distribution without crack was analysed by photoelasticity as well as by finite element method. The results were identical. The stress distribution in the fracture (crack) plane was somewhat inhomogeneous, of course. But the ratio of the stress parallel to the tension axis to that perpendicular to it was max. 1:0.3 with a mean value 1:0.15. Specimens of this type were machined from a rolled sheet of the steel 22 NiMoCr 37, with specimen thickness of about 50 mm. For comparison single-edge notched specimens of the same cross section were prepared from the same material. Fatigue cracks were made following ASTM Recommendations. The fracture mechanics tests were carried out at a temperature of -100 0 C. Although valid Ksub(Ic)-values following the rigorous intention of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (ASTM Recommendations) were not obtained, the differences between the results of the two types of specimens and stress states were significant. The Ksub(Q)-values of the bi-axial stressed specimen were about 25% lower than that of the single-edge notched specimen. The deviation of the load-displacement trace from the linear elastic behavior was greater for the single-edge notched specimens than for the bi-axial stressed specimens. The consequences of these results for the assessment of flaws in pressure vessels are evident considering that bi-axial nominal stress states occur in pressure vessels

  15. Marine cloud brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  16. USGEO DMWG Cloud Computing Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; McInerney, M.; Frame, M. T.; Summers, C.

    2017-12-01

    The US Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) has been developing Cloud Computing Recommendations for Earth Observations. This inter-agency report is currently in draft form; DMWG hopes to have released the report as a public Request for Information (RFI) by the time of AGU. The recommendations are geared toward organizations that have already decided to use the Cloud for some of their activities (i.e., the focus is not on "why you should use the Cloud," but rather "If you plan to use the Cloud, consider these suggestions.") The report comprises Introductory Material, including Definitions, Potential Cloud Benefits, and Potential Cloud Disadvantages, followed by Recommendations in several areas: Assessing When to Use the Cloud, Transferring Data to the Cloud, Data and Metadata Contents, Developing Applications in the Cloud, Cost Minimization, Security Considerations, Monitoring and Metrics, Agency Support, and Earth Observations-specific recommendations. This talk will summarize the recommendations and invite comment on the RFI.

  17. Cloud GIS Based Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediroğlu, G.; Colak, H. E.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we generated a Cloud GIS based watershed management system with using Cloud Computing architecture. Cloud GIS is used as SAAS (Software as a Service) and DAAS (Data as a Service). We applied GIS analysis on cloud in terms of testing SAAS and deployed GIS datasets on cloud in terms of DAAS. We used Hybrid cloud computing model in manner of using ready web based mapping services hosted on cloud (World Topology, Satellite Imageries). We uploaded to system after creating geodatabases including Hydrology (Rivers, Lakes), Soil Maps, Climate Maps, Rain Maps, Geology and Land Use. Watershed of study area has been determined on cloud using ready-hosted topology maps. After uploading all the datasets to systems, we have applied various GIS analysis and queries. Results shown that Cloud GIS technology brings velocity and efficiency for watershed management studies. Besides this, system can be easily implemented for similar land analysis and management studies.

  18. Security Problems in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Motawie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud is a pool of computing resources which are distributed among cloud users. Cloud computing has many benefits like scalability, flexibility, cost savings, reliability, maintenance and mobile accessibility. Since cloud-computing technology is growing day by day, it comes with many security problems. Securing the data in the cloud environment is most critical challenges which act as a barrier when implementing the cloud. There are many new concepts that cloud introduces, such as resource sharing, multi-tenancy, and outsourcing, create new challenges for the security community. In this work, we provide a comparable study of cloud computing privacy and security concerns. We identify and classify known security threats, cloud vulnerabilities, and attacks.

  19. Cloud type comparisons of AIRS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO cloud height and amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Kahn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the two-layer cloud height fields derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS is explored and quantified for a five-day set of observations. Coincident profiles of vertical cloud structure by CloudSat, a 94 GHz profiling radar, and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO, are compared to AIRS for a wide range of cloud types. Bias and variability in cloud height differences are shown to have dependence on cloud type, height, and amount, as well as whether CloudSat or CALIPSO is used as the comparison standard. The CloudSat-AIRS biases and variability range from −4.3 to 0.5±1.2–3.6 km for all cloud types. Likewise, the CALIPSO-AIRS biases range from 0.6–3.0±1.2–3.6 km (−5.8 to −0.2±0.5–2.7 km for clouds ≥7 km (<7 km. The upper layer of AIRS has the greatest sensitivity to Altocumulus, Altostratus, Cirrus, Cumulonimbus, and Nimbostratus, whereas the lower layer has the greatest sensitivity to Cumulus and Stratocumulus. Although the bias and variability generally decrease with increasing cloud amount, the ability of AIRS to constrain cloud occurrence, height, and amount is demonstrated across all cloud types for many geophysical conditions. In particular, skill is demonstrated for thin Cirrus, as well as some Cumulus and Stratocumulus, cloud types infrared sounders typically struggle to quantify. Furthermore, some improvements in the AIRS Version 5 operational retrieval algorithm are demonstrated. However, limitations in AIRS cloud retrievals are also revealed, including the existence of spurious Cirrus near the tropopause and low cloud layers within Cumulonimbus and Nimbostratus clouds. Likely causes of spurious clouds are identified and the potential for further improvement is discussed.

  20. Counting the clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, David A

    2005-01-01

    Cloud processes are very important for the global circulation of the atmosphere. It is now possible, though very expensive, to simulate the global circulation of the atmosphere using a model with resolution fine enough to explicitly represent the larger individual clouds. An impressive preliminary calculation of this type has already been performed by Japanese scientists, using the Earth Simulator. Within the next few years, such global cloud-resolving models (GCRMs) will be applied to weather prediction, and later they will be used in climatechange simulations. The tremendous advantage of GCRMs, relative to conventional lowerresolution global models, is that GCRMs can avoid many of the questionable 'parameterizations' used to represent cloud effects in lower-resolution global models. Although cloud microphysics, turbulence, and radiation must still be parameterized in GCRMs, the high resolution of a GCRM simplifies these problems considerably, relative to conventional models. The United States currently has no project to develop a GCRM, although we have both the computer power and the expertise to do it. A research program aimed at development and applications of GCRMs is outlined

  1. Measuring IC following a semi-qualitative approach: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Considering the different IC measures adopted in literature, the advantages of adopting semi-qualitative measures, and the lack of an agreed system for IC evaluation, the purpose of the paper is to analyse literature on IC measurement following a semi-qualitative approach, with the final intent to build an IC measurement framework. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on IC measurement system, following a semi-qualitative approach, has been conducted and analysed, in order to re-organize and synthesize all items used in previous researches. Findings: An integrated framework emerged from this research and it constitutes an IC  measurement system, created gathering and integrating different items previously adopted in literature. Each of these variables has been organized in categories belonging to one of the three main components of IC: human capital, internal structural capital and relational capital. Originality/value: This research provides an integrated tool for IC evaluation, fostering toward a well agreed measurement system that is still lacking in literature. This framework could be interesting  not only for the academic world, which in the last two decades reveals increasing attention to IC, but also for the management of the companies, that with IC measurement can increase awareness of the firm’s value and develop internal auditing system to support the management of these assets. Moreover, it could be a useful instrument for the communication of IC value to the external stakeholders, as customers, suppliers and especially shareholders, and to investors and financial analysts.

  2. Trust management in cloud services

    CERN Document Server

    Noor, Talal H; Bouguettaya, Athman

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design and implementation of Cloud Armor, a novel approach for credibility-based trust management and automatic discovery of cloud services in distributed and highly dynamic environments. This book also helps cloud users to understand the difficulties of establishing trust in cloud computing and the best criteria for selecting a service cloud. The techniques have been validated by a prototype system implementation and experimental studies using a collection of real world trust feedbacks on cloud services.The authors present the design and implementation of a novel pro

  3. Scale analysis of convective clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Gryschka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.

  4. Moving HammerCloud to CERN's private cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Barrand, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    HammerCloud is a testing framework for the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. Currently deployed on about 20 hand-managed machines, it was desirable to move it to the Agile Infrastructure, CERN's OpenStack-based private cloud.

  5. Modeling of Cloud/Radiation Processes for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liou, K

    1997-01-01

    This technical report includes five reprints and pre-prints of papers associated with the modeling of cirrus cloud and radiation processes as well as remote sensing of cloud optical and microphysical...

  6. Crowdsourcing Disease Biomarker Discovery Research: The IP4IC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Michael B; Bartolone, Sarah N; Veerecke, Andrew; Lamb, Laura E

    2018-05-01

    Biomarker discovery is limited by readily assessable, cost efficient human samples available in large numbers that represent the entire heterogeneity of the disease. We developed a novel, active participation crowdsourcing method to determine BP-RS (Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score). It is based on noninvasive urinary cytokines to discriminate patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had Hunner lesions from controls and patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome but without Hunner lesions. We performed a national crowdsourcing study in cooperation with the Interstitial Cystitis Association. Patients answered demographic, symptom severity and urinary frequency questionnaires on a HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant website. Urine samples were collected at home, stabilized with a preservative and sent to Beaumont Hospital for analysis. The expression of 3 urinary cytokines was used in a machine learning algorithm to develop BP-RS. The IP4IC study collected a total of 448 urine samples, representing 153 patients (147 females and 6 males) with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, of whom 54 (50 females and 4 males) had Hunner lesions. A total of 159 female and 136 male controls also participated, who were age matched. A defined BP-RS was calculated to predict interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions or a bladder permeability defect etiology with 89% validity. In this novel participation crowdsourcing study we obtained a large number of urine samples from 46 states, which were collected at home, shipped and stored at room temperature. Using a machine learning algorithm we developed BP-RS to quantify the risk of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions, which is indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology. To our knowledge BP-RS is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and one of the

  7. Tharsis Limb Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated image of Tharsis Limb Cloud 7 September 2005 This composite of red and blue Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired on 6 July 2005 shows an isolated water ice cloud extending more than 30 kilometers (more than 18 miles) above the martian surface. Clouds such as this are common in late spring over the terrain located southwest of the Arsia Mons volcano. Arsia Mons is the dark, oval feature near the limb, just to the left of the 'T' in the 'Tharsis Montes' label. The dark, nearly circular feature above the 'S' in 'Tharsis' is the volcano, Pavonis Mons, and the other dark circular feature, above and to the right of 's' in 'Montes,' is Ascraeus Mons. Illumination is from the left/lower left. Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  8. Transition to the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Xiao, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The rising of cloud computing has dramatically changed the way software companies provide and distribute their IT product and related services over the last decades. Today, most software is bought offthe-shelf and distributed over the Internet. This transition is greatly influencing how software...... companies operate. In this paper, we present a case study of an ERP vendor for SMB (small and mediumsize business) in making a transition towards a cloud-based business model. Through the theoretical lens of ecosystem, we are able to analyze the evolution of the vendor and its business network as a whole......, and find that the relationship between vendor and Value-added-Reseller (VAR) is greatly affected. We conclude by presenting critical issues and challenges for managing such cloud transition....

  9. The photoevaporation of interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, F.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of the photoevaporation of interstellar clouds and its consequences for the structure and evolution of H II regions are studied. An approximate analytical solution for the evolution of photoevaporating clouds is derived under the realistic assumption of axisymmetry. The effects of magnetic fields are taken into account in an approximate way. The evolution of a neutral cloud subjected to the ionizing radiation of an OB star has two distinct stages. When a cloud is first exposed to the radiation, the increase in pressure due to the ionization at the surface of the cloud leads to a radiation-driven implosion: an ionization front drives a shock into the cloud, ionizes part of it and compresses the remaining into a dense globule. The initial implosion is followed by an equilibrium cometary stage, in which the cloud maintains a semistationary comet-shaped configuration; it slowly evaporates while accelerating away from the ionizing star until the cloud has been completely ionized, reaches the edge of the H II region, or dies. Expressions are derived for the cloud mass-loss rate and acceleration. To investigate the effect of the cloud photoevaporation on the structure of H II regions, the evolution of an ensemble of clouds of a given mass distribution is studied. It is shown that the compressive effect of the ionizing radiation can induce star formation in clouds that were initially gravitationally stable, both for thermally and magnetically supported clouds

  10. Cloud Computing: A study of cloud architecture and its patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mandeep Handa,; Shriya Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. Cloud computing is a paradigm shift following the shift from mainframe to client–server in the early 1980s. Cloud computing can be defined as accessing third party software and services on web and paying as per usage. It facilitates scalability and virtualized resources over Internet as a service providing cost effective and scalable solution to customers. Cloud computing has...

  11. EVN observations of the OH megamaser galaxies Mrk 231 and IC 694

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klockner, HR; Baan, WA; Migenes,; Reid, MJ

    2002-01-01

    We present EVN observations of hydroxyl (OH) main-line emission in two megamaser sources Mrk 231 and IC 694. The observations indicate that the broad maser emission lines originate within the nuclear regions. A single 1667 MHz main-line feature is seen at the nucleus of IC 694. In Mrk 231 both

  12. Adopting De Novo Programming Approach on IC Design Service Firms Resources Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. C. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry has very important position in computer industry, ICT field, and new electronic technology developing. The IC design service is one of key factor of semiconductor industry development. There are more than 365 IC design service firms have been established around Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan. Building an efficient planning model for IC design service firm resources integrating is very interest issue. This study aims to construct a planning model for IC design service firm implementation resources integration. This study uses the De Novo programming as an approach of criteria alternative to achieve optimal resource allocation on IC design firm. Results show the IC design service firm should conduct open innovation concept and utilizes design outsourcing obtains cost down and enhance IC design service business performance. This plan model of De Novo programming is not only for IC design service firm and also can apply to the other industrial implementation strategic alliance/integrating resource. This plan model is a universal model for the others industries field.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  14. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  15. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  16. A Solder Based Self Assembly Project in an Introductory IC Fabrication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhav; Lusth, John C.; Burkett, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication principles is an elective course in a senior undergraduate and early graduate student's curriculum. Over the years, the semiconductor industry relies heavily on students with developed expertise in the area of fabrication techniques, learned in an IC fabrication theory and laboratory course. The theory course…

  17. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Boreholes shall be drilled in such a manner to insure that the advancing face will not accidently break into... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines...

  19. Evaluation of accelerated test parameters for CMOS IC total dose hardness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, A.V.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Chumakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The approach to accelerated test parameters evaluation is presented in order to predict CMOS IC total dose behavior in variable dose-rate environment. The technique is based on the analytical model of MOSFET parameters total dose degradation. The simple way to estimate model parameter is proposed using IC's input-output MOSFET radiation test results. (authors)

  20. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  1. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  2. Cloud Collaboration: Cloud-Based Instruction for Business Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charlie; Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne; Wang, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies, such as Google Docs, Adobe Creative Cloud, Dropbox, and Microsoft Windows Live, have become increasingly appreciated to the next generation digital learning tools. Cloud computing technologies encourage students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in their learning, facilitate group work, and support…

  3. Cloud blueprints for integrating and managing cloud federations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.; Heisel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary cloud technologies face insurmountable obstacles. They follow a pull-based, producer-centric trajectory to development where cloud consumers have to ‘squeeze and bolt’ applications onto cloud APIs. They also introduce a monolithic SaaS/PaaS/IaaS stack where a one-size-fits-all mentality

  4. Opaque cloud detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskovensky, John K [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  5. Storm and cloud dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cotton, William R

    1992-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics of clouds and of precipitating mesoscale meteorological systems. Clouds and precipitating mesoscale systems represent some of the most important and scientifically exciting weather systems in the world. These are the systems that produce torrential rains, severe winds including downburst and tornadoes, hail, thunder and lightning, and major snow storms. Forecasting such storms represents a major challenge since they are too small to be adequately resolved by conventional observing networks and numerical prediction models.Key Features* Key Highlight

  6. Detailed Information Security in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Valerievich Ivonin

    2013-01-01

    The object of research in this article is technology of public clouds, structure and security system of clouds. Problems of information security in clouds are considered, elements of security system in public clouds are described.

  7. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  8. Relationships among cloud occurrence frequency, overlap, and effective thickness derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat merged cloud vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profiles derived from the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and cloud profiling radar. The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical profiles can be related by a cloud overlap matrix when the correlation length of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data (July 2006) support these assumptions, although the correlation length sometimes increases with separation distance when the cloud top height is large. The data also show that the correlation length depends on cloud top hight and the maximum occurs when the cloud top height is 8 to 10 km. The cloud correlation length is equivalent to the decorrelation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth (2000) when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same. The simple relationships derived in this study can be used to estimate the top-of-atmosphere irradiance difference caused by cloud fraction, uppermost cloud top, and cloud thickness vertical profile differences.

  9. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions.

  10. Periods and light curves of 16 Cepheid variables in IC 1613 not completed by Baade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    New periods and light curves are presented for 16 of the faintest Cepheids in IC 1613 which had not been finished by Baade. Magnitudes have been reduced to Freedman's new photometric scale. The P-L relation is extended to periods of 2 days using these new data. Comparison of the total Cepheid data now available in IC 1613 with the data in LMC shows no significant slope difference in the two P-L relations for periods of less than 10 days despite the lower metallicity of the young stars in IC 1613. Fifty new faint Cepheid candidates have been found in IC 1613 by blinking plates not used for this purpose by Baade. Most of these stars will have probable periods of less than 2 days, which will eventually permit an extension of the P-L relation in IC 1613 to fainter magnitudes when the photometry and period determinations are completed. 18 refs

  11. Securing virtual and cloud environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carroll, M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available targets such as reduced costs, scalability, flexibility, capacity utilisation, higher efficiencies and mobility. Many of these benefits are achieved through the utilisation of technologies such as cloud computing and virtualisation. In many instances cloud...

