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Sample records for clot lysis time

  1. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

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    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  2. Plasma Clot Lysis Time and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Black Africans

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    Z. de Lange (Zelda); M. Pieters (Marlien); J.C. Jerling (Johann); A. Kruger (Annamarie); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStudies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid

  3. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time.

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    Talens, Simone; Malfliet, Joyce J M C; Rudež, Goran; Spronk, Henri M H; Janssen, Nicole A H; Meijer, Piet; Kluft, Cornelis; de Maat, Moniek P M; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-10-01

    Hypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Sufficient information about assay variation and biological variation in CLT is not yet available. Thus, this study aimed to determine the analytical, within-subject and between-subject variation in CLT. We collected blood samples from 40 healthy individuals throughout a period of one year (average 11.8 visits) and determined the CLT of each plasma sample in duplicate. The mean (± SD) CLT was 83.8 (± 11.1) minutes. The coefficients of variation for total variation, analytical variation, within-subject variation and between-subject variation were 13.4%, 2.6%, 8.2% and 10.2%, respectively. One measurement can estimate the CLT that does not deviate more than 20% from its true value. The contribution of analytical variation to the within-subject variation was 5.0%, the index of individuality was 0.84 and the reference change value was 23.8%. The CLT was longer in the morning compared to the afternoon and was slightly longer in older individuals (> 40 years) compared to younger (≤40 years) individuals. There was no seasonal variation in CLT and no association with air pollution. CLT correlated weakly with fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time and thrombin generation. This study provides insight into the biological variation of CLT, which can be used in future studies testing CLT as a potential risk factor for thrombosis.

  4. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

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    Minet, Valentine, E-mail: valentine.minet@unamur.be; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC) (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), Namur Nanosafety Center NNC, NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie, E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  5. Clot lysis time in platelet-rich plasma: method assessment, comparison with assays in platelet-free and platelet-poor plasmas, and response to tranexamic acid.

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    Panes, Olga; Padilla, Oslando; Matus, Valeria; Sáez, Claudia G; Berkovits, Alejandro; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Fibrinolysis dysfunctions cause bleeding or predisposition to thrombosis. Platelets contain several factors of the fibrinolytic system, which could up or down regulate this process. However, the temporal relationship and relative contributions of plasma and platelet components in clot lysis are mostly unknown. We developed a clot lysis time (CLT) assay in platelet-rich plasma (PRP-CLT, with and without stimulation) and compared it to a similar one in platelet-free plasma (PFP) and to another previously reported test in platelet-poor plasma (PPP). We also studied the differential effects of a single dose of tranexamic acid (TXA) on these tests in healthy subjects. PFP- and PPP-CLT were significantly shorter than PRP-CLT, and the three assays were highly correlated (p plasma PAI-1, von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (p platelet aggregation/secretion, platelet counts, and pro-coagulant tests to explore factor X activation by platelets, PRP clotting time, and thrombin generation in PRP. Among all the studied variables, PFP-CLT was independently associated with plasma PAI-1, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and, additionally, stimulated PRP-CLT was also independently associated with plasma fibrinogen. A single 1 g dose of TXA strikingly prolonged all three CLTs, but in contrast to the results without the drug, the lysis times were substantially shorter in non-stimulated or stimulated PRP than in PFP and PPP. This standardized PRP-CLT may become a useful tool to study the role of platelets in clot resistance and lysis. Our results suggest that initially, the platelets enmeshed in the clot slow down the fibrinolysis process. However, the increased clot resistance to lysis induced by TXA is overcome earlier in platelet-rich clots than in PFP or PPP clots. This is likely explained by the display of platelet pro-fibrinolytic effects. Focused research is needed to disclose the mechanisms for the relationship between CLT and plasma

  6. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

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    Traby, Ludwig; Kollars, Marietta; Eischer, Lisbeth; Eichinger, Sabine; Kyrle, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT]) and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs) with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19%) patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR) of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02) and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13) after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22) for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th) quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st) quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04). No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  7. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

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    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  8. Clot formation and lysis in platelet rich plasma of healthy donors and patients with resistant hypertension

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    I. I. Patalakh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.

  9. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

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    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  10. A novel clot lysis assay for recombinant plasminogen activator.

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    Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Fazeli, Ahmad; Hashemi-Najafabadi, Sameereh; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant plasminogen activator (r-PA, reteplase) is an engineered variant of alteplase. When expressed in E. coli, it appears as inclusion bodies that require refolding to recover its biological activity. An important step following refolding is to determine the activity of refolded protein. Current methods for enzymatic activity of thrombolytic drugs are costly and complex. Here a straightforward and low-cost clot lysis assay was developed. It quantitatively measures the activity of the commercial reteplase and is also capable of screening refolding conditions. As evidence for adequate accuracy and sensitivity of the current assay, r-PA activity measurements are shown to be comparable to those obtained from chromogenic substrate assay.

  11. Studies on cytotoxic and clot lysis activity of probiotically fermented cocktail juice prepared using Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum

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    Biswas, Ananya; Deori, Meenakshi; Nivetha, A.; Mohansrinivasan, V.

    2017-11-01

    In the current research the effect of probiotic microorganisms viz; Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation of Camellia sinensis and Punica grantum was studied. In vitro test were done to analyze the anticancer, antioxidant and atherosclerosis (clot lysis) properties of fermented juice. The juice was fermented for 48 and 96h, during which concentration of phenolic content, total acid content and free radical scavenging activity of the sample was analyzed by DPPH assay (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl). Dropping of pH was observed after 48 h of fermentation. The clot lysis activity was found to be 80 % in 100μl concentration of fermented cocktail juice. The 96 h fermented sample has shown around 70% inhibition against colon cancer cell lines. Analytical study of HPLC proves the organic acid production such as ascorbic acid in superior amount for 96h of fermented sample, Based on the retention time, the corresponding peaks were detected at 4.919 and 4.831 min.

  12. Catheter placement for lysis of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas: does a catheter position in the core of the hematoma allow more effective and faster hematoma lysis?

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    Malinova, Vesna; Schlegel, Anna; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2017-07-01

    For the fibrinolytic therapy of intracerebral hematomas (ICH) using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), a catheter position in the core of the hematoma along the largest clot diameter was assumed to be optimal for an effective clot lysis. However, it never had been proven that core position indeed enhances clot lysis if compared with less optimal catheter positions. In this study, the impact of the catheter position on the effectiveness and on the time course of clot lysis was evaluated. We analyzed the catheter position using a relative error calculating the distance perpendicular to the catheter's center in relation to hematoma's diameter and evaluated the relative hematoma volume reduction (RVR). The correlation of the RVR with the catheter position was evaluated. Additionally, we tried to identify patterns of clot lysis with different catheter positions. The patient's outcome at discharge was evaluated using the Glasgow outcome score. A total of 105 patients were included in the study. The mean hematoma volume was 56 ml. The overall RVR was 62.7 %. In 69 patients, a catheter position in the core of the clot was achieved. We found no significant correlation between catheter position and hematoma RVR (linear regression, p = 0.14). Core catheter position leads to more symmetrical hematoma RVR. Faster clot lysis happens in the vicinity of the catheter openings. We found no significant difference in the patient's outcome dependent on the catheter position (linear regression, p = 0.90). The catheter position in the core of the hematoma along its largest diameter does not significantly influence the effectiveness of clot lysis after rtPA application.

  13. Biological activity analysis of native and recombinant streptokinase using clot lysis and chromogenic substrate assay.

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    Mahboubi, Arash; Sadjady, Seyyed Kazem; Mirzaei Saleh Abadi, Mohammad; Azadi, Saeed; Solaimanian, Roya

    2012-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF STREPTOKINASE ACTIVITY IS USUALLY ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH TWO ASSAY METHODS: a) Clot lysis, b) Chromogenic substrate assay. In this study the biological activity of two streptokinase products, namely Streptase®, which is a native product and Heberkinasa®, which is a recombinant product, was determined against the third international reference standard using the two forementioned assay methods. The results indicated that whilst the activity of Streptase® was found to be 101 ± 4% and 97 ± 5% of the label claim with Clot lysis and Chromogenic substrate assay respectively, for Heberkinasa® the potency values obtained were 42 ± 5% and 92.5 ± 2% of the label claim respectively. To shed some light on the reason for this finding, the n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecules present in the two products was determined. The results showed slight differences in the amino acid sequence of the recombinant product in comparison to the native one at the amino terminus. This finding supports those of other workers who found that n-terminal sequence of the streptokinase molecule can have significant effect on the activity of this protein.

  14. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

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    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act, BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  15. Plasma clot lysis time and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans.

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    de Lange, Zelda; Pieters, Marlien; Jerling, Johann C; Kruger, Annamarie; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2012-01-01

    Studies in populations of European descent show longer plasma clot lysis times (CLT) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than in controls. No data are available on the association between CVD risk factors and fibrinolytic potential in black Africans, a group undergoing rapid urbanisation with increased CVD prevalence. We investigated associations between known CVD risk factors and CLT in black Africans and whether CLTs differ between rural and urban participants in light of differences in CVD risk.Data from 1000 rural and 1000 urban apparently healthy black South Africans (35-60 years) were cross-sectionally analysed.Increased PAI-1(act), BMI, HbA1c, triglycerides, the metabolic syndrome, fibrinogen concentration, CRP, female sex and positive HIV status were associated with increased CLTs, while habitual alcohol consumption associated with decreased CLT. No differences in CLT were found between age and smoking categories, contraceptive use or hyper- and normotensive participants. Urban women had longer CLT than rural women while no differences were observed for men.CLT was associated with many known CVD risk factors in black Africans. Differences were however observed, compared to data from populations of European descent available in the literature, suggesting possible ethnic differences. The effect of urbanisation on CLT is influenced by traditional CVD risk factors and their prevalence in urban and rural communities.

  16. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse® with those of an alleged biosimilar

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    Werner eKliche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse® and TNKase®, a ‘biosimilar’ tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim® in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a ‘biosimilar’ of Metalyse, i.e. whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  17. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

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    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Addition of a sequence from α2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis

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    Gataiance Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma protein α2-antiplasmin (α2AP is cross-linked to fibrin in blood clots by the transglutaminase factor XIIIa, and in that location retards clot lysis. Competition for this effect could be clinically useful in patients with thrombosis. We hypothesized that fusion of N-terminal portions of α2-antiplasmin to human serum albumin (HSA and production of the chimeric proteins in Pichia pastoris yeast would produce a stable and effective competitor protein. Results Fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was efficiently secreted from transformed yeast and purified preparations contained within a mixed population the full-length intact form, while fusions with longer α2AP moieties were inefficiently secreted and/or degraded. The α2AP(13-42-HSA protein, but not recombinant HSA, was cross-linked to both chemical lysine donors and fibrin or fibrinogen by factor XIIIa, although with less rapid kinetics than native α2AP. Excess α2AP(13-42-HSA competed with α2AP for cross-linking to chemical lysine donors more effectively than a synthetic α2AP(13-42 peptide, and reduced the α2AP-dependent resistance to fibrinolysis of plasma clots equally effectively as the peptide. Native α2AP was found in in vivo clots in rabbits to a greater extent than α2AP(13-42, however. Conclusion In this first report of transfer of transglutamination substrate status from one plasma protein to another, fusion protein α2AP(13-42-HSA was shown to satisfy initial requirements for a long-lasting, well-tolerated competitive inhibitor of α2-antiplasmin predicted to act in a clot-localized manner.

  19. Development and implementation of tPA clot lysis activity assay using ACL TOP™ hemeostasis testing system in QC laboratories

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    Lichun Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the design, development, validation and long-term performance of tPA clot lysis activity assay using Advanced Chemistry Line Total Operational Performance (ACL TOP™ Homeostasis Testing System. The results of the study demonstrated robust and stable performance of the analytical method. The accuracy of the assay, expressed by percent recovery is 98–99%. The intermediate precision and repeatability precision, expressed as Relative Standard Deviation (RSD, was 3% and less than 2% respectively. The validated range is from 70% to 130% of the target potency of 5.8 × 105 IU/mg. The linearity of this range, expressed in correlation coefficient, is 0.997. After the assay is transferred to a QC laboratory, the assay retained high accuracy and precision with a success rate of >99%. Keywords: Potency assay, Clot lysis, Comparability, Automation

  20. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and clot lysis time in pregnant patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: relationship with pregnancy outcome and thrombosis.

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    Martinez-Zamora, Maria Angeles; Tassies, Dolors; Carmona, Francisco; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Balasch, Juan

    2009-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) pregnancies are associated with thrombotic obstetric complications, despite treatment. This study evaluated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) levels, TAFI gene polymorphisms and Clot Lysis Time (CLT) in pregnant patients with APS in relation to pregnancy outcome and thrombosis. Group 1 consisted of 67 pregnant patients with APS. Group 2 included 66 pregnant patients with uneventful term pregnancies and delivery. Patients were sampled during each trimester and at baseline. TAFI antigen and CLT and two polymorphisms of the TAFI gene, Ala147Thr and +1542C/G, were determined. Significantly prolonged CLT was found at baseline in Group 1. Allele distribution of the TAFI gene polymorphisms was similar in both groups. Basal TAFI and CLT in patients with APS having an adverse or a good obstetrical outcome were similar. Comparison of TAFI and CLT baseline levels in patients with APS with or without previous thrombosis showed no statistical differences. Patients with APS have impairment in fibrinolysis evidenced by prolonged CLT at baseline. TAFI and CLT do not seem to be useful as markers of obstetric outcome or risk of thrombosis in patients with APS.

  1. Genome scan of clot lysis time and its association with thrombosis in a protein C deficient kindred

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    Meltzer, M.E.; Hasstedt, S.J.; Vossen, C.Y.; Callas, P.W.; de Groot, Ph.G.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Lisman, T.; Bovill, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Previously we found increased clot lysis time (CLT), as measured with a plasma-based assay, to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in two population-based case-control studies. Genes influencing CLT are yet unknown. Objectives and Patients/Methods We tested CLT as risk factor for venous thrombosis in Kindred Vermont II (n=346), a pedigree suffering from a high thrombosis risk, partially attributable to a type I protein C deficiency. Furthermore we tested for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for CLT using variance component linkage analysis. Results Protein C deficient family members had shorter CLT than non-deficient members (median CLT 67 versus 75 minutes). One standard deviation increase in CLT increased risk of venous thrombosis 2.4-fold in non-deficient family members. Protein C deficiency without elevated CLT increased risk 6.9-fold. Combining both risk factors yielded a 27.8-fold increased risk. Heritability of CLT was 42-52%. We found suggestive evidence of linkage on chromosome 11 (62 cM), partly explained by the prothrombin 20210A mutation, and on chromosome 13 (52 cM). Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor genotypes did not explain the variation in CLT. Conclusion Hypofibrinolysis appears to increase thrombosis risk in this family especially in combination with protein C deficiency. Protein C deficiency is associated with short CLT. CLT is partly genetically regulated. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosome 11 and 13. PMID:21575129

  2. Mechanical Stability and Fibrinolytic Resistance of Clots Containing Fibrin, DNA, and Histones*

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    Longstaff, Colin; Varjú, Imre; Sótonyi, Péter; Szabó, László; Krumrey, Michael; Hoell, Armin; Bóta, Attila; Varga, Zoltán; Komorowicz, Erzsébet; Kolev, Krasimir

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA and associated proteins produced by nucleosome release from activated neutrophils in response to infection stimuli and have recently been identified as key mediators between innate immunity, inflammation, and hemostasis. The interaction of DNA and histones with a number of hemostatic factors has been shown to promote clotting and is associated with increased thrombosis, but little is known about the effects of DNA and histones on the regulation of fibrin stability and fibrinolysis. Here we demonstrate that the addition of histone-DNA complexes to fibrin results in thicker fibers (increase in median diameter from 84 to 123 nm according to scanning electron microscopy data) accompanied by improved stability and rigidity (the critical shear stress causing loss of fibrin viscosity increases from 150 to 376 Pa whereas the storage modulus of the gel increases from 62 to 82 pascals according to oscillation rheometric data). The effects of DNA and histones alone are subtle and suggest that histones affect clot structure whereas DNA changes the way clots are lysed. The combination of histones + DNA significantly prolongs clot lysis. Isothermal titration and confocal microscopy studies suggest that histones and DNA bind large fibrin degradation products with 191 and 136 nm dissociation constants, respectively, interactions that inhibit clot lysis. Heparin, which is known to interfere with the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, appears to prolong lysis time at a concentration favoring ternary histone-DNA-heparin complex formation, and DNase effectively promotes clot lysis in combination with tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:23293023

  3. Fibrin-specific and effective clot lysis requires both plasminogen activators and for them to be in a sequential rather than simultaneous combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, R; Li, S; Gurewich, V

    2017-08-01

    Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been a disappointment and has now been replaced by an endovascular procedure whenever possible. Nevertheless, thrombolysis remains the only means by which circulation in a thrombosed artery can be restored rapidly. In contrast to tPA monotherapy, endogenous fibrinolysis uses both tPA and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), whose native form is a proenzyme, prouPA. This combination is remarkably effective as evidenced by the fibrin degradation product, D-dimer, which is invariably present in plasma. The two activators have complementary mechanisms of plasminogen activation and are synergistic in combination. Since tPA initiates fibrinolysis when released from the vessel wall and prouPA is in the blood, they induce fibrinolysis sequentially. It was postulated that this may be more effective and fibrin-specific. The hypothesis was tested in a model of clot lysis in plasma in which a clot was first exposed to tPA for 5 min, washed and incubated with prouPA. Lysis was compared with that of clots incubated with both activators simultaneously. The sequential combination was almost twice as effective and caused less fibrinogenolysis than the simultaneous combination (p < 0.0001) despite having significantly less tPA, as a result of the wash. A mechanism is described by which this phenomenon can be explained. The findings are believed to have significant therapeutic implications.

  4. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

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    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  5. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien

    2013-01-01

    Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  6. Genome scan of clot lysis time and its association with thrombosis in a protein C-deficient kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, M E; Hasstedt, S J; Vossen, C Y; Callas, P W; DE Groot, Ph G; Rosendaal, F R; Lisman, T; Bovill, E G

    2011-07-01

     Previously, we found increased clot-lysis time (CLT), as measured with a plasma-based assay, to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in two population-based case-control studies. The genes influencing CLT are as yet unknown.  We tested CLT as risk factor for venous thrombosis in Kindred Vermont II (n = 346), a pedigree suffering from a high thrombosis risk, partially attributable to a type I protein C deficiency. Furthermore, we tested for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CLT, using variance component linkage analysis.  Protein C-deficient family members had shorter CLTs than non-deficient members (median CLT 67 min vs. 75 min). One standard deviation increase in CLT increased the risk of venous thrombosis 2.4-fold in non-deficient family members. Protein C deficiency without elevated CLT increased the risk 6.9-fold. Combining both risk factors yielded a 27.8-fold increased risk. The heritability of CLT was 42-52%. We found suggestive evidence of linkage on chromosome 11 (62 cM), partly explained by the prothrombin 20210A mutation, and on chromosome 13 (52 cM). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor genotypes did not explain the variation in CLT. Hypofibrinolysis appears to increase thrombosis risk in this family, especially in combination with protein C deficiency. Protein C deficiency is associated with short CLT. CLT is partly genetically regulated. Suggestive QTLs were found on chromosomes 11 and 13. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to illustrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24 ± 5% of the sonication power without droplets. Recanalization occurred in 71% of rabbits that received 1-ms pulsed sonications during continuous intravascular droplet infusion (p = 0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments indicated that damage was confined to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that tolerable treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispheric array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  9. 21 CFR 864.7275 - Euglobulin lysis time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euglobulin lysis time tests. 864.7275 Section 864.7275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7275 Euglobulin lysis...

  10. A targeted ferritin-microplasmin based thrombolytic nanocage selectively dissolves blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junyoung; Al-Hilal, Taslim A; Jee, Jun-Goo; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Byung-Heon; Kim, Soyoun; Kim, In-San

    2018-04-01

    The use of thrombolytic therapies is limited by an increased risk of systemic hemorrhage due to lysis of hemostatic clots. We sought to develop a plasmin-based thrombolytic nanocage that efficiently dissolves the clot without causing systemic fibrinolysis or disrupting hemostatic clots. Here, we generated a double chambered short-length ferritin (sFt) construct that has an N-terminal region fused to multivalent clot targeting peptides (CLT: CNAGESSKNC) and a C-terminal end fused to a microplasmin (μPn); CLT recognizes fibrin-fibronectin complexes in clots, μPn efficiently dissolves clots, and the assembly of double chambered sFt (CLT-sFt-μPn) into nanocage structure protects the activated-μPn from its circulating inhibitors. Importantly, activated CLT-sFt-μPn thrombolytic nanocage showed a prolonged circulatory life over activated-μPn and efficiently lysed the preexisting clots in both arterial and venous thromboses models. Thus, CLT-sFt-μPn thrombolytic nanocage platform represents the prototype of a targeted clot-busting agent with high efficacy and safety over existing thrombolytic therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung TW

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tze-Wen Chung,1,3 Pei-Yi Lin,2 Shoei-Shen Wang,2 Yen-Fung Chen31Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, 2Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP (ANPs or fibrinogen (FNPs were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP or FNP (clot/FNP were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1±14.0, 251.0±9.8, and 326.5±14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1±0.5, 20.6±1.9, and 15.3±1.5 mV (n=4, respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP, clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt% were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, were significantly (P<0.05 (n=4 shorter than that of a clot induced by a phosphate-buffered solution (PBS (clot/PBS (63.6%±3.1%, 48.3%±6.2%, and 63.2%±4.7%, respectively. The ∆F2

  12. Influence of Interleukin-1 Beta on Platelet-Poor Plasma Clot Formation: A Potential Impact on Early Bone Healing.

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    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Hematoma quality (especially the fibrin matrix plays an important role in the bone healing process. Here, we investigated the effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β on fibrin clot formation from platelet-poor plasma (PPP.Five-milliliter of rat whole-blood samples were collected from the hepatic portal vein. All blood samples were firstly standardized via a thrombelastograph (TEG, blood cell count, and the measurement of fibrinogen concentration. PPP was prepared by collecting the top two-fifths of the plasma after centrifugation under 400 × g for 10 min at 20°C. The effects of IL-1β cytokines on artificial fibrin clot formation from PPP solutions were determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, confocal microscopy (CM, turbidity, and clot lysis assays.The lag time for protofibril formation was markedly shortened in the IL-1β treatment groups (243.8 ± 76.85 in the 50 pg/mL of IL-1β and 97.5 ± 19.36 in the 500 pg/mL of IL-1β compared to the control group without IL-1β (543.8 ± 205.8. Maximal turbidity was observed in the control group. IL-1β (500 pg/mL treatment significantly decreased fiber diameters resulting in smaller pore sizes and increased density of the fibrin clot structure formed from PPP (P < 0.05. The clot lysis assay revealed that 500 pg/mL IL-1β induced a lower susceptibility to dissolution due to the formation of thinner and denser fibers.IL-1β can significantly influence PPP fibrin clot structure, which may affect the early bone healing process.

  13. Formation of blood clot on biomaterial implants influences bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Hoi Ting; Goss, Ben; Lutton, Cameron; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2014-12-01

    The first step in bone healing is forming a blood clot at injured bones. During bone implantation, biomaterials unavoidably come into direct contact with blood, leading to a blood clot formation on its surface prior to bone regeneration. Despite both situations being similar in forming a blood clot at the defect site, most research in bone tissue engineering virtually ignores the important role of a blood clot in supporting healing. Dental implantology has long demonstrated that the fibrin structure and cellular content of a peri-implant clot can greatly affect osteoconduction and de novo bone formation on implant surfaces. This article reviews the formation of a blood clot during bone healing in relation to the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gels. It is implicated that PRP gels are dramatically altered from a normal clot in healing, resulting in conflicting effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that the effect of clots on bone regeneration depends on how the clots are formed. Factors that influence blood clot structure and properties in relation to bone healing are also highlighted. Such knowledge is essential for developing strategies to optimally control blood clot formation, which ultimately alter the healing microenvironment of bone. Of particular interest are modification of surface chemistry of biomaterials, which displays functional groups at varied composition for the purpose of tailoring blood coagulation activation, resultant clot fibrin architecture, rigidity, susceptibility to lysis, and growth factor release. This opens new scope of in situ blood clot modification as a promising approach in accelerating and controlling bone regeneration.

  14. Elevated NT-proBNP is associated with unfavorably altered plasma fibrin clot properties in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusik, Paweł T; Matusik, Patrycja S; Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Małecka, Barbara; Ząbek, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-09-15

    Dense fibrin clot formation and hypofibrinolysis have been reported in atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear which factors affect fibrin clot properties in AF. We investigated plasma fibrin clot permeability (K s ), clot lysis time (CLT), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) as well as other coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters along with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in 160 AF patients (median age, 70.5years). Previous stroke (n=15; 9.4%) was associated with decreased K s (P=0.04) and longer CLT (P=0.005), together with higher antiplasmin (P=0.03) and lower tissue-type plasminogen activator (P=0.01). Lower K s (P=0.04) and tendency towards longer CLT (P=0.10) were observed in patients with a left atrium diameter>40mm. Patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score of 3 or more (82.5%) were characterized by higher thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor antigen (P=0.009). K s was inversely correlated with log NT-proBNP (r=-0.34, PCLT was positively correlated with log NT-proBNP (R=0.61, PCLT (the top quartile,≥109min). In AF patients prothrombotic fibrin clot properties assessed ex vivo are determined by PAI-1 and NT-proBNP and this phenotype is associated with prior ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of five streptokinase formulations using the euglobulin lysis test and the plasminogen activation assay

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    Couto L.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase, a 47-kDa protein isolated and secreted by most group A, C and G ß-hemolytic streptococci, interacts with and activates human protein plasminogen to form an active complex capable of converting other plasminogen molecules to plasmin. Our objective was to compare five streptokinase formulations commercially available in Brazil in terms of their activity in the in vitro tests of euglobulin clot formation and of the hydrolysis of the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Euglobulin lysis time was determined using a 96-well microtiter plate. Initially, human thrombin (10 IU/ml and streptokinase were placed in individual wells, clot formation was initiated by the addition of plasma euglobulin, and turbidity was measured at 340 nm every 30 s. In the second assay, plasminogen activation was measured using the plasmin-specific substrate S-2251(TM. Streptase(TM was used as the reference formulation because it presented the strongest fibrinolytic activity in the euglobulin lysis test. The Unitinase(TM and Solustrep(TM formulations were the weakest, showing about 50% activity compared to the reference formulation. All streptokinases tested activated plasminogen but significant differences were observed. In terms of total S-2251(TM activity per vial, Streptase(TM (75.7 ± 5.0 units and Streptonase(TM (94.7 ± 4.6 units had the highest activity, while Unitinase(TM (31.0 ± 2.4 units and Strek(TM (32.9 ± 3.3 units had the weakest activity. Solustrep(TM (53.3 ± 2.7 units presented intermediate activity. The variations among the different formulations for both euglobulin lysis test and chromogenic substrate hydrolysis correlated with the SDS-PAGE densitometric results for the amount of 47-kDa protein. These data show that the commercially available clinical streptokinase formulations vary significantly in their in vitro activity. Whether these differences have clinical implications needs to be investigated.

  16. Plasma fibrin clot properties in the G20210A prothrombin mutation carriers following venous thromboembolism: the effect of rivaroxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janion-Sadowska, Agnieszka; Natorska, Joanna; Siudut, Jakub; Ząbczyk, Michal; Stanisz, Andrzej; Undas, Anetta

    2017-08-30

    We sought to investigate whether the G20210A prothrombin mutation modifies plasma fibrin clot properties in patients after venous thromboembolism (VTE) and how rivaroxaban treatment affects these alterations. We studied 34 prothrombin mutation heterozygous carriers and sex- and age-matched 34 non-carriers, all at least three months since the first VTE episode, before and during treatment with rivaroxaban. Clot permeability (K s ) and clot lysis time (CLT) with or without elimination of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were assessed at baseline, 2-6 hours (h) after and 20-25 h after intake of rivaroxaban (20 mg/day). At baseline, the prothrombin mutation group formed denser clots (K s -12 %, p=0.0006) and had impaired fibrinolysis (CLT +14 %, p=0.004, and CLT-TAFI +13 %, p=0.03) compared with the no mutation group and were similar to those observed in 15 healthy unrelated prothrombin mutation carriers. The G20210A prothrombin mutation was the independent predictor for K s and CLT before rivaroxaban intake. At 2-6 h after rivaroxaban intake, clot properties improved in both G20210A carriers and non-carriers (K s +38 %, and +37 %, CLT -25 % and -25 %, CLT-TAFI -20 % and -24 %, respectively, all pCLT +17 %, CLT-TAFI +13 %, all p<0.001). Rivaroxaban concentration correlated with fibrin clot properties. After 20-25 h since rivaroxaban intake most clot properties returned to baseline. Rivaroxaban-related differences in clot structure were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. In conclusion, rivaroxaban treatment, though improves fibrin clot properties, cannot abolish more prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype observed in prothrombin mutation carriers following VTE.