  12. DECONVOLUTION OF IMAGES FROM BLAST 2005: INSIGHT INTO THE K3-50 AND IC 5146 STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arabindo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew G.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; France, Kevin; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Olmi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the iterative flux-conserving Lucy-Richardson (L-R) deconvolution method of image restoration for maps produced by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Compared to the direct Fourier transform method of deconvolution, the L-R operation restores images with better-controlled background noise and increases source detectability. Intermediate iterated images are useful for studying extended diffuse structures, while the later iterations truly enhance point sources to near the designed diffraction limit of the telescope. The L-R method of deconvolution is efficient in resolving compact sources in crowded regions while simultaneously conserving their respective flux densities. We have analyzed its performance and convergence extensively through simulations and cross-correlations of the deconvolved images with available high-resolution maps. We present new science results from two BLAST surveys, in the Galactic regions K3-50 and IC 5146, further demonstrating the benefits of performing this deconvolution. We have resolved three clumps within a radius of 4.'5 inside the star-forming molecular cloud containing K3-50. Combining the well-resolved dust emission map with available multi-wavelength data, we have constrained the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of five clumps to obtain masses (M), bolometric luminosities (L), and dust temperatures (T). The L-M diagram has been used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the evolutionary stages of the clumps. There are close relationships between dust continuum emission and both 21 cm radio continuum and 12 CO molecular line emission. The restored extended large-scale structures in the Northern Streamer of IC 5146 have a strong spatial correlation with both SCUBA and high-resolution extinction images. A dust temperature of 12 K has been obtained for the central filament. We report physical properties of ten compact sources, including six associated protostars, by fitting

  13. Efficient Resource Management in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Rushikesh Shingade; Amit Patil; Shivam Suryawanshi; M. Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing, one of the widely used technology to provide cloud services for users who are charged for receiving services. In the aspect of a maximum number of resources, evaluating the performance of Cloud resource management policies are difficult to optimize efficiently. There are different simulation toolkits available for simulation and modelling the Cloud computing environment like GridSim CloudAnalyst, CloudSim, GreenCloud, CloudAuction etc. In proposed Efficient Resource Manage...

  14. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  15. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. Cloud Computing Security: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Issa; Khreishah, Abdallah; Azeem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging technology paradigm that migrates current technological and computing concepts into utility-like solutions similar to electricity and water systems. Clouds bring out a wide range of benefits including configurable computing resources, economic savings, and service flexibility. However, security and privacy concerns are shown to be the primary obstacles to a wide adoption of clouds. The new concepts that clouds introduce, such as multi-tenancy, resource sharing a...

  17. Database security in the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhi, Imal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to get an overview of the database services available in cloud computing environment, investigate the security risks associated with it and propose the possible countermeasures to minimize the risks. The thesis also analyzes two cloud database service providers namely; Amazon RDS and Xeround. The reason behind choosing these two providers is because they are currently amongst the leading cloud database providers and both provide relational cloud databases which makes ...

  18. QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira Aslam; Hina Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is a greatest and latest thing. Marketers for lots of big companies are all using cloud computing terms in their marketing campaign to make them seem them impressive so, that they can get clients and customers. Cloud computing is overall the philosophy and design concept and it is much more complicated and yet much simpler. The basic underlined thing that cloud computing do is to separate the applications from operating systems from the software from the hardware that runs eve...

  19. Cloud services, networking, and management

    CERN Document Server

    da Fonseca, Nelson L S

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Services, Networking and Management provides a comprehensive overview of the cloud infrastructure and services, as well as their underlying management mechanisms, including data center virtualization and networking, cloud security and reliability, big data analytics, scientific and commercial applications. Special features of the book include: State-of-the-art content. Self-contained chapters for readers with specific interests. Includes commercial applications on Cloud (video services and games).

  20. Security Dynamics of Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Khaled M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores various dimensions of cloud computing security. It argues that security concerns of cloud computing need to be addressed from the perspective of individual stakeholder. Security focuses of cloud computing are essentially different in terms of its characteristics and business model. Conventional way of viewing as well as addressing security such as ‘bolting-in’ on the top of cloud computing may not work well. The paper attempts to portray the security spectrum necessary for...

  1. Green Cloud on the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mufajjul

    This paper proposes a Green Cloud model for mobile Cloud computing. The proposed model leverage on the current trend of IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and SaaS (Software as a Service), and look at new paradigm called "Network as a Service" (NaaS). The Green Cloud model proposes various Telco's revenue generating streams and services with the CaaS (Cloud as a Service) for the near future.

  2. Reusability Framework for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpal; Singh, Rishideep

    2012-01-01

    Cloud based development is a challenging task for several software engineering projects, especially for those which needs development with reusability. Present time of cloud computing is allowing new professional models for using the software development. The expected upcoming trend of computing is assumed to be this cloud computing because of speed of application deployment, shorter time to market, and lower cost of operation. Until Cloud Co mputing Reusability Model is considered a fundamen...

  3. iCloud standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alfi, Fauzan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-use guide, filled with tutorials that will teach you how to set up and use iCloud, and profit from all of its marvellous features.This book is for anyone with basic knowledge of computers and mobile operations. Prior knowledge of cloud computing or iCloud is not expected.

  4. Coherent Radiation of Electron Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    2004-01-01

    The electron cloud in positron storage rings is pinched when a bunch passes by. For short bunches, the radiation due to acceleration of electrons of the cloud is coherent. Detection of such radiation can be used to measure the density of the cloud. The estimate of the power and the time structure of the radiated signal is given in this paper

  5. Understanding and Monitoring Cloud Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio

    2013-01-01

    Cloud services have changed the way computing power is delivered to customers. The advantages of the cloud model have fast resulted in powerful providers. However, this success has not come without problems. Cloud providers have been related to major failures, including outages and performance

  6. Research on cloud computing solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudvikas Kaklauskas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can be defined as a new style of computing in which dynamically scala-ble and often virtualized resources are provided as a services over the Internet. Advantages of the cloud computing technology include cost savings, high availability, and easy scalability. Voas and Zhang adapted six phases of computing paradigms, from dummy termi-nals/mainframes, to PCs, networking computing, to grid and cloud computing. There are four types of cloud computing: public cloud, private cloud, hybrid cloud and community. The most common and well-known deployment model is Public Cloud. A Private Cloud is suited for sensitive data, where the customer is dependent on a certain degree of security.According to the different types of services offered, cloud computing can be considered to consist of three layers (services models: IaaS (infrastructure as a service, PaaS (platform as a service, SaaS (software as a service. Main cloud computing solutions: web applications, data hosting, virtualization, database clusters and terminal services. The advantage of cloud com-puting is the ability to virtualize and share resources among different applications with the objective for better server utilization and without a clustering solution, a service may fail at the moment the server crashes.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.914

  7. GEWEX cloud assessment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Rossow, William B.; Kinne, Stefan; Ackerman, Steve; Cesana, Gregory; Chepfer, Hélène; Di Girolamo, Larry; Getzewich, Brian; Guignard, Anthony; Heidinger, Andy; Maddux, Brent; Menzel, Paul; Minnis, Patrick; Pearl, Cindy; Platnick, Steven; Poulsen, Caroline; Riedi, Jérôme; Sayer, Andrew; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Walther, Andi; Winker, Dave; Zeng, Shen; Zhao, Guangyu

    2013-05-01

    Clouds cover about 70% of the Earth's surface and play a dominant role in the energy and water cycle of our planet. Only satellite observations provide a continuous survey of the state of the atmosphere over the entire globe and across the wide range of spatial and temporal scales that comprise weather and climate variability. Satellite cloud data records now exceed more than 25 years; however, climatologies compiled from different satellite datasets can exhibit systematic biases. Questions therefore arise as to the accuracy and limitations of the various sensors. The Global Energy and Water cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud Assessment, initiated in 2005 by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, provides the first coordinated intercomparison of publicly available, global cloud products (gridded, monthly statistics) retrieved from measurements of multi-spectral imagers (some with multi-angle view and polarization capabilities), IR sounders and lidar. Cloud properties under study include cloud amount, cloud height (in terms of pressure, temperature or altitude), cloud radiative properties (optical depth or emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase and bulk microphysical properties (effective particle size and water path). Differences in average cloud properties, especially in the amount of high-level clouds, are mostly explained by the inherent instrument measurement capability for detecting and/or identifying optically thin cirrus, especially when overlying low-level clouds. The study of long-term variations with these datasets requires consideration of many factors. The monthly, gridded database presented here facilitates further assessments, climate studies, and the evaluation of climate models.

  8. The Basics of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  9. Towards trustworthy health platform cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, M.; Nalin, M.; Petkovic, M.; Baroni, I.; Marco, A.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    To address today’s major concerns of health service providers regarding security, resilience and data protection when moving on the cloud, we propose an approach to build a trustworthy healthcare platform cloud, based on a trustworthy cloud infrastructure. This paper first highlights the main

  10. A View from the Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is definitely a thing now, but it's not new and it's not even novel. Back when people were first learning about the Internet in the 1990s, every diagram that one saw showing how the Internet worked had a big cloud in the middle. That cloud represented the diverse links, routers, gateways, and protocols that passed traffic around in…

  11. Trusting Privacy in the Cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.O.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing technologies have the potential to increase innovation and economic growth considerably. But many users worry that data in the cloud can be accessed by others, thereby damaging the data owner. Consequently, they do not use cloud technologies up to the efficient level. I design an

  12. Securing the Cloud Cloud Computer Security Techniques and Tactics

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Vic (JR)

    2011-01-01

    As companies turn to cloud computing technology to streamline and save money, security is a fundamental concern. Loss of certain control and lack of trust make this transition difficult unless you know how to handle it. Securing the Cloud discusses making the move to the cloud while securing your peice of it! The cloud offers felxibility, adaptability, scalability, and in the case of security-resilience. This book details the strengths and weaknesses of securing your company's information with different cloud approaches. Attacks can focus on your infrastructure, communications network, data, o

  13. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  14. VMware private cloud computing with vCloud director

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, Simon

    2013-01-01

    It's All About Delivering Service with vCloud Director Empowered by virtualization, companies are not just moving into the cloud, they're moving into private clouds for greater security, flexibility, and cost savings. However, this move involves more than just infrastructure. It also represents a different business model and a new way to provide services. In this detailed book, VMware vExpert Simon Gallagher makes sense of private cloud computing for IT administrators. From basic cloud theory and strategies for adoption to practical implementation, he covers all the issues. You'll lea

  15. Initial Breakdown Pulse Amplitudes in Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T. C.; Smith, E. M.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Siedlecki, R. D., II

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes the largest initial breakdown (IB) pulse in flashes from three storms in Florida. The study was motivated in part by the possibility that IB pulses of IC flashes may cause of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The range-normalized, zero-to-peak amplitude of the largest IB pulse within each flash was determined along with its altitude, duration, and occurrence time in the flash. Appropriate data were available for 40 intracloud (IC) and 32 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. Histograms of the magnitude of the largest IB pulse amplitude by flash type were similar, with mean (median) values of 1.49 (1.05) V/m for IC flashes and -1.35 (-0.87) V/m for CG flashes. The mean amplitude of the largest IC IB pulses are substantially smaller (roughly an order of magnitude smaller) than the few known pulse amplitudes of TGF events and TGF candidate events. The largest IB pulse in 30 IC flashes showed a weak inverse relation between pulse amplitude and altitude. Amplitude of the largest IB pulse for 25 CG flashes showed no altitude correlation. Duration of the largest IB pulse in ICs averaged twice as long as in CGs (96 μs versus 46 μs); all of the CG durations were <100 μs. Among the ICs, there is a positive relation between largest IB pulse duration and amplitude; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.385 with outliers excluded. The largest IB pulse in IC flashes typically occurred at a longer time after the first IB pulse (average 4.1 ms) than was the case in CG flashes (average 0.6 ms). In both flash types, the largest IB pulse was the first IB pulse in about 30% of the cases.

  16. Benchmarking personal cloud storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko

    2013-01-01

    Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -

  17. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  18. Computing in the Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  19. CloudETL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2014-01-01

    Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) programs process data into data warehouses (DWs). Rapidly growing data volumes demand systems that scale out. Recently, much attention has been given to MapReduce for parallel handling of massive data sets in cloud environments. Hive is the most widely used RDBMS...

  20. Predictable cloud computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.

    The standard tools for cloud computing—processor and network virtualization—make it difficult to achieve dependability, both in terms of real time operations and fault tolerance. Virtualization multiplexes virtual resources onto physical ones, typically by time division or statistical multiplexing.

  1. SiCloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Cathy Y.; Devore, Peter T.S.; Lonappan, Cejo Konuparamban

    2017-01-01

    The silicon photonics industry is projected to be a multibillion dollar industry driven by the growth of data centers. In this work, we present an interactive online tool for silicon photonics. Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCCloud.org) is an easy to use instructional tool for optical properties...

  2. Towards autonomous vehicular clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Olariu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The dawn of the 21st century has seen a growing interest in vehicular networking and its myriad potential applications. The initial view of practitioners and researchers was that radio-equipped vehicles could keep the drivers informed about potential safety risks and increase their awareness of road conditions. The view then expanded to include access to the Internet and associated services. This position paper proposes and promotes a novel and more comprehensive vision namely, that advances in vehicular networks, embedded devices and cloud computing will enable the formation of autonomous clouds of vehicular computing, communication, sensing, power and physical resources. Hence, we coin the term, autonomous vehicular clouds (AVCs. A key feature distinguishing AVCs from conventional cloud computing is that mobile AVC resources can be pooled dynamically to serve authorized users and to enable autonomy in real-time service sharing and management on terrestrial, aerial, or aquatic pathways or theaters of operations. In addition to general-purpose AVCs, we also envision the emergence of specialized AVCs such as mobile analytics laboratories. Furthermore, we envision that the integration of AVCs with ubiquitous smart infrastructures including intelligent transportation systems, smart cities and smart electric power grids will have an enormous societal impact enabling ubiquitous utility cyber-physical services at the right place, right time and with right-sized resources.

  3. Seeding the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    For any institution looking to shift enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to the cloud, big savings can be achieved--but only if the school has properly prepped "before" negotiations begin. These three steps can help: (1) Mop up the mess first; (2) Understand the true costs for services; and (3) Calculate the cost of transition.

  4. Data in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to move from one representation of data to another is one of the key characteristics of expert mathematicians and scientists. Cloud computing will offer more opportunities to create and display multiple representations of data, making this skill even more important in the future. The advent of the Internet led to widespread…

  5. AIRS-CloudSat cloud mask, radar reflectivities, and cloud classification matchups V3.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is AIRS-CloudSat collocated subset, in NetCDF 4 format. These data contain collocated: AIRS Level 1b radiances spectra, CloudSat radar reflectivities, and MODIS...

  6. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  7. A comparison of shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions: effect of increased cloud density contrast on cloud evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, K. J. A.; Pittard, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    The similarities, or otherwise, of a shock or wind interacting with a cloud of density contrast χ = 10 were explored in a previous paper. Here, we investigate such interactions with clouds of higher density contrast. We compare the adiabatic hydrodynamic interaction of a Mach 10 shock with a spherical cloud of χ = 103 with that of a cloud embedded in a wind with identical parameters to the post-shock flow. We find that initially there are only minor morphological differences between the shock-cloud and wind-cloud interactions, compared to when χ = 10. However, once the transmitted shock exits the cloud, the development of a turbulent wake and fragmentation of the cloud differs between the two simulations. On increasing the wind Mach number, we note the development of a thin, smooth tail of cloud material, which is then disrupted by the fragmentation of the cloud core and subsequent `mass-loading' of the flow. We find that the normalized cloud mixing time (tmix) is shorter at higher χ. However, a strong Mach number dependence on tmix and the normalized cloud drag time, t_{drag}^' }, is not observed. Mach-number-dependent values of tmix and t_{drag}^' } from comparable shock-cloud interactions converge towards the Mach-number-independent time-scales of the wind-cloud simulations. We find that high χ clouds can be accelerated up to 80-90 per cent of the wind velocity and travel large distances before being significantly mixed. However, complete mixing is not achieved in our simulations and at late times the flow remains perturbed.

  8. Current status of ITER I&C system as integration begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William, E-mail: william.davis@iter.org [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yonekawa, Izuru [Nippon Advanced Technology Ltd., 3129-45 Hibara Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1112 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The ITER I&C system is organisationally complicated and technically challenging. • Standard technologies for the ITER I&C systems have been selected. • Supply of non-standard technologies will cause serious issues. • Differing levels of design maturity of plant I&C systems is a serious challenge. • Systems are in the final stages of design and are being delivered to site. - Abstract: The ITER I&C system is organisationally complicated and technically challenging, and integrating its many sub-systems into a single coherent system is critical for the ITER project to meet its objectives. This paper explains the integration risks being faced now and anticipated in the near future. Standardisation initiatives by the ITER central team to mitigate these risks are described. The paper also presents the architecture of the ITER I&C system, the current status of design and manufacture key developments made in recent years, and the current and future activities of the central I&C teams. Finally, a short description is given of the plant I&C systems that will be delivered to ITER in the near future.

  9. ICECAP: an integrated, general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Judy; King, Kristopher W; Jing, Jing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Liyu

    2015-02-01

    IC50 and EC50 values are commonly used to evaluate drug potency. Mass spectrometry (MS)-centric bioanalytical and biomarker labs are now conducting IC50/EC50 assays, which, if done manually, are tedious and error-prone. Existing bioanalytical sample preparation automation systems cannot meet IC50/EC50 assay throughput demand. A general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform was developed to automate the calculations of spiking solutions and the matrix solutions preparation scheme, the actual spiking and matrix solutions preparations, as well as the flexible sample extraction procedures after incubation. In addition, the platform also automates the data extraction, nonlinear regression curve fitting, computation of IC50/EC50 values, graphing, and reporting. The automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform can process the whole class of assays of varying assay conditions. In each run, the system can handle up to 32 compounds and up to 10 concentration levels per compound, and it greatly improves IC50/EC50 assay experimental productivity and data processing efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Cloud Computing Security Issue: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Shailza; Kaur, Rajpreet

    2011-12-01

    Cloud computing is the growing field in IT industry since 2007 proposed by IBM. Another company like Google, Amazon, and Microsoft provides further products to cloud computing. The cloud computing is the internet based computing that shared recourses, information on demand. It provides the services like SaaS, IaaS and PaaS. The services and recourses are shared by virtualization that run multiple operation applications on cloud computing. This discussion gives the survey on the challenges on security issues during cloud computing and describes some standards and protocols that presents how security can be managed.

  11. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  12. Cloud database development and management

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, cloud computing is almost everywhere. However, one can hardly find a textbook that utilizes cloud computing for teaching database and application development. This cloud-based database development book teaches both the theory and practice with step-by-step instructions and examples. This book helps readers to set up a cloud computing environment for teaching and learning database systems. The book will cover adequate conceptual content for students and IT professionals to gain necessary knowledge and hands-on skills to set up cloud based database systems.

  13. Extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con LIX 860N-IC y LIX 84-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Carlos María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the extraction of copper from chloride solutions with two hydroxyoximes: 5- nonylsalicylaldoxime (LIX 860N-IC and 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenona oxime (LIX 84-IC is discussed. The results showed that an increase in the acidity and an increase in the total concentration of chloride ions in the aqueous phase decreased significantly the extraction of copper as well as the extraction of iron for both extractants. This effect of the chloride ions can be explained by the formation of a series of chloro complexes of Cu(II and Fe(III in the aqueous phase. The effect of initial pH and total chloride concentration on the extraction of chloride by the organic phase suggests that LIX 860N-IC, and to a lesser extent LIX 84-IC, extract small amounts of the cationic complex, CuCl+. An increase in the concentration of chloride ions also produced a small decrease in the rate of copper extraction with both hydroxyoximes.

    En este trabajo se discute el estudio de la extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con dos hidroxioximas: 5-nonilsalicilaldoxima (LIX 860N-IC, y 2-hidroxi-5 nonilacetofenona oxima (LIX 84-IC. Los resultados indicaron que al aumentar la acidez o aumentar la concentración de cloruro en la fase acuosa se produce una significativa disminución en la extracción de cobre y hierro con ambas hidroxioximas. Este efecto del ion cloruro se explica por la formación de varios clorocomplejos de Cu(II y Fe(III en la solución acuosa. El efecto del pH y la concentración total de cloruro en la extracción de cloruro sugiere que el LIX 860N-IC, y en menor grado el LIX 84-IC extraen pequeñas cantidades del catión monovalente, CuCl+. Se determinó también que un aumento en la concentración de cloruro en la solución acuosa produce una leve disminución en la velocidad de extracción del cobre con ambas hidroxioximas.

  14. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Hofmann, Wilma A., E-mail: whofmann@buffalo.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  15. Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Gentile, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Balsi, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method for the classification of independent components (ICs) extracted from functional MRI (fMRI) data sets. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, each fMRI-IC is associated with an IC-fingerprint, i.e., a representation of the component in a multidimensional space of parameters. These parameters are post hoc estimates of global properties of the ICs and are largely independent of a specific experimental design and stimulus timing. In the second step a machine learning algorithm automatically separates the IC-fingerprints into six general classes after preliminary training performed on a small subset of expert-labeled components. We illustrate this approach in a multisubject fMRI study employing visual structure-from-motion stimuli encoding faces and control random shapes. We show that: (1) IC-fingerprints are a valuable tool for the inspection, characterization and selection of fMRI-ICs and (2) automatic classifications of fMRI-ICs in new subjects present a high correspondence with those obtained by expert visual inspection of the components. Importantly, our classification procedure highlights several neurophysiologically interesting processes. The most intriguing of which is reflected, with high intra- and inter-subject reproducibility, in one IC exhibiting a transiently task-related activation in the 'face' region of the primary sensorimotor cortex. This suggests that in addition to or as part of the mirror system, somatotopic regions of the sensorimotor cortex are involved in disambiguating the perception of a moving body part. Finally, we show that the same classification algorithm can be successfully applied, without re-training, to fMRI collected using acquisition parameters, stimulation modality and timing considerably different from those used for training.

  16. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: the role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W. Jr.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes

  17. Atmospheric diffusion of large clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T. V. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Radiation Lab., Livermore, California (United States)

    1967-07-01

    Clouds of pollutants travel within a coordinate system that is fixed to the earth's surface, and they diffuse and grow within a coordinate system fixed to the cloud's center. This paper discusses an approach to predicting the cloud's properties, within the latter coordinate system, on space scales of a few hundred meters to a few hundred kilometers and for time periods of a few days. A numerical cloud diffusion model is presented which starts with a cloud placed arbitrarily within the troposphere. Similarity theories of atmospheric turbulence are used to predict the horizontal diffusivity as a function of initial cloud size, turbulent atmospheric dissipation, and time. Vertical diffusivity is input as a function of time and height. Therefore, diurnal variations of turbulent diffusion in the boundary layer and effects of temperature inversions, etc. can be modeled. Nondiffusive cloud depletion mechanisms, such as dry deposition, washout, and radioactive decay, are also a part of this numerical model. An effluent cloud, produced by a reactor run at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station, Nevada, is discussed in this paper. Measurements on this cloud, for a period of two days, are compared to calculations with the above numerical cloud diffusion model. In general, there is agreement. within a factor of two, for airborne concentrations, cloud horizontal area, surface air concentrations, and dry deposition as airborne concentration decreased by seven orders of magnitude during the two-day period. (author)

  18. Sahara Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Particles Click on the image for Quicktime movie from 7/15-7/24 A continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean. These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward. In a sequence of images created by data acquired by the Earth-orbiting Atmospheric Infrared Sounder ranging from July 15 through July 24, we see the distribution of the cloud in the atmosphere as it swirls off of Africa and heads across the ocean to the west. Using the unique silicate spectral signatures of dust in the thermal infrared, AIRS can detect the presence of dust in the atmosphere day or night. This detection works best if there are no clouds present on top of the dust; when clouds are present, they can interfere with the signal, making it much harder to detect dust as in the case of July 24, 2005. In the Quicktime movie, the scale at the bottom of the images shows +1 for dust definitely detected, and ranges down to -1 for no dust detected. The plots are averaged over a number of AIRS observations falling within grid boxes, and so it is possible to obtain fractional numbers. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Total Water Vapor in the Atmosphere Around the Dust Cloud Click on the image for Quicktime movie The dust cloud is contained within a dry adiabatic layer which originates over the Sahara Desert. This Saharan Air Layer (SAL) advances Westward over the Atlantic Ocean, overriding the cool, moist air nearer the surface. This burst of very dry air is visible in the AIRS retrieved total water

  19. A Framework to Improve Communication and Reliability Between Cloud Consumer and Provider in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Cloud services consumers demand reliable methods for choosing appropriate cloud service provider for their requirements. Number of cloud consumer is increasing day by day and so cloud providers, hence requirement for a common platform for interacting between cloud provider and cloud consumer is also on the raise. This paper introduces Cloud Providers Market Platform Dashboard. This will act as not only just cloud provider discoverability but also provide timely report to consumer on cloud ser...

  20. Lean computing for the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Applies lean manufacturing principles across the cloud service delivery chain to enable application and infrastructure service providers to sustainably achieve the shortest lead time, best quality, and value This book focuses on lean in the context of cloud computing capacity management of applications and the physical and virtual cloud resources that support them. Lean Computing for the Cloud considers business, architectural and operational aspects of efficiently delivering valuable services to end users via cloud-based applications hosted on shared cloud infrastructure. The work also focuses on overall optimization of the service delivery chain to enable both application service and infrastructure service providers to adopt leaner, demand driven operations to serve end users more efficiently. The book’s early chapters analyze how capacity management morphs with cloud computing into interlocked physical infrastructure capacity management, virtual resou ce capacity management, and application capacity ma...

  1. IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rusen, Ciprian Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on IC3 prep, with expert instruction and loads of tools IC3: Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 Study Guide is the ideal all-in-one resource for those preparing to take the exam for the internationally-recognized IT computing fundamentals credential. Designed to help candidates pinpoint weak areas while there's still time to brush up, this book provides one hundred percent coverage of the exam objectives for all three modules of the IC3-GS4 exam. Readers will find clear, concise information, hands-on examples, and self-paced exercises that demonstrate how to per

  2. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  3. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kaufman, Michele; Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias

    2016-01-01

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s −1 . We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  4. HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN TURBULENT ATOMIC-DOMINATED GAS IN THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IC 2163 AND NGC 2207

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Bournaud, Frédéric; Juneau, Stéphanie [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Brinks, Elias, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: frederic.bournaud@gmail.com, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu, E-mail: struck@iastate.edu, E-mail: e.brinks@herts.ac.uk [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, H α , and 24 μ m observations to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high-SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207 where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40–50 km s{sup −1}. We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  5. Cloud vertical profiles derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat and a comparison with MODIS derived clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Sun-Mack, S.; Miller, W. F.; Rose, F. G.; Minnis, P.; Wielicki, B. A.; Winker, D. M.; Stephens, G. L.; Charlock, T. P.; Collins, W. D.; Loeb, N. G.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Xu, K.

    2008-05-01

    CALIPSO and CloudSat from the a-train provide detailed information of vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols. The vertical distribution of cloud occurrence is derived from one month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data as a part of the effort of merging CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS with CERES data. This newly derived cloud profile is compared with the distribution of cloud top height derived from MODIS on Aqua from cloud algorithms used in the CERES project. The cloud base from MODIS is also estimated using an empirical formula based on the cloud top height and optical thickness, which is used in CERES processes. While MODIS detects mid and low level clouds over the Arctic in April fairly well when they are the topmost cloud layer, it underestimates high- level clouds. In addition, because the CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm is not able to detect multi-layer clouds and the empirical formula significantly underestimates the depth of high clouds, the occurrence of mid and low-level clouds is underestimated. This comparison does not consider sensitivity difference to thin clouds but we will impose an optical thickness threshold to CALIPSO derived clouds for a further comparison. The effect of such differences in the cloud profile to flux computations will also be discussed. In addition, the effect of cloud cover to the top-of-atmosphere flux over the Arctic using CERES SSF and FLASHFLUX products will be discussed.

  6. CN in dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.; Bieging, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have detected CN (N = 1--0) emission toward six locations in the Taurus dark cloud complex, but not toward L183 or B227. The two hyperfine components, F = 3/2--1/2 and F = 5/2--3/2 (of J = 3/2--1/2), have intensity ratios near unity toward four locations in Taurus, consistent with large line optical depths. CN column densities are found to be > or approx. =6 x 10 13 cm -2 in those directions where the hyperfine ratios are near unity. By comparing CN with NH 3 and C 18 O column densities, we find that the relative abundance of CN in the Taurus cloudlets is at least a factor of 10 greater than in L183. In this respect, CN fits the pattern of enhanced abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (in partricular the cyanopolyynes) in the Taurus cloudlets relative to similar dark clouds outside Taurus

  7. Carbon pellet cloud striations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Fine scale striations, with alternating rows of bright and dark zones, have been observed in the ablation clouds of carbon pellets injected into the TEXT tokamak. The striations extend along the magnetic field for about 1 cm with quite regular cross-field variations characterized by a wavelength of a few mm. Their potential as a diagnostic tool for measuring q-profiles in tokamaks provides motivation for investigating the origin of the striations. The authors propose that the striations are not due to a sequence of high and low ablation rates because of the finite thermal magnetic islands localized at rational surfaces, q = m/n, would be responsible for reducing the electron flux to the pellet region; the length of the closed field line which forms the local magnetic axis of the island is too long to prevent a depletion of plasma electrons in a flux tube intercepting the pellet for the duration 2 rp / vp . Instead, they propose that striations are the manifestation of the saturated state of growing fluctuations inside the cloud. The instability is generated by E x B rotation of the ablation cloud. The outward centrifugal force points down the ablation density gradient inducing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The instability is not present for wave numbers along the field lines, which may explain why the striations are long and uniform in that direction. The E field develops inside the ablation cloud as a result of cold electron return currents which are induced to cancel the incoming hot plasma electron current streaming along the field lines

  8. Security in cloud computing and virtual environments

    OpenAIRE

    Aarseth, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a big buzzwords today. Just watch the commercials on TV and I can promise that you will hear the word cloud service at least once. With the growth of cloud technology steadily rising, and everything from cellphones to cars connected to the cloud, how secure is cloud technology? What are the caveats of using cloud technology? And how does it all work? This thesis will discuss cloud security and the underlying technology called Virtualization to ...

  9. IBM Cloud Computing Powering a Smarter Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinzy; Fang, Xing; Guo, Zhe; Niu, Meng Hua; Cao, Fan; Yue, Shuang; Liu, Qin Yu

    With increasing need for intelligent systems supporting the world's businesses, Cloud Computing has emerged as a dominant trend to provide a dynamic infrastructure to make such intelligence possible. The article introduced how to build a smarter planet with cloud computing technology. First, it introduced why we need cloud, and the evolution of cloud technology. Secondly, it analyzed the value of cloud computing and how to apply cloud technology. Finally, it predicted the future of cloud in the smarter planet.

  10. Optical transceiver ICs based on 3D die-stacking of opto-electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B.E.; Plassche, van de K.L.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wafer scale fabrication of the 3D stacked transceivers is discussed. Uniform open eye patterns at 10 Gb/s/channel of both 3D stacked transmitter and receiver ICs indicates that the interconnection technology is robust.

  11. Generic test platform for representative tests of safety I/C systems - 15546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Kuck, H.; Richter, J.; Rieche, S.; Waitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the IEC 61513 safety Instrumentation and Control (I/C) systems must be successfully validated in their final configuration prior to installation on site and commissioning. However the contingent need for modifications during system validation activities or subsequently during the commissioning phase may entail long and costly re-engineering of the I/C systems. With the view to ease these possible modifications, a Generic Test Platform has been developed by AREVA which allows combining a real I/C system subpart with an emulation server. This platform provides a faithful representation of the I/C System allowing crediting the validation test results carried out on this platform. (authors)

  12. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  13. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  14. From clouds to stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    At the present time, the theory of star formation must be limited to what we know about the lowest density gas, or about the pre-main sequence stars themselves. We would like to understand two basic processes: 1) how star-forming clouds are created from the ambient interstellar gas in the first place, and 2) how small parts of these clouds condense to form individual stars. We are interested also in knowing what pre-main sequence stars are like, and how they can interact with their environment. These topics are reviewed in what follows. In this series of lectures, what we know about the formation of stars is tentatively described. The lectures begin with a description of the interstellar medium, and then they proceed along the same direction that a young star would follow during its creation, namely from clouds through the collapse phase and onto the proto-stellar phase. The evolution of viscous disks and two models for the formation of the solar system are described in the last lectures. The longest lectures, and the topics that are covered in most detail, are not necessarily the ones for which we have the most information. Physically intuitive explanations for the various processes are emphasized, rather then mathematical explanations. In some cases, the mathematical aspects are developed as well, but only when the equations can be used to give important numerical values for comparison with the observations

  15. An Optical and Infrared Photometric Study of the Young Open Cluster IC 1805 in the Giant H II Region W4 †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hwankyung; Bessell, Michael S.; Chun, Moo-Young; Yi, Jonghyuk; Nazé, Y.; Lim, Beomdu; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh

    2017-05-01

    We present deep wide-field optical CCD photometry and mid-infrared Spitzer/IRAC and MIPS 24 μm data for about 100,000 stars in the young open cluster IC 1805. The members of IC 1805 were selected from their location in the various color-color and color-magnitude diagrams, and the presence of Hα emission, mid-infrared excess emission, and X-ray emission. The reddening law toward IC 1805 is nearly normal (R V = 3.05 ± 0.06). However, the distance modulus of the cluster is estimated to be 11.9 ± 0.2 mag (d=2.4+/- 0.2 kpc) from the reddening-free color-magnitude diagrams, which is larger than the distance to the nearby massive star-forming region W3(OH) measured from the radio VLBA astrometry. We also determined the age of IC 1805 ({τ }{MSTO}=3.5 Myr). In addition, we critically compared the age and mass scale from two pre-main-sequence evolution models. The initial mass function with a Salpeter-type slope of Γ = -1.3 ± 0.2 was obtained and the total mass of IC 1805 was estimated to be about 2700 ± 200 {M}⊙ . Finally, we found our distance determination to be statistically consistent with the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution Data Release 1, within the errors. The proper motion of the B-type stars shows an elongated distribution along the Galactic plane, which could be explained by some of the B-type stars being formed in small clouds dispersed by previous episodes of star formation or supernova explosions. The optical imaging data in this article were gathered with two facilities: the AZT-22 1.5 m telescope at Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  16. ATLAS cloud R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Bejar, Jose Caballero; Hover, John; Zaytsev, Alexander; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Llamas, Ramon Medrano; Benjamin, Doug; Gable, Ian; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Hendrix, Val; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Walker, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R and D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R and D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  17. Cloud Computing Security: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa M. Khalil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is an emerging technology paradigm that migrates current technological and computing concepts into utility-like solutions similar to electricity and water systems. Clouds bring out a wide range of benefits including configurable computing resources, economic savings, and service flexibility. However, security and privacy concerns are shown to be the primary obstacles to a wide adoption of clouds. The new concepts that clouds introduce, such as multi-tenancy, resource sharing and outsourcing, create new challenges to the security community. Addressing these challenges requires, in addition to the ability to cultivate and tune the security measures developed for traditional computing systems, proposing new security policies, models, and protocols to address the unique cloud security challenges. In this work, we provide a comprehensive study of cloud computing security and privacy concerns. We identify cloud vulnerabilities, classify known security threats and attacks, and present the state-of-the-art practices to control the vulnerabilities, neutralize the threats, and calibrate the attacks. Additionally, we investigate and identify the limitations of the current solutions and provide insights of the future security perspectives. Finally, we provide a cloud security framework in which we present the various lines of defense and identify the dependency levels among them. We identify 28 cloud security threats which we classify into five categories. We also present nine general cloud attacks along with various attack incidents, and provide effectiveness analysis of the proposed countermeasures.