  17. Effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, C R; MacGregor, H; Cassidy, G; Tinney, R; Pompei, F

    1995-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of temperature on bleeding time and clotting time in normal male and female volunteers. Open study utilizing normal volunteers. University research laboratory. Fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers, ranging in age from 19 to 35 yrs, who were not receiving medications. The study was done and the samples of venous blood and shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site were obtained at a convenient time for each volunteer. Skin temperature was changed from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C and blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein of each volunteer. The effect of local skin temperature ranging from +20 degrees to +38 degrees C on bleeding time was evaluated in 38 normal volunteers (19 male and 19 female). Skin temperature was maintained at +20 degrees to +38 degrees C by cooling or warming the forearm. At each temperature, measurements were made of complete blood count, bleeding time, and thromboxane B2 concentrations in shed blood collected at the template bleeding time site and in serum and plasma isolated from blood collected from the antecubital vein. Clotting time studies were measured in 16 normal volunteers (eight male and eight female) at temperatures ranging from +22 degrees to +37 degrees C. At +32 degrees C, the bleeding time was longer and hematocrit was lower in female than in male volunteers. However, at local skin temperatures of < +32 degrees C, both the males and females exhibited significantly increased bleeding times, which were associated with a reduction in shed blood thromboxane B2. Each 1 degree C decrease in temperature was associated with a 15% decrease in the shed blood thromboxane B2 concentration. Clotting times were three times longer at +22 degrees C than at +37 degrees C. Each 1 degree C reduction in the temperature of the clotted blood was associated with a 15% reduction in the serum thromboxane B2 concentration. Our data indicate that during surgical procedures, it

  18. The use of alteplase for the resolution of an intravesical clot in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, J L; Glover, M L; Totapally, B R

    2001-01-01

    We present a case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large urinary bladder clot. A neonate presented with respiratory failure, secondary to a left diaphragmatic hernia necessitating the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. On day 3 of ECMO support, hematuria was noted, and a subsequent urinary bladder ultrasound revealed a significant urinary bladder clot. Alteplase (0.5-1 mg) was instilled into the urinary bladder via a 10 French Foley catheter (Sherwood Medical, St. Louis, MO). The catheter was clamped for 1 hour, followed by irrigation with normal saline. Multiple doses of alteplase were administered, resulting in complete resolution of the bladder clot. No adverse effects were attributed to the use of the intravesical alteplase. Alteplase seems to be safe and effective for the resolution of bladder clots, thereby potentially avoiding more invasive surgical procedures.

  19. Increased Oxidation as an Additional Mechanism Underlying Reduced Clot Permeability and Impaired Fibrinolysis in Type 2 Diabetes

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    Anna Lados-Krupa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We sought to investigate whether enhanced oxidation contributes to unfavorable fibrin clot properties in patients with diabetes. Methods. We assessed plasma fibrin clot permeation (Ks, a measure of the pore size in fibrin networks and clot lysis time induced by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (CLT in 163 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients (92 men and 71 women aged 65 ± 8.8 years with a mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 6.8%. We also measured oxidative stress markers, including nitrotyrosine, the soluble form of receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL, and advanced glycation end products (AGE. Results. There were inverse correlations between Ks and nitrotyrosine, sRAGE, 8-iso-PGF2α, and oxLDL. CLT showed a positive correlation with oxLDL and nitrotyrosine but not with other oxidation markers. All these associations remained significant for Ks after adjustment for fibrinogen, disease duration, and HbA1c (all P<0.05, while oxLDL was the only independent predictor of CLT. Conclusions. Our study shows that enhanced oxidative stress adversely affects plasma fibrin clot properties in type 2 diabetic patients, regardless of disease duration and glycemia control.

  20. The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the effects of Aloe vera gel on blood coagulation in experimental animals are relatively scanty. Aim: To determine the effect of Aloe vera gel on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 28 adult albino Wistar rats divided ...

  1. Cloning, expression and characterization of a gene from earthworm Eisenia fetida encoding a blood-clot dissolving protein.

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    GangQiang Li

    Full Text Available A lumbrokinase gene encoding a blood-clot dissolving protein was cloned from earthworm (Eisenia fetida by RT-PCR amplification. The gene designated as CST1 (GenBank No. AY840996 was sequence analyzed. The cDNA consists of 888 bp with an open reading frame of 729 bp, which encodes 242 amino acid residues. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that CST1 shares similarities and conserved amino acids with other reported lumbrokinases. The amino acid sequence of CST1 exhibits structural features similar to those found in other serine proteases, including human tissue-type (tPA, urokinase (uPA, and vampire bat (DSPAα1 plasminogen activators. CST1 has a conserved catalytic triad, found in the active sites of protease enzymes, which are important residues involved in polypeptide catalysis. CST1 was expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3. The molecular mass of recombinant CST1 (rCST was 25 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and further confirmed by Western Blot analysis. His-tagged rCST1 was purified and renatured using nickel-chelating resin with a recovery rate of 50% and a purity of 95%. The purified, renatured rCST1 showed fibrinolytic activity evaluated by both a fibrin plate and a blood clot lysis assay. rCST1 degraded fibrin on the fibrin plate. A significant percentage (65.7% of blood clot lysis was observed when blood clot was treated with 80 mg/mL of rCST1 in vitro. The antithrombotic activity of rCST1 was 912 units/mg calculated by comparison with the activity of a lumbrokinase standard. These findings indicate that rCST1 has potential as a potent blood-clot treatment. Therefore, the expression and purification of a single lumbrokinase represents an important improvement in the use of lumbrokinases.

  2. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Nucleation of holin domains and holes optimizes lysis timing of E. coli by phage λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gillian; Rutenberg, Andrew

    2007-03-01

    Holin proteins regulate the precise scheduling of Escherichia coli lysis during infection by bacteriophage λ. Inserted into the host bacterium's inner membrane during infection, holins aggregate to form rafts and then holes within those rafts. We present a two-stage nucleation model of holin action, with the nucleation of condensed holin domains followed by the nucleation of holes within these domains. Late nucleation of holin rafts leads to a weak dependence of lysis timing on host cell size, though both nucleation events contribute equally to timing errors. Our simulations recover the accurate scheduling observed experimentally, and also suggest that phage-λ lysis of E.coli is optimized.

  4. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera) Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Mohajeri, Mohammad; Babaie, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD) values of BV were determined. Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs) = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa), respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  5. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  6. Effect of low frequency ultrasound on combined rt-PA and eptifibatide thrombolysis in human clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Holland, Christy K; Pancioli, Arthur M; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 microL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA + Epf), with (+US) or without (-US) ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. LR values for (- US) treated clots were 0.8+/-0.1(control), 1.8+/-0.3 (Epf), 1.5+/-0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA + Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+ US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6+/-0.2 (control), 4.3+/-0.4 (Epf), 6.3+/-0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6+/-0.6 (rt-PA + Epf). For (- US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0+/-0.8 (control), 9.2+/-2.5 (Epf), 15.6+/-1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0+/-2.2% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. FCL for (+ US) clots was 13.5+/-2.4 (control), 20.7+/-6.4 (Epf), 44.4+/-3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3+/-3.6% (rt-PA + Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of combined

  7. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Lucyna; Celińska-Lӧwenhoff, Magdalena; Krawiec, Piotr; Batko, Bogdan; Tłustochowicz, Witold; Undas, Anetta

    2015-01-01

    Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome), we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA. Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male), aged 48 (range, 21-80) years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers. Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2), faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s), thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07), higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L), and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min); all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%. This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  8. Unfavorably Altered Fibrin Clot Properties in Patients with Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Association with Thrombin Generation and Eosinophilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Mastalerz

    Full Text Available Given reports on the increased prevalence of thromboembolic incidents in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; Churg-Strauss syndrome, we investigated whether fibrin clot properties are unfavorably altered in EGPA.Ex vivo plasma fibrin clot characteristics, including clot permeability, turbidimetry and efficiency of fibrinolysis using two assays, were investigated in 34 consecutive patients with remission in EGPA according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score version 3 (23 female, 11 male, aged 48 (range, 21-80 years. The control group comprised 34 age- and sex- matched volunteers.Compared with controls, patients with EGPA were characterized by denser fiber clots (estimated pore size, Ks, 7.30±0.93 vs 10.14±1.07 10-9 cm2, faster fibrin polymerization (lag phase in a turbidimetric curve, 41.8±3.6 vs 47.4±2.9 s, thicker fibrin fibers (maximum absorbance, ΔAbs, 0.87±0.09 vs 0.72±0.07, higher maximum levels of D-dimer released from clots (DDmax 4.10±0.46 vs 3.54±0.35 mg/L, and prolonged clot lysis time (t50%; 9.50±1.45 vs 7.56±0.87 min; all p<0.0001. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser plasma fibrin networks composed of thinner fibers formed in EGPA. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody status and C-reactive protein did not affect clot variables. Multivariate analysis adjusted for fibrinogen showed that Ks was predicted by eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation, factor VIII, and soluble CD40 ligand, whereas eosinophil count, peak thrombin generation and antiplasmin predicted t50%.This study is the first to show that EGPA is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, which may contribute to thromboembolic manifestations reported in this disease.

  9. The Effect of a Simulated Commercial Flight Environment with Hypoxia and Low Humidity on Clotting, Platelet, and Endothelial Function in Participants with Type 2 Diabetes – A Cross-over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Konya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimsTo determine if clotting, platelet, and endothelial function were affected by simulated short-haul commercial air flight conditions (SF in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared to controls.Methods10 participants with T2DM (7 females, 3 males and 10 controls (3 females, 7 males completed the study. Participants were randomized to either spend 2 h in an environmental chamber at sea level conditions (temperature: 23°C, oxygen concentration 21%, humidity 45%, or subject to a simulated 2-h simulated flight (SF: temperature: 23°C, oxygen concentration 15%, humidity 15%, and crossed over 7 days later. Main outcome measures: clot formation and clot lysis parameters, functional platelet activation markers, and endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemia index (RHI by EndoPAT and serum microparticles.ResultsComparing baseline with SF conditions, clot maximal absorption was increased in controls (0.375 ± 0.05 vs. 0.39 ± 0.05, p < 0.05 and participants with T2DM (0.378 ± 0.089 vs. 0.397 ± 0.089, p < 0.01, while increased basal platelet activation for both fibrinogen binding and P-selectin expression (p < 0.05 was seen in participants with T2DM. Parameters of clot formation and clot lysis, stimulated platelet function (stimulated platelet response to ADP and sensitivity to prostacyclin, and endothelial function were unchanged.ConclusionWhile SF resulted in the potential of denser clot formation with enhanced basal platelet activation in T2DM, the dynamic clotting, platelet, and endothelial markers were not affected, suggesting that short-haul commercial flying adds no additional hazard for venous thromboembolism for participants with T2DM compared to controls.

  10. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  11. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. In vitro effect of hemodilution on activated clotting time and high-dose thrombin time during cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyzen, RJ; vanOeveren, W; Wei, FY; Stellingwerf, P; Boonstra, PW; Gu, YJ

    Background. Extreme dilution of clotting factors, as may occur during pediatric or neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass, often leads to inadequate monitoring of anticoagulation with activated dotting time (ACT). In this study we postulate that the high-dose thrombin time (HiTT) is less influenced by

  13. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  16. Synthesis and functioning of the colicin E1 lysis protein: Comparison with the colicin A lysis protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.

    1991-01-01

    The colicin E1 lysis protein, CelA, was identified as a 3-kDa protein in induced cells of Escherichia coli K-12 carrying pColE1 by pulse-chase labeling with either [ 35 S]cysteine or [ 3 H]lysine. This 3-kDa protein was acylated, as shown by [2- 3 H]glycerol labeling, and seemed to correspond to the mature CelA protein. The rate of modification and processing of CelA was different from that observed for Cal, the colicin A lysis protein. In contrast to Cal, no intermediate form was detected for CelA, no signal peptide accumulated, and no modified precursor form was observed after globomycin treatment. Thus, the rate of synthesis would not be specific to lysis proteins. Solubilization in sodium dodecyl sulfate of the mature forms of both CelA and Cal varied similarly at the time of colicin release, indicating a change in lysis protein structure. This particular property would play a role in the mechanism of colicin export. The accumulation of the signal peptide seems to be a factor determining the toxicity of the lysis proteins since CelA provoked less cell damage than Cal. Quasi-lysis and killing due to CelA were higher in degP mutants than in wild-type cells. They were minimal in pldA mutants

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Your Doctor Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There ...

  1. Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with lysis-filtration and a conventional unvented bottle for blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, V J; Zierdt, C H; Wu, T C; Stock, F; Pizzo, P A; MacLowry, J D

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of a commercially available lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator, DuPont Co., Wilmington, Del.) and a lysis-filtration blood culture system for 3,111 cultures showed that both methods had comparable recoveries (73 and 68%, respectively) of significant aerobic and facultatively anaerobic isolates. The unvented conventional blood culture bottle had a recovery rate of 59%. Although the lysis-centrifugation and lysis-filtration systems had comparable recoveries of pathog...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles updated ... Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with ... you think you have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... clot. Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or ... potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting off blood flow and ...

  7. Determination of enoxaparin with rotational thrombelastometry using the prothrombinase-induced clotting time reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Eva; Schober, Andreas; Hacker, Stefan; Spiss, Christian; Chiari, Astrid; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2010-04-01

    Drug monitoring of low molecular weight heparin is generally not recommended, but could be reasonable in critically ill patients, whose risk for bleeding or thrombosis shows a high interpatient variability. Anti-Xa assays are not available around the clock even in central hospitals, whereas rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) becomes increasingly used at the bedside. Prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) reagent allows determination of factor Xa-inhibition in plasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate enoxaparin determination in whole blood with the ROTEM using specific test modifications, including PiCT. After ethics committee's approval, citrated whole blood obtained from overall 16 healthy volunteers was incubated with enoxaparin at 16 different anti-Xa concentrations. Main endpoint was the clotting time (CT) in ROTEM representing initial activation of clot formation. CT was determined in the new PiCT-ROTEM test, in a low-tissue factor-activated modification (LowTF-ROTEM) as well as in the commercially available heparin-sensitive ROTEM assays (HEPTEM and INTEM). In the absence of enoxaparin, CT values were 168.6 +/- 6.1 s (PiCT-ROTEM), 247.3 +/- 18.6 s (LowTF-ROTEM), and -6.2 +/- 7.9 s (INTEM-HEPTEM). A linear dependency (P anti-Xa concentration and CT was found for PiCT-ROTEM, LowTF-ROTEM, and for INTEM-HEPTEM with correlation coefficients of 0.93 for PiCT-ROTEM, 0.94 for LowTF-ROTEM, and 0.81 for INTEM-HEPTEM. This in-vitro experiment demonstrates a strong correlation between enoxaparin anti-Xa concentrations and specific ROTEM tests. These promising assays should be further evaluated for monitoring anticoagulation in high-risk patients in clinical studies.

  8. Chemical Cell Lysis System Applicable to Lab-on-a-Disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dayeseul; Yoo, Jae Chern

    2017-09-01

    The design and fabrication of a heating system has been a significant challenge in implementing chemical lysis on a lab-on-a-disc (LOD). The proposed system contains a sample inlet, phase change material (PCM) array, heating chamber, and valve in a single disc, providing cost-effective, rapid, and fully automated chemical cell lysis. Compared to the conventional cell lysis system, our cell lysis system has many advantages, such as a compact structure that is easily integrated into the LOD and reduced processing time and labor. The experiments are conducted with Salmonella typhimurium strains to demonstrate the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed approach is greatly effective in realizing a chemical cell lysis system on an LOD with higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA.

  9. Iodinated Contrast Does Not Alter Clotting Dynamics in Acute Ischemic Stroke as Measured by Thromboelastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark M; Archeval-Lao, Joancy M; Cai, Chunyan; Peng, Hui; Sangha, Navdeep; Parker, Stephanie A; Wetzel, Jeremy; Riney, Stephen A; Cherches, Matt F; Guthrie, Greer J; Roper, Tiffany C; Kawano-Castillo, Jorge F; Pandurengan, Renga; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Grotta, James C

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Iodinated contrast agents used for computed tomography angiography (CTA) may alter fibrin fiber characteristics and decrease fibrinolysis by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Thromboelastography (TEG™) measures the dynamics of coagulation and correlates with thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. We hypothesized that receiving CTA prior to tPA will not impair thrombolysis as measured by TEG™. Methods AIS patients receiving 0.9 mg/kg tPA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. For CTA, 350 mg/dL of iohexol or 320 mg/dL of iodixanol at a dose of 2.2 ml/kg was administered. TEG™ was measured prior to tPA and 10-minutes after tPA bolus. CTA timing was left to the discretion of the treating physician. Results Of 136 AIS patients who received tPA, 47 had CTA prior to tPA bolus, and 42 had either CTA following tPA and post-tPA TEG™ draw or no CTA (non-contrast group). The median change in clot lysis (LY30) following tPA was 95.3% in the contrast group vs. 95.0% in the non-contrast group (p = 0.74). Thus, tPA-induced thrombolysis did not differ between contrast and non-contrast groups. Additionally, there was no effect of contrast on any pre-tPA TEG™ value. Conclusions Our data do not support an effect of iodinated contrast agents on clot formation or tPA activity. PMID:24370757

  10. Comparison of Hemostasis Times With a Kaolin-Based Hemostatic Pad (QuikClot Radial) vs Mechanical Compression (TR Band) Following Transradial Access: A Pilot Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jonathan S; Niu, Jianli; Pastor-Cervantes, Juan A

    2017-10-01

    Hemostasis following transradial access (TRA) is usually achieved by mechanical compression. We investigated use of the QuikClot Radial hemostasis pad (Z-Medica) compared with the TR Band (Terumo Medical) to shorten hemostasis after TRA. Thirty patients undergoing TRA coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized into three cohorts post TRA: 10 patients received mechanical compression with the TR Band, 10 patients received 30 min of compression with the QuikClot Radial pad, and 10 patients received 60 min of compression with the QuikClot Radial pad. Times to hemostasis and access-site complications were recorded. Radial artery patency was evaluated 1 hour after hemostasis by the reverse Barbeau's test. There were no differences in patient characteristics, mean dose of heparin (7117 ± 1054 IU), or mean activated clotting time value (210 ± 50 sec) at the end of procedure among the three groups. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 100% of patients with both the 30-min and 60-min compression groups using the QuikClot pad. Hemostasis failure occurred in 50% of patients when the TR Band was initially weaned at the protocol-driven time (40 min after sheath removal). Mean compression time for hemostasis with the TR Band was 149.4 min compared with 30.7 min and 60.9 min for the 30-min and 60-min QuikClot groups, respectively. No radial artery occlusion occurred in any subject at the end of the study. Use of the QuikClot Radial pad following TRA in this pilot trial significantly shortened hemostasis times when compared with the TR Band, with no increased complications noted.

  11. Limitations of using synthetic blood clots for measuring in vitro clot capture efficiency of inferior vena cava filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald A Robinson, Luke H Herbertson, Srilekha Sarkar Das, Richard A Malinauskas, William F Pritchard, Laurence W GrossmanOffice of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was first to evaluate the clot capture efficiency and capture location of six currently-marketed vena cava filters in a physiological venous flow loop, using synthetic polyacrylamide hydrogel clots, which were intended to simulate actual blood clots. After observing a measured anomaly for one of the test filters, we redirected the focus of the study to identify the cause of poor clot capture performance for large synthetic hydrogel clots. We hypothesized that the uncharacteristic low clot capture efficiency observed when testing the outlying filter can be attributed to the inadvertent use of dense, stiff synthetic hydrogel clots, and not as a result of the filter design or filter orientation. To study this issue, sheep blood clots and polyacrylamide (PA synthetic clots were injected into a mock venous flow loop containing a clinical inferior vena cava (IVC filter, and their captures were observed. Testing was performed with clots of various diameters (3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 mm, length-to-diameter ratios (1:1, 3:1, 10:1, and stiffness. By adjusting the chemical formulation, PA clots were fabricated to be soft, moderately stiff, or stiff with elastic moduli of 805 ± 2, 1696 ± 10 and 3295 ± 37 Pa, respectively. In comparison, the elastic moduli for freshly prepared sheep blood clots were 1690 ± 360 Pa. The outlying filter had a design that was characterized by peripheral gaps (up to 14 mm between its wire struts. While a low clot capture rate was observed using large, stiff synthetic clots, the filter effectively captured similarly sized sheep blood clots and soft PA clots. Because the stiffer synthetic clots remained straight when approaching the

  12. effect of natural blue-green algal cells lysis on freshwater quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compaq

    released into water due to algal cells lysis was performed by placing samples in two ... Keywords; Algae, cells lysis, Fatty acids, gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, water quality ... Factors such as municipal and industrial.

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) ...

  15. Development and comparison of a minimally-invasive model of autologous clot pulmonary embolism in Sprague-Dawley and Copenhagen rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanapareddy Nina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental models of pulmonary embolism (PE that produce pulmonary hypertension (PH employ many different methods of inducing acute pulmonary occlusion. Many of these models induce PE with intravenous injection of exogenous impervious objects that may not completely reproduce the physiological properties of autologous thromboembolism. Current literature lacks a simple, well-described rat model of autlogous PE. Objective: Test if moderate-severity autologous PE in Sprague-Dawley (SD and Copenhagen (Cop rats can produce persistent PH. Methods blood was withdrawn from the jugular vein, treated with thrombin-Ca++ and re-injected following pretreatment with tranexamic acid. Hemodynamic values, clot weights and biochemical measurements were performed at 1 and 5 days. Results Infusion of clot significantly increased the right ventricular peak systolic pressure to 45-55 mm Hg, followed by normalization within 24 hours in SD rats, and within 5 days in COP rats. Clot lysis was 95% (24 hours and 97% (5 days in SD rats and was significantly lower in COP rats (70%, 24 hours; 87% 5 days. Plasma D-dimer was elevated in surgical sham animals and was further increased 8 hours after pulmonary embolism. Neither strain showed a significant increase in bronchoalveolar chemotactic activity, myeloperoxidase activity, leukocyte infiltration, or chemokine accumulation, indicating that there was no significant pulmonary inflammation. Conclusions Both SD and COP rats exhibited near complete fibrinolysis of autologous clot PE within 5 days. Neither strain developed persistent PH. Experimental models of PE designed to induce sustained PH and a robust inflammatory response appear to require significant, persistent pulmonary vascular occlusion.

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  17. Micro Corona Ionizer as an Ozone Source for Bacterial Cell Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Chua, Beelee; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    DNA extraction is a critical process of DNA assays including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, molecular cloning, and DNA hybridization which has been well established and can be implemented by commercial kits. DNA extraction involves cell lysis, precipitation, and purification through the combination of physical and chemical processes. Cell lysis is essential to high DNA recovery yield which can be achieved via a variety of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. However, these methods were originally developed for bioassays that were labor intensive, time consuming, and vulnerable to contamination and inhibition. Here, we proposed to employ a micro corona ionizer as an ozone source to lyse bacterial cells. Ozone has been well known and used as a disinfectant which allows cell lysis and DNA extraction. Previously, we have shown that a micro corona ionizer is capable of generating a significant amount of ozone. In this study, we employed the micro corona ionizer for the bacterial cell lysis which consists of a 50 μm diameter cantilever wire as the discharge cathode and a 50 μm thick copper foil as anode. Applied voltages varied from 1900 to 2200 V with corresponding corona currents from 16 to 28 μA. The resultant ozone (concentration > 0.14 ppm) generated from the micro corona ionizer was bubbled into the sample via a miniature pump. We demonstrated the cell lysis of Pseudomonas putida as the target bacterium using the micro corona ionizer. At a flow rate of 38 ml/min and applied corona voltage of 2000 V, 98.5 ± 0.2% lysis (normalized to sonication result) was achieved after 10 min. In comparison, untreated and air-treated samples showed normalized % lysis of 11.9 ± 2.4 and 36.1 ± 1.7%, respectively. We also showed that the cell lysis efficiency could be significantly increased by increasing the flow rate and the applied corona voltage. By comparing the experimental results for continuous and pulsed treatment, we verified that the percentage of

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration Schedule & Program Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  19. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... 0544 | Fax 202-776-0545 ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate Research ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a ... Blood clots are also potentially dangerous to your baby. Blood clots can form inside the placenta, cutting ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Section Agenda for Hematology Research Precision Medicine Initiative Research Registry Research Recommendations Research Programs and ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ... of practicing hematologists in your area. Learn more AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEMATOLOGY 2021 L Street NW, Suite ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in ... Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any history ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... presentations, that can help you make an immediate impact on your practice Summit on Emerging Immunotherapies Registration ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that provide information. back to top ASH Foundation ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Image Bank Advocacy Action Alerts Policy News Advocacy Leadership Institute Policy Statements Testimony & Correspondence Meetings ASH Annual ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated with an ... Programs and Awards ASH Agenda for Hematology Research Education For Clinicians For Trainees For Educators For Patients ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Section Action Alerts Advocacy Toolkit Policy News Sickle Cell Disease Initiative Policy Statements Congressional Fellowship Testimony and ... all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  13. Intrinsic clotting factors in dependency of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives: definition and risk of elevated clotting factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Beate; Schmitt, Joern; Humpich, Marek; Glowatzki, Matthias; Seifried, Erhard; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2009-10-01

    Elevated clotting factors have been demonstrated to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of age, sex, body mass index, and oral contraceptives on the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII and their impact on the cutoff definition and risk of VTE associated with elevated clotting factors. Factor VIII, IX, XI, and XII activities were measured in 499 blood donors and 286 patients with VTE. Age and body mass index predicted significantly and independently the clotting factor activities of factors VIII, IX, and XI, whereas use of oral contraceptives predicted factor IX, XI, and XII levels. Percentiles of clotting factor activities, which are often used for the cutoff definition of elevated clotting factors, varied due to the effect of age, body mass index, and oral contraceptives. The adjusted odds ratios for VTE were 10.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-20.7], 6.1 (95% CI 3.1-12.0), and 3.3 (95% CI 1.9-5.8) for elevated factors VIII, IX, and XI, respectively. Furthermore, our study demonstrates for the first time that elevated factor XII is associated with an increased risk of VTE (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.3).

  14. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  15. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K.

  16. Case series: Bladder clot evacuation using a prostate morcellation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, Karen M; Navetta, Andrew F; Bird, Erin T; El Tayeb, Marawan M

    2017-07-01

    We sought to provide a technical update on the use of a prostate morcellator device (PMD) to manage organized blood clots of the bladder following laser prostatectomy. Herein, we describe our experience in using the Wolf Piranha morcellator in managing organized bladder blood clots supplemented with a retrospective chart review of the patients in whom this procedure was performed. Six patients, all male with a mean age of 75 ± 8.9 years, had organized bladder clots following either holmium laser enucleation or photoselective vaporization of the prostate managed with a PMD. Clots were recognized based on hematuria or urinary retention a median of 3.5 days following the aforementioned procedures. Initial management was attempted with more conservative measures, including a three-way Foley catheter, followed by cystoscopy with an Ellik evacuator, or a glass Tommey syringe. Morcellation times were a mean of 10.2 ± 6.15 minutes (range 2-18). This technique was able to manage clots that were an average of 173.3 ± 115.9 cc in size. The procedure was well-tolerated. No patients experienced intraoperative or morcellator-related complications. Benign prostatic hypertrophy frequently requires surgical endoscopic management and can be complicated by hematuria and bladder blood clot formation. When these clots become organized, this can lead to urinary retention and the required management, evacuation, may be difficult. The use of a Wolf Piranha PMD is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective in evacuating organized blood clots of the bladder.

  17. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Rondina, Matthew T; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT) in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE). Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT) was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG) and turbidimetry (A405). Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec). Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT. The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  18. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting for long periods. If you travel by airplane, walk the aisle periodically. For long car trips, ... Your-Risk-for-Excessive-Blood-Clotting_UCM_448771_Article.jsp. Accessed April 18, 2016. What causes excessive ...