  18. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  19. CMOS analog integrated circuit design technology; CMOS anarogu IC sekkei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Fujisawa, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    In the field of the LSI (large scale integrated circuit) in rapid progress toward high integration and advanced functions, CAD (computer-aided design) technology has become indispensable to LSI development within a short period. Fuji Electric has developed design technologies and automatic design system to develop high-quality analog ICs (integrated circuits), including power supply ICs. within a short period. This paper describes CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog macro cell, circuit simulation, automatic routing, and backannotation technologies. (author)

  20. CloudSafetyNet: Detecting Data Leakage between Cloud Tenants

    OpenAIRE

    Pietzuch, PR; Priebe, C; Muthukumaran, D; O'Keeffe, D; Eyers, D; Shand, B; Kapitza, R

    2014-01-01

    01.12.14 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral. Copyright ? 2014 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (ACM).When tenants deploy applications under the control of third-party cloud providers, they must trust the providers security mechanisms for inter-tenant isolation, resource sharing and access control. Despite a providers best efforts, accidental data leakage may occur due to misconfigurations or bugs in the cloud platform. Especially in Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) clouds...

  1. Military clouds: utilization of cloud computing systems at the battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süleyman, Sarıkürk; Volkan, Karaca; İbrahim, Kocaman; Ahmet, Şirzai

    2012-05-01

    Cloud computing is known as a novel information technology (IT) concept, which involves facilitated and rapid access to networks, servers, data saving media, applications and services via Internet with minimum hardware requirements. Use of information systems and technologies at the battlefield is not new. Information superiority is a force multiplier and is crucial to mission success. Recent advances in information systems and technologies provide new means to decision makers and users in order to gain information superiority. These developments in information technologies lead to a new term, which is known as network centric capability. Similar to network centric capable systems, cloud computing systems are operational today. In the near future extensive use of military clouds at the battlefield is predicted. Integrating cloud computing logic to network centric applications will increase the flexibility, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility of network-centric capabilities. In this paper, cloud computing and network centric capability concepts are defined. Some commercial cloud computing products and applications are mentioned. Network centric capable applications are covered. Cloud computing supported battlefield applications are analyzed. The effects of cloud computing systems on network centric capability and on the information domain in future warfare are discussed. Battlefield opportunities and novelties which might be introduced to network centric capability by cloud computing systems are researched. The role of military clouds in future warfare is proposed in this paper. It was concluded that military clouds will be indispensible components of the future battlefield. Military clouds have the potential of improving network centric capabilities, increasing situational awareness at the battlefield and facilitating the settlement of information superiority.

  2. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. PENGARUH IC TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN PERIODE 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subkhan -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh intellectual capital (IC perusahaan pada kinerja keuangan mereka. Penelitian ini menggunakan Public Framework dan data dari 57 sektor perbankan Indonesia yang tercatat antara tahun 2005 dan 2007 pada Indonesian Stock Exchange. Penelitian ini menggunakan partial least square (PLS untuk menganalisis data. 3 elemen IC dan kinerja perusahaan dites dalam penelitian ini. Hasilnya memperlihatkan bahwa IC dan kinerja keuangan mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan, VACA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan, VAHU mempuyai pengaruh yang signifikan  terhadap kinerja keuangan, dan STVA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan. Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of firm’s intellectual capital (IC on their financial performance. This paper uses Public Framework and data from 57 Indonesian banking sectors listed between 2005 and 2007 on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This study uses partial least square (PLS for data analysis. Three elements of IC and company performances are tested by this study. The results show that IC and financial performance have significant influence, VACA has significant influence to financial performance, VAHU has significant influence to financial performance, and STVA has significant influence to financial performance.Keywords: intellectual capital; financial performance

  4. PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: PADA PERUSAHAAN IC INTENSIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dista Amalia Arifah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible asset proxied by Intellectual Capital has important role to drive companies values creation. Although many companies have applied corporate governance mechanism in order to have IC disclosure recognition, most of them do not focus on Intellectual Capital disclosure yet. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of corporate governance mechanisms consisting of size of the board commissioners, the independence level of independent commissioner, the activities of independent commissioners, and audit committee on the intellectual capital disclosures of the companies listed in BEI in 2009 using intensive ICs category with the adding of kontrol variables. This study will provide an illustration on how the mechanisms of corporate governance practices and IC disclosure become a value creation source for the company. There are a total of 176 companies categorized as IC intensive. Using a purposive sampling method, 45 companies were selected as samples. The 2009 annual reports of the companies are used as secondary data source of this research. Furthermore, to get ICs disclosure data content analysis technique was used both for quantity and quality terms. The results indicate that audit committee is the only corporate governance mechanism that significantly affects the level of IC disclosures.

  5. Sensitivity Study on Availability of I&C Components Using Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khalil Ur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find out the impact of instrumentation and control (I&C components on the availability of I&C systems in terms of sensitivity analysis using Bayesian network. The analysis has been performed on I&C architecture of reactor protection system. The analysis results would be applied to develop I&C architecture which will meet the desire reliability features and save cost. RPS architecture unavailability P(x=0 and availability P(x=1 were estimated to 6.1276E-05 and 9.9994E-01 for failure (0 and perfect (1 states, respectively. The impact of I&C components on overall system risk has been studied in terms of risk achievement worth (RAW and risk reduction worth (RRW. It is found that circuit breaker failure (TCB, bi-stable processor (BP, sensor transmitter (TR, and pressure transmitter (PT have high impact on risk. The study concludes and recommends that circuit breaker bi-stable processor should be given more consideration while designing I&C architecture.

  6. Security prospects through cloud computing by adopting multiple clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Schwenk, Jörg; Bohli, Jens Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Clouds impose new security challenges, which are amongst the biggest obstacles when considering the usage of cloud services. This triggered a lot of research activities in this direction, resulting in a quantity of proposals targeting the various security threats. Besides the security issues coming...... with the cloud paradigm, it can also provide a new set of unique features which open the path towards novel security approaches, techniques and architectures. This paper initiates this discussion by contributing a concept which achieves security merits by making use of multiple distinct clouds at the same time....

  7. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation

  8. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU, Y.; DAUM, P.H.; CHAI, S.K.; LIU, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments

  9. Studi Perbandingan Layanan Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdhal Afdhal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, cloud computing has became a dominant topic in the IT area. Cloud computing offers hardware, infrastructure, platform and applications without requiring end-users knowledge of the physical location and the configuration of providers who deliver the services. It has been a good solution to increase reliability, reduce computing cost, and make opportunities to IT industries to get more advantages. The purpose of this article is to present a better understanding of cloud delivery service, correlation and inter-dependency. This article compares and contrasts the different levels of delivery services and the development models, identify issues, and future directions on cloud computing. The end-users comprehension of cloud computing delivery service classification will equip them with knowledge to determine and decide which business model that will be chosen and adopted securely and comfortably. The last part of this article provides several recommendations for cloud computing service providers and end-users.

  10. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  11. Estimating cloud field coverage using morphological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Or, Rotem Z; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit

    2010-01-01

    The apparent cloud-free atmosphere in the vicinity of clouds ('the twilight zone') is often affected by undetectable weak signature clouds and humidified aerosols. It is suggested here to classify the atmosphere into two classes: cloud fields, and cloud-free (away from a cloud field), while detectable clouds are included in the cloud field class as a subset. Since the definition of cloud fields is ambiguous, a robust cloud field masking algorithm is presented here, based on the cloud spatial distribution. The cloud field boundaries are calculated then on the basis of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud mask products and the total cloud field area is estimated for the Atlantic Ocean (50 deg. S-50 deg. N). The findings show that while the monthly averaged cloud fraction over the Atlantic Ocean during July is 53%, the cloud field fraction may reach 97%, suggesting that cloud field properties should be considered in climate studies. A comparison between aerosol optical depth values inside and outside cloud fields reveals differences in the retrieved radiative properties of aerosols depending on their location. The observed mean aerosol optical depth inside the cloud fields is more than 10% higher than outside it, indicating that such convenient cloud field masking may contribute to better estimations of aerosol direct and indirect forcing.

  12. Cloud Services from Consumer Standpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Koski, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to clarify the use of cloud services and how they are used in practice. This thesis will first cover the history of cloud computing. At the early days of computing, services have been stored on servers locally and could be accessed through direct connections. After this, services have been on the users’ personal computers. Nowadays, services are stored in the cloud. This research paper focuses on four sub topics: communication services, healthcare se...

  13. Cloud Computing: Exploring the scope

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing refers to a paradigm shift to overall IT solutions while raising the accessibility, scalability and effectiveness through its enabling technologies. However, migrated cloud platforms and services cost benefits as well as performances are neither clear nor summarized. Globalization and the recessionary economic times have not only raised the bar of a better IT delivery models but also have given access to technology enabled services via internet. Cloud computing has va...

  14. Cloud Computing and Security Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan Jathanna; Dhanamma Jagli

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing has become one of the most interesting topics in the IT world today. Cloud model of computing as a resource has changed the landscape of computing as it promises of increased greater reliability, massive scalability, and decreased costs have attracted businesses and individuals alike. It adds capabilities to Information Technology’s. Over the last few years, cloud computing has grown considerably in Information Technology. As more and more information of individuals and compan...

  15. Studi Perbandingan Layanan Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Afdhal, Afdhal

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, cloud computing has became a dominant topic in the IT area. Cloud computing offers hardware, infrastructure, platform and applications without requiring end-users knowledge of the physical location and the configuration of providers who deliver the services. It has been a good solution to increase reliability, reduce computing cost, and make opportunities to IT industries to get more advantages. The purpose of this article is to present a better understanding of cloud d...

  16. Internet ware cloud computing :Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, S; Lal, Niranjan; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2010-01-01

    After decades of engineering development and infrastructural investment, Internet connections have become commodity product in many countries, and Internet scale “cloud computing” has started to compete with traditional software business through its technological advantages and economy of scale. Cloud computing is a promising enabling technology of Internet ware Cloud Computing is termed as the next big thing in the modern corporate world. Apart from the present day software and technologies,...

  17. CHPS IN CLOUD COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    K.L.Giridas; A.Shajin Nargunam

    2012-01-01

    Workflow have been utilized to characterize a various form of applications concerning high processing and storage space demands. So, to make the cloud computing environment more eco-friendly,our research project was aiming in reducing E-waste accumulated by computers. In a hybrid cloud, the user has flexibility offered by public cloud resources that can be combined to the private resources pool as required. Our previous work described the process of combining the low range and mid range proce...

  18. Context-aware distributed cloud computing using CloudScheduler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuster, R.; Leavett-Brown, CR; Casteels, K.; Driemel, C.; Paterson, M.; Ring, D.; Sobie, RJ; Taylor, RP; Weldon, J.

    2017-10-01

    The distributed cloud using the CloudScheduler VM provisioning service is one of the longest running systems for HEP workloads. It has run millions of jobs for ATLAS and Belle II over the past few years using private and commercial clouds around the world. Our goal is to scale the distributed cloud to the 10,000-core level, with the ability to run any type of application (low I/O, high I/O and high memory) on any cloud. To achieve this goal, we have been implementing changes that utilize context-aware computing designs that are currently employed in the mobile communication industry. Context-awareness makes use of real-time and archived data to respond to user or system requirements. In our distributed cloud, we have many opportunistic clouds with no local HEP services, software or storage repositories. A context-aware design significantly improves the reliability and performance of our system by locating the nearest location of the required services. We describe how we are collecting and managing contextual information from our workload management systems, the clouds, the virtual machines and our services. This information is used not only to monitor the system but also to carry out automated corrective actions. We are incrementally adding new alerting and response services to our distributed cloud. This will enable us to scale the number of clouds and virtual machines. Further, a context-aware design will enable us to run analysis or high I/O application on opportunistic clouds. We envisage an open-source HTTP data federation (for example, the DynaFed system at CERN) as a service that would provide us access to existing storage elements used by the HEP experiments.

  19. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  20. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacentres (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing 'space in the cloud' from hosting companies (e.g., Dropbox, Salesforce). And it examines the business and private 'clouders' using these services. The first part of the paper argues that hosting companies, services providers and clouders have mutual informational (epistemic) obligations to provide and seek information about relevant issues such as consumer privacy, reliability of services, data mining and data ownership. The concept of interlucency is developed as an epistemic virtue governing ethically effective communication. The second part considers potential forms of government restrictions on or proscriptions against the development and use of cloud computing technology. Referring to the concept of technology neutrality, it argues that interference with hosting companies and cloud services providers is hardly ever necessary or justified. It is argued, too, however, that businesses using cloud services (e.g., banks, law firms, hospitals etc. storing client data in the cloud) will have to follow rather more stringent regulations.

  1. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  2. Cloud computing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Marinescu, Dan C

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice provides students and IT professionals with an in-depth analysis of the cloud from the ground up. Beginning with a discussion of parallel computing and architectures and distributed systems, the book turns to contemporary cloud infrastructures, how they are being deployed at leading companies such as Amazon, Google and Apple, and how they can be applied in fields such as healthcare, banking and science. The volume also examines how to successfully deploy a cloud application across the enterprise using virtualization, resource management and the ri

  3. Aerosols, cloud physics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, S.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of climate physics are discussed with special attention given to cases where cloud physics is relevant for the phase and microstructure of clouds and, therefore, in the optical properties of the planet. It is argued that aerosol particles, through their strong effect on cloud microphysics, influence the shortwave energy input to earth, and that cloud microphysics strongly influence rain formation. Therefore, through their influence on microphysics, the aerosols play a central role in the atmospheric water cycle and, thus, on the planet's outgoing radiation. 20 refs

  4. Towards Building Cloud Education Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Hadzhikoleva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the trends and prospects in higher education happening as a result of internationalization, as well as the possible risks and challenges. The training capabilities of cloud computing are examined. A review has been done of specific cloud services suitable for organizing and conducting educational and administrative activities. Some trends have been outlined, such as the probable consequences of building institutional education clouds and the opportunities for interoperability between them. The opportunities for building cloud education networks and their main characteristics are explored.

  5. Definition of intercultural competence (IC) in undergraduate students at a private university in the USA: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, Lioba; Binder, Nadine; Heckmann, Mark; Odağ, Özen; Leiser, Anne; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Intercultural competence (IC) is an important skill to be gained from higher education. However, it remains unclear what IC means to students and what factors might influence their definitions of IC. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively assess how students at one higher education institution in the USA define IC and to quantitatively test for relationships among IC components and various demographic characteristics, including intercultural experience and study context. A further aim was to descriptively compare the IC definitions from the US sample with the definitions obtained from another sample of university students in Germany. A purposive sample of n = 93 undergraduate, second semester students at Dickinson College, USA, participated in the study by completing an online questionnaire. The qualitative data were content-analyzed to define the dimensions of IC. The quantitative data were cluster-analyzed to assess the multivariate relationships among the IC components and the demographic characteristics of the sample. The most important dimensions of IC were Knowledge, External Outcomes (interaction, communication), and Attitudes (respect, tolerance) according to the US sample. The most frequently chosen dimensions of IC differed between both samples: Knowledge was chosen by the sample in the USA while External Outcomes was chosen by the sample in Germany. Relative to the US sample, significantly more students chose Attitudes, External Outcomes, and Intrapersonal Skills in the sample in Germany. The relationships among IC components and demographic characteristics were only weak in the US sample. A person with IC was rated as Open-minded and Respectful by students who lived predominantly in the USA or Tolerant and Curious by those who lived outside the USA for at least six months. The current results suggest that students residing in two countries (USA or Germany) define IC using similar dimensions. However, IC definitions may depend on the

  6. ICS logging solution for network-based attacks using Gumistix technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jeremy R.; Berman, Dustin; Butts, Jonathan; Lopez, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) monitor and control operations associated with the national critical infrastructure (e.g., electric power grid, oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities). These systems rely on technologies and architectures that were designed for system reliability and availability. Security associated with ICS was never an inherent concern, primarily due to the protections afforded by network isolation. However, a trend in ICS operations is to migrate to commercial networks via TCP/IP in order to leverage commodity benefits and cost savings. As a result, system vulnerabilities are now exposed to the online community. Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many exposed ICS devices are being discovered using readily available applications (e.g., ShodanHQ search engine and Google-esque queries). Due to the lack of security and logging capabilities for ICS, most knowledge about attacks are derived from real world incidents after an attack has already been carried out and the damage has been done. This research provides a method for introducing sensors into the ICS environment that collect information about network-based attacks. The sensors are developed using an inexpensive Gumstix platform that can be deployed and incorporated with production systems. Data obtained from the sensors provide insight into attack tactics (e.g., port scans, Nessus scans, Metasploit modules, and zero-day exploits) and characteristics (e.g., attack origin, frequency, and level of persistence). Findings enable security professionals to draw an accurate, real-time awareness of the threats against ICS devices and help shift the security posture from reactionary to preventative.

  7. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s –1 lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s –1 across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10 7 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10 5 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ . An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall

  8. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  9. Heroku cloud application development

    CERN Document Server

    Hanjura, Anubhav

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, hands-on guide that clearly explains the various components of the Heroku platform and provides step-by-step guidance as well as numerous examples on how to build and troubleshoot robust and scalable production-ready web applications on the Heroku platform.This book is intended for those who want to learn Heroku the right way. Perhaps you are new to Heroku or are someone who has heard about Heroku but have not built anything significant with it. You should have knowledge or familiarity with cloud computing and basic knowledge of database and network deployment.