  19. Hyperthermic Fibrinolysis with rt-PA: In Vitro Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, Helmut; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Brossman, Joachim; Christian Glueer, Claus; Bruhn, Hans Dieter; Heller, Martin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of hyperthermia up to 45 deg. C on fibrinolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods: Standardized fibrin clots were incubated in a water bath for 5 hr with either rt-PA (test group) or 0.9% sodium chloride (control group) and blood plasma at temperatures of 30-45 deg. C. Concentrations of D-dimer and time to complete clot lysis were measured.Results: The activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA rose with increasing temperature: time to lysis approximately halved from 30 deg. C to 40 deg. C and the concentration of D-dimer tripled. In the control group clot size did not change.Conclusions: Activity of rt-PA-induced fibrinolysis rises distinctly with higher temperatures. Since even healthy subjects show a physiologic decline in body temperature in the extremities, in patients with occlusive arterial disease decreased activity of fibrinolysis with rt-PA can be expected. Controlled hyperthermia may improve fibrinolysis with rt-PA and should be investigated in vivo

  20. [Treatment of surface burns with proteolytic enzymes: mathematic description of lysis kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domogatskaia, A S; Domogatskiĭ, S P; Ruuge, E K

    2003-01-01

    The lysis of necrotic tissue by a proteolytic enzyme applied to the surface of a burn wound was studied. A mathematical model was proposed, which describes changes in the thickness of necrotic tissue as a function of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme. The model takes into account the inward-directed diffusion of the enzyme, the counterflow of interstitial fluid (exudates) containing specific inhibitors, and the extracellular matrix proteolysis. It was shown in terms of the quasi-stationary approach that the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases exponentially with time; i.e., the lysis slows down as the thickness of the necrotic tissue layer decreases. The dependence of the characteristic time of this decrease on enzyme concentration was obtained. It was shown that, at high enzyme concentrations (more than 5 mg/ml), the entire time of lysis (after the establishment of quasi-stationary equilibrium) is inversely proportional to the concentration of the enzyme.

  1. Ultrastructure of clots during isometric contraction

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    We explored the retraction or contraction of platelet-fibrin clots under isometric conditions. In the presence of micromolar calcium clots of normal platelet-rich plasma developed tension at an initial rate of 0.1 to 0.2 g/min per cm2 (initial cross-sectional area). Electron microscopy of clots fixed after attaining a force of 1.6 g/cm2 revealed platelets with elongated bodies and pseudopods in close apposition to fibrin strands which were oriented in cablelike fashion in the direction of ten...

  2. Ultrasound active nanoscaled lipid formulations for thrombus lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andreas; Marxer, Elena; Brüssler, Jana; Hoormann, Anne Sophia; Kuhnt, Daniela; Bakowsky, Udo; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sonothrombolytic effect of new nanoscaled lipid formulations in human blood clots, using diagnostic ultrasound. Human blood clots of 1 ml were incubated with 1 μl of the different lipid dispersions DPPC/CH, DPPC/PEG40S, DSPC/PEG40S and the commercially available ultrasound contrast agent SonoVue®. Clots were stored for 3 days at 5 °C to obtain maximal clot retraction and lytic resistance. Each clot weight was determined before and after continuous insonation for 1h of insonation at 1.4 MHz. The pressure in the insonation chamber was 80 mm Hg to mimic middle arterial blood pressure. There were no significant differences in thrombus weight before insonation. All nanoscaled formulations and SonoVue® were able to reduce thrombus weight compared to the weight loss of clots that were not insonated but kept under pressure for one hour (p ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis even without thrombolytic drugs. Stable cavitation is a crucial parameter in fragmentation of thrombus architecture. Further studies of physicochemical properties of DSPC/PEG40S are necessary to corroborate our hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Immobility (including prolonged inactivity, long trips by plane or car ) Smoking Oral contraceptives Certain cancers Trauma Certain surgeries Age (increased risk for people over age 60) A family history of blood clots Chronic inflammatory diseases Diabetes High ...

  4. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  5. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidania Munoz, R. de; Garces, F.; Davila, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of λvir andλ clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C 6 00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and (he bacterial burst side, we have finder that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs

  6. [Risk assessment of thrombotic events in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in the acute state: the 'fibrinodynamics' technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusov, O S; Matveev, I A; Kirillov, P S; Faktor, M I; Karpova, N S; Vasilyeva, E F; Katasonov, A B; Zozulya, S A; Klushnik, T P

    To assess the risk of thrombotic events in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder based on 'fibrinodynamics' technology. A group of 76 women, including 38 with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0), 18 with schizoaffective disorder (F25.1) in the acute stage, and 20 healthy controls, participated in the study. The technology includes the study of coagulation and fibrinolysis, Karmin author software, and calculation of peak time and hemostasis potential of spontaneous clots. Growth and lysis of fibrin clots were studied in plasma purified from platelets. All preanalytic procedures were conducted within 30 minutes after blood sampling. Blood serum was studied separately using the neuroimmunological test. Dynamic of brightness profiles of the clots was determined and a number of parameters (peak time and hemostasis potential of spontaneous clots) were calculated using the Karmin software. In patients with schizophrenia, the dynamic brightness profile of the clots has two peaks: the first peak is formed as a result of the growth and lysis of the clot initiated by the activator, the second peak is due to the growth and lysis of spontaneous clots in the volume of the measuring cuvette far from the activator. In healthy donors, the second peak under experimental conditions is absent. In the group of schizophrenic patients, a strong negative correlation is observed between the peak time of the second peak and the activity of leukocyte elastase (Spearman R = -0.75, p<0.0001), i.e. the greater the activity of elastase, the earlier the maximum of the second peak is formed and vice versa. In the control group, there is no such correlation. Evaluation of the potential of hemostasis of spontaneous clots showed that in 42% of schizophrenic patients this parameter is shifted above the norm, which indicates an increased risk of thrombosis of small brain arteries in these patients. The developed technology of 'fibrinodynamics' has a good potential for introduction into

  7. Reference values for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Riond, Barbara; Jud Schefer, Rahel; Kutter, Annette P N

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. The tubes were maintained at 37°C for a maximum of 30 minutes before coagulation testing. ROTEM tests included the EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays. In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration (Clauss method) were analyzed for each cat. Reference intervals for ROTEM were calculated using the 2.5-97.5 th percentile for each parameter, and correlation with the standard coagulation profile was performed. Compared to people, clinically healthy cats had similar values for the EXTEM and INTEM assays, but had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations (0.9-2.2 g/L), resulting in weaker maximum clot firmness (MCF, 3-10 mm) in the FIBTEM test. In 18 cats, maximum lysis (ML) values in the APTEM test were higher than in the EXTEM test, which seems unlikely to have occurred in the presence of aprotinin. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people. In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  8. Variable Resistance to Plasminogen Activator Initiated Fibrinolysis for Intermediate-Risk Pulmonary Embolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Stubblefield

    Full Text Available We examine the clinical significance and biomarkers of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-catalyzed clot lysis time (CLT in patients with intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism (PE.Platelet-poor, citrated plasma was obtained from patients with PE. Healthy age- and sex-matched patients served as disease-negative controls. Fibrinogen, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI, plasminogen activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, thrombin time and D-dimer were quantified. Clotting was induced using CaCl2, tissue factor, and phospholipid. Lysis was induced using 60 ng/mL tPA. Time to 50% clot lysis (CLT was assessed by both thromboelastography (TEG and turbidimetry (A405.Compared with disease-negative controls, patients with PE exhibited significantly longer mean CLT on TEG (+2,580 seconds, 95% CI 1,380 to 3,720 sec. Patients with PE and a short CLT who were treated with tenecteplase had increased risk of bleeding, whereas those with long CLT had significantly worse exercise tolerance and psychometric testing for quality of life at 3 months. A multivariate stepwise removal regression model selected PAI-1 and TAFI as predictive biomarkers of CLT.The CLT from TEG predicted increased risk of bleeding and clinical failure with tenecteplase treatment for intermediate-risk PE. Plasmatic PAI-1 and TAFI were independent predictors of CLT.

  9. Pressure-mediated reduction of ultrasonically induced cell lysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaravino, V.E.; Miller, M.W.; Carstensen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Chinese hamster V-79 cells, exposed in polystyrene tubes for 5 min to 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound, were lysed more by a 10 than a 5 W/cm 2 intensity. Higher atmospheric pressure was needed to eliminate lysis with the former relative to the latter intensity, but lysis by 10 W/cm 2 was completely climinated with 2 atm of hydrostatic pressure. The reduction in lysis per unit increase in atmospheric pressure was comparable for both ultrasound intensities

  10. Bleeding and infection with external ventricular drainage: a systematic review in comparison with adjudicated adverse events in the ongoing Clot Lysis Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage Phase III (CLEAR-III IHV) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mahua; Stadnik, Agnieszka; Riad, Fady; Zhang, Lingjiao; McBee, Nichol; Kase, Carlos; Carhuapoma, J Ricardo; Ram, Malathi; Lane, Karen; Ostapkovich, Noeleen; Aldrich, Francois; Aldrich, Charlene; Jallo, Jack; Butcher, Ken; Snider, Ryan; Hanley, Daniel; Ziai, Wendy; Awad, Issam A

    2015-03-01

    Retrospective series report varied rates of bleeding and infection with external ventricular drainage (EVD). There have been no prospective studies of these risks with systematic surveillance, threshold definitions, or independent adjudication. To analyze the rate of complications in the ongoing Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage Phase III (CLEAR III) trial, providing a comparison with a systematic review of complications of EVD in the literature. Patients were prospectively enrolled in the CLEAR III trial after placement of an EVD for obstructive intraventricular hemorrhage and randomized to receive recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator or placebo. We counted any detected new hemorrhage (catheter tract hemorrhage or any other distant hemorrhage) on computed tomography scan within 30 days from the randomization. Meta-analysis of published series of EVD placement was compiled with STATA software. Growing or unstable hemorrhage was reported as a cause of exclusion from the trial in 74 of 5707 cases (1.3%) screened for CLEAR III. The first 250 patients enrolled have completed adjudication of adverse events. Forty-two subjects (16.8%) experienced ≥1 new bleeds or expansions, and 6 of 250 subjects (2.4%) suffered symptomatic hemorrhages. Eleven cases (4.4%) had culture-proven bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis. Risks of bleeding and infection in the ongoing CLEAR III trial are comparable to those previously reported in EVD case series. In the present study, rates of new bleeds and bacterial meningitis/ventriculitis are very low despite multiple daily injections, blood in the ventricles, the use of thrombolysis in half the cases, and generalization to >60 trial sites.

  11. Asn12 and Asn278: Critical Residues for In Vitro Biological Activity of Reteplase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naganath Mandi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reteplase (rPA is a thrombolytic agent used for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. We studied the expression of rPA and its selected asparagine mutants after integration into the Pichia genome. Though methanol induction of the native and the rPA mutants showed similar expression levels (~200–250 mg/L, the mutants displayed significant loss of protease activity. Strikingly, the clot lysis activities of these mutants were considerably different. While mutation of Asn12 (N12P of the Kringle 2 domain showed delayed clot lysis activity (1/2=38 min compared to the native rPA (1/2=33 min, a faster rate of clot lysis (1/2=27 min was observed when the Asn278 (N278S of the serine protease domain was mutated. Interestingly, the slowest clot lysis activity (1/2=49 min demonstrated by the double mutant (N12P, N278S suggests the dominant role of Asn12 in regulating the fibrinolytic activity of rPA. The results presented in this paper indicate that the fibrinolytic and the proteolytic activities of rPA are independent of each other.

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppresses endogenous fibrinolysis in a canine model of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, C.F.; Fujita, T.; Hutzelmann, J.E.; Mayer, E.J.; Shebuski, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the specific, fast-acting inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), binds to fibrin and has been found in high concentrations within arterial thrombi. These findings suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a thrombus protects that same thrombus from fibrinolysis. In this study, clot-bound PAI-1 was assessed for its ability to suppress clot lysis in vivo. Autologous, canine whole blood clots were formed in the presence of increasing amounts of activated PAI-1 (0-30 micrograms/ml). Approximately 6-8% of the PAI-1 bound to the clots under the experimental conditions. Control and PAI-1-enriched clots containing iodine-125-labeled fibrin (ogen) were homogenized, washed to remove nonbound elements, and delivered to the lungs of anesthetized dogs where the homogenates subsequently underwent lysis by the endogeneous fibrinolytic system. 125I-labeled fibrin degradation products appeared in the blood of control animals within 10 minutes and were maximal by 90 minutes. PAI-1 reduced fibrin degradation product release in a dose-responsive manner at all times between 30 minutes and 5 hours (greater than or equal to 76% inhibition at 30 minutes, PAI-1 greater than or equal to 6 micrograms/ml). PAI-1 also suppressed D-dimer release from clots containing small amounts of human fibrin (ogen). t-PA administration attenuated the effects of PAI-1, whereas latent PAI-1 (20 micrograms/ml) had no effect on clot lysis. Blood levels of PA and PAI activity remained unaltered during these experiments. The results indicate that PAI-1 markedly inhibits endogenous fibrinolysis in vivo and, moreover, suggest that the localization of PAI-1 to a forming thrombus is an important physiological mechanism for subsequent thrombus stabilization

  13. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

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    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  14. Lab-on-a-Disc Platform for Automated Chemical Cell Lysis

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    Moo-Jung Seo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical cell lysis is an interesting topic in the research to Lab-on-a-Disc (LOD platforms on account of its perfect compatibility with the centrifugal spin column format. However, standard procedures followed in chemical cell lysis require sophisticated non-contact temperature control as well as the use of pressure resistant valves. These requirements pose a significant challenge thereby making the automation of chemical cell lysis on an LOD extremely difficult to achieve. In this study, an LOD capable of performing fully automated chemical cell lysis is proposed, where a combination of chemical and thermal methods has been used. It comprises a sample inlet, phase change material sheet (PCMS-based temperature sensor, heating chamber, and pressure resistant valves. The PCMS melts and solidifies at a certain temperature and thus is capable of indicating whether the heating chamber has reached a specific temperature. Compared to conventional cell lysis systems, the proposed system offers advantages of reduced manual labor and a compact structure that can be readily integrated onto an LOD. Experiments using Salmonella typhimurium strains were conducted to confirm the performance of the proposed cell lysis system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has great potential in realizing chemical cell lysis on an LOD whilst achieving higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA thereby providing a good alternative to conventional cell lysis systems.

  15. Lab-on-a-Disc Platform for Automated Chemical Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Moo-Jung; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2018-02-26

    Chemical cell lysis is an interesting topic in the research to Lab-on-a-Disc (LOD) platforms on account of its perfect compatibility with the centrifugal spin column format. However, standard procedures followed in chemical cell lysis require sophisticated non-contact temperature control as well as the use of pressure resistant valves. These requirements pose a significant challenge thereby making the automation of chemical cell lysis on an LOD extremely difficult to achieve. In this study, an LOD capable of performing fully automated chemical cell lysis is proposed, where a combination of chemical and thermal methods has been used. It comprises a sample inlet, phase change material sheet (PCMS)-based temperature sensor, heating chamber, and pressure resistant valves. The PCMS melts and solidifies at a certain temperature and thus is capable of indicating whether the heating chamber has reached a specific temperature. Compared to conventional cell lysis systems, the proposed system offers advantages of reduced manual labor and a compact structure that can be readily integrated onto an LOD. Experiments using Salmonella typhimurium strains were conducted to confirm the performance of the proposed cell lysis system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system has great potential in realizing chemical cell lysis on an LOD whilst achieving higher throughput in terms of purity and yield of DNA thereby providing a good alternative to conventional cell lysis systems.

  16. Effects of botropase on clotting factors in healthy human volunteers

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    Ashok K Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of botropase on various clotting factors in human volunteers. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective open label study conducted on human healthy volunteers. After the baseline screening, subjects fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. On the study day, 1 ml of botropase was administered intravenously and after an hour same dose of botropase (1 ml was given by intramuscular (IM route. The efficacy and safety parameters were monitored up to 72 h from the time of intravenous (IV administration. Results: A total of 15 volunteers, belonging to 24-35 years of age were included in the study. Botropase significantly reduced the plasma level of fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products after 5 min of IV administration (P < 0.05. In addition, factor X was observed to reduce constantly by botropase administration suggesting enhanced turnover between 5 and 20 min of IV administration. Although botropase reduced clotting and bleeding time in all the volunteers, the data remains to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Present study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of botropase in human healthy volunteers. The study has shown that it is a factor X activator and reduces effectively clotting and bleeding time.

  17. Massive clot formation after tooth extraction

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    Santosh Hunasgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral surgical procedures mainly tooth extraction can be related with an extended hemorrhage owed to the nature of the process resulting in an "open wound." The attempt of this paper is to present a case of massive postoperative clot formation after tooth extraction and highlight on the oral complications of surgical procedures. A 32-year-old male patient reported to the Dental Clinic for evaluation and extraction of grossly decayed 46. Clinical evaluation of 46 revealed root stumps. Extraction of the root stumps was performed, and it was uneventful. Hemostasis was achieved and postsurgical instructions were specified to the patient. The patient reported to the clinic, the very subsequent morning with a criticism of bleeding at the extraction site. On clinical examination, bleeding was noted from the socket in relation to 46. To control bleeding, oral hemostatic drugs Revici - E (Ethamsylate 500 mg was prescribed and bleeding was stopped in 2 h. However, a massive clot was formed at the extraction site. Further, this clot resolved on its own in 1-week time. Despite the fact that dental extraction is considered to be a minor surgical procedure, some cases may present with life-threatening complications including hemorrhage. Vigilant and significant history taking, physical and dental examinations prior to dental procedures are a must to avoid intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  18. Increased Resistance to osmotic lysis of sickled erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated with CNw had significantly reduced osmotic lysis when compared with the untreated set (P<0.05, respectively) at various hypotonic NaCl concentrations. Various Hb genotypes exhibited a graded increase in osmotic pressure lysis in ...

  19. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

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    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  20. Tumor lysis syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Amaranto

    2004-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency characterized by electrolyte alteration with or without acute renal failure. It occurs mainly in patients with malignant tumors that have a high growth fraction, or after cytotoxic therapy, as a result of the massive degradation of malignant cells and the release of high amounts of intracellular elements that exceed the capacity of renal excretion. The objective of the treatment is the prevention of nephropathy due to uric acid deposits, and the correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte alterations. This paper reviews the incidence, the physiopathology, and the treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in children

  1. Thrombin-Accelerated Quick Clotting Serum Tubes: An Evaluation with 22 Common Biochemical Analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yoong Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clot activator serum tubes have significantly improved turnaround times for result reporting compared to plain tubes. With increasing workload and service performance expectations confronting clinical laboratories with high-volume testing and with particular emphasis on critical analytes, attention has focussed on preanalytical variables that can be improved. We carried out a field study on the test performance of BD vacutainer rapid serum tubes (RSTs compared to current institutional issued BD vacutainer serum separator tubes (SSTs in its test result comparability, clotting time, and stability on serum storage. Data from the study population (n=160 of patients attending outpatient clinics and healthy subjects showed that results for renal, liver, lipids, cardiac, thyroid, and prostate biochemical markers were comparable between RSTs and SSTs. Clotting times of the RSTs were verified to be quick with a median time of 2.05 min. Analyte stability on serum storage at 4°C showed no statistically significant deterioration except for bicarbonate, electrolytes, and albumin over a period of 4 days. In conclusion, RSTs offered savings in the time required for the clotting process of serum specimens. This should translate to further trimming of the whole process from blood collection to result reporting without too much sacrifice on test accuracy and performance compared to the current widely used SSTs in most clinical laboratories.

  2. Developing Mesoscale Model of Fibrin-Platelet Network Representing Blood Clotting =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueyi; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Bowie, Sam; Alexeev, Alexander; Lam, Wilbur; Myers, David

    Blood clotting disorders which prevent the body's natural ability to achieve hemostasis can lead to a variety of life threatening conditions such as, excessive bleeding, stroke, or heart attack. Treatment of these disorders is highly dependent on understanding the underlying physics behind the clotting process. Since clotting is a highly complex multi scale mechanism developing a fully atomistic model is currently not possible. We develop a mesoscale model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to gain fundamental understanding of the underlying principles controlling the clotting process. In our study, we examine experimental data on clot contraction using stacks of confocal microscopy images to estimate the crosslink density in the fibrin networks and platelet location. Using this data we reconstruct the platelet rich fibrin network and study how platelet-fibrin interactions affect clotting. Furthermore, we probe how different system parameters affect clot contraction. ANSF CAREER Award DMR-1255288.

  3. Urea enhances cell lysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe ura4 mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kohei; Kushima, Misaki; Kaino, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2017-07-01

    Cell lysis is induced in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ∆ura4 cells grown in YPD medium, which contains yeast extract, polypeptone, and glucose. To identify the medium components that induce cell lysis, we first tested various kinds of yeast extracts from different suppliers. Cell lysis of ∆ura4 cells on YE medium was observed when yeast extracts from OXOID, BD, Oriental, and Difco were used, but not when using yeast extract from Kyokuto. To determine which compounds induced cell lysis, we subjected yeast extract and polypeptone to GC-MS analysis. Ten kinds of compounds were detected in OXOID and BD yeast extracts, but not in Kyokuto yeast extract. Among them was urea, which was also present in polypeptone, and it clearly induced cell lysis. Deletion of the ure2 gene, which is responsible for utilizing urea, abolished the lytic effect of urea. The effect of urea was suppressed by deletion of pub1, and a similar phenotype was observed in the presence of polypeptone. Thus, urea is an inducer of cell lysis in S. pombe ∆ura4 cells.

  4. Clot friction variation with fibrin content; implications for resistance to thrombectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Gillian M; McArdle, Kevin; Mirza, Mahmood; Duffy, Sharon; Gilvarry, Michael; Brouwer, Patrick A

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in the procedural efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy in patients with ischemic stroke in recent years, there still remains a portion of the population that does not achieve good recanalization. The reasons for this may be varied. We hypothesized that static friction between the clot and the vessel, or catheter wall might contribute to the difficulty in removing the clot. To determine if there is a relationship between clot composition and the resistance to sliding (friction) which might contribute to resistance to clot removal. As clot composition can vary significantly, we investigated five different types of clot in order to measure their respective frictional properties. To do this, a custom-made testing apparatus was created, consisting of various replaceable low-friction surfaces on which the clots could be placed. The surface was then gradually tilted until the clots began to slide; the angle at which this occurred is related to the coefficient of friction of the clots. The experiment was repeated on a bovine aortic surface in order to confirm the results. We found that fibrin-rich clots (friction than clots with a red blood cell content >20%. This result was confirmed by repeating the experiment on a bovine aortic surface as a representation of the interaction between clots and the arterial wall. The friction properties of clots were found to be related to the content ratio of fibrin to red blood cells. Future imaging techniques that could show fibrin and red blood cell content might help us to predict the 'stickiness' of a clot. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Margaret T; Rickles, Frederick R; Armstrong, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot) and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse) operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  6. Capture of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin by the blood clot: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret T Armstrong

    Full Text Available In vertebrates and arthropods, blood clotting involves the establishment of a plug of aggregated thrombocytes (the cellular clot and an extracellular fibrillar clot formed by the polymerization of the structural protein of the clot, which is fibrin in mammals, plasma lipoprotein in crustaceans, and coagulin in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Both elements of the clot function to staunch bleeding. Additionally, the extracellular clot functions as an agent of the innate immune system by providing a passive anti-microbial barrier and microbial entrapment device, which functions directly at the site of wounds to the integument. Here we show that, in addition to these passive functions in immunity, the plasma lipoprotein clot of lobster, the coagulin clot of Limulus, and both the platelet thrombus and the fibrin clot of mammals (human, mouse operate to capture lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin. The lipid A core of LPS is the principal agent of gram-negative septicemia, which is responsible for more than 100,000 human deaths annually in the United States and is similarly toxic to arthropods. Quantification using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL test shows that clots capture significant quantities of LPS and fluorescent-labeled LPS can be seen by microscopy to decorate the clot fibrils. Thrombi generated in the living mouse accumulate LPS in vivo. It is suggested that capture of LPS released from gram-negative bacteria entrapped by the blood clot operates to protect against the disease that might be caused by its systemic dispersal.

  7. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video) Fetal Ultrasound Scanning Additional Content Medical News Postpartum Blood Clots By Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD, Associate Professor ... Professional Version Postdelivery Period Overview of the Postdelivery (Postpartum) Period Postpartum Infections Postpartum Infections of the Uterus ...

  8. Reagentless mechanical cell lysis by nanoscale barbs in microchannels for sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Dino; Jeong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Luke P

    2003-11-01

    A highly effective, reagentless, mechanical cell lysis device integrated in microfluidic channels is reported. Sample preparation, specifically cell lysis, is a critical element in 'lab-on-chip' applications. However, traditional methods of cell lysis require purification steps or complicated fabrication steps that a simple mechanical method of lysis may avoid. A simple and effective mechanical cell lysis system is designed, microfabricated, and characterized to quantify the efficiency of cell lysis and biomolecule accessibility. The device functionality is based on a microfluidic filter region with nanostructured barbs created using a modified deep reactive ion etching process. Mechanical lysis is characterized by using a membrane impermeable dye. Three main mechanisms of micro-mechanical lysis are described. Quantitative measurements of accessible protein as compared to a chemically lysed sample are acquired with optical absorption measurements at 280 and 414 nm. At a flow rate of 300 microL min(-1) within the filter region total protein and hemoglobin accessibilities of 4.8% and 7.5% are observed respectively as compared to 1.9% and 3.2% for a filter without nanostructured barbs.

  9. Lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by high-intensity focused ultrasound as a function of exposure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy A; Xu, Jin; Stessman, Dan J; Yao, Linxing; Spalding, Martin H; Wang, Tong

    2014-05-01

    Efficient lysis of microalgae for lipid extraction is an important concern when processing biofuels. Historically, ultrasound frequencies in the range of 10-40 kHz have been utilized for this task. However, greater efficiencies might be achievable if higher frequencies could be used. In our study, we evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound to lyse microalgae for biofuel production while using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and an active diameter of 6.36 cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz (3.6% duty cycle). The time-average acoustic power output was 26.2 W while the spatial-peak-pulse-average intensity (ISPPA) for each tone burst was 41 kW/cm(2). The peak compressional and rarefactional pressures at the focus were 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The exposure time was varied for the different cases in the experiments from 5s to 9 min and cell lysis was assessed by quantifying the percentage of protein and chlorophyll release into the supernate as well as the lipid extractability. Free radical generation and lipid oxidation for the different ultrasound exposures were also determined. We found that there was a statistically significant increase in lipid extractability for all of the exposures compared to the control. The longer exposures also completely fragmented the cells releasing almost all of the protein and chlorophyll into the supernate. The cavitation activity did not significantly increase lipid oxidation while there was a minor trend of increased free radical production with increased ultrasound exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A constitutive model for developing blood clots with various compositions and their nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Thomas H S; Donders, Wouter P; van de Vosse, Frans N; Peters, Gerrit W M

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical properties determine to a large extent the functioning of a blood clot. These properties depend on the composition of the clot and have been related to many diseases. However, the various involved components and their complex interactions make it difficult at this stage to fully understand and predict properties as a function of the components. Therefore, in this study, a constitutive model is developed that describes the viscoelastic behavior of blood clots with various compositions. Hereto, clots are formed from whole blood, platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma to study the influence of red blood cells, platelets and fibrin, respectively. Rheological experiments are performed to probe the mechanical behavior of the clots during their formation. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of the mature clots is characterized using a large amplitude oscillatory shear deformation. The model is based on a generalized Maxwell model that accurately describes the results for the different rheological experiments by making the moduli and viscosities a function of time and the past and current deformation. Using the same model with different parameter values enables a description of clots with different compositions. A sensitivity analysis is applied to study the influence of parameter variations on the model output. The relative simplicity and flexibility make the model suitable for numerical simulations of blood clots and other materials showing similar behavior.

  11. Diastolic timed Vibro-Percussion at 50 Hz delivered across a chest wall sized meat barrier enhances clot dissolution and remotely administered Streptokinase effectiveness in an in-vitro model of acute coronary thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low Frequency Vibro-Percussion (LFVP assists clearance of thrombi in catheter systems and when applied to the heart and timed to diastole is known to enhance coronary flow. However LFVP on a clotted coronary like vessel given engagement over a chest wall sized barrier (to resemble non-invasive heart attack therapy requires study. Methods One hour old clots (n=16 were dispensed within a flexible segment of Soft-Flo catheter (4 mm lumen, weighted, interfaced with Heparinized Saline (HS, secured atop a curved dampening base, and photographed. A ~4 cm meat slab was placed over the segment and randomized to receive intermittent LFVP (engaged, - disengaged at 1 second intervals, or no LFVP for 20 minutes. HS was pulsed (~120/80 mmHg, with the diastolic phase coordinated to match LFVP delivery. The segment was then re-photographed and aspirated of fluid to determine post clot weight. The trial was then repeated with 0.5 mls of Streptokinase (15,000 IU/100 microlitre delivered ~ 2 cm upstream from the clot. Results LFVP - HS only samples (vs. controls showed; a development of clot length fluid channels absent in the control group (p Conclusion Diastolic timed LFVP (50 Hz engaged across a chest wall sized barrier enhances clot disruptive effects to an underlying coronary like system.

  12. PAMAM Dendrimers as Potential Carriers of Gadolinium Complexes of Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study describing the utilization of PAMAM dendrimers as delivery vehicles of novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. The purpose of this paper was to establish the potential of G4 PAMAM dendrimers as carriers of gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives and determine imaging properties of synthesized compounds in in vivo studies. Furthermore, we examined the influence of four synthesized complexes on the process of clot formation, stabilization, and lysis and on amidolytic activity of thrombin. Biodistribution studies have shown that the compounds composed of PAMAM G4 dendrimers and gadolinium complexes of iminodiacetic acid derivatives increase signal intensity preferably in liver in range of 59–116% in MRI studies which corresponds with the greatest accumulation of gadolinium after administration of the compounds. Synthesized compounds affect kinetic parameters of the proces of clot formation, its stabilization, and lysis. However, only one synthesized compound at concentration 10-fold higher than potential plasma concentrations contributed to the increase of general parameters such as the overall potential of clot formation and lysis (↑CLAUC and total time of the process (↑T. Results of described studies provide additional insight into delivery properties of PAMAM dendrimers but simultaneously underscore the necessity for further research.

  13. The Phosphatase Inhibitor Calyculin-A Impairs Clot Retraction, Platelet Activation, and Thrombin Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Hudák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin-A (CLA, on clot formation and on the procoagulant activity of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP samples were preincubated with buffer or CLA and subsequently platelets were activated by the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1 activator, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP. Clot retraction was detected by observing clot morphology up to 1 hour, phosphatidylserine- (PS- expression was studied by flow cytometry, and thrombin generation was measured by a fluorimetric assay. For the intracellular Ca2+ assay, platelets were loaded with calcium-indicator dyes and the measurements were carried out using a ratiometric method with real-time confocal microscopy. CLA preincubation inhibited clot retraction, PS-expression, and thrombin formation. TRAP activation elicited Ca2+ response and PS-expression in a subset of platelets. The activated PRP displayed significantly faster and enhanced thrombin generation compared to nonactivated samples. CLA pretreatment abrogated PS-exposure and clot retraction also in TRAP-activated samples. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect on calcium elevation and PS-expression, CLA significantly downregulated thrombin generation in PRP. Our results show that CLA pretreatment may be a useful tool to investigate platelet activation mechanisms that contribute to clot formation and thrombin generation.

  14. Tranexamic Acid Failed to Reverse the Anticoagulant Effect and Bleeding by an Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Edoxaban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yuko; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    Agents to reverse the anticoagulant effect of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, would be desirable in emergency situations. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, on the anticoagulant activity and bleeding by edoxaban in rats. A supratherapeutic dose of edoxaban (3 mg/kg) was intravenously administered to rats. Three minutes after dosing, tranexamic acid (100 mg/kg) was given intravenously. Bleeding was induced by making an incision with a blade on the planta 8 min after edoxaban injection and bleeding time was measured. Prothrombin time (PT) and clot lysis were examined. A supratherapeutic dose of edoxaban significantly prolonged PT and bleeding time. Tranexamic acid did not affect PT or bleeding time prolonged by edoxaban, although tranexamic acid significantly inhibited clot lysis in rat plasma. An antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid failed to reverse the anticoagulant effect and bleeding by edoxaban in rats. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  16. Radiation-induced enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis of Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Takehisa, M.; Iizuka, H.

    1981-01-01

    The intact cells of M. radiodurans were rendered sensitive to the action of lytic enzyme (P2-2 enzyme) by irradiation. The radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme was completely prevented by the addition of t-butanol and irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature. These results indicate that the enhancement is due to indirect action resulting from OH radicals. Cell lysis by lysozyme was enhanced only when the cells were irradiated under N 2 O. The enhancement of cell lysis with lysozyme was also prevented by adding alcohols. On the other hand, when lipid components in cells were removed by extraction with n-butanol, the radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme and lysozyme was not observed. From these results it is concluded that the enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis by irradiation is attributable to alteration in the lipid-rich layer of the cell wall caused by OH radicals

  17. Radiation-induced enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis of Micrococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Takehisa, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (Japan); Iizuka, H.

    1981-10-15

    The intact cells of M. radiodurans were rendered sensitive to the action of lytic enzyme (P2-2 enzyme) by irradiation. The radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme was completely prevented by the addition of t-butanol and irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature. These results indicate that the enhancement is due to indirect action resulting from OH radicals. Cell lysis by lysozyme was enhanced only when the cells were irradiated under N{sub 2}O. The enhancement of cell lysis with lysozyme was also prevented by adding alcohols. On the other hand, when lipid components in cells were removed by extraction with n-butanol, the radiation-induced enhancement of cell lysis with P2-2 enzyme and lysozyme was not observed. From these results it is concluded that the enhancement of enzymatic cell lysis by irradiation is attributable to alteration in the lipid-rich layer of the cell wall caused by OH radicals.

  18. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  19. Clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenhu; Wang Ning; Li Ming; Xing Shuang; Huang Haixiao; Ou Hongling; Xiong Guolin; Zhao Yanfang; Xie Ling; Wang Jinxiang; Miao Jingcheng; Zhu Nankang; Zhang Xueguang; Luo Qingliang; Cong Yuwen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clotting mechanism in beagles irradiated by 4.5 Gy γ-rays after treatment with supportive care, or supportive care and combined cytokines. Methods: Sixteen beagles were divided into irradiation control group, Supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group. Platelet aggregation test, thrombelastography (TEG) and the time measurement were analyzed in vitro. Results: In irradiation group and supportive care group, the platelet aggregation rates in beagles were decreased markedly and the k value of TEG was increased 7 d post-irradiation, while those indexes in combined cytokines treatment group changed little. At 14 d post-irradiation, each parameter of TEG in irradiated group changed obviously. The values of r, k, r + k and M were elevated significantly, clotting time and the maximum coagulation time of thrombus delayed, the Ma value was decreased markedly, and the maximum elasticity amplitude of thrombus was diminished. All parameters in combined cytokines treatment group were better than those in supportive care group. The thrombin time was prolonged obviously in irradiated group 14 d post-irradiation, while the thrombin time was the longest at 2-3 weeks post irradiation in supportive care group and combined cytokines treatment group (P>0.05). Conclusions: Cytokines could improve the platelet aggregation and the blood clotting functions of beagles suffering from acute radiation sickness. (authors)

  20. DNA, histones and neutrophil extracellular traps exert anti-fibrinolytic effects in a plasma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjú, Imre; Longstaff, Colin; Szabó, László; Farkas, Ádám Zoltán; Varga-Szabó, Veronika Judit; Tanka-Salamon, Anna; Machovich, Raymund; Kolev, Krasimir

    2015-06-01

    In response to various inflammatory stimuli, neutrophils secrete neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), web-like meshworks of DNA, histones and granular components forming supplementary scaffolds in venous and arterial thrombi. Isolated DNA and histones are known to promote thrombus formation and render fibrin clots more resistant to mechanical forces and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced enzymatic digestion. The present study extends our earlier observations to a physiologically more relevant environment including plasma clots and NET-forming neutrophils. A range of techniques was employed including imaging (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser microscopy, and photoscanning of macroscopic lysis fronts), clot permeability measurements, turbidimetric lysis and enzyme inactivation assays. Addition of DNA and histones increased the median fibre diameter of plasma clots formed with 16 nM thrombin from 108 to 121 and 119 nm, respectively, and decreased their permeability constant from 6.4 to 3.1 and 3.7×10(-9) cm(2). Histones effectively protected thrombin from antithrombin-induced inactivation, while DNA inhibited plasminogen activation on the surface of plasma clots and their plasmin-induced resolution by 20 and 40 %, respectively. DNA and histones, as well as NETs secreted by phorbol-myristate-acetate-activated neutrophils, slowed down the tPA-driven lysis of plasma clots and the latter effect could be reversed by the addition of DNase (streptodornase). SEM images taken after complete digestion of fibrin in NET-containing plasma clots evidenced retained NET scaffold that was absent in DNase-treated clots. Our results show that DNA and histones alter the fibrin architecture in plasma clots, while NETs contribute to a decreased lytic susceptibility that can be overcome by DNase.

  1. Characterisation of clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and viscoelastic analysis in healthy donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ecija, A; Mendoza, F J

    2017-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated differences in commonly measured haemostatic parameters between donkeys and horses. Whether clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and thromboelastography parameters also differ between species is still unknown. To characterise haemostatic parameters in healthy donkeys and to compare these with those in horses. Cross-sectional study. Clotting factors (V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII), and antithrombin III, Protein C and Protein S activities were measured in 80 healthy Andalusian and crossbred donkeys and 40 healthy Andalusian crossbred horses with assays based on human deficient plasmas. Thromboelastography was performed in 34 donkeys using a coagulation and platelet function analyser. Donkeys had shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (mean ± s.d. 33.4 ± 5.2 s vs. 38.8 ± 4.2 s; P0.05) and XII (96 ± 21 vs. 108 ± 15; Pdonkeys. Activated clot time (175 [159-189]), time to peak (6.5 [5.8-7.8]) and clot formation rate (26.9 [16.9-36.4]) in donkeys were shorter than reported values in horses. Haemostatic pathways could not be fully evaluated in donkeys because some tests are unavailable. Certain fibrinolytic parameters (plasmin, plasminogen, etc.) have not been characterised in donkeys and this may have affected our results. The haemostatic system in donkeys differs from that in horses and extrapolation of reference values between these species is not appropriate. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A.

    2004-01-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  3. Lysis from without

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary I consider use of the term “lysis from without” (LO) along with the phenomenon's biological relevance. LO originally described an early bacterial lysis induced by high-multiplicity virion adsorption and that occurs without phage production (here indicated as LOV). Notably, this is more than just high phage multiplicities of adsorption leading to bacterial killing. The action on bacteria of exogenously supplied phage lysin, too, has been described as a form of LO (here, LOL). LOV has been somewhat worked out mechanistically for T4 phages, has been used to elucidate various phage-associated phenomena including discovery of the phage eclipse, may be relevant to phage ecology, and, with resistance to LO (LOR), is blocked by certain phage gene products. Speculation as to the impact of LOV on phage therapy also is fairly common. Since LOV assays are relatively easily performed and not all phages are able to induce LOV, a phage's potential to lyse bacteria without first infecting should be subject to at least in vitro experimental confirmation before the LOV label is applied. The term “abortive infection” may be used more generally to describe non-productive phage infections that kill bacteria. PMID:21687534

  4. Sucralfate protects blood clots from peptic digestion by gastric juice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysaeter, Gunnar; Berstad, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    To test in vitro the ability of sucralfate to protect a blood clot from peptic digestion by gastric juice. Blood clots adhering to the bottom of plastic tubes were exposed to native acidic gastric juice or gastric juice to which Al-Mg antacids, sucralfate or alkali had been added. The tubes were tilted regularly at room temperature and clot digestion monitored by measuring the diameters of the clots. After 15 h, the liquids, but not the adherent clots, were poured out and the tubes refilled with native acidic gastric juice. Further clot digestion was measured, as before. Native gastric juice digested the clots completely during approximately 7 h, while in neutralized gastric juice or in gastric juice containing antacids or sucralfate no digestion was seen. In the second experiment, native gastric juice completely digested all remaining clots, except those previously exposed to sucralfate. A dose-response study indicated that gastric juice containing 3% or more of sucralfate had this long-lasting, clot-protective effect. In vitro, sucralfate adheres to and protects blood clots from digestion by gastric juice pepsin. This unique effect of sucralfate may be of clinical relevance in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Physical determinants of fibrinolysis in single fibrin fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igal Bucay

    Full Text Available Fibrin fibers form the structural backbone of blood clots; fibrinolysis is the process in which plasmin digests fibrin fibers, effectively regulating the size and duration of a clot. To understand blood clot dissolution, the influence of clot structure and fiber properties must be separated from the effects of enzyme kinetics and perfusion rates into clots. Using an inverted optical microscope and fluorescently-labeled fibers suspended between micropatterned ridges, we have directly measured the lysis of individual fibrin fibers. We found that during lysis 64 ± 6% of fibers were transected at one point, but 29 ± 3% of fibers increase in length rather than dissolving or being transected. Thrombin and plasmin dose-response experiments showed that the elongation behavior was independent of plasmin concentration, but was instead dependent on the concentration of thrombin used during fiber polymerization, which correlated inversely with fiber diameter. Thinner fibers were more likely to lyse, while fibers greater than 200 ± 30 nm in diameter were more likely to elongate. Because lysis rates were greatly reduced in elongated fibers, we hypothesize that plasmin activity depends on fiber strain. Using polymer physics- and continuum mechanics-based mathematical models, we show that fibers polymerize in a strained state and that thicker fibers lose their prestrain more rapidly than thinner fibers during lysis, which may explain why thick fibers elongate and thin fibers lyse. These results highlight how subtle differences in the diameter and prestrain of fibers could lead to dramatically different lytic susceptibilities.

  6. Microfluidic device for acoustic cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W.; Cooley, Erika Jane; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe; James, Conrad D.; McClain, Jaime L.

    2015-08-04

    A microfluidic acoustic-based cell lysing device that can be integrated with on-chip nucleic acid extraction. Using a bulk acoustic wave (BAW) transducer array, acoustic waves can be coupled into microfluidic cartridges resulting in the lysis of cells contained therein by localized acoustic pressure. Cellular materials can then be extracted from the lysed cells. For example, nucleic acids can be extracted from the lysate using silica-based sol-gel filled microchannels, nucleic acid binding magnetic beads, or Nafion-coated electrodes. Integration of cell lysis and nucleic acid extraction on-chip enables a small, portable system that allows for rapid analysis in the field.

  7. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  8. Chitosan inhibits platelet-mediated clot retraction, increases platelet-derived growth factor release, and increases residence time and bioactivity of platelet-rich plasma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprés-Tremblay, Gabrielle; Chevrier, Anik; Tran-Khanh, Nicolas; Nelea, Monica; Buschmann, Michael D

    2017-11-10

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to treat different orthopedic conditions, however, the clinical benefits of using PRP remain uncertain. Chitosan (CS)-PRP implants have been shown to improve meniscus, rotator cuff and cartilage repair in pre-clinical models. The purpose of this current study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of CS-PRP implants. Freeze-dried formulations containing 1% (w/v) CS (80% degree of deacetylation and number average molar mass 38 kDa), 1% (w/v) trehalose as a lyoprotectant and 42.2 mM calcium chloride as a clot activator were solubilized in PRP. Gravimetric measurements and molecular/cellular imaging studies revealed that clot retraction is inhibited in CS-PRP hybrid clots through physical coating of platelets, blood cells and fibrin strands by chitosan, which interferes with platelet aggregation and platelet-mediated clot retraction. Flow cytometry and ELISA assays revealed that platelets are activated and granules secreted in CS-PRP hybrid clots and that cumulative release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-AB) and epidermal growth factor is higher from CS-PRP hybrid clots compared to PRP clots in vitro. Finally, CS-PRP implants resided for up to 6 weeks in a subcutaneous implantation model and induced cell recruitment and granulation tissue synthesis, confirming greater residency and bioactivity compared to PRP in vivo.

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of articles from the 2017 ASH Annual Meeting Education Program Blood: How I Treat A compendium of Blood articles ... Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Disorder Fact Sheets ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood ...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are ...

  12. Thyroid Dysfunction and Fibrin Network Structure: A Mechanism for Increased Thrombotic Risk in Hyperthyroid Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, J. M. W.; Stuijver, D. J. F.; Orme, S. M.; van Zaane, B.; Hess, K.; Gerdes, V. E.; Phoenix, F.; Rice, P.; Smith, K. A.; Alzahrani, S. H.; Standeven, K. F.; Ajjan, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombosis risk, and fibrin clot structure determines susceptibility to vascular thrombotic events. Objective: Our objective was to investigate clot formation and lysis in hyperthyroidism using observational and interventional studies. Design: Ex

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... have one. If you are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about ... 2018 by American Society of Hematology Support Opportunities | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service | Contact Us

  14. Comparison of the lysis centrifugation method with the conventional blood culture method in cases of sepsis in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-07-01

    Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Two hundred nonduplicate blood cultures from cases of sepsis were analyzed using two blood culture methods concurrently for recovery of bacteria from patients diagnosed clinically with sepsis - the conventional blood culture method using trypticase soy broth and the lysis centrifugation method using saponin by centrifuging at 3000 g for 30 minutes. Overall bacteria recovered from 200 blood cultures were 17.5%. The conventional blood culture method had a higher yield of organisms, especially Gram positive cocci. The lysis centrifugation method was comparable with the former method with respect to Gram negative bacilli. The sensitivity of lysis centrifugation method in comparison to conventional blood culture method was 49.75% in this study, specificity was 98.21% and diagnostic accuracy was 89.5%. In almost every instance, the time required for detection of the growth was earlier by lysis centrifugation method, which was statistically significant. Contamination by lysis centrifugation was minimal, while that by conventional method was high. Time to growth by the lysis centrifugation method was highly significant (P value 0.000) as compared to time to growth by the conventional blood culture method. For the diagnosis of sepsis, combination of the lysis centrifugation method and the conventional blood culture method with trypticase soy broth or biphasic media is advocable, in order to achieve faster recovery and a better yield of microorganisms.

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Action on DVT and PE to raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) Multiple births ... treating blood conditions. back to top Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: A Patient's Journey back to top Where Can ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during ... Advances The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  18. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  19. A simple clot based assay for detection of procoagulant cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rucha; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2016-05-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MPs) are important biomarkers in many facets of medicine. However, the MP detection methods used till date are costly and time consuming. The main aim of this study was to standardize an in-house clot based screening method for MP detection which would not only be specific and sensitive, but also inexpensive. Four different methods of MP assessment were performed and the results correlated. Using the flow cytometry technique as the gold standard, 25 samples with normal phosphatidylserine (PS) expressing MP levels and 25 samples with elevated levels were selected, which was cross checked by the commercial STA Procoag PPL clotting time (CT) assay. A simple recalcification time and an in-house clot assay were the remaining two tests. The in-house test measures the CT after the addition of calcium chloride to MP rich plasma, following incubation with Russell viper venom and phospholipid free plasma. The CT obtained by the in-house assay significantly correlated with the results obtained by flow cytometry (R2=0.87, p<0.01). Though preliminary, the in-house assay seems to be efficient, inexpensive and promising. It could definitely be utilized routinely for procoagulant MP assessment in various clinical settings.

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles from ... Blood clots in pregnant women tend to form in the deep veins of the legs or in the ...

  1. The application of large amplitude oscillatory stress in a study of fully formed fibrin clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, T. F.; Thomas, B. R.; Curtis, D. J.; Badiei, N.; Williams, P. R.; Hawkins, K.

    2017-12-01

    The suitability of controlled stress large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOStress) for the characterisation of the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fully formed fibrin clots is investigated. Capturing the rich nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour of the fibrin network is important for understanding the structural behaviour of clots formed in blood vessels which are exposed to a wide range of shear stresses. We report, for the first time, that artefacts due to ringing exist in both the sample stress and strain waveforms of a LAOStress measurement which will lead to errors in the calculation of nonlinear viscoelastic properties. The process of smoothing the waveforms eliminates these artefacts whilst retaining essential rheological information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the potential of LAOStress for characterising the nonlinear viscoelastic properties of fibrin clots in response to incremental increases of applied stress up to the point of fracture. Alternating LAOStress and small amplitude oscillatory shear measurements provide detailed information of reversible and irreversible structural changes of the fibrin clot as a consequence of elevated levels of stress. We relate these findings to previous studies involving large scale deformations of fibrin clots. The LAOStress technique may provide useful information to help understand why some blood clots formed in vessels are stable (such as in deep vein thrombosis) and others break off (leading to a life threatening pulmonary embolism).

  2. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  3. Effects of calcium binding and of EDTA and CaEDTA on the clotting of bovine fibrinogen by thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perizzolo, K E; Sullivan, S; Waugh, D F

    1985-03-01

    Studies were carried out at pH 7.0 and gamma/2 0.15 before addition of CaCl2 or EDTA. Clotting time, tau, at 3.03 microM fibrinogen and 0.91 u/ml thrombin was determined for equilibrium systems. With added Ca2+, tau decreases, from tau 0 at 0 added Ca2+ (mean, 29.7 +/- 3 s), by approximately 3 s at 5 mM added Ca2+. With added EDTA, tau increases sigmoidally from tau 0 at 0 EDTA to a maximum (mean tau m = 142 +/- 23 s) at approximately 200 microM EDTA. tau then decreases slightly to a minimum at approximately 1.3 mM and finally increases to infinity at approximately 10 mM EDTA. Between 0 and 1.3 mM EDTA, effects on clotting time are completely reversed by adding Ca2+ and, after equilibration at 400 microM EDTA, tau is independent of EDTA concentration. Thus, up to 400 microM EDTA, effects on clotting time are attributed to decreasing fibrinogen bound Ca2+. Between 5 mM Ca2+ and 200 microM EDTA it is assumed that an equilibrium distribution of fibrinogen species having 3, 2, 1, or 0 bound calcium ions is established and that a clotting time is determined by the sum of products of species fractional abundance and pure species clotting time. Analysis indicates that pure species clotting times increase proportionately with decreasing Ca2+ binding, binding sites are nearly independent, and the microscopic association constant for the first bound Ca2+ is approximately 4.9 X 10(6) M-1. Effects of adding Ca2+ at times t1 after thrombin addition to systems initially equilibrated at 200 microM EDTA were determined. Analysis of the relation between tau and t1 indicates that as Ca2+ binding decreases, rate constants for release of B peptides decrease less than those for release of A peptides. As EDTA concentration is increased above 1.3 mM, inhibitory effects of EDTA and CaEDTA progressively increase.

  4. Circulating Microparticles Alter Formation, Structure, and Properties of Fibrin Clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairova, Laily D; Nabiullina, Roza M; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Zuev, Yuriy F; Mustafin, Ilshat G; Litvinov, Rustem I; Weisel, John W

    2015-12-04

    Despite the importance of circulating microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis, there is limited evidence for potential causative effects of naturally produced cell-derived microparticles on fibrin clot formation and its properties. We studied the significance of blood microparticles for fibrin formation, structure, and susceptibility to fibrinolysis by removing them from platelet-free plasma using filtration. Clots made in platelet-free and microparticle-depleted plasma samples from the same healthy donors were analyzed in parallel. Microparticles accelerate fibrin polymerisation and support formation of more compact clots that resist internal and external fibrinolysis. These variations correlate with faster thrombin generation, suggesting thrombin-mediated kinetic effects of microparticles on fibrin formation, structure, and properties. In addition, clots formed in the presence of microparticles, unlike clots from the microparticle-depleted plasma, contain 0.1-0.5-μm size granular and CD61-positive material on fibres, suggesting that platelet-derived microparticles attach to fibrin. Therefore, the blood of healthy individuals contains functional microparticles at the levels that have a procoagulant potential. They affect the structure and stability of fibrin clots indirectly through acceleration of thrombin generation and through direct physical incorporation into the fibrin network. Both mechanisms underlie a potential role of microparticles in haemostasis and thrombosis as modulators of fibrin formation, structure, and resistance to fibrinolysis.

  5. Fiber-based optic sensor for detecting human blood clot: present and future revival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikeri, Nada; Bakhtiar, Hazri

    2018-05-01

    Sustaining human’s life-frame away from being impeded by the clot - ghost term, we attempt to approach a mobile fiber-based optical sensor (f-s) for detecting blood clot in a blood vessel (intra-arteries/veins). Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the human body, thus their significance of being protected arise to the monograph focus. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), X-rays and other medical instruments are diagnostic immobility techniques with a slackest interval. The corer causation of fiber-based optical sensor is to detect a clump of blood in the bloodstream by providing a prompt mobile diagnostic intervals preserving last-minutes-breath of human’s life. The detector (f-s) has been etched by diluting sulphuric acid ~10% at certain zone to sensate its function. The in-vitro monograph peaks its maximal monitoring when the sensor is attached to Raman Spectroscopy (RS) setup. RS quantifies the relative intensities of fibrinogen bond, which is the first type of blood coagulation elements of blood plasma. Blood coagulation parameters are the major concern of the monograph investigation, such as total haemoglobin (tHb), clotting reaction time (t), clot progression time (t2), maximum clot amplitude (ma) and mean refractive index (r). A blood sample will be drawn from the patient and after centrifugation to separate blood plasma from its constituents, then an immediate sloshing of blood plasma in the (f-s) packet which has its plug-in to RS. Estimating the quantitative analysis of blood sample concentration, RS will determine the presence of coagulation in terms of intensity and medical procedures will dominate the treatment process. Thus, the suggestive monograph provides a definite instrument for investigating blood coagulation intra-arteries/veins promptly.

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are pregnant and have concerns about blood clots, talk with your doctor about your risks and prevention. Depending on your condition, your OB-GYN may refer you to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in treating blood conditions. back to top ...

  7. Temperature affects thrombolytic efficacy using rt-PA and eptifibatide, an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jason M; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Bluett, Brent; Wenker, Evan; Lindsell, Christopher J; Shaw, George J

    2012-09-01

    The potential for hypothermia as a neuroprotectant during stroke has led to its increase in clinical use. At the same time, combination pharmaceutical therapies for ischemic stroke using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors, such as Eptifibatide (Epf ), are under study. However, there is little data on how the reactions triggered by these agents are impacted by temperature. Here, clot lysis during exposure to the combination of rt-PA and Epf is measured in an in vitro human clot model at hypothermic temperatures. The hypothesis is that lytic efficacy of rt-PA and Epf decreases with decreasing temperature. Whole blood clots from 31 volunteers were exposed to rt-PA (0.5 μg/mL) and Epf (0.63 μg/mL) in human fresh-frozen plasma (rt-PA+Epf ), rt-PA alone in plasma (rt-PA Alone), or to plasma alone (Control), at temperatures from 30°C to 37°C, for 30 minutes. Clot lysis was measured using a microscopic imaging technique; the mean fractional clot loss (FCL) at 30 minutes was used to determine lytic efficacy. Temperature had a significant impact on FCL in clots exposed to rt-PA+Epf, with the FCL being lower at 30°C to 36°C than at 37°C. The FCL remained significantly higher for rt-PA+Epf–treated clots than Controls regardless of temperature, with the exception of measurements made at 30°C when no significant differences in the FCL were observed between groups. The use of hypothermia as a neuroprotectant may negatively impact the therapeutic benefit of thrombolytic agents.

  8. Long-term cytokine and growth factor release from equine platelet-rich fibrin clots obtained with two different centrifugation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aristizabal, Román F; López, Catalina; Álvarez, María E; Giraldo, Carlos; Prades, Marta; Carmona, Jorge U

    2017-09-01

    To compare the temporal release (over three weeks) of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β 1 ) from two platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) preparations from equine blood obtained at either 240g/8min or 416g/10min. Whole blood from 10 horses was used to obtain PRF clots by two different centrifugation protocols. After 1h of rest, PRF clots were deposited in wells with culture medium, which was changed at 6h, 24h and then every 48h to 21days. Cytokines and GFs were measured by ELISA at 1h (serum supernatants from PRF clots) and all time points of culture medium change. A negative control (plasma) and a positive control (blood lysate) were also included. There were no relevant differences between the two protocols for the temporal release of proteins. However, a significant (p=0.01) effect of time was noted. All cytokines were detected after 6h of PRF clot culture until day 21. GF were detected at 1h until day 21. The concentrations for these proteins diminished gradually over time. A highly significant (p=0.01) correlation was noticed between all the proteins evaluated. Leukocytes enmeshed in PRF clots were able to produce cytokines, TGF-β 1 and PDGF-BB. These findings demonstrate a paramount role of leukocytes in wound healing induced or modified by PRF clots in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn Kil; Hahn, Seong Tae; Baek, Jee Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase(UK) in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion. Modified pulse-spray methods using UK were performed in seven patients with subacute (1 week-1month) to chronic (1month-5years) occlusive symptoms such as limb pain, claudication and impotence. Angiographic examination revealed thrombotic occlusion of the aorta, common iliac arteries, brachial arterio-venous hemodialysis graft and femoro-popliteal bypass graft. The patients underwent thrombolysis using modified pulse-spray and additional constant infusion of UK. In the presence of underlying stenosis or organized clots, balloon angioplasty or stent placement was performed. Complete lysis was obtained in five of seven patients. For initial lysis, the mean dose of UK was 420,000 units, and the mean modified pulse-spray time was 50 minutes. Mean total dose of UK and mean total time for complete lysis were 800,000 units and 161 minutes, respectively. Thrombolysis of the femoro-popliteal bypass graft failed due to severe occlusion of the distal anastomosis. Partial lysis was achieved in one patient with aorto-illac occlusion, but further thrombolysis was stopped due to bleeding at the puncture site. The modified pulse-spray method using UK is effective in treating subacute and chronic arterial thrombotic occlusion. It augments the speed, safety and efficacy of thrombolysis. When underlying stenosis or organized clots remain after thrombolysis, ballon angioplasty or stent placement would be helpful

  10. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci for fibrin clot phenotypes: the EuroCLOT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Frances M K; Carter, Angela M; Kato, Bernet

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrin makes up the structural basis of an occlusive arterial thrombus, and variability in fibrin phenotype relates to cardiovascular risk. The aims of the current study from the EU consortium EuroCLOT were to (1) determine the heritability of fibrin phenotypes and (2) identify QTLs as...