  10. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  11. Defining the cloud battlefield - supporting security assessments by cloud customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Mastelic, Toni; Pape, Sebastian; Pieters, Wolter; Dimkov, T.

    Cloud computing is becoming more and more popular, but security concerns overshadow its technical and economic benefits. In particular, insider attacks and malicious insiders are considered as one of the major threats and risks in cloud computing. As physical boundaries disappear and a variety of

  12. Flying to the Cloud : Governments Seek Gains from Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Melhem, Samia; Kim, Seunghyun

    2016-01-01

    The transition to cloud computing broadly means shifting programs and data from personal or office hardware to shared hardware that many individuals and organizations access over the Internet. That migration is happening fast. By 2019, according to the information technology company Cisco, 83 percent of all global data center traffic will come from cloud services. And the profitability of ...

  13. Cloud ERP and Cloud Accounting Software in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina MIHAI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Cloud Computing becomes a more and more fashionable concept in the IT environment. There is no unanimous opinion on the definition of this concept, as it covers several versions of the newly emerged stage in the IT. But in fact, Cloud Computing should not suggest anything else than simplicity. Thus, in short, simple terms, Cloud Computing can be defined as a solution to use external IT resources (servers, storage media, applications and services, via Internet. Cloud computing is nothing more than the promise of an easy accessible technology. If the promise will eventually turn into something certain yet remains to be seen. In our opinion it is too early to make an assertion. In this article, our purpose is to find out what is the Romanian offer of ERP and Accounting software applications in Cloud and / or as services in SaaS version. Thus, we conducted an extensive study whose results we’ll present in the following.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-01-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl 2 , 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg 2 GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA

  15. Business model elements impacting cloud computing adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogataj, Kristina; Pucihar, Andreja; Sudzina, Frantisek

    The paper presents a proposed research framework for identification of business model elements impacting Cloud Computing Adoption. We provide a definition of main Cloud Computing characteristics, discuss previous findings on factors impacting Cloud Computing Adoption, and investigate technology a...

  16. Formation of massive, dense cores by cloud-cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Ken; Shima, Kazuhiro; Habe, Asao; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2018-05-01

    We performed sub-parsec (˜ 0.014 pc) scale simulations of cloud-cloud collisions of two idealized turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) with different masses in the range of (0.76-2.67) × 104 M_{⊙} and with collision speeds of 5-30 km s-1. Those parameters are larger than in Takahira, Tasker, and Habe (2014, ApJ, 792, 63), in which study the colliding system showed a partial gaseous arc morphology that supports the NANTEN observations of objects indicated to be colliding MCs using numerical simulations. Gas clumps with density greater than 10-20 g cm-3 were identified as pre-stellar cores and tracked through the simulation to investigate the effects of the mass of colliding clouds and the collision speeds on the resulting core population. Our results demonstrate that the smaller cloud property is more important for the results of cloud-cloud collisions. The mass function of formed cores can be approximated by a power-law relation with an index γ = -1.6 in slower cloud-cloud collisions (v ˜ 5 km s-1), and is in good agreement with observation of MCs. A faster relative speed increases the number of cores formed in the early stage of collisions and shortens the gas accretion phase of cores in the shocked region, leading to the suppression of core growth. The bending point appears in the high-mass part of the core mass function and the bending point mass decreases with increase in collision speed for the same combination of colliding clouds. The higher-mass part of the core mass function than the bending point mass can be approximated by a power law with γ = -2-3 that is similar to the power index of the massive part of the observed stellar initial mass function. We discuss implications of our results for the massive-star formation in our Galaxy.

  17. Intellectual Capital (IC Analysis and The Effect to Financial Performance in PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ermayanti Susilo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial Performance (FP is one of the important things for a company to know the development of the company. One important thing that influences FP is the Intellectual Capital (IC. Research was conducted to get the best IC analysis in order to get success and fulfill the daily human needs which always increases. Therefore, it had research problem ‘how was the components of IC affecting the FP of PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI, and the objective is to explore the IC components in affecting the FP. It was interesting to be explored because it had unique characteristics, which consist of spiritual knowledge, attitude, discipline, management knowledge and managerial experience, as well as skill and capabilities, in which the first three points were different from the rest. It used qualitative analysis method as the instrument. It was done by collecting the data through observation and was analyzed using the Robbins theory. It can be concluded that those five IC has important effect in increasing FP of PT KSI and keeping it stable.

  18. AREVA advanced safety IC solutions and licensing experience for new nuclear builds and modernization projects - 15545

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Pickelmann, J.; Richter, S.; Hilsenkopf, P.; Paris, P.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for the Instrumentation and Control (IC) for Nuclear Power Plants have become significantly more stringent during the last 10 years in the areas of software development and qualification, traceability, diversity, or seismic requirements for instance, and with the introduction of new standards (such as the IEC 62566, or the IEC 62003). Based on a large and comprehensive experience gained from projects in several regulatory environments and different plant types (including non-OEM plants), AREVA has developed and adapted its processes and products to provide state-of-the-art IC solutions in full compliance with the regulatory demands and requirements in terms of robustness (independence, defense-in-depth, diversity and cyber-security). In this paper we present the safety IC platforms developed by AREVA. These platforms include TELEPERM XS as the computerized safety IC platform for class 1 system implementation, the Qualified Display System (QDS) for safety classified screen-based interface, and UNICORN as fully diverse analog safety IC platform for backup systems

  19. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency ( ν , nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins ( α 6- and αLβ 2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results.

  20. A GRB and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova from a Single Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Duffell, Paul C.; Liu, Yuqian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B.; Kasen, Daniel; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2018-06-01

    Unusually high velocities (≳0.1c) and correspondingly high kinetic energies have been observed in a subset of Type Ic supernovae (so-called “broad-lined Ic” supernovae; SNe Ic-BL), prompting a search for a central engine model capable of generating such energetic explosions. A clue to the explosion mechanism may lie in the fact that all supernovae that accompany long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) belong to the SN Ic-BL class. Using a combination of two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations, we demonstrate that the central engine responsible for long GRBs can also trigger an SN Ic-BL. We find that a reasonable GRB engine injected into a stripped Wolf–Rayet progenitor produces a relativistic jet with energy ∼1051 erg, as well as an SN whose synthetic light curves and spectra are fully consistent with observed SNe Ic-BL during the photospheric phase. As a result of the jet’s asymmetric energy injection, the SN spectra and light curves depend on viewing angle. The impact of viewing angle on the spectrum is particularly pronounced at early times, while the viewing-angle dependence for the light curves (∼10% variation in bolometric luminosity) persists throughout the photospheric phase.

  1. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  2. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I

    2013-01-01

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  3. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  4. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-01-01

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  5. Cloud Native Java

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    “It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory.” -W. Edwards Deming Work takes time to flow through an organization and ultimately be deployed to production where it captures value. It’s critical to reduce time-to-production. Software – for many organizations and industries – is a competitive advantage. Organizations break their larger software ambitions into smaller, independently deployable, feature -centric batches of work – microservices. In order to reduce the round-trip between stations of work, organizations collapse or consolidate as much of them as possible and automate the rest; developers and operations beget “devops,” cloud-based services and platforms (like Cloud Foundry) automate operations work and break down the need for ITIL tickets and change management boards. But velocity, for velocity’s sake, is dangerous. Microservices invite architectural complexity that few are prepared to address. In this talk, we’ll look at how high performance organizations like Tic...

  6. Identity Management issues in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Smita; Mann, Deep

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is providing a low cost on demand services to the users, omnipresent network,large storage capacity due to these features of cloud computing web applications are moving towards the cloud and due to this migration of the web application,cloud computing platform is raised many issues like privacy, security etc. Privacy issue are major concern for the cloud computing. Privacy is to preserve the sensitive information of the cloud consumer and the major issues to the privacy are un...

  7. Cloud computing: Overview of available solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Feňko, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The paper Works describes concept of cloud computing, his main characteristics. Cloud computing is new trend in IT. The company doesn't have your own servers and data centres, but everything is situated in cloud -- in set of pc and server. The owners of these are suppliers of these services. The aim of the thesis is defined Cloud Computing concepts and evaluate by criterion if cloud computing application can compete to classic application. Introduction of the Works describe the gist of cloud ...

  8. Emerging Cloud Computing Security Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmat, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the latest emerging innovations of the modern internet and technological landscape. With everyone from the White house to major online technological leaders like Amazon and Google using or offering cloud computing services it is truly presents itself as an exciting and innovative method to store and use data on the internet.

  9. Privacy proof in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessen, Veerle; Weigand, Hans; Mouratidis, Haris

    Cloud computing has been a frequently researched subject as it brings many advantages, such as the ability to store data remotely and scale rapidly, but also comes with several issues, including privacy, trust and security. The decision whether it is best to go `into the cloud' or to `stay inside'

  10. Big Data in der Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leimbach, Timo; Bachlechner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)......Technology assessment of big data, in particular cloud based big data services, for the Office for Technology Assessment at the German federal parliament (Bundestag)...

  11. Teaching Cybersecurity Using the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Khaled; Hammoud, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing platforms can be highly attractive to conduct course assignments and empower students with valuable and indispensable hands-on experience. In particular, the cloud can offer teaching staff and students (whether local or remote) on-demand, elastic, dedicated, isolated, (virtually) unlimited, and easily configurable virtual machines.…

  12. Cloud computing and services science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Shishkov, Boris

    2012-01-01

    This book is essentially a collection of the best papers of the International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER), which was held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands on May 7–9, 2011. The conference addressed technology trends in the domain of cloud computing in relation to a

  13. Enhancing accountability in the cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaatun, M.; Pearson, S.; Gittler, F.; Leenes, Ronald; van der Zwet, Maartje

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of accountability within information management, particularly in cloud computing contexts. Key to this notion is that an accountable Cloud Provider must demonstrate both willingness and capacity for being a responsible steward of other people's data. More generally,

  14. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON CLOUD ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud technologies have developed intensively during the last years. Cloud computing allows the customers to interact with their data and applications at any time, from any location, while the providers host these resources. A client company may choose to run in the cloud a part of its business (sales by agents, payroll, etc., or even the entire business. The company can get access to a large category of cloud-based software, including accounting software. Cloud solutions are especially recommended for small companies that do not have enough financial resources to invest in the IT infrastructure and in expensive accounting software. However, a special attention is required in the case of sensitive data, which should not be placed in a public cloud. All these aspects need to be discussed with the students, who should acquire the qualifications needed for operating with cloud applications. Our paper considers all the above issues regarding cloud computing for accountants and suggests some possibilities to approach these topics with the students.

  15. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  16. How to govern the cloud?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Diamond, S.; Wainwright, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies economic governance theory to the cloud computing industry. We analyze which governance institution may be best suited to solve the problems stemming from asymmetric information about the true level of data protection, security, and accountability offered by cloud service

  17. The ethics of cloud computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Boudewijn; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the

  18. The Future of Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaroa SIclovan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offeredto the consumers as a product delivered online. This represents an advantage for the organization both regarding the cost and the opportunity for the new business. This paper presents the future perspectives in cloud computing. The paper presents some issues of the cloud computing paradigm. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud Computing, Pay-per-use

  19. Trusted computing strengthens cloud authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazizadeh, Eghbal; Zamani, Mazdak; Ab Manan, Jamalul-lail; Alizadeh, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  20. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  1. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbal Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM. Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model.

  2. Trusted Computing Strengthens Cloud Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new generation of technology which is designed to provide the commercial necessities, solve the IT management issues, and run the appropriate applications. Another entry on the list of cloud functions which has been handled internally is Identity Access Management (IAM). Companies encounter IAM as security challenges while adopting more technologies became apparent. Trust Multi-tenancy and trusted computing based on a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) are great technologies for solving the trust and security concerns in the cloud identity environment. Single sign-on (SSO) and OpenID have been released to solve security and privacy problems for cloud identity. This paper proposes the use of trusted computing, Federated Identity Management, and OpenID Web SSO to solve identity theft in the cloud. Besides, this proposed model has been simulated in .Net environment. Security analyzing, simulation, and BLP confidential model are three ways to evaluate and analyze our proposed model. PMID:24701149

  3. Chemical Speciation of Water Soluble Ions and Metals of Cloud and Rain Water During the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS) Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Valle Diaz, C. J.; Lee, T.; Collett, J. L.; Fitzgerald, E.; Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A.; Prather, K. A.; Sánchez, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2013-05-01

    The underlying physico-chemical processes of dust particles interactions are poorly understood; even less understood is how aging impacts cloud properties and climate as the particles travel from Africa to the Caribbean region. Caribbean landmasses have tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) that are tightly coupled to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle. TMCFs are ecosystems to study the effects African Dust (AD) on cloud formation and precipitation as these are very sensitive ecosystems that respond to small changes in climate. As part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Clouds Study (PRADACS), chemical analyses were performed on cloud and rain water samples collected at Pico del Este (PE) station in Luquillo, PR (1051 masl) during campaigns held from 2010 to 2012. At PE, two cloud collectors (i.e., single stage (Aluminum version), a 2-stage (Teflon version) Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC)), a rainwater collector, and anAerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) were operated. Chemical analyses performed on collected samples include pH, conductivity, ion chromatography (IC), and inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Results from these campaigns showed that on days that had air masses with the influence of AD, cloud water samples had higher conductivity and pH values on average (up to 5.7 and 180μS/cm, respectively) than those with air masses without AD influence. An increase in the concentrations of water-soluble ions like non-sea salt calcium and magnesium, and metals like magnesium, calcium and aluminum was observed and the appearance of iron was seen on ICP analyses. The ATOFMS, showed an increase on the amount of particles during AD influence with composition of aluminum, silicates, potassium, iron and titanium aerosols. The increase on the aforementioned species was constant in the three years of sampling, which give us confidence in the identification of the chemical species that are present during the influence of AD.

  4. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  5. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC Atlas experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    1999-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7,500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59mW/ch

  6. The optical design of 3D ICs for smartphone and optro-electronics sensing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Smartphone require limit space for image system, current lens, used in smartphones are refractive type, the effective focal length is limited the thickness of phone physical size. Other, such as optro-electronics sensing chips, proximity optical sensors, and UV indexer chips are integrated into smart phone with limit space. Due to the requirement of multiple lens in smartphone, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips in a limited space of CPU board in future smart phone, optro-electronics 3D IC's integrated with optical lens or components may be a key technology for 3 C products. A design for reflective lens is fitted to CMOS, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips based on 3-D IC. The reflective lens can be threes times of effective focal lens, and be able to resolve small object. The system will be assembled and integrated in one 3-D IC more easily.

  7. A Search for Hydrodynamical Interaction Between the ISM and Radio Jets in IC4296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI Data set on IC 4296 has been reduced and analysed. A draft paper on the small-scale structure of x-ray emission and its relation to the radio emission has been written. Mackie left the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in September 1997 and in January 1998 he joined the staff at Carter Observatory, New Zealand. Mackie is currently (May 1998) upgrading computer software at Carter to run IRAF-PROS and XSPEC x-ray software packages in order to reduce and analyze archival ROSAT PSPC data on IC 4296. The PSPC results are needed to investigate the hot gas temperature and abundance properties that will be used in conjunction with the radio jet properties to determine the hydrodynamical interaction status of IC 4296, and finalize the results of a research paper.

  8. Safety systems I/C equipment reliability analyses of the Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halev, G; Christov, N [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the analysis is to assess the safety systems I/C equipment reliability. The assessment includes: quantification of the safety systems unavailability due to component failures; definition of the minimal cut sets leading to the analysed safety systems failure; quantification of the I/C equipment importance measures of the dominant contribution components. The safety systems I/C equipment reliability has been analysed using PSAPACK (a code for probabilistic safety assessment). Fault trees for the following safety systems of the Kozloduy-3 and Kozloduy-4 reactors have been constructed: neutron flow control equipment, reactor protection system, main coolant pumps, pressurizer safety valves `Sempell`, steam dump systems, spray system, low pressure injection system, emergency feeding water system, essential service water system. THree separate reports have been issued containing the performed analyses and results. 1 ref.

  9. Experimental and theoretical analysis of integrated circuit (IC) chips on flexible substrates subjected to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yuan, Jianghong; Zhang, Yingchao; Huang, Yonggang; Feng, Xue

    2017-10-01

    The interfacial failure of integrated circuit (IC) chips integrated on flexible substrates under bending deformation has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A compressive buckling test is used to impose the bending deformation onto the interface between the IC chip and the flexible substrate quantitatively, after which the failed interface is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical model is established based on the beam theory and a bi-layer interface model, from which an analytical expression of the critical curvature in relation to the interfacial failure is obtained. The relationships between the critical curvature, the material, and the geometric parameters of the device are discussed in detail, providing guidance for future optimization flexible circuits based on IC chips.

  10. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1998-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC ATLAS experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 $9 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is $9 incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output for the preamplifier. The equivalent $9 noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch. (8 refs).

  11. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1999-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS- compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch.

  12. SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-01-01

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I λ10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of 56 Co, and would require 1-4 M ☉ of 56 Ni to produce the luminosity. These 56 Ni masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 ∼ 51 erg) ∼ ej (M ☉ ) ∼< 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx—the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far—points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  13. A CENSUS OF YOUNG STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN IC 348 AND NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members of the star-forming clusters IC 348 and NGC 1333. We classify 100 and 42 candidates as new members of the clusters, respectively, which brings the total numbers of known members to 478 and 203. We also have performed spectroscopy on a large majority of the previously known members of NGC 1333 in order to provide spectral classifications that are measured with the same scheme that has been applied to IC 348 in previous studies. The new census of members is nearly complete for K {sub s}< 16.8 at A {sub J}< 1.5 in IC 348 and for K {sub s}< 16.2 at A {sub J}< 3 in NGC 1333, which correspond to masses of ≳0.01 M {sub ⊙} for ages of 3 Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. The faintest known members extend below these completeness limits and appear to have masses of ∼0.005 M {sub ⊙}. In extinction-limited samples of cluster members, NGC 1333 exhibits a higher abundance of objects at lower masses than IC 348. It would be surprising if the initial mass functions of these clusters differ significantly given their similar stellar densities and formation environments. Instead, it is possible that average extinctions are lower for less massive members of star-forming clusters, in which case extinction-limited samples could be biased in favor of low-mass objects in the more heavily embedded clusters like NGC 1333. In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, the median sequences of IC 348 and NGC 1333 coincide with each other for the adopted distances of 300 and 235 pc, which would suggest that they have similar ages. However, NGC 1333 is widely believed to be younger than IC 348 based on its higher abundance of disks and protostars and its greater obscuration. Errors in the adopted distances may be responsible for this discrepancy.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical & Spitzer photometry in IC 1805 (Sung+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Yi, J.; Naze, Y.; Lim, B.; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, B.-G.; Hur, H.

    2017-06-01

    For a study of the IMF and the star-formation history of the young open cluster IC 1805, we obtained deep wide-field VRI and Hα images of IC 1805 using the CFH12K mosaic CCD camera of the CFHT on 2002 January 6 and 7. We also observed several regions in IC 1805, for a study of the reddening and massive star content, using the SITe 2000x800 CCD (Maidanak 2k CCD) and standard UBVRI filters of the AZT-22 1.5m telescope at the Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan on 2003 August 18 and 2004 december 25,30. Later, we obtained additional images of the central region of IC 1805 with the Fairchild 486 CCD (SNUCam) and UBVI and Hα filters of the AZT-22 telescope on 2007 October 7 and 2009 January 19. The Spitzer mapping observations were performed on 2006 September 20 under program ID 20052 (PI: S. Wolff). For complete photometry of stars in the CFH12K FOV in 3.6 and 4.5um, we also downloaded and reduced the GLIMPSE360 data (AOR: 38753280, 38763264, 38769408, 38799104, 38798592, 38784512, PI: B. A. Whitney). MIPS scans of IC 1805 were obtained on 2005 August 31 and 2005 September 2 (PID 3234, PI: J. S. Greeves). The Chandra X-ray Observatory Observations of IC 1805 (ObsID: 7033, PI: L. Townley) were made on 2006 November 25. The total exposure time was about 79ks. The properties of 647 X-ray sources were published in Townsley+ (2014,J/ApJS/213/1). We searched for the optical and MIR counterparts of these X-ray sources with a matching radius of up to 1.5". (4 data files).

  15. Galaxy CloudMan: delivering cloud compute clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afgan, Enis; Baker, Dannon; Coraor, Nate; Chapman, Brad; Nekrutenko, Anton; Taylor, James

    2010-12-21

    Widespread adoption of high-throughput sequencing has greatly increased the scale and sophistication of computational infrastructure needed to perform genomic research. An alternative to building and maintaining local infrastructure is "cloud computing", which, in principle, offers on demand access to flexible computational infrastructure. However, cloud computing resources are not yet suitable for immediate "as is" use by experimental biologists. We present a cloud resource management system that makes it possible for individual researchers to compose and control an arbitrarily sized compute cluster on Amazon's EC2 cloud infrastructure without any informatics requirements. Within this system, an entire suite of biological tools packaged by the NERC Bio-Linux team (http://nebc.nerc.ac.uk/tools/bio-linux) is available for immediate consumption. The provided solution makes it possible, using only a web browser, to create a completely configured compute cluster ready to perform analysis in less than five minutes. Moreover, we provide an automated method for building custom deployments of cloud resources. This approach promotes reproducibility of results and, if desired, allows individuals and labs to add or customize an otherwise available cloud system to better meet their needs. The expected knowledge and associated effort with deploying a compute cluster in the Amazon EC2 cloud is not trivial. The solution presented in this paper eliminates these barriers, making it possible for researchers to deploy exactly the amount of computing power they need, combined with a wealth of existing analysis software, to handle the ongoing data deluge.

  16. ASTER cloud coverage reassessment using MODIS cloud mask products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonooka, Hideyuki; Omagari, Kunjuro; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Fujita, Masaru; Paitaer, Zaoreguli

    2010-10-01

    In the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) Project, two kinds of algorithms are used for cloud assessment in Level-1 processing. The first algorithm based on the LANDSAT-5 TM Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA) algorithm is used for a part of daytime scenes observed with only VNIR bands and all nighttime scenes, and the second algorithm based on the LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ACCA algorithm is used for most of daytime scenes observed with all spectral bands. However, the first algorithm does not work well for lack of some spectral bands sensitive to cloud detection, and the two algorithms have been less accurate over snow/ice covered areas since April 2008 when the SWIR subsystem developed troubles. In addition, they perform less well for some combinations of surface type and sun elevation angle. We, therefore, have developed the ASTER cloud coverage reassessment system using MODIS cloud mask (MOD35) products, and have reassessed cloud coverage for all ASTER archived scenes (>1.7 million scenes). All of the new cloud coverage data are included in Image Management System (IMS) databases of the ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) and NASA's Land Process Data Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) and used for ASTER product search by users, and cloud mask images are distributed to users through Internet. Daily upcoming scenes (about 400 scenes per day) are reassessed and inserted into the IMS databases in 5 to 7 days after each scene observation date. Some validation studies for the new cloud coverage data and some mission-related analyses using those data are also demonstrated in the present paper.

  17. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  18. Consciência icônica: o sentimento material do significado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Alexander

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste ensaio seminal, Jeffrey Alexander apresenta algumas das bases de sua virada icônica. O giro analítico proposto se fundamenta em uma compreensão da materialidade como portadora de conteúdo estético e moral, o que é sintetizado na noção de consciência icônica: o processo em que um observador vincula a superfície estética de uma materialidade a uma determinada estrutura moral de valores sociais.

  19. SN 2017dio: A Type-Ic Supernova Exploding in a Hydrogen-rich Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Ashall, Christopher J.; Prentice, Simon J.; Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Leloudas, Giorgos; Anderson, Joseph P.; Benetti, Stefano; Bersten, Melina C.; Cappellaro, Enrico; Cartier, Régis; Denneau, Larry; Della Valle, Massimo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Folatelli, Gastón; Fraser, Morgan; Galbany, Lluís; Gall, Christa; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Hamanowicz, Aleksandra; Heinze, Ari; Inserra, Cosimo; Kangas, Tuomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Melandri, Andrea; Pignata, Giuliano; Rest, Armin; Reynolds, Thomas; Roy, Rupak; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Sollerman, Jesper; Somero, Auni; Stalder, Brian; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Tomasella, Lina; Tonry, John; Weiland, Henry; Young, David R.

    2018-02-01

    SN 2017dio shows both spectral characteristics of a type-Ic supernova (SN) and signs of a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Prominent, narrow emission lines of H and He are superposed on the continuum. Subsequent evolution revealed that the SN ejecta are interacting with the CSM. The initial SN Ic identification was confirmed by removing the CSM interaction component from the spectrum and comparing with known SNe Ic and, reversely, adding a CSM interaction component to the spectra of known SNe Ic and comparing them to SN 2017dio. Excellent agreement was obtained with both procedures, reinforcing the SN Ic classification. The light curve constrains the pre-interaction SN Ic peak absolute magnitude to be around {M}g=-17.6 mag. No evidence of significant extinction is found, ruling out a brighter luminosity required by an SN Ia classification. These pieces of evidence support the view that SN 2017dio is an SN Ic, and therefore the first firm case of an SN Ic with signatures of hydrogen-rich CSM in the early spectrum. The CSM is unlikely to have been shaped by steady-state stellar winds. The mass loss of the progenitor star must have been intense, \\dot{M}∼ 0.02{({ε }{{H}α }/0.01)}-1 ({v}{wind}/500 km s‑1) ({v}{shock}/10,000 km s‑1)‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1, peaking at a few decades before the SN. Such a high mass-loss rate might have been experienced by the progenitor through eruptions or binary stripping. Based on observations made with the NOT, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935, 197.D-1075. Based on observations made with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the

  20. Advances in analog and RF IC design for wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manganaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Analog and RF IC Design for Wireless Communication Systems gives technical introductions to the latest and most significant topics in the area of circuit design of analog/RF ICs for wireless communication systems, emphasizing wireless infrastructure rather than handsets. The book ranges from very high performance circuits for complex wireless infrastructure systems to selected highly integrated systems for handsets and mobile devices. Coverage includes power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, modulators, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters

  1. Evolution of Cloud Storage as Cloud Computing Infrastructure Service

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Arokia Paul; Shanmugapriyaa

    2013-01-01

    Enterprises are driving towards less cost, more availability, agility, managed risk - all of which is accelerated towards Cloud Computing. Cloud is not a particular product, but a way of delivering IT services that are consumable on demand, elastic to scale up and down as needed, and follow a pay-for-usage model. Out of the three common types of cloud computing service models, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a service model that provides servers, computing power, network bandwidth and S...

  2. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nichman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN. The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of −30, −40 and −50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI. Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot

  3. Intercomparison study and optical asphericity measurements of small ice particles in the CERN CLOUD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, Leonid; Järvinen, Emma; Dorsey, James; Connolly, Paul; Duplissy, Jonathan; Fuchs, Claudia; Ignatius, Karoliina; Sengupta, Kamalika; Stratmann, Frank; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin; Gallagher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Optical probes are frequently used for the detection of microphysical cloud particle properties such as liquid and ice phase, size and morphology. These properties can eventually influence the angular light scattering properties of cirrus clouds as well as the growth and accretion mechanisms of single cloud particles. In this study we compare four commonly used optical probes to examine their response to small cloud particles of different phase and asphericity. Cloud simulation experiments were conducted at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The chamber was operated in a series of multi-step adiabatic expansions to produce growth and sublimation of ice particles at super- and subsaturated ice conditions and for initial temperatures of -30, -40 and -50 °C. The experiments were performed for ice cloud formation via homogeneous ice nucleation. We report the optical observations of small ice particles in deep convection and in situ cirrus simulations. Ice crystal asphericity deduced from measurements of spatially resolved single particle light scattering patterns by the Particle Phase Discriminator mark 2 (PPD-2K, Karlsruhe edition) were compared with Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Polarisation (CASPOL) measurements and image roundness captured by the 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI). Averaged path light scattering properties of the simulated ice clouds were measured using the Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detectioN of icE (SIMONE) and single particle scattering properties were measured by the CASPOL. We show the ambiguity of several optical measurements in ice fraction determination of homogeneously frozen ice in the case where sublimating quasi-spherical ice particles are present. Moreover, most of the instruments have difficulties of producing reliable ice fraction if small aspherical ice particles are present, and all of the instruments cannot separate perfectly

  4. Cloud Computing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    regardless of  access point or the device being used across the Global Information Grid ( GIG ).  These data  centers will host existing applications...state.  It  illustrates that the DoD Enterprise Cloud is an integrated environment on the  GIG , consisting of  DoD Components, commercial entities...Operations and Maintenance (O&M) costs by  leveraging  economies  of scale, and automate monitoring and provisioning to reduce the  human cost of service

  5. Creating cloud-free Landsat ETM+ data sets in tropical landscapes: cloud and cloud-shadow removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    Clouds and cloud shadows are common features of visible and infrared remotelysensed images collected from many parts of the world, particularly in humid and tropical regions. We have developed a simple and semiautomated method to mask clouds and shadows in Landsat ETM+ imagery, and have developed a recent cloud-free composite of multitemporal images for Puerto Rico and...

  6. Relation of Cloud Occurrence Frequency, Overlap, and Effective Thickness Derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat Merged Cloud Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profile derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical pro les can be related by a set of equations when the correlation distance of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches the random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from the random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of CALIPSO and CloudSat data support these assumptions. However, the correlation distance sometimes becomes large, which might be an indication of precipitation. The cloud correlation distance is equivalent to the de-correlation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth [2000] when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same.

  7. Molecular clouds without detectable CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitz, L.; Bazell, D.; Desert, F.X.

    1990-01-01

    The clouds identified by Desert, Bazell, and Boulanger (DBB clouds) in their search for high-latitude molecular clouds were observed in the CO (J = 1-0) line, but only 13 percent of the sample was detected. The remaining 87 percent are diffuse molecular clouds with CO abundances of about 10 to the -6th, a typical value for diffuse clouds. This hypothesis is shown to be consistent with Copernicus data. The DBB clouds are shown to be an essentially complete catalog of diffuse molecular clouds in the solar vicinity. The total molecular surface density in the vicinity of the sun is then only about 20 percent greater than the 1.3 solar masses/sq pc determined by Dame et al. (1987). Analysis of the CO detections indicates that there is a sharp threshold in extinction of 0.25 mag before CO is detectable and is derived from the IRAS I(100) micron threshold of 4 MJy/sr. This threshold is presumably where the CO abundance exhibits a sharp increase 18 refs

  8. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    CERN Document Server

    Panitkin, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Caballero Bejar, J; Benjamin, D; DiGirolamo, A; Gable, I; Hendrix, V; Hover, J; Kucharczuk, K; Medrano LLamas, R; Love, P; Ohman, H; Paterson, M; Sobie, R; Taylor, R; Walker, R; Zaytsev, A

    2014-01-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained...

  9. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs.Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implementation of data mining techniques through Cloud computing will allow the users to retrieve meaningful information from virtually integrated data warehouse that reduces the costs of infrastructure and storage.

  10. The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC disclosure among Chinese (mainland companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited literature regarding the associations between the level of IC disclosure and a variety of relevant impact factors, in particular in the Chinese mainland context. In addition, the findings of this research provide some references for policy-makers while developing an IC reporting framework applicable to the Chinese environment.

  11. 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    * 3D integration: Opportunities and trends* e-CUBES: Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)* Package design including thermo-mechanical modeling* Technology development* Sensor packaging concept* Gold stud bump bonding* Device characterization and testing* Summary and outlook 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

  12. EMERGING I&C TECHNOLOGIES UNDER THE SHIFTING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunyoung eHeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA has been supplementary and Risk-Informed Applications (RIAs based on the insight from PSA has also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging Instrumentation and Control (I&C technologies including human-machine interface (HMI in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e. software embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI and PSA should be emphasized.

  13. Emerging I&C Technologies Under the Shifting Regulatory Environment in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been supplementary and risk-informed applications based on the insight from PSA have also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies including human–machine interface (HMI) in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e., software) embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI, and PSA should be emphasized.

  14. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  15. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the interface delamination. To this end, a computational model with variable boundary conditions is developed based on the different combination state of water in IC packages. The distribution characteristics and mechanism of moisture diffusion behavior are analyzed including the humidity distribution field and the relation among baking temperature, water loss rate, and baking time during baking process, and then the results are validated by FEA simulation based on the improved definition of relative moisture concentration. Baking under variable temperature is proposed and compared with the baking process and baking efficiency under constant temperature to find out the optimized baking parameters. Finally, a set of curves which indicate the relation between baking energy consumption and temperature are determined under actual industrial baking experiments, which could be used as references to develop industrial standards for PCB disassembling process.

  16. In vitro assays for cobblestone area-forming cells, LTC-IC, and CFU-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, Ronald P; Dethmers-Ausema, Bertien; de Haan, Gerald; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Various assays exist that measure the function of hematopoietic stemcells (HSCs). In this chapter, in vitro assays are described that measure the frequency of progenitors (colony-forming unit in culture; CFU-C), stem cells (long-term culture-initiating cell; LTC-IC), or both (cobblestone

  17. Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Mireia Alcántara; Angueyra, Andrea; Cleef, Antoine M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by

  18. IC 3639 - A new bona fide Compton thick AGN unveiled by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse high-quality NuSTAR observations of the local (z = 0.011) Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) IC 3639, in conjunction with archival Suzaku and Chandra data. This provides the first broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the source, spanning nearly two decades in energy (0.5 -30 keV)....

  19. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  20. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  1. On the Significance of Process Comprehension for Conducting Targeted ICS Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, Benjamin; Krotofil, Marina; Abbasi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) has been described as both easy and impossible, where is the truth? Post-Stuxnet works have included a plethora of ICS focused cyber security research activities, with topics covering device maturity, network protocols, and overall cyber security

  2. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C...

  3. Using Tablet PCs and Interactive Software in IC Design Courses to Improve Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an initial study of using tablet PCs and interactive course software in integrated circuit (IC) design courses. A rapidly growing community is demonstrating how this technology can improve learning and retention of material by facilitating interaction between faculty and students via cognitive exercises during lectures. While…

  4. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and

  5. Comparison between dominant NB and dominant IC heated ELMy H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T.W.; Sartori, R.; de Vries, P.C.; et al, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The experiment described in this paper is aimed at characterization of ELMy H-mode discharges with varying momentum input, rotation, power deposition profiles and ion to electron heating ratio obtained by varying the proportion between ion cyclotron (IC) and neutral beam (NB) heating. The

  6. Comparison between dominant NB and dominant IC heated ELMy H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; de Vries, P. C.; Saibene, G.; Parail, V.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Boboc, A.; Budny, R.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Durodie, F.; Eich, T.; Giroud, C.; Kiptily, V.; Johnson, T.; Mantica, P.; Mayoral, M. L.; McDonald, D. C.; Monakhov, I.; Nave, M. F. F.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    The experiment described in this paper is aimed at characterization of ELMy H-mode discharges with varying momentum input, rotation, power deposition profiles and ion to electron heating ratio obtained by varying the proportion between ion cyclotron (IC) and neutral beam (NB) heating. The motivation

  7. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered By NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition f...