  12. 14-Day thawed plasma retains clot enhancing properties and inhibits tPA-induced fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Shepherd-Singh, Raymond; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory R; Nunns, Geoffrey R; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-11-01

    Plasma-first resuscitation attenuates trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC); however, the logistics of plasma-first resuscitation require thawed plasma (TP) be readily available due to the obligatory thawing time of fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The current standard is storage of TP for up to 5 days at 4°C, based on factor levels at outdate, for use in patients at risk for TIC, but there remains a 2.2% outdated wastage rate. However, the multitude of plasma proteins in attenuating TIC remains unknown. We hypothesize that TP retains the ability to enhance clotting and reduce tPA-induced fibrinolysis at 14-day storage. FFP was thawed and stored at 4°C at the following intervals: 14, 10, 7, 5, 3, and 1-day prior to the experiment. Healthy volunteers underwent blood draws followed by 50% dilution with TP stored at previously mentioned intervals as well as FFP, normal saline (NS), albumin, and whole blood (WB) control. Samples underwent tPA-modified (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography (TEG) with analysis of R-time, angle, maximum amplitude (MA), and LY30. TEG properties did not change significantly over the thawed storage. 14-day TP retained the ability to inhibit tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis (median LY30% 9.6%) similar to FFP (5.6%), WB (14.6%), and superior to albumin (59.3%) and NS (58.1%). 14-day TP also retained faster clot formation (median angle, 66.2°) and superior clot strength (MA, 61.5 mm) to albumin (34.8°, 21.6 mm) and NS (41.6°, 32.2 mm). TP plasma stored for 14 days retains clot-enhancing ability and resistance to clot degradation similar to FFP. A clinical trial is needed to validate these in vitro results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The hydraulic permeability of blood clots as a function of fibrin and platelet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufsus, A R; Macera, N E; Neeves, K B

    2013-04-16

    Interstitial fluid flow within blood clots is a biophysical mechanism that regulates clot growth and dissolution. Assuming that a clot can be modeled as a porous medium, the physical property that dictates interstitial fluid flow is the hydraulic permeability. The objective of this study was to bound the possible values of the hydraulic permeability in clots formed in vivo and present relationships that can be used to estimate clot permeability as a function of composition. A series of clots with known densities of fibrin and platelets, the two major components of a clot, were formed under static conditions. The permeability was calculated by measuring the interstitial fluid velocity through the clots at a constant pressure gradient. Fibrin gels formed with a fiber volume fraction of 0.02-0.54 had permeabilities of 1.2 × 10(-1)-1.5 × 10(-4)μm(2). Platelet-rich clots with a platelet volume fraction of 0.01-0.61 and a fibrin volume fraction of 0.03 had permeabilities over a range of 1.1 × 10(-2)-1.5 × 10(-5)μm(2). The permeability of fibrin gels and of clots with platelet volume fraction of platelet volume fraction of >0.2 were modeled as a Brinkman medium of coarse solids (platelets) embedded in a mesh of fine fibers (fibrin). Our data suggest that the permeability of clots formed in vivo can vary by up to five orders of magnitude, with pore sizes that range from 4 to 350 nm. These findings have important implications for the transport of coagulation zymogens/enzymes in the interstitial spaces during clot formation, as well as the design of fibrinolytic drug delivery strategies. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Googling Service Boundaries for Endovascular Clot Retrieval Hub Hospitals in a Metropolitan Setting: Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thanh G; Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Clissold, Benjamin; Ly, John; Singhal, Shaloo; Ma, Henry; Srikanth, Velandai

    2017-05-01

    There is great interest in how endovascular clot retrieval hubs provide services to a population. We applied a computational method to objectively generate service boundaries for such endovascular clot retrieval hubs, defined by traveling time to hub. Stroke incidence data merged with population census to estimate numbers of stroke in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Traveling time from randomly generated addresses to 4 endovascular clot retrieval-capable hubs (Royal Melbourne Hospital [RMH], Monash Medical Center [MMC], Alfred Hospital [ALF], and Austin Hospital [AUS]) estimated using Google Map application program interface. Boundary maps generated based on traveling time at various times of day for combinations of hubs. In a 2-hub model, catchment was best distributed when RMH was paired with MMC (model 1a, RMH 1765 km 2 and MMC 1164 km 2 ) or with AUS (model 1c, RMH 1244 km 2 and AUS 1685 km 2 ), with no statistical difference between models ( P =0.20). Catchment was poorly distributed when RMH was paired with ALF (model 1b, RMH 2252 km 2 and ALF 676 km 2 ), significantly different from both models 1a and 1c (both P AUS was superior to that of RMH, MMC, and ALF in catchment distribution and travel time. The method was also successfully applied to the city of Adelaide demonstrating wider applicability. We provide proof of concept for a novel computational method to objectively designate service boundaries for endovascular clot retrieval hubs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Biological investigations of medicinal plants of Heliotropium indicum indigenous to Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Samira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the clot lysis, antimicrobic and membrane stabilizing potentials of ethanolic extractives of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum (H. indicum. Methods: Crude ethanolic extracts of H. indicum leaves were partitioned successively using solvents of different polarity and subjected to determine qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of different bioactive constitutes and fractions which were assessed for their possible clot lysis, antimicrobic, and membrane stabilizing activities as compared with the known drugs. Results: For the thrombolytic activity, the petroleum ether soluble fraction showed the highest percent of clot lysis (35.4% among all fractions, while streptokinase and water resulted in 65.15% and 3.77% clot lysis, respectively. With respect to the membrane stabilizing activity, carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of H. indicum profoundly interdicted the hemolysis of erythrocytes brought about by osmotic induction (39.24% or by heat (40.20%. The other fractions exhibited less significant membrane stabilizing effect. By contrast, acetylsalicylic acid resulted in 72.25% ± 0.30% inhibition of osmotically induced hemolysis and showed a lower level of protection of heat induced hemolysis (42.56%. Crude ethanolic extracts were moderately sensitive against known pathogenic microbes. Since pharmacological activities of H. indicum are due to the presence of bioactive compounds, we detected and quantified the presence of significant levels of flavonoid and tannin substances. Conclusions: The outcomes of this research show that the leaves of H. indicum have the potential to be used as a remedy for thrombosis, inflammatory diseases and against few important bacterial pathogens.

  16. Effect of chitosan and coagulation factors on the wound repair phenotype of bioengineered blood clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Marchand, Catherine; Rivard, Georges-Etienne; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Poubelle, Patrice E

    2017-11-01

    Controlling the blood clot phenotype in a surgically prepared wound is an evolving concept in scaffold-guided tissue engineering. Here, we investigated the effect of added chitosan (80% or 95% Degree of Deacetylation, DDA) or coagulation factors (recombinant human Factor VIIa, Tissue Factor, thrombin) on inflammatory factors released by blood clots. We tested the hypothesis that 80% DDA chitosan specifically enhances leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) production. Human or rabbit whole blood was combined with isotonic chitosan solutions, coagulation factors, or lipopolysaccharide, cultured in vitro at 37°C, and after 4hours the serum was assayed for LTB 4 or inflammatory factors. Only 80% DDA chitosan clots produced around 15-fold more LTB 4 over other clots including 95% DDA chitosan clots. All serum contained high levels of PDGF-BB and CXCL8. Normal clots produced very low type I cytokines compared to lipopolysaccharide clots, with even lower IL-6 and IL-12 and more CCL3/CCL4 produced by chitosan clots. Coagulation factors had no detectable effect on clot phenotype. Conclusion In blood clots from healthy individuals, 80% DDA chitosan has a unique influence of inducing more LTB 4 , a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, with similar production of PDGF-BB and CXCL8, and lower type I cytokines, compared to whole blood clots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diastolic timed Vibro-Percussion at 50 Hz delivered across a chest wall sized meat barrier enhances clot dissolution and remotely administered Streptokinase effectiveness in an in-vitro model of acute coronary thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Andrew; Gill, Harjit

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Low Frequency Vibro-Percussion (LFVP) assists clearance of thrombi in catheter systems and when applied to the heart and timed to diastole is known to enhance coronary flow. However LFVP on a clotted coronary like vessel given engagement over a chest wall sized barrier (to resemble non-invasive heart attack therapy) requires study. Methods One hour old clots (n=16) were dispensed within a flexible segment of Soft-Flo catheter (4 mm lumen), weighted, interfaced with Heparin...

  18. Isolation of Mycobacterium chelonei with the lysis-centrifugation blood culture technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Fojtasek, M F; Kelly, M T

    1982-01-01

    Mycobacterium chelonei was isolated from a patient by the lysis-centrifugation and the conventional two-bottle blood culture methods. The lysis-centrifugation method was significantly more sensitive and rapid than the conventional method in detecting and isolating this organism; quantitations done by this method were useful for monitoring response to therapy.

  19. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    . In this study it is shown that HOBr induces red blood cell lysis at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations than HOCl, whereas with monocyte (THP1) and macrophage (J774) cells HOCl and HOBr induce lysis at similar concentrations. The role of radical formation during lysis has been investigated by EPR spin...... trapping, and it is shown that reaction of both oxidants with each cell type generates cell-derived radicals. Red blood cells exposed to nonlytic doses of HOCl generate novel nitrogen-centered radicals whose formation is GSH dependent. In contrast, HOBr gives rise to nitrogen-centered, membrane......-derived protein radicals. With lytic doses of either oxidant, protein (probably hemoglobin)-derived, nitrogen-centered radicals are observed. Unlike the red blood cells, treatment of monocytes and macrophages with HOCl gives significant radical formation only under conditions where cell lysis occurs concurrently...

  20. Evaluation of Lysis Methods for the Extraction of Bacterial DNA for Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Blow, Frances; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others. This study aimed to compare the results of vaginal microbiota profiling using four different pretreatment methods for the lysis of bacterial samples (30 min of lysis with lysozyme, 16 hours of lysis with lysozyme, 60 min of lysis with a mixture of lysozyme, mutanolysin and lysostaphin and 30 min of lysis with lysozyme followed by bead beating) prior to chemical and enzyme-based DNA extraction with a commercial kit. After extraction, DNA yield did not significantly differ between methods with the exception of lysis with lysozyme combined with bead beating which produced significantly lower yields when compared to lysis with the enzyme cocktail or 30 min lysis with lysozyme only. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the observed alpha diversity of samples. The beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) between different lysis methods was statistically significantly different, but this difference was small compared to differences between samples, and did not affect the grouping of samples with similar vaginal bacterial community structure by hierarchical clustering. An understanding of how laboratory methods affect the results of microbiota studies is vital in order to accurately interpret the results and make valid comparisons between studies. Our results indicate that the choice of lysis method does not prevent the detection of effects relating to the type of vaginal bacterial community one of the main outcome measures of epidemiological studies

  1. Evaluation of Lysis Methods for the Extraction of Bacterial DNA for Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gill

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the vaginal microbiota have employed molecular techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the bacterial community as a whole. These techniques require the lysis of bacterial cells to release DNA before purification and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Currently, methods for the lysis of bacterial cells are not standardised and there is potential for introducing bias into the results if some bacterial species are lysed less efficiently than others. This study aimed to compare the results of vaginal microbiota profiling using four different pretreatment methods for the lysis of bacterial samples (30 min of lysis with lysozyme, 16 hours of lysis with lysozyme, 60 min of lysis with a mixture of lysozyme, mutanolysin and lysostaphin and 30 min of lysis with lysozyme followed by bead beating prior to chemical and enzyme-based DNA extraction with a commercial kit.After extraction, DNA yield did not significantly differ between methods with the exception of lysis with lysozyme combined with bead beating which produced significantly lower yields when compared to lysis with the enzyme cocktail or 30 min lysis with lysozyme only. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the observed alpha diversity of samples. The beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between different lysis methods was statistically significantly different, but this difference was small compared to differences between samples, and did not affect the grouping of samples with similar vaginal bacterial community structure by hierarchical clustering.An understanding of how laboratory methods affect the results of microbiota studies is vital in order to accurately interpret the results and make valid comparisons between studies. Our results indicate that the choice of lysis method does not prevent the detection of effects relating to the type of vaginal bacterial community one of the main outcome measures of

  2. In vitro evaluation of the effect of haemodilution with dextran 40 on coagulation profile as measured by thromboelastometry and multiple electrode aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Pca; Liou, Jpc; Yang, Kxf

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of haemodilution with either dextran 40 or 0.9% normal saline on coagulation in vitro using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®, Pentapharm Co., Munich, Germany) and multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate® Platelet Function Analyser, Dynabyte, Munich, Germany). Venous blood samples obtained from 20 healthy volunteers were diluted in vitro with dextran 40 or normal saline by 5%, 10% and 15%. Fibrinogen concentration, ROTEM-EXTEM® (screening test for the extrinsic coagulation pathway), FIBTEM® (an EXTEM-based assay of the fibrin component of clot) parameters including coagulation time, clot formation time, alpha angle, maximum clot firmness and lysis index were measured in the undiluted sample and at each level of haemodilution. Dextran 40 at 15% haemodilution significantly prolonged coagulation time, clot formation time and significantly decreased the alpha angle and maximal clot firmness (EXTEM amplitude at five minutes [A5] and ten minutes [A10]) compared with normal saline. The FIBTEM assay (maximal clot firmness and FIBTEM A5 and A10) showed a marked decrease in maximal clot firmness at all dilutions suggesting impaired fibrinogen activity and a risk of bleeding. Multiple electrode aggregometry did not demonstrate any platelet dysfunction. Haemodilution with dextran 40 causes significant impairment in clot formation and strength compared to saline haemodilution and undiluted blood. At the levels of in vitro haemodilution designed to reflect the clinical use of dextran infusions, no significant fibrinolysis or platelet inhibition was observed.

  3. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  4. Comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and agitated biphasic blood culture systems for detection of fungemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, P R

    1991-01-01

    Although the detection of fungemia has been improved by the use of vented or biphasic blood culture bottles, the best recovery and earliest detection have been reported in the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system. It was recently demonstrated that improved detection of both bacteria and fungi was accomplished by mechanically agitating blood culture bottles for the first 24 h of incubation. In this study the detection of fungemia by use of the Isolator system was compared with that of an agitated biphasic system. A total of 182 fungi were isolated from blood specimens inoculated into both culture systems. No difference in the overall recovery of fungi or individual species of yeasts was observed between the two systems. However, all seven isolates of Histoplasma capsulatum were recovered in the Isolator system only. The time required to detect fungemia with each of the two systems was also compared. No statistically significant difference was observed. From the data collected during this 18-month study, it can be concluded that the overall recovery and time of detection of yeasts are equivalent in the lysis-centrifugation system and the agitated biphasic blood culture system. The lysis-centrifugation system is still superior for the detection of filamentous fungi such as H. capsulatum. PMID:1993772

  5. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  6. Thermal Blood Clot Formation and use in Microfluidic Device Valving Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Shi, Wendian (Inventor); Guo, Luke (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of forming a blood-clot microvalve by heating blood in a capillary tube of a microfluidic device. Also described are methods of modulating liquid flow in a capillary tube by forming and removing a blood-clot microvalve.

  7. A French National Survey on Clotting Disorders in Mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhosa, Ana B; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Canioni, Danielle; Brouzes, Chantal; Gyan, Emmanuel; Durupt, Stéphane; Durieu, Isabelle; Cathebras, Pascal; Costédoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Launay, David; Pilmis, Benoit; Barete, Stephane; Frenzel, Laurent; Lortholary, Olivier; Hermine, Olivier; Hermans, Cedric; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia

    2015-10-01

    Mastocytosis is characterized by a clonal mast cell proliferation with organ infiltration and uncontrolled degranulation. Although not characteristic and poorly explained, some patients develop clotting abnormalities. We retrospectively identified patients with established diagnosis of mastocytosis and related clotting abnormalities (clinical and/or biological) using the national French Reference Centre for Mastocytosis database. From our cohort of 14 adult patients with clotting abnormalities (median age 46 years [range 26-75]), 4 had a presentation suggestive of a primary hemostasis disorder alone (by their symptoms and/or abnormal clotting tests [PFA, von Willebrand's disease [vWD] screening]) and 10 had a laboratory impairment of secondary hemostasis. Among these, 7 had bleeds characteristic of a coagulation cascade disorder (severe/life-threatening in 5 and mild in 2 patients). Clotting abnormalities were of variable severity, typically related to intense crisis of degranulation, such as anaphylactic reactions, and/or to severe organ infiltration by mast cells. Importantly, classical hemostatic management with platelet transfusion, fresh frozen plasma, or vitamin K infusions was unsuccessful, as opposed to the use of agents inhibiting mast cell activity, particularly steroids. This illustrates the crucial role of mast cell mediators such as tryptase and heparin, which interfere both with primary (mainly via inhibition of von Willebrand factor) and secondary hemostasis. There was interestingly an unusually high number of aggressive mastocytosis (particularly mast cell leukemia) and increased mortality in the group with secondary hemostasis disorders (n = 5, 36% of the whole cohort). Mast cell degranulation and/or high tumoral burden induce both specific biologic antiaggregant and anticoagulant states with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening bleeds. Hemostatic control is achieved by mast cell inhibitors such as steroids.

  8. Factors Affecting the Growth and Production of Milk-Clotting Enzyme by Amylomyces rouxii in Rice Liquid Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jing Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylomyces rouxii is one of the main fungi usually coexisting with yeasts in Chinese yeast ball, the starter of chiu-niang, a traditional Chinese fermented product from rice. In the present study, growth and production of milk-clotting enzyme (MCE in gelatinous rice liquid culture of A. rouxii as influenced by waxy (gelatinous rice content in the medium (5–20 %, temperature (25–40 °C, cultivation time (1–6 days, shaking speeds (0–150 rpm and metal ions (Na+, K+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ were investigated. Results revealed that rice content in the medium, shaking speed, temperature and cultivation time all affected the mycelial propagation and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by A. rouxii in the rice liquid culture. The maximum milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.22 unit/mL of medium was observed in the 3-day static culture of test organism grown at 30 °C in the medium containing 20 % of gelatinous rice, while mycelial propagation increased with the increase of cultivation time and shaking speed. Furthermore, a significant increase (p<0.05 in the milk-clotting enzyme activity of ca. 1.90 unit/mL of medium, which was about 1.55-fold of the control, was observed when Al3+ was added to the rice liquid medium.

  9. Some Important Milestones in the Field of Blood Clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2016-01-01

    Several different kinds of 'milestone' in the field of blood coagulation are described from the middle decades of the 20th century. Although viewed from the standpoint of clotting per se, attention is also given to implications for innate immunity. The first milestone considered is the protracted saga of clotting dependence on vitamin K, an adventure that spanned more than five decades beginning in the 1920s. The second has to do with the discovery of a half-dozen 'new' clotting factors during the period immediately following World War II. A third pursues a narrower focus and examines the once mysterious transformation of fibrinogen into fibrin. Finally, the clinical treatment of classical hemophilia had a remarkable turning point in the 1960s as the result of simple but sensible measures. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempashanaiah Nanjundappa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy. Results We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80. Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection. Conclusions A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host

  11. Investigation of an optimal cell lysis method for the study of the zinc metalloproteome of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Anna M; Lewis, Stephanie; Abraham, Sami; Subramanian, Kavitha; Figueroa, Julio Landero; Deepe, George S; Vonderheide, Anne P

    2017-10-01

    This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals. Many of the conventional cell lysis, separation, and identification techniques in proteomics are carried out under conditions that could lead to protein denaturation. Various cell lysis techniques were investigated in an effort to both maintain the metalloproteins during lysis and subsequent analysis while, at the same time, serving to be strong enough to break the cell wall, allowing access to cytosolic metalloproteins. The addition of 1% Triton x-100, a non-ionic detergent, to the lysis buffer was also studied. Seven lysis methods were considered and these included: Glass Homogenizer (H), Bead Beater (BB), Sonication Probe (SP), Vortex with 1% Triton x-100 (V, T), Vortex with no Triton x-100 (V, NT), Sonication Bath, Vortex, and 1% Triton x-100 (SB, V, T) and Sonication Bath, Vortex, and no Triton x-100 (SB, V, NT). A Qubit® Assay was used to compare total protein concentration and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was utilized for total metal analysis of cell lysates. Size exclusion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS (SEC-HPLC-ICP-MS) was used for separation of the metalloproteins in the cell lysate and the concentration of Zn over a wide molecular weight range was examined. Additional factors such as potential contamination sources were also considered. A cell lysis method involving vortexing H. capsulatum yeast cells with 500 μm glass beads

  12. What is this chocolate milk in my circuit? A cause of acute clotting of a continuous renal replacement circuit: Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakajiwala, Aadil; Chiotos, Kathleen; Brothers, Julie; Lederman, April; Amaral, Sandra

    2016-12-01

    One of the greatest problems associated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the early clotting of filters. A literature search revealed three case reports of lipemic blood causing recurrent clotting and reduced CRRT circuit survival time in adult patients, but no reports of cases in children. A 23-month-old male infant with Martinez-Frias syndrome and multivisceral transplant was admitted to the hospital with severe sepsis and hemolytic anemia. He developed acute kidney injury, fluid overload and electrolyte imbalances requiring CRRT and was also administered total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and fat emulsion. The first circuit lasted 60 h before routine change was required. The second circuit showed acute clotting after only 18 h, and brownish-milky fluid was found in the circuit tubing layered between the clotted blood. The patient's serum triglyceride levels were elevated at 988 mg/dL. The lipid infusion was stopped and CRRT restarted. Serum triglyceride levels improved to 363 mg/dL. The new circuit lasted 63 h before routine change was required. Clotting of CRRT circuits due to elevated triglyceride levels is rare and has not been reported in the pediatric population. Physicians should be mindful of this risk in patients receiving TPN who have unexpected clotting of CRRT circuits.

  13. Clotting of mammalian fibrinogens by papain: A re-examination

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, RF

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Papain has long been known to cause the gelation of mammalian fibrinogens. It has also been reported that papain-fibrin is insoluble in dispersing solvents like strong urea or sodium bromide solutions, similar to what is observed with thrombin-generated clots in the presence of factor XIIIa and calcium. In those old studies, both the gelation and subsequent clot stabilization were attributed to papain, although the possibility that the second step might be du...

  14. Reduced clot debris size using standing waves formed via high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shifang; Du, Xuan; Wang, Xin; Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Xu, Shanshan; Bouakaz, Ayache; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to induce thrombolysis has been demonstrated previously. However, clinical concerns still remain related to the clot debris produced via fragmentation of the original clot potentially being too large and hence occluding downstream vessels, causing hazardous emboli. This study investigates the use of standing wave fields formed via HIFU to disintegrate the thrombus while achieving a reduced clot debris size in vitro. The results showed that the average diameter of the clot debris calculated by volume percentage was smaller in the standing wave mode than in the travelling wave mode at identical ultrasound thrombolysis settings. Furthermore, the inertial cavitation dose was shown to be lower in the standing wave mode, while the estimated cavitation bubble size distribution was similar in both modes. These results show that a reduction of the clot debris size with standing waves may be attributed to the particle trapping of the acoustic potential well which contributed to particle fragmentation.

  15. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr 51 -release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK

  16. Pilot study of Alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator) for treatment of urinary clot retention in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritch, Chad R; Ordonez, Maria A; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Araujo, Juan; Walsh, Rhonda; Baudin, Vania; Lee, Daniel; Badani, Ketan K; Gupta, Mantu; Landman, Jaime

    2009-08-01

    The management of urinary clot retention and hematuria involves manual irrigation with sterile water or normal saline via a Foley catheter followed by continuous bladder irrigation. Irrigation may become difficult because of the formation of dense blood clots. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA/Alteplase) may be a useful pharmacological agent to improve the efficacy of manual irrigation of large, dense clots. The goal of the current study was to compare t-PA to sterile water for clot irrigation in an in vitro model. In vitro models of clot retention were created using 500-cc urinary leg bags each filled with 80 cc of unpreserved whole blood from a healthy volunteer. Each model was incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 hours to allow clot formation. Four models each with 25 mL solution of t-PA at concentrations of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL were evaluated and compared to a control (25 mL sterile water). Models were instilled with solution (t-PA or control) and incubated for 30 minutes at 37 degrees C, and then irrigated with sterile water via 18F Foley by a blinded investigator. Three separate experiments were conducted, and statistical analysis was performed comparing various irrigation parameters. Clot evacuation with 25 mL of t-PA at a concentration of 2 mg/mL (50 mg) was significantly easier (p = 0.05) and faster (p < 0.05) than the sterile water control. The mean time for clot evacuation in this model was 2.7 minutes for t-PA solution 2 mg/mL versus 7.3 minutes for the control (p < 0.05). Compared to the control, irrigation with t-PA solution 2 mg/mL also required less irrigant (180 mL vs. 500 mL) (p < 0.05) for complete evacuation. There was a similar trend in efficacy for the lower doses of t-PA, but this was not statistically significant. In this in vitro study, a single 25 mL instillation of t-PA solution 2 mg/mL is significantly better than sterile water alone for clot evacuation. In vivo animal studies are pending.

  17. The Antithrombotic and Fibrinolytic Effect of Natto in Hypercholesterolemia Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kum-Ju; Kang, Jung Il; Kim, Tae-Seok; Yeo, Ik-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic and fibrinolytic activity of natto was evaluated on platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Natto showed inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation induced by adenosine 5′diphosphate (ADP) and collagen. Orally administered natto also showed fibrinolytic activity in hypercholesterolemia rats. Normal levels of natto, when administered for four weeks, shortened euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT) and prolonged partial thromboplastin time (PATT) significantly compared to non-treat...

  18. Tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic colon cancer after treatment with oxaliplatin and 5-Fu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Han Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome in solid tumors is a rare occurrence, with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a patient of recurrent colon cancer who received chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen (lencovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin with subsequent tumor lysis. We present a recurrent rectal cancer patient suffered from tumor lysis syndrome after salvage FOLFOX regimen. After treat with CVVH with improved conscious status. In this case report, we had review the tumor lysis in solid tumor.

  19. Antithrombotic and cytotoxic activities of four Bangladeshi plants and PASS prediction of their isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Mahamoud, Md Sofi; Chakrabarty, Nishan; Ahmad, Shabbir; Masum, Md Abdullah Al; Hoque, Md Akramul; Hossain, Mohammed Munawar; Rahman, Md Mominur; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate whether tested organic extracts possess antithrombotic properties with minimal or no toxicity and to predict the activity of some of their isolated compounds. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W.T. Aiton (Satipata), leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu), leaf of Phyllanthus sikkimensis Muell. Arg., and whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata) using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. In silico prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) prediction was applied for phytoconstituents, namely, nyasicoside, glucomannan, grandifloric acid, serine, and alanine. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed 28.10±1.64%, 42.47±1.96%, 32.86±1.92%, and 25.51±1.67% of clot lysis, respectively. Reference drug streptokinase exhibited 75.00±3.04% clot lysis. Examined herbs showed significant (p<0.001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to negative control. In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, C. recurvata, A. bulbifer, P. sikkimensis, and T. grandiflora showed LC50 values 210.64±3.44, 98.51±1.47, 187.29±2.01, and 386.43±3.02 μg/mL, respectively, with reference to vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.76±0.04). PASS predicted that examined phytoconstituents have a wide range of biological activity. Through our study it was found that A. bulbifer and P. sikkimensis could be considered as very promising and beneficial thrombolytic agents.