  8. The measurement of Ksub(IC) in single crystal SiC using the indentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, J.L.; Brookes, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The present work has concentrated on investigating the underlying fracture toughness behaviour of SiC single crystals. This material was chosen because of the commercial importance of the various polycrystalline forms of SiC and the relative ready availability of reasonably sized single crystals. This study has examined the feasibility of using the indentation technique to determine Ksub(IC) in SiC single crystals. This requires much more less complex experimentation and also affords the possibility of being able to use this method to study the orientation dependence of Ksub(IC) in a similar manner to that used to investigate anisotropy in indentation hardness behaviour. A single crystal of 6H-SiC was used for all the hardness and conventional Ksub(IC) results reported here. The particular polytype and orientation were determined using the Laue X-ray method. All the measurements were made under ambient conditions. Three-point bend tests, with a 6 mm span on single edge notched beams, SENB, orientated such that the plane of the notch was brace 112-bar0 brace and the crack propagation direction were used for the conventional Ksub(IC) tests. The hardness indentations were all made on one particular SENB test piece after it had been fractured. The results are discussed. (author)

  9. A grammar of Ik (Icé-tód) : Northeast Uganda's last thriving Kuliak language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrock, Terrill B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ik language (Icé-tód), spoken in northeast Uganda, forms the Kuliak (Rub) subgroup along with So/Tepeth and Nyang’í. These latter two lects have already succombed to assimilative pressures from neighboring Nilotic pastoralists like the Karimojong, Turkana, and Pokot. Despite

  10. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  11. Cardiovascular disease events and its predictors in women: Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In ICS, HTN, diabetes mellitus and high triglyceride are strong predictors for CV events in Iranian women. As almost all strong risk markers of CVD events are preventable, health policy makers have to give urgent consideration to make preventive public health strategies.

  12. Cloud Computing:Strategies for Cloud Computing Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Shimba, Faith

    2010-01-01

    The advent of cloud computing in recent years has sparked an interest from different organisations, institutions and users to take advantage of web applications. This is a result of the new economic model for the Information Technology (IT) department that cloud computing promises. The model promises a shift from an organisation required to invest heavily for limited IT resources that are internally managed, to a model where the organisation can buy or rent resources that are managed by a clo...

  13. CloudGC: Recycling Idle Virtual Machines in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Bo; Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Rouvoy , Romain; Paraiso , Fawaz; Seinturier , Lionel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Cloud computing conveys the image of a pool of unlimited virtual resources that can be quickly and easily provisioned to accommodate the user requirements. However, this flexibility may require to adjust physical resources at the infrastructure level to keep the pace of user requests. While elasticity can be considered as the de facto solution to support this issue, this elasticity can still be broken by budget requirements or physical limitations of a private cloud. I...

  14. Exploiting Virtualization and Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    This work will present the current status of the Virtualization and Cloud Computing R&D project in ATLAS Distributed Computing. First, strategies for deploying PanDA queues on cloud sites will be discussed, including the introduction of a "cloud factory" for managing cloud VM instances. Ne...

  15. Using Cloud Services for Library IT Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing comes in several different forms and this article documents how service, platform, and infrastructure forms of cloud computing have been used to serve library needs. Following an overview of these uses the article discusses the experience of one library in migrating IT infrastructure to a cloud environment and concludes with a model for assessing cloud computing.

  16. Towards a service centric contextualized vehicular cloud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Xiping; Wang, Lei; Sheng, Zhengguo; TalebiFard, Peyman; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jia; Leung, Victor C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a service-centric contextualized vehicular (SCCV) cloud platform to facilitate the deployment and delivery of cloud-based mobile applications over vehicular networks. SCCV cloud employs a multi-tier architecture that consists of the network, mobile device, and cloud tiers. Based

  17. On the existence of tropical anvil clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Jeevanjee, N.; Langhans, W.; Romps, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the deep tropics, extensive anvil clouds produce a peak in cloud cover below the tropopause. The dominant paradigm for cloud cover attributes this anvil peak to a layer of enhanced mass convergence in the clear-sky upper-troposphere, which is presumed to force frequent detrainment of convective anvils. However, cloud cover also depends on the lifetime of cloudy air after it detrains, which raises the possibility that anvil clouds may be the signature of slow cloud decay rather than enhanced detrainment. Here we measure the cloud decay timescale in cloud-resolving simulations, and find that cloudy updrafts that detrain in the upper troposphere take much longer to dissipate than their shallower counterparts. We show that cloud lifetimes are long in the upper troposphere because the saturation specific humidity becomes orders of magnitude smaller than the typical condensed water loading of cloudy updrafts. This causes evaporative cloud decay to act extremely slowly, thereby prolonging cloud lifetimes in the upper troposphere. As a consequence, extensive anvil clouds still occur in a convecting atmosphere that is forced to have no preferential clear-sky convergence layer. On the other hand, when cloud lifetimes are fixed at a characteristic lower-tropospheric value, extensive anvil clouds do not form. Our results support a revised understanding of tropical anvil clouds, which attributes their existence to the microphysics of slow cloud decay rather than a peak in clear-sky convergence.

  18. Hidden in the Clouds: New Ideas in Cloud Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Cloud computing has become a hot topic. But 'cloud' is no newer in 2013 than MapReduce was in 2005: We've been doing both for years. So why is cloud more relevant today than it ever has been? In this presentation, we will introduce the (current) central thesis of cloud computing, and explore how and why (or even whether) the concept has evolved. While we will cover a little light background, our primary focus will be on the consequences, corollaries and techniques introduced by some of the leading cloud developers and organizations. We each have a different deployment model, different applications and workloads, and many of us are still learning to efficiently exploit the platform services offered by a modern implementation. The discussion will offer the opportunity to share these experiences and help us all to realize the benefits of cloud computing to the fullest degree. Please bring questions and opinions, and be ready to share both!   Bio: S...

  19. Continuous growth of cloud droplets in cumulus cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Suehiro, Tamotsu; Saito, Izumi

    2016-01-01

    A new method to seamlessly simulate the continuous growth of droplets advected by turbulent flow inside a cumulus cloud was developed from first principle. A cubic box ascending with a mean updraft inside a cumulus cloud was introduced and the updraft velocity was self-consistently determined in such a way that the mean turbulent velocity within the box vanished. All the degrees of freedom of the cloud droplets and turbulence fields were numerically integrated. The box ascended quickly inside the cumulus cloud due to the updraft and the mean radius of the droplets grew from 10 to 24 μ m for about 10 min. The turbulent flow tended to slow down the time evolutions of the updraft velocity, the box altitude and the mean cloud droplet radius. The size distribution of the cloud droplets in the updraft case was narrower than in the absence of the updraft. It was also found that the wavenumeber spectra of the variances of the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio were nearly constant in the low wavenumber range. The future development of the new method was argued. (paper)

  20. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  1. OSL signal of IC chips from mobile phones for dose assessment in accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Książek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose is very important for the prediction of biological effects after unintended exposition. The materials for use as dosimeters in accidental dosimetry should be everyday objects which are usually placed near the human body, for example mobile phones. IC (Integrated Circuit) chip is one of several electronic components of mobile phones which give a luminescent signal. The measurements of samples from different mobile phones and smartphones were conducted by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) methods. The OSL measurement was performed in two ways: with readouts at room temperature and at 100 °C. This work is focused on determination of OSL dose response of IC chips, minimum detectable dose (MDD), OSL signal stability in the time after the exposition, its repeatability and sensitivity to light. Several tests of the assessment of unknown doses were also conducted. The readouts at 100 °C indicate the reducing of the fading of OSL signal in the first hours after irradiation in comparison with room temperature readouts. The obtained results showed relatively good dosimetric properties of IC chips: their high sensitivity to the ionizing radiation, linear dose response up to 10 Gy and a good reproducibility of OSL signal which can allow the dose recovery of doses less than 2 Gy in 14 days after an incident with the accuracy better than 25%. The fading is a drawback of IC chips and the fading factor should be considered when calculating the dose. - Highlights: • IC chips from smartphones demonstrated high potential for accidental dosimetry. • Minimum detectable dose was estimated as a value of 50 mGy. • Samples showed linear dose response for the dose range from 0.05 Gy up to 10 Gy.

  2. Research computing in a distributed cloud environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransham, K; Agarwal, A; Armstrong, P; Bishop, A; Charbonneau, A; Desmarais, R; Hill, N; Gable, I; Gaudet, S; Goliath, S; Impey, R; Leavett-Brown, C; Ouellete, J; Paterson, M; Pritchet, C; Penfold-Brown, D; Podaima, W; Schade, D; Sobie, R J

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in availability of Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) computing clouds provides a new way for researchers to run complex scientific applications. However, using cloud resources for a large number of research jobs requires significant effort and expertise. Furthermore, running jobs on many different clouds presents even more difficulty. In order to make it easy for researchers to deploy scientific applications across many cloud resources, we have developed a virtual machine resource manager (Cloud Scheduler) for distributed compute clouds. In response to a user's job submission to a batch system, the Cloud Scheduler manages the distribution and deployment of user-customized virtual machines across multiple clouds. We describe the motivation for and implementation of a distributed cloud using the Cloud Scheduler that is spread across both commercial and dedicated private sites, and present some early results of scientific data analysis using the system.

  3. Cloud computing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagadis, George C; Kloukinas, Christos; Moore, Kevin; Philbin, Jim; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Alexakos, Christos; Nagy, Paul G; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hendee, William R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past century technology has played a decisive role in defining, driving, and reinventing procedures, devices, and pharmaceuticals in healthcare. Cloud computing has been introduced only recently but is already one of the major topics of discussion in research and clinical settings. The provision of extensive, easily accessible, and reconfigurable resources such as virtual systems, platforms, and applications with low service cost has caught the attention of many researchers and clinicians. Healthcare researchers are moving their efforts to the cloud, because they need adequate resources to process, store, exchange, and use large quantities of medical data. This Vision 20/20 paper addresses major questions related to the applicability of advanced cloud computing in medical imaging. The paper also considers security and ethical issues that accompany cloud computing.

  4. Magellanic Clouds Cepheids: Thorium Abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuncheol Jeong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the high-resolution spectra of 31 Magellanic Clouds Cepheid variables enabled the identification of thorium lines. The abundances of thorium were found with spectrum synthesis method. The calculated thorium abundances exhibit correlations with the abundances of other chemical elements and atmospheric parameters of the program stars. These correlations are similar for both Clouds. The correlations of iron abundances of thorium, europium, neodymium, and yttrium relative to the pulsational periods are different in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, namely the correlations are negative for LMC and positive or close to zero for SMC. One of the possible explanations can be the higher activity of nucleosynthesis in SMC with respect to LMC in the recent several hundred million years.

  5. Processing Terrain Point Cloud Data

    KAUST Repository

    DeVore, Ronald; Petrova, Guergana; Hielsberg, Matthew; Owens, Luke; Clack, Billy; Sood, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Terrain point cloud data are typically acquired through some form of Light Detection And Ranging sensing. They form a rich resource that is important in a variety of applications including navigation, line of sight, and terrain visualization

  6. Unidata Cyberinfrastructure in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, M. K.; Young, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Data services, software, and user support are critical components of geosciences cyber-infrastructure to help researchers to advance science. With the maturity of and significant advances in cloud computing, it has recently emerged as an alternative new paradigm for developing and delivering a broad array of services over the Internet. Cloud computing is now mature enough in usability in many areas of science and education, bringing the benefits of virtualized and elastic remote services to infrastructure, software, computation, and data. Cloud environments reduce the amount of time and money spent to procure, install, and maintain new hardware and software, and reduce costs through resource pooling and shared infrastructure. Given the enormous potential of cloud-based services, Unidata has been moving to augment its software, services, data delivery mechanisms to align with the cloud-computing paradigm. To realize the above vision, Unidata has worked toward: * Providing access to many types of data from a cloud (e.g., via the THREDDS Data Server, RAMADDA and EDEX servers); * Deploying data-proximate tools to easily process, analyze, and visualize those data in a cloud environment cloud for consumption by any one, by any device, from anywhere, at any time; * Developing and providing a range of pre-configured and well-integrated tools and services that can be deployed by any university in their own private or public cloud settings. Specifically, Unidata has developed Docker for "containerized applications", making them easy to deploy. Docker helps to create "disposable" installs and eliminates many configuration challenges. Containerized applications include tools for data transport, access, analysis, and visualization: THREDDS Data Server, Integrated Data Viewer, GEMPAK, Local Data Manager, RAMADDA Data Server, and Python tools; * Leveraging Jupyter as a central platform and hub with its powerful set of interlinking tools to connect interactively data servers

  7. Distributed Processing in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Ilias; Karatza, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Proceedings of the First PhD Symposium on Sustainable Ultrascale Computing Systems (NESUS PhD 2016) Timisoara, Romania. February 8-11, 2016. Cloud computing offers a wide range of resources and services through the Internet that can been used for various purposes. The rapid growth of cloud computing has exempted many companies and institutions from the burden of maintaining expensive hardware and software infrastructure. With characteristics like high scalability, availability ...

  8. Cloud Computing: Architecture and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Ravneet Kaur

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on demand, like the electricity grid. It is a method for delivering information technology (IT) services where resources are retrieved from the Internet through web-based tools and applications, as opposed to a direct connection to a server. Rather than keeping files on a proprietary hard drive or local storage device, cloud-based storage makes it possib...

  9. Privacy Protection in Cloud Using Rsa Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Amandeep Kaur; Manpreet Kaur

    2014-01-01

    The cloud computing architecture has been on high demand nowadays. The cloud has been successful over grid and distributed environment due to its cost and high reliability along with high security. However in the area of research it is observed that cloud computing still has some issues in security regarding privacy. The cloud broker provide services of cloud to general public and ensures that data is protected however they sometimes lag security and privacy. Thus in this work...

  10. Security Audit Compliance for Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Doelitzscher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has grown largely over the past three years and is widely popular amongst today's IT landscape. In a comparative study between 250 IT decision makers of UK companies they said, that they already use cloud services for 61% of their systems. Cloud vendors promise "infinite scalability and resources" combined with on-demand access from everywhere. This lets cloud users quickly forget, that there is still a real IT infrastructure behind a cloud. Due to virtualization and multi-ten...

  11. Secure Data Service Outsourcing with Untrusted Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing data services to the cloud is a nature fit for cloud usage. However, increasing security and privacy concerns from both enterprises and individuals on their outsourced data inhibit this trend. In this dissertation, we introduce service-centric solutions to address two types of security threats existing in the current cloud environments: semi-honest cloud providers and malicious cloud customers. Our solution aims not only to provide confidentiality and access controllability of out...

  12. MULTI TENANCY SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING

    OpenAIRE

    Manjinder Singh*, Charanjit Singh

    2017-01-01

    The word Cloud is used as a metaphor for the internet, based on standardised use of a cloud like shape to denote a network. Cloud Computing is advanced technology for resource sharing through network with less cost as compare to other technologies. Cloud infrastructure supports various models IAAS, SAAS, PAAS. The term virtualization in cloud computing is very useful today. With the help of virtualization, more than one operating system is supported with all resources on single H/W. We can al...

  13. VMware vCloud director cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Langenhan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    VMware vCloud Director Cookbook will adopt a Cookbook-based approach. Packed with illustrations and programming examples, this book explains the simple as well as the complex recipes in an easy-to-understand language.""VMware vCloud Director Cookbook"" is aimed at system administrators and technical architects moving from a virtualized environment to cloud environments. Familiarity with cloud computing platforms and some knowledge of virtualization and managing cloud environments is expected.

  14. Cloud computing methods and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents both state-of-the-art research developments and practical guidance on approaches, technologies and frameworks for the emerging cloud paradigm. Topics and features: presents the state of the art in cloud technologies, infrastructures, and service delivery and deployment models; discusses relevant theoretical frameworks, practical approaches and suggested methodologies; offers guidance and best practices for the development of cloud-based services and infrastructures, and examines management aspects of cloud computing; reviews consumer perspectives on mobile cloud computing an

  15. OCCI-Compliant Cloud Configuration Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed-Nacer , Mehdi; Gaaloul , Walid; Tata , Samir

    2017-01-01

    In recent years many organizations such as, Amazon, Google, Microsoft, have accelerated the development of their cloud computing ecosystem. This rapid development has created a plethora of cloud resource management interfaces for provisioning, supervising, and managing cloud resources. Thus, there is an obvious need for the standardization of cloud resource management interfaces to cope with the prevalent issues of heterogeneity, integration, and portability issues.To this end, Open Cloud Com...

  16. Cloud computing for comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivovarov Rimma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD, to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2. We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. Results We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. Conclusions The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  17. Cloud computing for comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis P; Kudtarkar, Parul; Fusaro, Vincent A; Pivovarov, Rimma; Patil, Prasad; Tonellato, Peter J

    2010-05-18

    Large comparative genomics studies and tools are becoming increasingly more compute-expensive as the number of available genome sequences continues to rise. The capacity and cost of local computing infrastructures are likely to become prohibitive with the increase, especially as the breadth of questions continues to rise. Alternative computing architectures, in particular cloud computing environments, may help alleviate this increasing pressure and enable fast, large-scale, and cost-effective comparative genomics strategies going forward. To test this, we redesigned a typical comparative genomics algorithm, the reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD), to run within Amazon's Elastic Computing Cloud (EC2). We then employed the RSD-cloud for ortholog calculations across a wide selection of fully sequenced genomes. We ran more than 300,000 RSD-cloud processes within the EC2. These jobs were farmed simultaneously to 100 high capacity compute nodes using the Amazon Web Service Elastic Map Reduce and included a wide mix of large and small genomes. The total computation time took just under 70 hours and cost a total of $6,302 USD. The effort to transform existing comparative genomics algorithms from local compute infrastructures is not trivial. However, the speed and flexibility of cloud computing environments provides a substantial boost with manageable cost. The procedure designed to transform the RSD algorithm into a cloud-ready application is readily adaptable to similar comparative genomics problems.