  20. Assessment of Heparin Anticoagulation Measured Using i-STAT and Hemochron Activated Clotting Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew; Chambers, Alison; Cheves, Tracey; Sweeney, Joseph

    2018-01-31

    Adequate anticoagulation, measured using activated clotting time (ACT), is important during vascular and cardiac surgeries. Unfractionated heparin is the most common anticoagulant used. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the i-STAT ACT (iACT) to the Hemochron ACT (hACT), both of which were then compared to anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) assay, a representation of heparin level and activity. Prospective study. Tertiary care cardiovascular center. Eleven consecutive elective adult cardiac surgical patients. Prior to cardiopulmonary bypass, ACTs were measured using i-STAT and Hemochron technologies and compared to each other and to anti-Xa assay prior to and during a cumulative administration of heparin. Data were compared using bias analyses. Heparin (300 U/kg) was administered in quarterly doses. Coagulation labs were collected prior to and 3 minutes after each quarterly dose of heparin. The baseline ACTs for i-STAT and Hemochron were 147 and 142 seconds, respectively. A significant association was found between iACT and hACT (p = 0.002). The iACT measurements underestimated hACT at ACT levels >180 seconds or anti-Xa levels >0.75 U/mL. No significant difference was found between ACT data at anti-Xa levels 0.75 U/mL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial Stroke Clots: How Wide is the Gap to the Real World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Maria; Prothmann, Sascha; Maegerlein, Christian; Oberdieck, Paul; Zimmer, Claus; Hegge, Barbara; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Schirmer, Lucas; Poppert, Holger; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Especially since the establishment of mechanical thrombectomy as part of standard stroke therapy, artificial thrombi have become important in the training of interventionalists as well as for the development and testing of devices. So far, these in vitro clots have lacked direct comparisons with ex vivo thrombi. We therefore compared the histologic appearance of dynamically produced clots with that of stroke thrombi acquired during mechanical recanalization. Thrombi of 145 consecutive patients with stroke with large-vessel occlusions were histologically compared with 10 artificial clots, dynamically created from human blood and pig's blood using a Chandler loop system. Quantified FP/RBC ratios (fibrin/platelets divided by red blood cell fraction) and white blood cell (WBC) fractions were identified and compared between artificial (human and pig) and ex vivo thrombi obtained from patients with various stroke causes. There were no significant differences in the analysis of FP/RBC ratios between artificial thrombi and ex vivo thrombi (P = 0.42) or in the more precise analyses considering etiologic subgroups. Distinct differences were observed for the WBC fraction, with lower values in artificial thrombi (median, 1.34%) than in ex vivo thrombi (median, 5%) (P < 0.001). The main clot components, FP and RBC, are presumably the most influential factors for clot stability and mechanical resistance. Similarities between artificially generated and ex vivo stroke clots (and when considering different stroke subgroups) support the usefulness of these artificial thrombi in the pre-evaluation of thrombus extraction devices and as appropriate training material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical lysis: dynamics revisited and advances in On-chip operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical lysis (EL) is the process of breaking the cell membrane to expose the internal contents under an applied high electric field. Lysis is an important phenomenon for cellular analysis, medical treatment, and biofouling control. This paper aims to review, summarize, and analyze recent advancements on EL. Major databases including PubMed, Ei Engineering Village, IEEE Xplore, and Scholars Portal were searched using relevant keywords. More than 50 articles published in English since 1997 are cited in this article. EL has several key advantages compared to other lysis techniques such as chemical, mechanical, sonication, or laser, including rapid speed of operation, ability to control, miniaturization, low cost, and low power requirement. A variety of cell types have been investigated for including protoplasts, E. coli, yeasts, blood cells, and cancer cells. EL has been developed and applied for decontamination, cytology, genetics, single-cell analysis, cancer treatment, and other applications. On-chip EL is a promising technology for multiplexed automated implementation of cell-sample preparation and processing with micro- or nanoliter reagents.

  3. 42 CFR 410.63 - Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors... Other Health Services § 410.63 Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions... under § 410.10, subject to the specified conditions: (a) Hepatitis B vaccine: Conditions. Effective...

  4. [Guidelines for certification of Activated clotting time (ACT) according to the EN ISO 22870 standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Dominique; Bauters, Anne; Le Querrec, Agnès; Bourdin, Carole; Voisin, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) must comply with regulatory requirements according to standard EN ISO 22870, which identify biologists as responsible for POCT. Activated clotting time (ACT) is mandatory to monitor on whole blood, anticoagulation achieved by unfractionated heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or cardiac catheterization. This test has no equivalent in the laboratory. With the aim to help the multidisciplinary groups for POCT supervision when they have to analyse the wish of medical departments to use ACT and to help the biologists to be in accordance with the standard, we present the guidelines of the GEHT (Groupe d'étude d'hémostase et thrombose) subcommittee "CEC et Biologie délocalisée" for the certification of ACT. These guidelines are based on the SFBC guidelines for the certification of POCT and on the analysis of the literature to ascertain the justification of clinical need and assess the analytical performance of main analyzers used in France, as well as on a survey conducted with French and Belgian biologists.

  5. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Two strains of fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium pinophilum ... for milk clotting enzymes by fermentation at acid pH on culture medium containing whey ..... Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4749.

  6. A mechanism of acquired resistance to complement-mediated lysis by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Kobeh, L; Cabrera, N; Pérez-Montfort, R

    1997-04-01

    Some Entamoeba histolytica strains resist complement-mediated lysis by serum. Susceptible and resistant strains activate the complement system equivalently, but resistant amebas evade killing by membrane attack complexes. Our objective was to determine the mechanism by which trophozoites of E. histolytica resist lysis by human serum. Amebas were made resistant to lysis by incubation with increasing concentrations of normal human serum. The possibility that resistant cells ingest membrane attack complexes was explored by subcellular fractionation of susceptible and resistant trophozoites treated with sublytic concentrations of human serum containing radiolabeled C9. In both cases, most of the label was in the fractions containing plasma membrane. The susceptible strain consistently showed more label associated with these fractions than the resistant strain. Thus, the possibility that the membrane attack complexes were released to the medium was explored. Both resistant and susceptible trophozoites release to the medium similar amounts of material excluded by Sepharose CL-2B in the presence or absence of normal human serum. Labeled C9 elutes together with the main bulk of proteins from the medium: this indicates that it is not in vesicles or high molecular weight aggregates. Coincubation of susceptible amebas with lysates of resistant trophozoites confers resistance to susceptible cells within 30 min. Resistance to lysis by serum can also be acquired by susceptible amebas after coincubation with lysates from human erythrocytes or after feeding them with whole human red blood cells. Resistant but not susceptible trophozoites show intense immunofluorescent staining on their surface with anti-human erythrocytic membrane antibody. These results suggest that amebas acquire resistance to lysis by serum by incorporating into their membranes complement regulatory proteins.

  7. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  8. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Weitz, Joshua S; Nelson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics

  9. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

    2010-10-04

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  10. Electrochemical lysis at the stage of endoresection for large posterior intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design the new combined technique of endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis at the tumor destruction stage for large posterior intraocular tumors.Methods: 3 patients (3 eyes with large choroidal melanomas t3N0M0 (tumor thickness — 8-10 mm, base diameter — 13-15 mm, juxtapapillary localization. Mean age was 55.4 years old. Endoresection with intraoperational intraocular electrochemical lysis of the tumor was performed. Electrochemical lysis was performed with use of the technical unit ECU 300 (Soering, Germany and the original method of combined intratumoral positioning of two platinum electrodes: anode and cathode.Results: the tumor was removal completely in all 3 cases. the anatomical retinal reattachment was reached in all patients. Sclera was safe in all 3 cases. Visual acuity was not changed (NLP. At the place of the removal tumor a surgical choroidal coloboma without pigmentation all over scleral bed and periphery was shown in all cases in distant postoperative period (from 1.5 to 3 years. No local recurrences or metastasis were revealed in all patients.Conclusion: Further investigations in clinical group are necessarily to determinate the real possibilities of the combined method and the indications for endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis for large intraocular tumors. 

  11. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs.

  12. Clotrimazole enhances lysis of human erythrocytes induced by t-BHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskaya, Irene L; Shcherbachenko, Irina M; Volkova, Rimma I; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I

    2009-08-14

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is an antifungal and antimalarial agent also effective as a Gardos channel inhibitor. In addition, CLT possesses antitumor properties. Recent data provide evidence that CLT forms a complex with heme (hemin), which produces a more potent lytic effect than heme alone. This study addressed the effect of CLT on the lysis of normal human erythrocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). For the first time, it was shown that 10 microM CLT significantly enhanced the lytic effect of t-BHP on erythrocytes in both Ca(2+)-containing and Ca(2+)-free media, suggesting that the effect is not related to Gardos channels. CLT did not affect the rate of free radical generation, the kinetics of GSH degradation, methemoglobin formation and TBARS generation; therefore, we concluded that CLT does not cause additional oxidative damage to erythrocytes treated with t-BHP. It is tempted to speculate that CLT enhances t-BHP-induced changes in erythrocyte volume and lysis largely by forming a complex with hemin released during hemoglobin oxidation in erythrocytes: the CLT-hemin complex destabilizes the cell membrane more potently than hemin alone. If so, the effect of CLT on cell membrane damage during free-radical oxidation may be used to increase the efficacy of antitumor therapy.

  13. Is higher body temperature beneficial in ischemic stroke patients with normal admission CT angiography of the cerebral arteries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvistad, Christopher Elnan; Khanevski, Andrej; Nacu, Aliona; Thomassen, Lars; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike; Naess, Halvor

    2014-01-01

    Low body temperature is considered beneficial in ischemic stroke due to neuroprotective mechanisms, yet some studies suggest that higher temperatures may improve clot lysis and outcomes in stroke patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The effect of increased body temperature in stroke patients treated with tPA and with normal computed tomography angiography (CTA) on admission is unknown. We hypothesized a beneficial effect of higher body temperature in the absence of visible clots on CTA, possibly due to enhanced lysis of small, peripheral clots. Patients with ischemic stroke admitted to our Stroke Unit between February 2006 and April 2013 were prospectively registered in a database (Bergen NORSTROKE Registry). Ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA with normal CTA of the cerebral arteries were included. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 1 week. An excellent outcome was defined as mRS=0, and a favorable outcome as mRS=0-1. A total of 172 patients were included, of which 48 (27.9%) had an admission body temperature ≥37.0°C, and 124 (72.1%) had a body temperature temperature ≥37.0°C was independently associated with excellent outcomes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-6.46; P=0.014) and favorable outcomes (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.13-4.98; P=0.015) when adjusted for confounders. We found an association between higher admission body temperature and improved outcome in tPA-treated stroke patients with normal admission CTA of the cerebral arteries. This may suggest a beneficial effect of higher body temperature on clot lysis in the absence of visible clots on CTA.

  14. Rare incidence of tumor lysis syndrome in metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sharonlin; Varma, Seema

    2018-03-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and sometimes lethal complication of cancer treatment that is comprised of a set of metabolic disturbances along with clinical manifestations. Initiating chemotherapy in bulky, rapidly proliferating tumors causes rapid cell turnover that in turn releases metabolites into circulation that give rise to metabolic derangements that can be dangerous. This syndrome is usually seen in high-grade hematological malignancies. Less commonly, tumor lysis syndrome can present in solid tumors and even rarely in genitourinary tumors. In this report, the authors describe a specific case of tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

  15. Utility of single-energy and dual-energy computed tomography in clot characterization: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Michalak, Gregory; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Dai, Daying; Gilvarry, Michael; Duffy, Sharon; Kallmes, David F; McCollough, Cynthia; Leng, Shuai

    2017-06-01

    Background and purpose Because computed tomography (CT) is the most commonly used imaging modality for the evaluation of acute ischemic stroke patients, developing CT-based techniques for improving clot characterization could prove useful. The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine which single-energy or dual-energy CT techniques provided optimum discrimination between red blood cell (RBC) and fibrin-rich clots. Materials and methods Seven clot types with varying fibrin and RBC densities were made (90% RBC, 99% RBC, 63% RBC, 36% RBC, 18% RBC and 0% RBC with high and low fibrin density) and their composition was verified histologically. Ten of each clot type were created and scanned with a second generation dual source scanner using three single (80 kV, 100 kV, 120 kV) and two dual-energy protocols (80/Sn 140 kV and 100/Sn 140 kV). A region of interest (ROI) was placed over each clot and mean attenuation was measured. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated at each energy level to determine the accuracy at differentiating RBC-rich clots from fibrin-rich clots. Results Clot attenuation increased with RBC content at all energy levels. Single-energy at 80 kV and 120 kV and dual-energy 80/Sn 140 kV protocols allowed for distinguishing between all clot types, with the exception of 36% RBC and 18% RBC. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the 80/Sn 140 kV dual-energy protocol had the highest area under the curve for distinguishing between fibrin-rich and RBC-rich clots (area under the curve 0.99). Conclusions Dual-energy CT with 80/Sn 140 kV had the highest accuracy for differentiating RBC-rich and fibrin-rich in-vitro thrombi. Further studies are needed to study the utility of non-contrast dual-energy CT in thrombus characterization in acute ischemic stroke.

  16. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  17. Effect of anticoagulant administration on blood clotting and some hormones related to rat-fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed using 30 mature male albino rats divided into 3 equal groups; control and two treated groups to assess the effect of anticoagulant (warfarin) administration on the level of some hormones related to fertility. The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally every other day with 1 ml (0.03 mg)and 2 ml (0.06 mg)warfarin/ 100 g body weight respectively where, two specimens were taken from each group after two and four weeks. Clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT), partial prothrombin time (PTT) platelets count, fasting blood sugar (F.B.S), calcium levels in addition to triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), insulin, corticosterone, and testosterone hormones were determined. The results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant increase in clotting time, prothrombin time , partial prothrombin time, platelets count and glucose level, while serum calcium level showed significant decrease. Intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant decrease of insulin and significant increase of corticosterone, T 3 showed significant decrease in high dose group while T 4 showed significant decrease in small dose group. The high dose was associated with the highest level of testosterone hormone. these results denoted that warfarin anticoagulant had no negative effect on gonadal sex hormone and hence on male fertility

  18. Phase transitions during compression and decompression of clots from platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Chernysh, Irina; Purohit, Prashant K; Weisel, John W

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots are required to stem bleeding and are subject to a variety of stresses, but they can also block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and ischemic strokes. We measured the compressive response of human platelet-poor plasma (PPP) clots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots and whole blood clots and correlated these measurements with confocal and scanning electron microscopy to track changes in clot structure. Stress-strain curves revealed four characteristic regions, for compression-decompression: (1) linear elastic region; (2) upper plateau or softening region; (3) non-linear elastic region or re-stretching of the network; (4) lower plateau in which dissociation of some newly made connections occurs. Our experiments revealed that compression proceeds by the passage of a phase boundary through the clot separating rarefied and densified phases. This observation motivates a model of fibrin mechanics based on the continuum theory of phase transitions, which accounts for the pre-stress caused by platelets, the adhesion of fibrin fibers in the densified phase, the compression of red blood cells (RBCs), and the pumping of liquids through the clot during compression/decompression. Our experiments and theory provide insights into the mechanical behavior of blood clots that could have implications clinically and in the design of fibrin-based biomaterials. The objective of this paper is to measure and mathematically model the compression behavior of various human blood clots. We show by a combination of confocal and scanning electron microscopy that compression proceeds by the passage of a front through the sample that separates a densified region of the clot from a rarefied region, and that the compression/decompression response is reversible with hysteresis. These observations form the basis of a model for the compression response of clots based on the continuum theory of phase transitions. Our studies may reveal how clot rheology under large compression in vivo due

  19. Aggregate Formation During the Viral Lysis of a Marine Diatom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamada

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that the viral lysis of microbes not only facilitates the conversion of particulate organic matter into dissolved organic matter, but also promotes the formation of organic aggregates, which enhance the export of organic carbon from the surface ocean to the deep sea. However, experimental data supporting this proposition are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the viral infection of marine diatoms enhances aggregate formation. We used a model system consisting of Chaetoceros tenuissimus, a bloom-forming diatom with an approximate cell size of 3–10 μm, and a DNA virus, CtenDNAV type II, which replicates in the nucleus of C. tenuissimus. The volume of large particles (50–400 μm in equivalent spherical diameters, determined from photographic images was measured over time (up to 15 days in the diatom-alone control and a virus-added diatom culture. We also determined the concentrations of Coomassie-stainable particles (CSP, proteinaceous particles and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP, acid-polysaccharide-rich particles with colorimetric methods. The total volume of large particles was significantly higher (5–59 fold in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control during the period in which the viral lysis of the diatoms proceeded. One class of large particles produced in the virus-added diatoms was flake-shaped. The flakes were tightly packed and dense, and sank rapidly, possibly playing an important role in the vertical delivery of materials from the surface to the deep sea. The bulk CSP concentrations tended to be higher in the virus-added diatoms than in the diatom-alone control, whereas the reverse was true for the TEP. These results suggest that proteinaceous polymers are involved in aggregate formation. Our data support the emerging notion that the viral lysis of microbes facilitates aggregate formation and the export of organic carbon in the ocean.

  20. 7 CFR 58.436 - Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rennet, pepsin, other milk clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. 58.436 Section 58.436 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... clotting enzymes and flavor enzymes. Enzyme preparations used in the manufacture of cheese shall be safe...

  1. Incorporation of vitronectin into fibrin clots. Evidence for a binding interaction between vitronectin and gamma A/gamma' fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podor, Thomas J; Campbell, Stephanie; Chindemi, Paul; Foulon, Denise M; Farrell, David H; Walton, Philip D; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2002-03-01

    Vitronectin is an abundant plasma protein that regulates coagulation, fibrinolysis, complement activation, and cell adhesion. Recently, we demonstrated that plasma vitronectin inhibits fibrinolysis by mediating the interaction of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor with fibrin (Podor, T. J., Peterson, C. B., Lawrence, D. A., Stefansson, S., Shaughnessy, S. G., Foulon, D. M., Butcher, M., and Weitz, J. I. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19788-19794). The current studies were undertaken to further examine the interactions between vitronectin and fibrin(ogen). Comparison of vitronectin levels in plasma with those in serum indicates that approximately 20% of plasma vitronectin is incorporated into the clot. When the time course of biotinylated-vitronectin incorporation into clots formed from (125)I-fibrinogen is monitored, vitronectin incorporation into the clot parallels that of fibrinogen in the absence or presence of activated factor XIII. Vitronectin binds specifically to fibrin matrices with an estimated K(d) of approximately 0.6 microm. Additional vitronectin subunits are assembled on fibrin-bound vitronectin multimers through self-association. Confocal microscopy of fibrin clots reveals the globular vitronectin aggregates anchored at intervals along the fibrin fibrils. This periodicity raised the possibility that vitronectin interacts with the gamma A/gamma' variant of fibrin(ogen) that represents about 10% of total fibrinogen. In support of this concept, the vitronectin which contaminates fibrinogen preparations co-purifies with the gamma A/gamma' fibrinogen fraction, and clots formed from gamma A/gamma' fibrinogen preferentially bind vitronectin. These studies reveal that vitronectin associates with fibrin during coagulation, and may thereby modulate hemostasis and inflammation.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC "SENTINEL CLOT SIGN" TO IDENTIFY BLEEDING ABDOMINAL ORGANS IN DOGS WITH HEMOABDOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; Auriemma, Edoardo; Morabito, Simona; Ferri, Filippo; Zini, Eric; Piola, Valentina; Pey, Pascaline; Rossi, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The CT "sentinel clot sign" has been defined as the highest attenuation hematoma adjacent to a bleeding organ in humans with hemoabdomen. The aims of this retrospective descriptive multicenter study were to describe CT findings in a sample of dogs with surgically or necropsy confirmed intra-abdominal bleeding and determine prevalence of the "sentinel clot sign" adjacent to the location of bleeding. Medical records between 2012 and 2014 were searched for dogs with hemoabdomen and in which the origin of the bleeding was confirmed either with surgery or necropsy. Retrieved CT images were reviewed for the presence and localization of the "sentinel clot sign," HU measurements of the "sentinel clot sign" and hemoabdomen, and presence of extravasation of contrast media within the abdominal cavity. Nineteen dogs were included. Three dogs were excluded due to the low amount of blood that did not allow the identification of a "sentinel clot sign." A "sentinel clot sign" was detected in the proximity of the confirmed bleeding organ in 14/16 (88%) of the patients. The mean HU of the "sentinel clot sign" was 56 (range: 43-70) while that of the hemoabdomen was 34 (range: 20-45). Active hemorrhage was identified as extravasation of contrast medium within the peritoneal cavity from the bleeding organ in three dogs. In conclusion, the CT "sentinel clot sign" may be helpful for identifying the source of bleeding in dogs with hemoabdomen. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Rapid kinetics of lysis in human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: some implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.T.; Babbitt, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    The entire lytic process of natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity against sensitive target cells can occur rapidly, within minutes. This was demonstrated by 51 chromium release and in single-cell assays. At the cellular level, most of the target cell lysis occurred within 15-30 min after binding to effector cells. The enriched natural killer cell subpopulation of lymphocytes obtained by Percoll density gradient centrifugation (containing greater than 70% large granular lymphocytes (LGL)) was the most rapidly lytic population by 51 chromium release. However, in the single-cell assay, the rate of lysis of bound target cells was quite similar for the LGL-enriched effector subpopulation and the higher density subpopulation of effector cells recognized previously. Both the light and dense effector cells contained similar numbers of target binding cells. Therefore, that the light subpopulation effected lysis more rapidly and to a greater extent than the dense subpopulation suggested that the low-density effector cells probably recycled more rapidly than those of higher density. This was corroborated by the finding that when conjugates were formed at 29 degrees C for the single-cell assay, a significant number of dead unconjugated targets could be observed only on the slides made with the LGL-enriched effector cells but not on those made with dense effector cell. Lysis continued to increase in the chromium-release assay probably because of recycling, recruitment, and/or heterogeneity of the effector cells, and/or because of heterogeneity or delayed death of the target cells

  4. Platelet Counts in Insoluble Platelet-Rich Fibrin Clots: A Direct Method for Accurate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kitamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF clots have been used in regenerative dentistry most often, with the assumption that growth factor levels are concentrated in proportion to the platelet concentration. Platelet counts in PRF are generally determined indirectly by platelet counting in other liquid fractions. This study shows a method for direct estimation of platelet counts in PRF. To validate this method by determination of the recovery rate, whole-blood samples were obtained with an anticoagulant from healthy donors, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP fractions were clotted with CaCl2 by centrifugation and digested with tissue-plasminogen activator. Platelet counts were estimated before clotting and after digestion using an automatic hemocytometer. The method was then tested on PRF clots. The quality of platelets was examined by scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry. In PRP-derived fibrin matrices, the recovery rate of platelets and white blood cells was 91.6 and 74.6%, respectively, after 24 h of digestion. In PRF clots associated with small and large red thrombi, platelet counts were 92.6 and 67.2% of the respective total platelet counts. These findings suggest that our direct method is sufficient for estimating the number of platelets trapped in an insoluble fibrin matrix and for determining that platelets are distributed in PRF clots and red thrombi roughly in proportion to their individual volumes. Therefore, we propose this direct digestion method for more accurate estimation of platelet counts in most types of platelet-enriched fibrin matrix.

  5. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes; Estudio del rendimiento en fagos para los procesos de lisis bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidania Munoz, R de; Garces, F; Davila, C A

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of {lambda}vir and{lambda} clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C{sub 6}00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and the bacterial burst side, we have found that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Pre-analytical variation in glucose concentration due to atmospheric temperature and clot in blood specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Masud, K.; Khan, J.A.; Bhatti, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of temperature and contact of clot with serum on laboratory results of glucose concentration in blood. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: December 2014 to August 2015 at the laboratory of Shoaib Hospital, Fateh Jang, Attock Pakistan. Material and Methods: Samples were collected for estimation of blood glucose (Random) concentration from patients reporting to the hospital. Blood specimens (n=94) of such volunteers were analyzed for glucose level. Each sample was put up in five tubes. When the blood clotted the serum from tube-1 was analyzed for glucose level within 30 minutes. In tube-2 and tube-3 serum was kept for 24 hours at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. In tube-4 and tube-5 serum was not separated from clot and kept at room temperature and refrigerator temperature respectively before glucose estimation. The value of tube 1 was taken as reference value for comparison with other parts of the specimen. The equipment used for blood glucose level estimation was semi auto chemistry analyzer (Rayto, China). The kit used for analysis was Glucose - Liquizyme (Germany). Results: The difference between the mean reference value (tube-1) and refrigerated serum without clot (tube-3) was 4.63 mg/100 ml while that of unrefrigerated portion (tube-2) had a difference of 10.68 mg/100 ml. The mean of unrefrigerated (tube-4) and refrigerated (tube-5) portions of serum kept with the clot had difference of 42.05 mg/100 ml and 25.84 mg/100 ml respectively. The fall in the blood glucose level in all (n=94) the samples in the tube number 3 (serum separated and kept at refrigerated temperature) was 4.63 mg/100 ml +- 3.68 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 0 to 20 mg/100 ml whereas fall was maximum in the tube number 4 (serum with clotted blood and kept at room temperature) was 42.04 mg/100 ml +- 10.61 (Mean +- SD) and it ranged from 13 to 82 mg/100 ml. The sample in

  7. Fibrin Clots Are Equilibrium Polymers That Can Be Remodeled Without Proteolytic Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Chernysh, Irina N.; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Purohit, Prashant K.; Weisel, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Fibrin polymerization is a necessary part of hemostasis but clots can obstruct blood vessels and cause heart attacks and strokes. The polymerization reactions are specific and controlled, involving strong knob-into-hole interactions to convert soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. It has long been assumed that clots and thrombi are stable structures until proteolytic digestion. On the contrary, using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we demonstrate here that the...

  8. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torpey, D.J. III

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with /sup 51/Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant.

  9. Virus-specific HLA-restricted lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected human monocytes and macrophages mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torpey, D.J. III.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly-isolated peripheral blood human monocytes and 5 day in vitro cultured macrophages were infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), labeled with 51 Cr, and used as target cells in a 12-14 hour cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. Mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) from HSV-1 non-immune individuals, whether unstimulated or stimulated with HSV-1 antigen, did not mediate significant lysis of either target cell. HSV-immune MNL, both freshly-isolated and cultured for 5 days without antigen, demonstrated only low levels of natural killer (NK) cell-mediate lysis. MNL from HSV-immune individuals incubated for 5 days in vitro with HSV-1 antigen mediated significant virus-specific lysis of both target cells. Mean virus-specific lysis of autologous monocytes was 8.5(/+-/2.0)% compared to a three-fold greater virus-specific lysis of autologous macrophages. Greater than 70% of this lytic activity was mediated by Leu-11-negative, T3-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Allogeneic target cells lacking a common HLA determinant were not significantly lysed while T8-positive CTL mediated infrequent lysis of target cells sharing a common HLA-A and/or HLA-B determinant. T4-positive lymphocytes were demonstrated to be the predominant cell mediating lysis of autologous target cells and allogeneic target cells sharing both HLA-A and/or HLA-B plus HLA-DR determinants with the CTL; the T4-positive cell was the sole CTL mediator of lysis of allogeneic target cells having a common HLA-DR determinant

  10. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Biochem. Soc. Trans. 10:285. Hashem AM (2000). Purification and properities of a milk-clotting enzyme produced by Penicillium oxalicum. J. Bioresour. Technol. 75:219-222. Laemmli UK (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 680-685.

  11. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Lee, Kunwoo; Murthy, Niren; Pisano, Albert P

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  12. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-11-24

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on the mechanism of formic acid sono-lysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chave, T.; Nikitenko, S.I.; Navarro, N.M.; Pochon, P.; Bisel, I.

    2011-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of formic acid sono-chemical degradation were studied at ultrasonic frequencies of 20, 200, and 607 kHz under argon atmosphere. Total yield of HCOOH sono-chemical degradation increases approximately 6-8-fold when the frequency increased from 20 to 200 or to 607 kHz. At low ultrasonic frequencies, HCOOH degradation has been attributed to oxidation with OH . radicals from water sono-lysis and to the HCOOH decarboxylation occurring at the cavitation bubble-liquid interface. With high-frequency ultrasound, the sono-chemical reaction is also influenced by HCOOH dehydration. Whatever the ultrasonic frequency, the sono-lysis of HCOOH yielded H 2 and CO 2 in the gas phase as well as trace, amounts of oxalic acid and formaldehyde in the liquid phase. However, CO and CH 4 formations were only detected under high frequency ultrasound. The most striking difference between low frequency and high frequency ultrasound is that the sono-lysis of HCOOH at high ultrasonic frequencies initiates Fischer-Tropsch hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. (authors)

  14. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two strains of fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium pinophilum which showed good enzymatic activity on casein, 1933.33U and 1822, 21U, respectively. The search for milk clotting enzymes by fermentation at acid pH on culture medium containing whey and, after purification by molecular ...

  15. Comparison of standard fibrinogen measurement methods with fibrin clot firmness assessed by thromboelastometry in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucelic, Dragica; Jesic, Rada; Jovicic, Snezana; Zivotic, Maja; Grubor, Nikica; Trajkovic, Goran; Canic, Ivana; Elezovic, Ivo; Antovic, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    The Clauss fibrinogen method and thrombin clotting time (TCT) are still routinely used in patients with cirrhosis to define fibrinogen concentration and clotting potential. The thromboelastometric functional fibrinogen FIBTEM assay evaluates the strength of fibrin-based clots in whole blood, providing information on both quantitative deficit and fibrin polymerization disorders. To compare these three methods of assessing fibrinogen in patients with cirrhosis of different aetiologies, characterized by impairment in fibrinogen concentration as well as functional aberrance. Sixty patients with alcoholic and 24 patients with cholestatic cirrhosis were included (Child-Pugh score (CPs)A, n=24; B, n=32; C, n=28). All parameters were compared with those from a control group. Maximum clot firmness (MCF) in the FIBTEM test was assessed in regard to its relevance in detection of qualitative fibrinogen disorders in comparison with results obtained by standard measurement methods, i.e. the Clauss fibrinogen method and TCT. With increased cirrhosis severity, fibrinogen and FIBTEM-MCF levels significantly declined (p=0.002), while TCT was significantly prolonged (p=0.002). In all CPs groups, fibrinogen strongly correlated with FIBTEM-MCF (r=0.77, r=0.72, r=0.74; pmeasurement in cirrhotic patients, especially in evaluating fibrin polymerization disorders in these patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of this assay in predicting bleeding complications in cirrhotic patients as well as monitoring replacement treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Superiority of SDS lysis over saponin lysis for direct bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottle by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Garnaud, Cécile; Raykova, Mariya; Bailly, Sébastien; Bidart, Marie; Maubon, Danièle

    2017-05-01

    Fast species diagnosis has an important health care impact, as rapid and specific antibacterial therapy is of clear benefit for patient's outcome. Here, a new protocol for species identification directly from positive blood cultures is proposed. Four in-house protocols for bacterial identification by MS directly from clinical positive blood cultures evaluating two lytic agents, SDS and saponin, and two protein extraction schemes, fast (FP) and long (LP) are compared. One hundred and sixty-eight identification tests are carried out on 42 strains. Overall, there are correct identifications to the species level in 90% samples for the SDS-LP, 60% for the SDS-FP, 48% for the saponin LP, and 43% for the saponin FP. Adapted scores allowed 92, 86, 72, and 53% identification for SDS-LP, SDS-FP, saponin LP, and saponin FP, respectively. Saponin lysis is associated with a significantly lower score compared to SDS (0.87 [0.83-0.92], p-value saponin lysis and the application of this rapid and cost-effective protocol in daily routine for microbiological agents implicated in septicemia. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Examining platelet-fibrin interactions during traumatic shock in a swine model using platelet contractile force and clot elastic modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan J; Martin, Erika J; Brophy, Donald F; Ward, Kevin R

    2011-07-01

    A significant proportion of severely injured patients develop early coagulopathy, characterized by abnormal clot formation, which impairs resuscitation and increases mortality. We have previously demonstrated an isolated decrease in clot strength by thrombelastography in a swine model of nonresuscitated traumatic shock. In order to more closely examine platelet-fibrin interactions in this setting, we define the observed decrease in clot strength in terms of platelet-induced clot contraction and clot elastic modulus using the Hemostasis Analysis System (HAS) (Hemodyne Inc., Richmond, Virginia, USA). Whole blood was sampled for HAS measurements, metabolic measurements, cell counts, and fibrinogen concentration at baseline prior to injury and again at a predetermined level of traumatic shock defined by oxygen debt. Male swine (N=17) received femur fracture and controlled arterial hemorrhage to achieve an oxygen debt of 80 ml/kg. Platelet counts were unchanged, but fibrinogen concentration was reduced significantly during shock (167.6 vs. 66.7 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Platelet contractile force generated during clot formation did not change during shock (11.7 vs. 10.4 kdynes, P=0.41), but clot elastic modulus was dynamically altered, resulting in a lower final value (22.9 vs. 17.3 kdynes/cm, Pshock, platelet function was preserved, whereas terminal clot elastic modulus was reduced during shock in a manner most consistent with early changes in the mechanical properties of the developing fibrin fiber network.

  18. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Chavarria, Krystle L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tom, Lauren M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  19. High-Quality and -Quantity DNA Extraction from Frozen Archival Blood Clots for Genotyping of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Steffen; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Andersen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    the efficiency of commercial purification kits for extracting DNA from long-term frozen clotted blood. Methods: Serum tubes with clotted blood were stored at −20°C for 1 to 2.5 years before DNA extraction. DNA was extracted from 10 blood clot samples using PureGene (Qiagen) with and without glycogen, the QIAamp...... with a median of 0.65 μg (range 0.5–2.6 μg) pr 300 μL total blood. Conclusion: The yield obtained by the different commercial kits varied considerably. Our work demonstrates that high-quality and -quantity DNA can be extracted with the Maxwell 16 Blood purification kit (Promega) from cryopreserved blood clots...

  20. Makers of clotting medicine not entitled to liability shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-23

    The Indiana Court of Appeals, Second District, reversed a ruling that protected the manufacturer of a hemophilia blood clotting medicine from legal liability. A boy with hemophilia, known in court records as J.K.B. Jr., contracted HIV from the blood clotting medicine, Factor VIII. His parents sued four pharmaceutical companies, Armour Pharmaceutical Company, Cutter Laboratories, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, and Alpha Therapeutics Corporation, alleging that their products caused J.K.B. Jr.'s death. The companies convinced a Superior Court judge that they were protected under the Indiana Blood Shield Statute. The appeals court ruled that pharmaceutical companies are not included in the Blood Shield Statute. The statute was originally established to protect state-approved blood banks, hospitals, and blood storage facilities because they provide a vital public service.

  1. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed.

  2. Phytochemical Screening and In vitro Evaluation of Pharmacological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    model was used to assess the clot lysis effect of the extracts with streptokinase as positive control. Antioxidant activity ... The local names ... plant extracts provide a valid measure of antibiotic ... capacity, test for total phenolic content, etc are.

  3. Cloning and expression of clt genes encoding milk-clotting proteases from Myxococcus xanthus 422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Sieiro, C; Villa, T G

    2004-10-01

    The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems.

  4. A constitutive model for developing blood clots with various compositions and their nonlinear viscoelastic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kempen, T. H. S.; Donders, W. P.; van de Vosse, F. N.; Peters, G. W. M.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties determine to a large extent the functioning of a blood clot. These properties depend on the composition of the clot and have been related to many diseases. However, the various involved components and their complex interactions make it difficult at this stage to fully

  5. A self-lysis pathway that enhances the virulence of a pathogenic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kirsty A; Dolben, Emily L; LeRoux, Michele; Kambara, Tracy K; Ramsey, Kathryn M; Kirkpatrick, Robin L; Mougous, Joseph D; Hogan, Deborah A; Dove, Simon L

    2015-07-07

    In mammalian cells, programmed cell death (PCD) plays important roles in development, in the removal of damaged cells, and in fighting bacterial infections. Although widespread among multicellular organisms, there are relatively few documented instances of PCD in bacteria. Here we describe a potential PCD pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that enhances the ability of the bacterium to cause disease in a lung infection model. Activation of the system can occur in a subset of cells in response to DNA damage through cleavage of an essential transcription regulator we call AlpR. Cleavage of AlpR triggers a cell lysis program through de-repression of the alpA gene, which encodes a positive regulator that activates expression of the alpBCDE lysis cassette. Although this is lethal to the individual cell in which it occurs, we find it benefits the population as a whole during infection of a mammalian host. Thus, host and pathogen each may use PCD as a survival-promoting strategy. We suggest that activation of the Alp cell lysis pathway is a disease-enhancing response to bacterial DNA damage inflicted by the host immune system.

  6. Statistically defining optimal conditions of coagulation time of skim milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celebi, M.; Ozdemir, Z.O.; Eroglu, E.; Guney, I

    2014-01-01

    Milk consist huge amount of largely water and different proteins. Kappa-kazein of these milk proteins can be coagulated by Mucor miehei rennet enzyme, is an aspartic protease which cleavege 105 (phenly alanine)-106 (methionine) peptide bond. It is commonly used clotting milk proteins for cheese production in dairy industry. The aim of this study to measure milk clotting times of skim milk by using Mucor Miehei rennet and determination of optimal conditions of milk clotting time by mathematical modelling. In this research, milk clotting times of skim milk were measured at different pHs (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0) and temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 degree C). It was used statistical approach for defining best pH and temperature for milk clotting time of skim milk. Milk clotting activity was increase at acidic pHs and high temperatures. (author)

  7. Relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: assessment with breath-hold SPECT-CT pulmonary angiography fusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-09-01

    The relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was comprehensively assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion SPECT-computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) fusion images. Subjects were 34 acute PTE patients, who had successfully performed DIBrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT and a respiratory tracking system. Automated DIBrH SPECT-CTPA fusion images were used to assess the relation between lung perfusion defects and intravascular clots detected by CTPA. DIBrH SPECT visualized 175 lobar/segmental or subsegmental defects in 34 patients, and CTPA visualized 61 intravascular clots at variable locations in 30 (88%) patients, but no clots in four (12%) patients. In 30 patients with clots, the fusion images confirmed that 69 (41%) perfusion defects (20 segmental, 45 subsegmental and 4 lobar defects) of total 166 defects were located in lung territories without clots, although the remaining 97 (58%) defects were located in lung territories with clots. Perfusion defect was absent in lung territories with clots (one lobar branch and three segmental branches) in four (12%) of these patients. In four patients without clots, nine perfusion defects including four segmental ones were present. Because of unexpected dissociation between intravascular clots and lung perfusion defects, the present fusion images will be a useful adjunct to CTPA in the diagnosis of acute PTE.

  8. Investigation of the effect of kaolin and tissue factor-activated citrated whole blood, on clot forming variables, as evaluated by thromboelastograph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Andersen, S.

    2008-01-01

    ), and maximum clot strength (amplitude [MA]) were evaluated, together with day-to-day variation, the coefficient of variance (CV%), and the effect of citrate storage time. RESULTS: Clot formation variables were equally affected by TF 1:17,000 and kaolin activation, whereas R was significantly longer when TF 1......:42,500 was used. The CV for the different variables varied from 3 to 13 percent with no significant differences between assays. Storage of citrated WB significantly affected the TEG variables in a hypercoagulable direction. Only the R, however, was significantly affected (12%) when samples rested for 0 and 30...... minutes were evaluated with kaolin as the activator. CONCLUSION: The TEG assays evaluated were reproducible and present with an acceptable CV% for routine clinical practice. Kaolin and TF 1:17,000 equally affected the clot formation variables. Storage of WB for up to 30 minutes in citrate did not, except...

  9. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed. (author)

  10. Inhibition of pneumococcal autolysis in lysis-centrifugation blood culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, O P

    1986-01-01

    The recovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture has been low in many studies. The poor survival of pneumococci was not due to toxicity of the Isolator medium but to autolysis before plating. This autolysis was completely inhibited by adding 10 mM phosphorylcholine to the Isolator medium.

  11. Monitoring of unfractionated heparin with rotational thrombelastometry using the prothrombinase-induced clotting time reagent (PiCT®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, E; Jilch, S; Hacker, S; Schober, A; Kozek-Langenecker, S

    2012-12-24

    To achieve sufficient and safe anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) a close and reliable drug monitoring is necessary. In general, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is used for this purpose. In acute phase response, however, the APTT test procedure might be unreliable e.g. with false low results in the presence of elevated factor VIII. In this so called heparin resistance, measurement of anti-Xa activity is recommended over APTT to avoid potentially harmful dose escalation. A combination of anti-Xa measurement and global hemostatic testing with ROTEM® employing the anti-Xa sensitive PiCT® reagent showed high correlation with enoxaparin levels. This test modification could also be suitable for monitoring UFH. Aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between PiCT®-ROTEM® and levels of UFH. In this in-vitro study blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with UFH and subjected to different ROTEM® tests. There was a linear correlation between UFH level and clotting time (CT) in the PiCT®-ROTEM® test with an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.92. Additional endpoints showed similar results (PiCT®-ROTEM® MaxVel r = -0.85 and PiCT®-ROTEM® t_MaxVel r = 0.88). As a point-of-care applicable tool ROTEM® is immediately at hand. If further clinical studies confirm sensitivity in heparin resistance, PiCT®-ROTEM® could permit rapid UFH dose adjustments especially required in critical illness with acute phase response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Building and validation of a prognostic model for predicting extracorporeal circuit clotting in patients with continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia; Liang, Xinling; Song, Li; Huang, Huigen; Wang, Jing; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhang, Li; Quan, Zilin; Shi, Wei

    2014-04-01

    To develop a predictive model for circuit clotting in patients with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A total of 425 cases were selected. 302 cases were used to develop a predictive model of extracorporeal circuit life span during CRRT without citrate anticoagulation in 24 h, and 123 cases were used to validate the model. The prediction formula was developed using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis, from which a risk score was assigned. The mean survival time of the circuit was 15.0 ± 1.3 h, and the rate of circuit clotting was 66.6 % during 24 h of CRRT. Five significant variables were assigned a predicting score according to the regression coefficient: insufficient blood flow, no anticoagulation, hematocrit ≥0.37, lactic acid of arterial blood gas analysis ≤3 mmol/L and APTT R (2) = 0.232; P = 0.301). A risk score that includes the five above-mentioned variables can be used to predict the likelihood of extracorporeal circuit clotting in patients undergoing CRRT.

  13. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  14. Platelet factor XIII increases the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by accelerating the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin to fibrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Matsueda, G. R.; Haber, E.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet clots resist fibrinolysis by plasminogen activators. We hypothesized that platelet factor XIII may enhance the fibrinolytic resistance of platelet-rich clots by catalyzing the crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) to fibrin. Analysis of plasma clot structure by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting revealed accelerated alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinking in platelet-rich compared with platelet-depleted plasma clots. A similar study of clots formed with purified fibrinogen (depleted of factor XIII activity), isolated platelets, and specific factor XIII inhibitors indicated that this accelerated crosslinking was due to the catalytic activity of platelet factor XIII. Moreover, when washed platelets were aggregated by thrombin, there was evidence of platelet factor XIII-mediated crosslinking between platelet alpha 2AP and platelet fibrin(ogen). Specific inhibition (by a monoclonal antibody) of the alpha 2AP associated with washed platelet aggregates accelerated the fibrinolysis of the platelet aggregate. Thus in platelet-rich plasma clots, and in thrombin-induced platelet aggregates, platelet factor XIII actively formed alpha 2AP-fibrin crosslinks, which appeared to enhance the resistance of platelet-rich clots to fibrinolysis.

  15. In vitro and in vivo characterisation of the profibrinolytic effect of an inhibitory anti-rat TAFI nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Maarten L V; Zatloukalova, Monika; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Muyldermans, Serge; Gils, Ann; Declerck, Paul J

    2014-05-05

    One of the main disadvantages of current t-PA thrombolytic treatment is the increased bleeding risk. Upon activation, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a very powerful antifibrinolytic enzyme. Therefore, co-administration of a TAFI inhibitor during thrombolysis could reduce the required t-PA dose without compromising the thrombolytic efficacy. In this study we generated and characterised a nanobody that is inhibitory towards rat TAFI and evaluated its profibrinolytic property in vitro and in vivo. Nanobody VHH-rTAFI-i81 inhibits (at a 16-fold molar ratio nanobody over TAFI) the thrombin/thrombomodulin (T/TM)-mediated activation of rat TAFI (rTAFI) by 83 ± 1.8% with an IC50 of 0.46 (molar ratio nanobody over TAFI). The affinity (KA) of VHH-rTAFI-i81 for rTAFI, as determined by surface plasmon resonance (Biacore®), is 2.5 ± 0.2 x 10(10) M(-1) and illustrates a very strong binding. In an in vitro clot lysis assay, administration of VHH-rTAFI-i81 strongly enhances the degree of lysis and reduces time to reach full lysis of t-PA-mediated clot lysis. Epitope mapping discloses that Lys392 is of primary importance for the nanobody/rTAFI interaction besides minor contributions of Tyr175 and Glu183. In vivo application of VHH-rTAFI-i81 in a tissue factor-induced mouse thromboembolism model significantly decreases fibrin deposition in the lungs in the absence of exogenous administered t-PA. Nanobody VHH-rTAFI-i81 is a very potent inhibitor of T/TM-mediated TAFI activation. Co-administration of this nanobody and t-PA enhances the fibrinolytic efficacy. In an in vivo mouse thromboembolism model, VHH-rTAFI-i81 reduces fibrin deposition in the lungs.

  16. A case of cetuximab-related tumour lysis syndrome in metastatic rectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Muhammad; Kwong, Whye Yan; Cantwell, Brian; Walker, Frank

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in November 2006. The computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whole-body positron emission tomography–CT (PET–CT) scan showed the presence of multiple liver metastases which were confined to its right lobe. He had the first session of a combined therapy with cetuximab and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in March 2009; however, soon afterwards, he presented with the symptoms, signs and biochemistry suggestive of tumour lysis syndrome. Our unusual case highlights that tumour lysis syndrome can also develop in ‘low risk’ category tumours, and that clinicians should be vigilant in identifying at-risk patients. PMID:28657052

  17. Qualification of a select one-stage activated partial thromboplastin time-based clotting assay and two chromogenic assays for the post-administration monitoring of nonacog beta pegol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiefenbacher, S; Bohra, R; Amiral, J; Bowyer, A; Kitchen, S; Lochu, A; Rosén, S; Ezban, M

    2017-10-01

    Essentials Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is an extended half-life, recombinant human factor IX (FIX). One-stage clotting (OSC) and chromogenic FIX activity assays were assessed for N9-GP recovery. OSC STA ® -Cephascreen ® , ROX FIX and BIOPHEN FIX chromogenic assays were qualified for N9-GP. Other extended half-life factor products should be assessed in a similar way prior to approval. Background Nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP) is an extended half-life, glycoPEGylated recombinant human factor IX that is under development for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding episodes in hemophilia B patients. Considerable reagent-dependent variability has been observed when one-stage clotting assays are used to measure the recovery of recombinant FIX products, including N9-GP. Objective To qualify select one-stage clotting and chromogenic FIX activity assays for measuring N9-GP recovery. Methods The accuracy and precision of the one-stage clotting assay (with the STA-Cephascreen activated partial thromboplastin [APTT] reagent) and the ROX Factor IX and BIOPHEN Factor IX chromogenic assays for measuring N9-GP recovery were assessed in N9-GP-spiked hemophilia B plasma samples in a systematic manner at three independent sites, with manufacturer-recommended protocols and/or site-specific assay setups, including different instruments. Results For each of the three FIX activity assays qualified on five different reagent-instrument systems, acceptable intra-assay and interassay accuracy and precision, dilution integrity, reagent robustness and freeze-thaw and short-term sample stabilities were demonstrated. The STA-Cephascreen assay showed a limited reportable range at one of the three qualification sites, and the BIOPHEN Factor IX assay showed suspect low-end sensitivity at one of the three qualification sites. An individual laboratory would account for these limitations by adjusting the assay's reportable range; thus, these findings are not considered to impact the respective

  18. Design and Modelling of a Microfluidic Electro-Lysis Device with Controlling Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, A.; Chen, C. P.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L. A.; Steele, A.; Flores, G.

    2006-04-01

    Many Lab-on-Chip applications require sample pre-treatment systems. Using electric fields to perform cell lysis in bio-MEMS systems has provided a powerful tool which can be integrated into Lab-on-a- Chip platforms. The major design considerations for electro-lysis devices include optimal geometry and placement of micro-electrodes, cell concentration, flow rates, optimal electric field (e.g. pulsed DC vs. AC), etc. To avoid electrolysis of the flowing solution at the exposed electrode surfaces, magnitudes and the applied voltages and duration of the DC pulse, or the AC frequency of the AC, have to be optimized for a given configuration. Using simulation tools for calculation of electric fields has proved very useful, for exploring alternative configurations and operating conditions for achieving electro cell-lysis. To alleviate the problem associated with low electric fields within the microfluidics channel and the high voltage demand on the contact electrode strips, two ''control plates'' are added to the microfluidics configuration. The principle of placing the two controlling plate-electrodes is based on the electric fields generated by a combined insulator/dielectric (glass/water) media. Surface charges are established at the insulator/dielectric interface. This paper discusses the effects of this interface charge on the modification of the electric field of the flowing liquid/cell solution.

  19. Lysis of fresh human solid tumors by autologous lymphocytes activated in vitro with lectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumder, A.; Grimm, E.A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), obtained from patients with a variety of cancers, were incubated in vitro with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The lectin-activated PBL of nine patients were capable of lysing fresh autologous tumor during a 4-hr 51Cr release assay. Multiple metastases from the same patient were equivalently lysed by these activated autologous PBL. No lysis of fresh PBL or lectin-induced lymphoblast cell targets was seen, although tumor, PBL, and lymphoblast cells were shown to be equally lysable using allosensitized cells. The activated cells could be expanded without loss of cytotoxicity in crude or lectin-free T-cell growth factors. The generation of cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor was dependent on the presence of adherent cells, although the lytic cell itself was not adherent. Proliferation was not involved in the induction of lytic cells since equal lysis was induced in irradiated and nonirradiated lymphocytes. Lectin was not required in the lytic assay, and the addition of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside to concanavalin A-activated lymphoid cells did not increase the lysis of fresh tumor cells. Activation by lectin for 3 days appears to be an efficient and convenient method for generating human cells lytic to fresh autologous tumor. These lytic cells may be of value for studies of the cell-mediated lysis of human tumor and possibly for tumor immunotherapy as well

  20. Síndrome de lise tumoral: uma revisão abrangente da literatura Acute tumor lysis syndrome: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Darmon

    2008-09-01

    égias baseadas no risco dos pacientes são necessários para limitar a alta morbidade e mortalidade desta complicação.Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by the massive destruction of malignant cells and the release in the extra-cellular space of their content. While Tumor lysis syndrome may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms with development of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypocalcaemia. These biological manifestations may lead to clinical manifestations including, acute kidney injury, seizure, or sudden death that require intensive care. Since clinical tumor lysis syndrome is associated with a poor prognosis both prevention of tumor lysis syndrome and prevention of clinical consequences of tumor lysis syndrome are mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms, biological and clinical manifestations of tumor Lysis syndrome, and to provide upto-date guidelines to ensure prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. Review of selected studies on tumor lysis syndrome published at the PubMed database www.pubmed.gov during the last 20 years. Additional references were retrieved from the studies initially selected. Tumor lysis syndrome is a frequent and life-threatening complication of the newly diagnosed malignancies. Preventive measures, including hydration, uricolytic agents, eviction of factors predisposing to acute kidney injury and, in the more severe patients, on prophylactic renal replacement therapy, are required to prevent or limit clinical consequences of Tumor lysis syndrome. However optimal timing and modalities of prevention remains unknown and may be modified by the changing spectrum of patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Development and validation of risk based strategies is required to limit the high morbidity and mortality of this complication.

  1. Normal human serum (HS) prevents oxidant-induced lysis of cultured endothelial cells (ECs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, K.S.; Harlan, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Most studies demonstrating oxidant lysis of cultured ECs are performed in serum-free media or media containing low concentrations of bovine serum. The authors found that HS protects human and bovine ECs from lysis caused by reagent H 2 O 2 or glucose/glucose oxidase (GO)-generated H 2 O 2 . EC injury was assessed by 51 Cr release, cell detachment, or trypan blue dye exclusion. Protective HS activity was dose-dependent with concentrations greater than or equal to 25% preventing lethal injury. Cytotoxicity at 24 hrs, induced by 20 mU/ml GO, was 90.1 +/- 5.2% without HS vs 1.7 +/- 4.6% with 25% HS present (20 exp). Similar protection was observed with heparinized plasma. Of note, comparable concentrations of bovine serum were devoid of protective activity. Addition of fatty acid-free albumin to the media was also without protective effect. Preliminary characterization showed HS activity was stable to 60 0 C for 30 min, non-dialyzable at 25,000 MW cutoff, and retained in delipidated serum. The HS protection was not merely due to scavenging of exogenous H 2 O 2 as A23187-induced EC lysis was also prevented by HS. Protective activity was not reproduced by purified cerruloplasmin or transferrin. In conclusion, unidentified factor(s) present in HS protect cultured ECs from oxidant-induced lysis. Since endothelium is normally exposed to 100% plasma, the authors suggest that in vitro studies of oxidant-mediated injury be performed in the presence of HS. Factor(s) in HS may play an important role in modulating oxidant-induced vascular injury in vivo

  2. Effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    宮地,芳之

    1987-01-01

    The effects of copper, organic mercury and a mixture of the two on glycerol lysis of erythrocytes were examined. Copper ion and organic mercury (EMP; ethylmercury phosphate, and PCMB; sodium p-chloromercuricbenzoate) inhibited glycerol lysis of erythrocytes. The inhibitory effects was dependent on the incubation period. An equimolor solution of copper ion and EMP showed between copper ion and EMP. Similar results were obtained with copper and PCMB.

  3. Intracameral air injection during Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in neovascular glaucoma for the prevention of tube obstruction with blood clot: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ha; Yoo, Chungkwon; Kim, Yong Yeon; Lee, Dae Young; Nam, Dong Heun; Lee, Jong Yeon

    2017-12-01

    Glaucoma drainage implant surgery is a treatment option for the management of neovascular glaucoma. However, tube obstruction by blood clot after Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation is an unpredictable clinically challenging situation. We report 4 cases using intracameral air injection for the prevention of the tube obstruction of AGV by blood clot. The first case was a 57-year-old female suffering from ocular pain because of a tube obstruction with blood clot after AGV implantation in neovascular glaucoma. Surgical blood clot removal was performed. However, intractable bleeding was noted during the removal of the blood clot, and so intracameral air injection was performed to prevent a recurrent tube obstruction. After the procedure, although blood clots formed around the tube, the tube opening where air could touch remained patent. In 3 cases of neovascular glaucoma with preoperative severe intraocular hemorrhages, intracameral air injection and AGV implantation were performed simultaneously. In all 3 cases, tube openings were patent. It appears that air impeded the blood clots formation in front of the tube opening. Intracameral air injection could be a feasible option to prevent tube obstruction of AGV implant with a blood clot in neovascular glaucoma with high risk of tube obstruction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensitivity of the activated partial thromboplastin time, the dilute Russell's viper venom time, and the kaolin clotting time for the detection of the lupus anticoagulant: a direct comparison using plasma dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B A; Branch, D W; Rodgers, G M

    1996-01-01

    Increasing dilutions of lupus anticoagulant (LA) plasmas from twelve patients were used to directly compare the sensitivity of four tests for LA. The tests evaluated were the modified Bell and Alton activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), an APTT using a commercially prepared partial thromboplastin (Platelin LS APTT), a modified dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT), and a modified kaolin clotting time (KCT). LAs were detected in all twelve plasmas by each of three tests and eleven of twelve plasmas in a fourth test when undiluted patient plasma was used. Repeating the tests after diluting the LA plasmas with normal platelet-free plasma (PFP) showed that the KCT was the most sensitive test for LA, detecting eleven of twelve LAs at a dilution of 10% patient plasma and ten of twelve LAs at a dilution of 5% patient plasma. The modified Bell and Alton APTT and the modified DRVVT had similar sensitivities at a patient plasma concentration of 10%, detecting seven of twelve and eight of twelve LAs, respectively. The Platelin LS APTT detected only four of twelve LAs at a patient plasma concentration of 10%. Our results indicate that the modified KCT is a sensitive method for the detection of LAs. The modified Bell and Alton APTT and the DRVVT were less sensitive.

  5. Blood culture bottles are superior to lysis-centrifugation tubes for bacteriological diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Siersema, P D; de Marie, S; van Zeijl, J H; Bac, D J; Wilson, J H

    1992-01-01

    The conventional method of ascitic fluid culturing was compared with the bedside inoculation of ascites into blood culture bottles and into lysis-centrifugation tubes. The conventional culture method was compared with the blood culture bottle method in 31 episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Cultures were positive with the conventional culture method in 11 (35%) episodes and with the blood culture bottle method in 26 (84%) episodes (P less than 0.001). The lysis-centrifugation...

  6. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe; Eunice Leonora Chaplin; Maria das Graças de Souza Paiva; Nilton Rogério Santos Silva; Flávio A. Pacheco Araújo; Elinor Fortes

    1992-01-01

    The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting and fibrinolysis using thromboelastography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S A

    2012-02-03

    Amide local anaesthetics inhibit platelet function. We hypothesized that residual anaesthetic in the epidural space could decrease efficacy of an epidural blood patch in preventing postdural puncture headache. Levobupivacaine has recently been approved for epidural anaesthesia. Its effects on coagulation have not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of levobupivacaine on clotting using thromboelastography. Ten ASA Class I volunteers were studied. Venous blood samples were analysed using a Haemoscope 2000D TEG analyser. Whole blood, a 50% saline control and two levobupivacaine solutions (2.5 mg mL(-1) and 2.5 microg mL(-1) in blood) were compared. The former reproduces that produced in the epidural space by blood (20 mL for an epidural blood patch) and levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). The latter approximates plasma concentrations following epidural injection of levobupivacaine 0.5% (20 mL). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Maximum amplitude (MA), a measure of clot strength, is decreased by levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1). Levobupivacaine 2.5 mg mL(-1) decreases clot strength and may reduce efficacy of a prophylactic epidural blood patch.