  18. Considerations about Cloud Services: Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cognini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud services are ubiquitous: for small to large companies the phenomenon of cloud service is nowadays a standard business practice. This paper would compile an analysis over a possible implementation of a cloud system, treating especially the legal aspect of this theme. In the Italian market has a large number of issues arise form cloud computing. First of all, this paper investigates the legal issues associated to cloud computing, specific contractual scheme that is able to define rights a duties both of user (private and/or public body and cloud provider. On one side there is all the EU legislative production related to privacy over electronic communication and, furthermore, the Privacy Directive is under a revision process to be more adaptable to new challenges of decentralized data treatment, but concretely there are no any structured and well defined legal instruments. Objectives: we present a possible solution to address the uncertainty of this area, starting from the EU legislative production with the help of the specific Italian scenario that could offer an operative solution. Indeed the Italian legal system is particularly adaptable to changing technologies and it could use as better as possible to adapt the already existing legal tools to this new technological era. Prior work: after an introduction to the state of the art, we show the main issues and their critical points that must be solved. Approach: observation of the state of the art to propose a new approach to find the suitable disciple

  19. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D.; Chiar, J. E.; Pagani, L.; Shenoy, S. S.; Adamson, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H 2 O, CO, and CO 2 in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 μm for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044–0254073) is H 2 O:CO:CO 2 ≈ 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature (∼ 2 O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth τ 9.7 = 0.15 ± 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E J–K does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases

  20. ICE AND DUST IN THE PRESTELLAR DARK CLOUD LYNDS 183: PREPLANETARY MATTER AT THE LOWEST TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Poteet, C. A.; Bajaj, V. M.; Horne, D. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy and New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Pagani, L. [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Shenoy, S. S. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Adamson, A. J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-09-10

    Dust grains are nucleation centers and catalysts for the growth of icy mantles in quiescent interstellar clouds, the products of which may accumulate into preplanetary matter when new stars and solar systems form within the clouds. In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic detections of silicate dust and the molecular ices H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} in the vicinity of the prestellar core L183 (L134N). An infrared photometric survey of the cloud was used to identify reddened background stars, and we present spectra covering solid-state absorption features in the wavelength range 2-20 {mu}m for nine of them. The mean composition of the ices in the best-studied line of sight (toward J15542044-0254073) is H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2} Almost-Equal-To 100:40:24. The ices are amorphous in structure, indicating that they have been maintained at low temperature ({approx}< 15 K) since formation. The ice column density N(H{sub 2}O) correlates with reddening by dust, exhibiting a threshold effect that corresponds to the transition from unmantled grains in the outer layers of the cloud to ice-mantled grains within, analogous to that observed in other dark clouds. A comparison of results for L183 and the Taurus and IC 5146 dark clouds suggests common behavior, with mantles first appearing in each case at a dust column corresponding to a peak optical depth {tau}{sub 9.7} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 in the silicate feature. Our results support a previous conclusion that the color excess E{sub J-K} does not obey a simple linear correlation with the total dust column in lines of sight that intercept dense clouds. The most likely explanation is a systematic change in the optical properties of the dust as the density increases.

  1. Contrasting Cloud Composition Between Coupled and Decoupled Marine Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Z.; Mora, M.; Dadashazar, H.; MacDonald, A.; Crosbie, E.; Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Craven, J. S.; Xian, P.; Campbell, J. R.; AzadiAghdam, M.; Woods, R. K.; Jonsson, H.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.; Sorooshian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds often become decoupled from the vertical layer immediately above the ocean surface. This study contrasts cloud chemical composition between coupled and decoupled marine stratocumulus clouds. Cloud water and droplet residual particle composition were measured in clouds off the California coast during three airborne experiments in July-August of separate years (E-PEACE 2011, NiCE 2013, BOAS 2015). Decoupled clouds exhibited significantly lower overall mass concentrations in both cloud water and droplet residual particles, consistent with reduced cloud droplet number concentration and sub-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) number concentration, owing to detachment from surface sources. Non-refractory sub-micrometer aerosol measurements show that coupled clouds exhibit higher sulfate mass fractions in droplet residual particles, owing to more abundant precursor emissions from the ocean and ships. Consequently, decoupled clouds exhibited higher mass fractions of organics, nitrate, and ammonium in droplet residual particles, owing to effects of long-range transport from more distant sources. Total cloud water mass concentration in coupled clouds was dominated by sodium and chloride, and their mass fractions and concentrations exceeded those in decoupled clouds. Conversely, with the exception of sea salt constituents (e.g., Cl, Na, Mg, K), cloud water mass fractions of all species examined were higher in decoupled clouds relative to coupled clouds. These results suggest that an important variable is the extent to which clouds are coupled to the surface layer when interpreting microphysical data relevant to clouds and aerosol particles.

  2. Jupiter's Multi-level Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Clouds and hazes at various altitudes within the dynamic Jovian atmosphere are revealed by multi-color imaging taken by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft. These images were taken during the second orbit (G2) on September 5, 1996 from an early-morning vantage point 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) above Jupiter. They show the planet's appearance as viewed at various near-infrared wavelengths, with distinct differences due primarily to variations in the altitudes and opacities of the cloud systems. The top left and right images, taken at 1.61 microns and 2.73 microns respectively, show relatively clear views of the deep atmosphere, with clouds down to a level about three times the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface.By contrast, the middle image in top row, taken at 2.17 microns, shows only the highest altitude clouds and hazes. This wavelength is severely affected by the absorption of light by hydrogen gas, the main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere. Therefore, only the Great Red Spot, the highest equatorial clouds, a small feature at mid-northern latitudes, and thin, high photochemical polar hazes can be seen. In the lower left image, at 3.01 microns, deeper clouds can be seen dimly against gaseous ammonia and methane absorption. In the lower middle image, at 4.99 microns, the light observed is the planet's own indigenous heat from the deep, warm atmosphere.The false color image (lower right) succinctly shows various cloud and haze levels seen in the Jovian atmosphere. This image indicates the temperature and altitude at which the light being observed is produced. Thermally-rich red areas denote high temperatures from photons in the deep atmosphere leaking through minimal cloud cover; green denotes cool temperatures of the tropospheric clouds; blue denotes cold of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The polar regions appear purplish, because small-particle hazes allow leakage and reflectivity

  3. The Community Cloud Atlas - Building an Informed Cloud Watching Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, N.; Rowe, A.

    2014-12-01

    The sky is dynamic, from long lasting cloud systems to ethereal, fleeting formations. After years of observing the sky and growing our personal collections of cloud photos, we decided to take to social media to share pictures, as well as build and educate a community of cloud enthusiasts. We began a Facebook page, the Community Cloud Atlas, described as "...the place to show off your pictures of the sky, identify clouds, and to discuss how specific cloud types form and what they can tell you about current and future weather." Our main goal has been to encourage others to share their pictures, while we describe the scenes from a meteorological perspective and reach out to the general public to facilitate a deeper understanding of the sky. Nearly 16 months later, we have over 1400 "likes," spanning 45 countries with ages ranging from 13 to over 65. We have a consistent stream of submissions; so many that we decided to start a corresponding blog to better organize the photos, provide more detailed explanations, and reach a bigger audience. Feedback from users has been positive in support of not only sharing cloud pictures, but also to "learn the science as well as admiring" the clouds. As one community member stated, "This is not 'just' a place to share some lovely pictures." We have attempted to blend our social media presence with providing an educational resource, and we are encouraged by the response we have received. Our Atlas has been informally implemented into classrooms, ranging from a 6th grade science class to Meteorology courses at universities. NOVA's recent Cloud Lab also made use of our Atlas as a supply of categorized pictures. Our ongoing goal is to not only continue to increase understanding and appreciation of the sky among the public, but to provide an increasingly useful tool for educators. We continue to explore different social media options to interact with the public and provide easier content submission, as well as software options for

  4. Securing services in the cloud: an investigation of the threats and the mitigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroha, Bassam S.; Farroha, Deborah L.

    2012-05-01

    The stakeholder's security concerns over data in the clouds (Voice, Video and Text) are a real concern to DoD, the IC and private sector. This is primarily due to the lack of physical isolation of data when migrating to shared infrastructure platforms. The security concerns are related to privacy and regulatory compliance required in many industries (healthcare, financial, law enforcement, DoD, etc) and the corporate knowledge databases. The new paradigm depends on the service provider to ensure that the customer's information is continuously monitored and is kept available, secure, access controlled and isolated from potential adversaries.

  5. Cloud computing development in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazgen Ghazaryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of the research is to clarify benefits and risks in regards with data protection, cost; business can have by the use of this new technologies for the implementation and management of organization’s information systems.Design/methodology/approach – Qualitative case study of the results obtained via interviews. Three research questions were raised: Q1: How can company benefit from using Cloud Computing compared to other solutions?; Q2: What are possible issues that occur with Cloud Computing?; Q3: How would Cloud Computing change an organizations’ IT infrastructure?Findings – The calculations provided in the interview section prove the financial advantages, even though the precise degree of flexibility and performance has not been assessed. Cloud Computing offers great scalability. Another benefit that Cloud Computing offers, in addition to better performance and flexibility, is reliable and simple backup data storage, physically distributed and so almost invulnerable to damage. Although the advantages of Cloud Computing more than compensate for the difficulties associated with it, the latter must be carefully considered. Since the cloud architecture is relatively new, so far the best guarantee against all risks it entails, from a single company's perspective, is a well-formulated service-level agreement, where the terms of service and the shared responsibility and security roles between the client and the provider are defined.Research limitations/implications – study was carried out on the bases of two companies, which gives deeper view, but for more widely applicable results, a wider analysis is necessary.Practical implications:Originality/Value – novelty of the research depends on the fact that existing approaches on this problem mainly focus on technical side of computing.Research type: case study

  6. Green Cloud Computing: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a dynamic field of information and communication technologies (ICTs, introducing new challenges for environmental protection. Cloud computing technologies have a variety of application domains, since they offer scalability, are reliable and trustworthy, and offer high performance at relatively low cost. The cloud computing revolution is redesigning modern networking, and offering promising environmental protection prospects as well as economic and technological advantages. These technologies have the potential to improve energy efficiency and to reduce carbon footprints and (e-waste. These features can transform cloud computing into green cloud computing. In this survey, we review the main achievements of green cloud computing. First, an overview of cloud computing is given. Then, recent studies and developments are summarized, and environmental issues are specifically addressed. Finally, future research directions and open problems regarding green cloud computing are presented. This survey is intended to serve as up-to-date guidance for research with respect to green cloud computing.

  7. A parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, S.J.; Chuang, C.; Penner, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Droplet nucleation is a fundamental cloud process. The number of aerosols activated to form cloud droplets influences not only the number of aerosols scavenged by clouds but also the size of the cloud droplets. Cloud droplet size influences the cloud albedo and the conversion of cloud water to precipitation. Global aerosol models are presently being developed with the intention of coupling with global atmospheric circulation models to evaluate the influence of aerosols and aerosol-cloud interactions on climate. If these and other coupled models are to address issues of aerosol-cloud interactions, the droplet nucleation process must be adequately represented. Here we introduce a droplet nucleation parametrization that offers certain advantages over the popular Twomey (1959) parameterization

  8. The Evolution of Cloud Computing in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224309; The ATLAS collaboration; Berghaus, Frank; Love, Peter; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Paterson, Michael; Gable, Ian; Sobie, Randall; Field, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has successfully incorporated cloud computing technology and cloud resources into its primarily grid-based model of distributed computing. Cloud R&D activities continue to mature and transition into stable production systems, while ongoing evolutionary changes are still needed to adapt and refine the approaches used, in response to changes in prevailing cloud technology. In addition, completely new developments are needed to handle emerging requirements. This work will describe the overall evolution of cloud computing in ATLAS. The current status of the VM management systems used for harnessing IAAS resources will be discussed. Monitoring and accounting systems tailored for clouds are needed to complete the integration of cloud resources within ATLAS' distributed computing framework. We are developing and deploying new solutions to address the challenge of operation in a geographically distributed multi-cloud scenario, including a system for managing VM images across multiple clouds, ...

  9. Zen of cloud learning cloud computing by examples on Microsoft Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Haishi

    2014-01-01

    Zen of Cloud: Learning Cloud Computing by Examples on Microsoft Azure provides comprehensive coverage of the essential theories behind cloud computing and the Windows Azure cloud platform. Sharing the author's insights gained while working at Microsoft's headquarters, it presents nearly 70 end-to-end examples with step-by-step guidance on implementing typical cloud-based scenarios.The book is organized into four sections: cloud service fundamentals, cloud solutions, devices and cloud, and system integration and project management. Each chapter contains detailed exercises that provide readers w

  10. A cell-level power management IC in BCD-SOI for partial power processing in Concentrating-PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, M.S.; Wen, Y.; Fernandes, R.; Buter, B.; Doorn, T.S.; Dijkstra, M.; Bergveld, H.J.; Trescases, O.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a power management IC used to mitigate the effects of mismatch in Concentrating-Photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The IC contains a bi-directional dc-dc converter, an auxiliary boost converter to generate the internal 10 V power supply, as well as protection and monitoring circuits. The

  11. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio

  12. Radon measurements at IC-09 well of Chingshui geothermal field (Taiwan): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Kuo, T.; Fan, K.; Liang, H.; Tsai, C.; Chiang, C.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Radon concentration was monitored during the flow tests of well IC-09 at the Chingshui geothermal field. The radon concentration was found to increase from 54 ± 29 to 983 ± 65 Bq/m 3 as a step function of production time, or cumulative production. The observed radon behavior can be explained by a radial composite model with the carbonate scales deposited in the skin zone near the well. The radius of skin zone near well IC-09 can be estimated with radon data at about 20 m using a plug flow model. Monitoring natural radon during the well flow tests is a helpful tracer to diagnose the formation damage near the well.

  13. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  14. Automatic analog IC sizing and optimization constrained with PVT corners and layout effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Nuno; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for automatic analog integrated circuit (IC) sizing and optimization. The authors provide a historical perspective on the early methods proposed to tackle automatic analog circuit sizing, with emphasis on the methodologies to size and optimize the circuit, and on the methodologies to estimate the circuit’s performance. The discussion also includes robust circuit design and optimization and the most recent advances in layout-aware analog sizing approaches. The authors describe a methodology for an automatic flow for analog IC design, including details of the inputs and interfaces, multi-objective optimization techniques, and the enhancements made in the base implementation by using machine leaning techniques. The Gradient model is discussed in detail, along with the methods to include layout effects in the circuit sizing. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the qual...

  15. Catalog of Realizations for DXCCII using Commercially Available ICs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maheshwari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fifteen distinct practical realizations for dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII using commercially available integrated circuits. Detailed comparisons and results are presented to verify the utility of proposed realizations. The catalog of proposed realizations is a first attempt and is expected to be useful for testing newly developed circuits based on dual-X second generation current conveyor. Each of the first fourteen proposed realizations uses four ICs. One three IC based implementation is further given making the total count fifteen. Some additional features are also explored which further enhance the versatility of DXCCII. The paper further presents a novel and compact quadrature oscillator to verify the applicability of the proposed realizations. Single resistance control of the frequency of oscillation is also demonstrated by employing the new gain-variable DXCCII. Experimental results are also included along with simulation results to validate the proposed theory and its practical significance.

  16. Anatomy of a merger - CO in Arp 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, A.; Scoville, N.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution (2.4-arcsec) CO observations of the interacting system Arp 299 (Mrk 171: IC 694 and NGC 3690) reveal major gas condensations at the nuclei of both galaxies and in the disk overlap region. The 0.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses of H2 at the nucleus of NGC 3690 extends to radii of 310 pc and probably sustains a starburst. A compact source (radius not greater than 250 pc) of mass 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses is found at the nucleus of IC 694; this galaxy may harbor an AGN. At least three discrete subcondensations, probably active star-forming knots, are detected in the 1800 x 640 pc overlap region. 24 refs

  17. Interface for the Construction of the CMS Detector (IC''3MS); Interfaz para la Construccion de Camaras CMS (IC''3MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballador Ferreras, A.; Gonzalez Giralda, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    This Technical Report shows a computer System named: Interface for the Control of CMS Detector (IC''3MS), whose main objective is to provide a design and advice tool which can be used for the assembly of super layers for the Compacts Muon Solenoid. This computer application is divided up into three independent modules that maintain a proper connection between them. These modules correspond to the three principal actors that control the assembly we said before. These actors are the analysts, that determine the control routines, the engineers, that specify the control details and finally the workers who use the control routines. This application has been developed as a collaboration between the Experimental Physic of Particles; which belongs to the Fusion and Elementary particles department and the Special Project Group, belonging to the Information Technologies Department, both them from the CIEMAT (Author)

  18. Development of semiconductor ΔE-E detector chip using standard bipolar IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    A proposal has been made for developing silicon based AE-E detector chip which can be used as particle identifiers in nuclear physics experiments and also in several applications in nuclear industry scenario. The proposed development work employs standard bipolar IC fabrication technology of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and the deliverable products that emerge out will be very cost effective. The present paper discusses the concept, feasibility studies and systematic plan for fabrication, characterization and packaging of the proposed detectors. (author)

  19. Near-infrared photometric study of open star cluster IC 1805

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, R.; Yu, Q.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The JHK magnitudes of 29 stars in the region of open star cluster IC 1805 were measured. These, and the existing infrared and optical observations, indicate a normal interstellar extinction law in the direction of the cluster. Further, most of the early-type stars have near-infrared fluxes as expected from their spectral types. Patchy distribution of ionized gas and dust appears to be the cause of nonuniform extinction across the cluster face. 36 refs

  20. International Cooperation in Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (IC in AT&L) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    to think of the hierarchy of relationships as a pyramid as illustrated in Figure 1-2. Even though IC in AT&L programs form the capstone, it does...negotiation Czech Republic RDT&E Agreement Egypt TRDP Agreement Finland RDT&E Agreement in final national staffing France RDT&E Agreement Germany RDT&E...Act Australia Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands Canada Norway Egypt Portugal Denmark Spain France Sweden Germany Switzerland Greece Turkey Israel