  8. Local lysis with Alteplase for the treatment of acute embolic leg ischemia following the use of the Duett trademark closure device: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Wingen, M.; Tacke, J.; Wein, B.; Guenther, R.W.; Janssens, U.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the result of the alteplase lysis therapy of embolic complications following the use of the Duett closure device. Methods and Materials: For 3.5 years, the Duett closure device was used in 1,398 angiographies to close the femoral puncture site. The Duett device consists of a balloon and a liquid procoagulant containing collagen and thrombin, which is injected into the puncture tract under endovascular balloon protection of the arterial puncture site. In 9 patients (0.64%), the procoagulant was incidentally injected into the femoral artery causing acute leg ischemia. Eight patients received local lysis therapy with alteplase via a contralateral femoral access. One patient underwent surgery. On average, 21 mg alteplase (4-35 mg) were administered within 14 h (4-21 h). The course of the lysis was followed angiographyically and clinically. All patients were inteerviewed by telephone 23 months (4-35 months) later.Results: In 3 patients, lysis was complete. In 5 patients, only little thrombotic material remained. In all patients, symptoms of ischemia resolved completely within the first hours after initiation of lysis. In 5 cases, bleeding occurred at the puncture site closed with the Duett device during lysis, including development of a false aneurysm in 2 cases. Complications led to premature termination (n=2) or interruption of the lysis (n=3). All complications were treated conservatively. Clinically, long-term sequelae were paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the lower leg and foot in 2 patients treated with lysis, and in the patient who underwent surgery. (orig.) [de

  9. The effect of sepsis and septic shock on the viscoelastic properties of clot quality and mass using rotational thromboelastometry: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gareth R; Lawrence, Matthew; Pillai, Suresh; Mills, Gavin M; Aubrey, Robert; Thomas, Dafydd; Williams, Rhodri; Morris, Keith; Evans, Phillip Adrian

    2018-04-01

    The study purpose was to define changes in coagulation across the sepsis spectrum using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Sepsis patients were recruited on admission to the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Units of a large teaching hospital in Wales. ROTEM markers of clot development and fibrinolysis were determined, as well as standard coagulation markers. A healthy control group matched for age and gender was also recruited (n=44). 100 patients were recruited (50 sepsis, 20 severe sepsis and 30 septic shock). Maximum clot firmness was significantly higher in the sepsis (p<0.001) and severe sepsis (p=0.012) groups than the healthy control (71.6±4.5 and 70.4±4.1 vs 64.4 respectively). In septic shock there was prolonged clot development; however, maximum clot firmness remained normal. Fibrinolytic function was significantly impaired in septic shock, which was also significantly associated with 28-day mortality (p<0.001). ROTEM indicated significantly enhanced clot structural development in sepsis and severe sepsis, which could be indicative of a hypercoagulable phase. In septic shock, despite there being a prolongation of clotting pathways and impaired fibrinolysis, clot mass was comparably normal, suggestive of the development of a clot with healthy characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  11. Diagnosis of hemoparasitosis trough the spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Saltiél Stobbe

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread-smear technique using a drop of blood clot and stained by diluted and undimitcd Giemsa stain was evaluated for the search of blood cell types and recognition of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale hemoparasites. The blood clot samples were taken from a 6 month-old calf experimentally inoculated with the blood from a Cattle Tick Fever carrier. The Technique was sumitable for the observation of different blood cells and for the recognition of the hemoparasites.

  12. Miniature acoustic wave lysis system and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Darren W.; Vreeland, Erika Cooley; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe

    2016-12-06

    The present invention relates to an acoustic lysis system including a disposable cartridge that can be reversibly coupled to a platform having a small, high-frequency piezoelectric transducer array. In particular, the system releases viable DNA, RNA, and proteins from human or bacterial cells, without chemicals or additional processing, to enable high-speed sample preparation for clinical point-of-care medical diagnostics and use with nano/microfluidic cartridges. Also described herein are methods of making and using the system of the invention.

  13. A hypothesis: factor VII governs clot formation, tissue repair and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lewis S

    2007-01-01

    A hypothesis: thrombin is a "Universal Enzyme of Energy Transduction" that employs ATP energy in flowing blood to activate biochemical reactions and cell effects in both hemostasis and tissue repair. All cells possess PAR-1 (thrombin) receptors and are affected by thrombin elevations, and thrombin effects on individual cell types are determined by their unique complement of PAR-1 receptors. Disruption of the vascular endothelium (VE) activates a tissue repair mechanism (TRM) consisting of the VE, tissue factor (TF), and circulating Factors VII, IX and X that governs localized thrombin elevations to activate clot formation and cellular effects that repair tissue damage. The culmination of the repair process occurs with the restoration of the VE followed by declines in thrombin production that causes Apoptosis ("programmed cell death") in wound-healing fibroblasts, which functions as a mechanism to draw wound edges together. The location and magnitude of TRM activity governs the location and magnitude of Factor VIII activity and clot formation, but the large size of Factor VIII prevents it from penetrating the clot formed by its activity, so that its effects are self-limiting. Factors VII, IX and X function primarily as tissue repair enzymes, while Factor VIII and Factor XIII are the only serine protease enzymes in the "Coagulation Cascade" that are exclusively associated with hemostasis.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehn, T E; Gold, J W; Brannon, P; Timberger, R J; Armstrong, D

    1985-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis was detected by the Isolator lysis-centrifugation blood culture system from the blood of a patient with tuberculosis of the breast. The organism also grew on conventional laboratory media inoculated with pleural fluid from the patient.

  15. Tumour imaging by the detection of fibrin clots in tumour stroma using an anti-fibrin Fab fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obonai, Toshifumi; Fuchigami, Hirobumi; Furuya, Fumiaki; Kozuka, Naoyuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early and aggressive types of cancer is important for providing effective cancer therapy. Cancer-induced fibrin clots exist only within lesions. Previously, we developed a monoclonal antibody (clone 102-10) that recognizes insoluble fibrin but not fibrinogen or soluble fibrin and confirmed that fibrin clots form continuously in various cancers. Here, we describe the development of a Fab fragment probe of clone 102-10 for tumour imaging. The distribution of 102-10 Fab was investigated in genetically engineered mice bearing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and its effect on blood coagulation was examined. Immunohistochemical and ex vivo imaging revealed that 102-10 Fab was distributed selectively in fibrin clots in PDAC tumours 3 h after injection and that it disappeared from the body after 24 h. 102-10 Fab had no influence on blood coagulation or fibrinolysis. Tumour imaging using anti-fibrin Fab may provide a safe and effective method for the diagnosis of invasive cancers by detecting fibrin clots in tumour stroma. PMID:27009516

  16. Laboratory heterogeneity of the lupus anticoagulant: a multicentre study using different clotting assays on a panel of 78 samples. Hemostasis Committee of the "Société Française de Biologie Clinique".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-15

    The laboratory heterogeneity of the lupus anticoagulant (LA) was investigated in a multicentre study using a panel of 78 plasma samples diagnosed as containing a LA. Consecutive samples were collected by 12 participants using various screening tests, and sent to 7 laboratories which performed one or more clotting assays among the following: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), dilute Russell viper venom time, kaolin clotting time (KCT), dilute tissue thromboplastin time (dTTI) and a platelet neutralization test. For APTT and dTTI, 10 versions of these tests including standard and mixing procedures were carried out. They varied by reagents, phospholipid concentration or methodology. Cut-off times were determined for each test by comparing the results of the panel to those of a control population. When the data of all clotting assays were pooled, 70 of the 78 selected plasmas were considered to contain LA, 15 of them having a low-titer inhibitor. Sensitivity, defined as the proportion of positive results among LA-containing plasmas, varied from 62 to 100% and was positively related to responsiveness (defined as the mean ratio of clotting time to cut-off time). Laboratory heterogeneity of LA-containing plasma was illustrated by a star symbol plot analysis. Different populations of samples, with LA preferentially recognized by one assay (or group of assays) irrespective of the overall sensitivity of this assay, were identified. Multiple component analysis demonstrated the heterogeneity of low-titer inhibitors, which complicates their recognition in routine laboratory investigation.

  17. Prothrombin time (PT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  18. Growth of hydroxyapatite on physiologically clotted fibrin capped gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, T P; Sundaraseelan, J; Swarnalatha, K; Sobhana, S S Liji; Makheswari, M Uma; Sekar, S; Mandal, A B

    2008-01-01

    The growth of hydroxyapatite (HAp) on physiologically clotted fibrin (PCF)-gold nanoparticles is presented for the first time by employing a wet precipitation method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the characteristic functionalities of PCF and HAp in the PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have shown cuboidal nanostructures having a size in the range of 70-300 nm of HAp, whereas 2-50 nm sized particles were visualized in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have confirmed the presence of HAp. These results show that gold nanoparticles with PCF acted as a matrix for the growth of HAp, and that PCF-Au-HAp nanocomposite is expected to have better osteoinductive properties

  19. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY INDICATORS OF CURD PRODUCTS BASED ON PROTEIN-HERBAL CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of qualitative indicators of curd products with different nutritional ingredients based on protein-herbal clots. The effect of the number of Rumex juice and the duration of thermoacid processing on the process of precipitation of milk proteins was determined. It was established that the introduction of vegetative coagulant in the amount (9 ± 0.5% at a temperature (93 ... 95 °C and endurance (3 ... 5 min - provides the optimal yield of protein-herbal clot taking into account restrictions according to organoleptic parameters. The effect of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on the organoleptic, physico-chemical and rheological indicators curd products was investigated. The dietary fibers increase moisture-proof ability and effective viscosity of samples, and white sugar reduces these indexes due to dehydrating properties. The optimal option is to add to the protein-herbal bunch at the same time two components when mixing - white sugar and apple pectin in fiber in quantities of 15% and 2% respectively. Taking into account the influence of individual non-dairy ingredients - Rumex juice of white sugar and apple pectin in fiber on curd products, the performance of the finished product can purposefully be affected.

  20. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in a case of multiple myeloma – A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Saravu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 40-year-old male patient who was found to have multiple myeloma with spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome (TLS, following a compression fracture of the L–2 vertebrae. Multiple myeloma was confirmed by bone marrow analysis and the M–band on serum protein electrophoresis. Hyperuricaemia (26.2 mg/dL, hyperkalaemia (> 7.0 mEq/L, hyperphosphatemia (16.2 mg of phosphorus/dL, normocalcemia and acute kidney injury, prior to anticancer treatment suggested spontaneous TLS. Inciting events for tumour lysis, such as chemotherapy, dehydration and exposure to steroids were absent. Patient received hydration, hypourecemic drugs and haemodialysis. This case report highlights the rare presentation of multiple myeloma with spontaneous TLS.

  1. Relative efficacy of the argon green, argon blue-green, and krypton red lasers for 10-0 nylon subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; To, K W; Balachandran, R M; Janigian, R H; Tsiaras, W G

    1999-01-01

    To determine the optimal wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis. 130 black monofilament 10-0 nylon sutures were sewn subconjunctivally into the bare sclera of enucleated rabbit globes. The lowest energy levels facilitating laser suture lysis were determined for the argon green (514.5 NM), argon blue-green (488.0 NM, 514.5 NM), and krypton red (647.1 NM) wavelengths. In addition, absorption spectroscopy was performed on the suture material and conjunctiva using the Perkin Elmer W/VIS Lambda 2 spectrometer. Krypton red produced the fewest buttonhole defects, and it was also the most efficient energy source for suture lysis (P = 0.0001) under nontenectomized conjunctiva. Absorbance spectra studies revealed peak absorbance at 628 NM for the 10-0 nylon suture material. Based on animal and absorption spectroscopy studies, krypton red may be a safer and more efficient wavelength for subconjunctival laser suture lysis.

  2. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting protease from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude enzymatic extract obtained from five fermentations (300 g of wheat bran) was characterized by a clotting activity of 0.34 ± 0.08 UP/ml with a strength ratio of 1/1: 200. The comparative study of the summaries from 2 purification protocols showed that it is possible to recover 6% of the initial proteins with a 44.54% activity ...

  3. Role of the SRRz/Rz1 lambdoid lysis cassette in the pathoadaptive evolution of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Pasqua, Martina; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2017-06-01

    Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), is a highly adapted human pathogen. It evolved from an innocuous ancestor resembling the Escherichia coli strain by gain and loss of genes and functions. While the gain process concerns the acquisition of the genetic determinants of virulence, the loss is related to the adaptation of the genome to the new pathogenic status and occurs by pathoadaptive mutation of antivirulence genes. In this study, we highlight that the SRRz/Rz 1 lambdoid lysis cassette, even though stably adopted in E. coli K12 by virtue of its beneficial effect on cell physiology, has undergone a significant decay in Shigella. Moreover, we show the antivirulence nature of the SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette in Shigella. In fact, by restoring the SRRz/Rz 1 expression in this pathogen, we observe an increased release of peptidoglycan fragments, causing an unbalance in the fine control exerted by Shigella on host innate immunity and a mitigation of its virulence. This strongly affects the virulence of Shigella and allows to consider the loss of SRRz/Rz 1 lysis cassette as another pathoadaptive event in the life of Shigella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography for detection of left ventricular thrombus: influence of clot size and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabold, J.E.; Schroeder, E.C.; Conrad, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and indium-111 platelet scintigraphy were performed on 50 dogs to determine the influence of clot age and size on the detection of experimentally induced left ventricular mural thrombus. Thrombus was induced by apical infarction and injection of a sclerosing agent and thrombin. The animals were classified into four groups according to the time of indium-111 platelet injection after thrombus induction: Group I (17 dogs, 1/2 hour after induction; 3 dogs, before induction), Group II (12 dogs, 24 hours after induction) and Group III (12 dogs, 1 week after induction). In Group IV (six control dogs) apical infarction was produced, but thrombin was not injected; indium-111 platelets were injected 1/2 to 1 hour after infarction. The dogs were studied by indium-111 platelet scintigraphy and by two-dimensional echocardiography 1/2 to 5 hours (Group I) and 1 to 5 and up to 72 hours (Groups II to IV) after platelet administration and before death was induced. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed the best overall sensitivity for detection of acute thrombus (97%; 29 of 30). The sensitivity of indium-111 platelet scintigraphy was 86% (18 of 21) for clots greater than or equal to 0.08 ml in size, and 67% (20 of 30) for detection of all clots. Thrombus did not form in 14 dogs of Groups I to III and in 6 of 6 control dogs. The specificity of scintigraphy was 100% (20 of 20) compared with 80% (16 of 20) for echocardiography. Echocardiography was more sensitive than scintigraphy for detecting very small clots in this experimental model

  5. Hyperphosphatemia during spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome culminate in severe hyphosphatemia at the time of blast crisis of Phneg CML to acute myelomoncytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Ophira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme swing of phosphor from severe hyperphosphatemia to severe hypophosphatemia in a patient with blast crisis of myeloid origin was the result of imbalance between massive apoptosis of leukemic cells in the context of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and massive production of leukemic cells with only 1% of blast in peripheral blood. The mutated p53 protein suggested acting as oncogene in the presented case and possibly affecting phosphor status.

  6. Dissolution of pre-existing platelet thrombus by synergistic administration of low concentrations of bifunctional antibodies against β3 integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Dang

    Full Text Available Most antithrombotic approaches target prevention rather than the more clinically relevant issue of resolution of an existing thrombus. In this study, we describe a novel and effective therapeutic strategy for ex vivo clearance of pre-existing platelet thrombus by the combination of two bifunctional platelet GPIIIa49-66 ligands that target different parts of the arterial thrombus. We produced an additional GPIIIa49-66 agent (named APAC, which homes to activated platelets. Like our previously described SLK (which targets newly deposited fibrin strands surrounding the platelet thrombus, APAC destroys platelet aggregates ex vivo in an identical fashion with 85% destruction of platelet aggregates at 2 hours. The combined application of APAC and SLK demonstrated a ~2 fold greater platelet thrombus dissolution than either agent alone at a low concentration (0.025 µM. Platelet-rich clot lysis experiments demonstrated the time required for 50% platelet-rich fibrin clot lysis (T(50% by APAC (95 ± 6.1 min or SLK (145 ± 7.1 min was much longer than that by combined APAC + SLK (65 ± 7.6 min at the final concentration of 0.025 µM (APAC + SLK vs APAC, p<0.05; APAC + SLK vs SLK, p<0.01. Thus these low concentrations of a combination of both agents are likely to be more effective and less toxic when used therapeutically in vivo.

  7. Role of coexisting contralateral primary venous disease in development of post-thrombotic syndrome following catheter-based treatment of iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John J; Al-Jubouri, Mustafa; Acino, Robin; Comerota, Anthony J; Lurie, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that early clot removal benefits patients with iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by removing obstruction and preserving valve function. However, a substantial number of patients who had successful clot removal develop post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Residual thrombus and rethrombosis play a part in this phenomenon, but the role of coexisting primary chronic venous disease (PCVD) in these patients has not been studied. All patients who underwent catheter-based techniques of thrombus removal for symptomatic acute iliofemoral DVT during a 5-year period compose the study group. These patients were assessed for PTS by the Villalta scale, the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life (VEINES-QOL) questionnaire. The presence of coexisting PCVD was determined by clinical and duplex ultrasound findings in the contralateral leg at the time of the initial DVT diagnosis. Patients who had coexisting PCVD were compared with those without PCVD. Forty patients (40 limbs) were included in the study group. At initial diagnosis, 15 patients (38%) had coexisting symptomatic primary valve reflux in the unaffected limb. After thrombolysis, 9 of 40 limbs (22%) had complete lysis, 29 (73%) had ≥ 50% to 99% lysis, and 2 (5%) had thrombus removal techniques. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional architecture and cell composition of a Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin clot and membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Del Corso, Marco; Diss, Antoine; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Charrier, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-04-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF; Choukroun's technique) is a second-generation platelet concentrate for surgical use. This easy protocol allows the production of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin clots and membranes starting from 10-ml blood samples. The purposes of this study were to determine the cell composition and three-dimensional organization of this autologous biomaterial and to evaluate the influence of different collection tubes (dry glass or glass-coated plastic tubes) and compression procedures (forcible or soft) on the final PRF-membrane architecture. After centrifugation, blood analyses were performed on the residual waste plasmatic layers after collecting PRF clots. The PRF clots and membranes were processed for examination by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 97% of the platelets and >50% of the leukocytes were concentrated in the PRF clot and showed a specific three-dimensional distribution, depending on the centrifugation forces. Platelets and fibrin formed large clusters of coagulation in the first millimeters of the membrane beyond the red blood cell base. The fibrin network was very mature and dense. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the PRF architecture between groups using the different tested collection tubes and compression techniques, even if these two parameters could have influenced the growth factor content and biologic matrix properties. The PRF protocol concentrated most platelets and leukocytes from a blood harvest into a single autologous fibrin biomaterial. This protocol offers reproducible results as long as the main production principles are respected.

  9. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  10. Study on sup(99m)Tc-colloid accumulation of in vitro clots and thrombi in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohguchi, Manabu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1983-02-01

    The accumulation of different sup(99m)Tc-colloids in vitro clot, venous thrombi and intravascular fibrin deposits in rats was studied. Blood clot was produced by incubating fresh blood at room temperature for three hours. The mean value of % uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid in clot was 96.2 % and higher than that of any other sup(99m)Tc-colloids. Venous thrombi in rats were made by clamping the left femoral vein segments for 5 minutes. With sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid, the mean value of the ratio of the radioactivity in the clamped vein segment to the control segment (L/R ratio) was 54.5. L/R ratios of others were 24.2 with sup(99m)Tc-phytate, 12.1 with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid, 3.9 with sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid, 2.4 with sup(99m)Tc-millimicrosphere albumin. L/R ratios were higher for the fresh thrombi, significant uptake was also observed up to seven days. Intravascular fibrin deposits were induced by i.p. injection of endotoxin into rats. Three hours after injection of endotoxin, sup(99m)Tc-colloids were i.v. injected. Significant lung uptake was observed in sup(99m)Tc-colloids except in sup(99m)Tc-rhenium colloid. And the most remarkable change of lung uptake was observed in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid. Significant kidney uptake was observed in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid. And the most remarkable change of kidney uptake was also observed in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid. When heparin was injected i.v. at the same time as endotoxin injection, lung uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid was significantly decreased. However, the heparin effect on kidney uptake of sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid was more significant than on lung uptake. The results in this study indicated that sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid showed the greatest affinity to in vitro clots, venous thrombi and intravascular fibrin deposits.

  11. Effect of spirapril and hydrochlorothiazide on platelet function and euglobulin clot lysis time in patients with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonitz, Gitte (Gleerup); Petersen, J R; Mehlsen, J

    1996-01-01

    Thirteen patients with mild hypertension (untreated diastolic blood pressure of 95 to 114 mmHg) received, in random order, three successive treatments of four weeks with placebo, spirapril (6 mg daily), or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT2) (24 mg daily). At the end of each treatment, blood samples for a...... not produce any unwanted side effect on platelet function or fibrinolysis. HCT2 seems to decrease platelet activity at rest, whereas spirapril seems to some extent to decrease platelet activity at exercise....

  12. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif; Leung, Siu; Fan, Zhiyong; Lee, Yi-Kuen

    2017-01-01

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage: principles of CT and MRI interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizel, P.M.; Makkat, S.; Miert, E. van; Goethem, J.W. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Schepper, A.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage represents a frequent challenge for the practicing radiologist. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a synoptic overview of the imaging characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage, using text, tables, and figures to illustrate time-dependent changes. We examine the underlying physical, biological, and biochemical factors of evolving hematoma and correlate them with the aspect on cross-sectional imaging techniques. On CT scanning, the appearance of intracranial blood is determined by density changes which occur over time, reflecting clot formation, clot retraction, clot lysis and, eventually, tissue loss. However, MRI has become the technique of choice for assessing the age of an intracranial hemorrhage. On MRI the signal intensity of intracranial hemorrhage is much more complex and is influenced by multiple variables including: (a) age, location, and size of the lesion; (b) technical factors (e.g., sequence type and parameters, field strength); and (c) biological factors (e.g., pO2, arterial vs venous origin, tissue pH, protein concentration, presence of a blood-brain barrier, condition of the patient). We discuss the intrinsic magnetic properties of sequential hemoglobin degradation products. The differences in evolution between extra- and intracerebral hemorrhages are addressed and illustrated. (orig.)

  14. Enzymatic milk clotting activity in artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaves and alpine thistle (Carduus defloratus) flowers. Immobilization of alpine thistle aspartic protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Dejonghe, Winnie; Mariniello, Loredana; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    Two different milk clotting enzymes, belonging to the aspartic protease family, were extracted from both artichoke leaves and alpine thistle flowers, and the latter was covalently immobilized by using a polyacrylic support containing polar epoxy groups. Our findings showed that the alpine thistle aspartic protease was successfully immobilized at pH 7.0 on Immobeads IB-150P beads and that, under these experimental conditions, an immobilization yield of about 68% and a recovery of about 54% were obtained. Since the enzyme showed an optimal pH of 5.0, a value very similar to the one generally used for milk clotting during cheese making, and exhibited a satisfactory stability over time, the use of such immobilized vegetable rennet for the production of novel dairy products is suggested. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  16. RESULTS OF QUALITY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH BLOOD CLOTTING (PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment methods for diseases of teeth hard tissues and periodontium for children with blood clotting pathology are described in modern literature. But in practice we are faced with the problem of providing dental treatment for these children. Work of pediatric dentist is prevented by the risk of bleeding, fear of dental procedures, child’s psychoemotional tension and refusal of treatment because of bleeding. Taking into account the specificity of blood clotting pathology, surgical methods of dental treatment prevail for these children, which is evidenced by the early loss of deciduous and permanent teeth, occlusal surface disturbances, dentoalveolar anomalies, inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues. Aim. To evaluate the level of dental care for children with the diseases of blood clotting. Materials and methods. 120 children between 2 and 18 years old with blood clotting disorders (hemophilia A, B, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathy were examined. Children were divided into groups: I group – 2-5 years old (40 children, II group – 6-10 years old (40 children, III group – 11-18 years old (40 children, according to the periods of tooth development, with an equal number of children in groups according to diagnoses. Clinical examination was carried out according to the standard scheme, including the analysis of complaints, anamnesis of treatment at the dentist, objective data with the use of statistical method of masticatory efficiency (according to N.I. Agapov, the level of dental care (according to P.A. Leus. Results. During clinical dental examination of children with blood clotting pathology it was found that destruction of crowns of maxillary front teeth, the first deciduous molars and the second deciduous molars, as well as their loss, prevails in the temporary occlusion. During the examination of 2-5 years old children with blood clotting pathology, loss of less than 25% of masticatory efficiency was revealed for 25

  17. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  18. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  19. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system desc...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.......Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...

  20. Venom Concentrations and Clotting Factor Levels in a Prospective Cohort of Russell's Viper Bites with Coagulopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available Russell's viper envenoming is a major problem in South Asia and causes venom induced consumption coagulopathy. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics and dynamics of venom and clotting function in Russell's viper envenoming.In a prospective cohort of 146 patients with Russell's viper envenoming, we measured venom concentrations, international normalised ratio [INR], prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, coagulation factors I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX and X, and von Willebrand factor antigen. The median age was 39 y (16-82 y and 111 were male. The median peak INR was 6.8 (interquartile range [IQR]: 3.7 to >13, associated with low fibrinogen [median,3 at 6 h post-antivenom but had reduced to <2, by 24 h. The aPTT had also returned to close to normal (<50 sec at 24 h. Factor VII, VIII and IX levels were unusually high pre-antivenom, median peak concentrations of 393%, 307% and 468% respectively. Pre-antivenom venom concentrations and the INR (r = 0.20, p = 0.02 and aPTT (r = 0.19, p = 0.03 were correlated (non-parametric Spearman analysis.Russell's viper coagulopathy results in prolonged aPTT, INR, low fibrinogen, factors V, VIII and X which recover over 48 h. Severity of clotting abnormalities was associated with venom concentrations.

  1. 99mTc-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli: pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into plasma clots in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, David; Lewis, Joanne; Battle, Mark; Lear, Rochelle; Farrar, Gill; Barnett, D.J.; Godden, Vanessa; Oliveira, Alexandra; Coombes, Catherine; Ahlstroem, Haakan

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of NC100668 is similar to a region of human α 2 -antiplasmin, which is a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was to confirm the uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668 into forming plasma clot and to establish the biodistribution of 99m Tc-NC100668 in Wistar rats. The in vitro plasma clot uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668 and other compounds with known affinities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of radioactivity of 99m Tc-NC100668 in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were investigated. The in vitro uptake of 99m Tc-NC100668 was greater than that for [ 14 C]dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of 99m Tc-NC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine, with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and retention of 99m Tc-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than could be accounted for by non-specific accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. 99m Tc-NC100668 was retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that 99m Tc-NC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism. (orig.)

  2. Measuring factor IX activity of nonacog beta pegol with commercially available one-stage clotting and chromogenic assay kits: a two-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, A E; Hillarp, A; Ezban, M; Persson, P; Kitchen, S

    2016-07-01

    Essentials Validated assays are required to precisely measure factor IX (FIX) activity in FIX products. N9-GP and two other FIX products were assessed in various coagulation assay systems at two sites. Large variations in FIX activity measurements were observed for N9-GP using some assays. One-stage and chromogenic assays accurately measuring FIX activity for N9-GP were identified. Background Measurement of factor IX activity (FIX:C) with activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays is associated with a large degree of interlaboratory variation in samples containing glycoPEGylated recombinant FIX (rFIX), i.e. nonacog beta pegol (N9-GP). Validation and qualification of specific assays and conditions are necessary for the accurate assessment of FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP. Objectives To assess the accuracy of various one-stage clotting and chromogenic assays for measuring FIX:C in samples containing N9-GP as compared with samples containing rFIX or plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX) across two laboratory sites. Methods FIX:C, in severe hemophilia B plasma spiked with a range of concentrations (from very low, i.e. 0.03 IU mL(-1) , to high, i.e. 0.90 IU mL(-1) ) of N9-GP, rFIX (BeneFIX), and pdFIX (Mononine), was determined at two laboratory sites with 10 commercially available one-stage clotting assays and two chromogenic FIX:C assays. Assays were performed with a plasma calibrator and different analyzers. Results A high degree of variation in FIX:C measurement was observed for one-stage clotting assays for N9-GP as compared with rFIX or pdFIX. Acceptable N9-GP recovery was observed in the low-concentration to high-concentration samples tested with one-stage clotting assays using SynthAFax or DG Synth, or with chromogenic FIX:C assays. Similar patterns of FIX:C measurement were observed at both laboratory sites, with minor differences probably being attributable to the use of different analyzers. Conclusions These results suggest that, of the

  3. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification.

  4. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Impact Chlorella variabilis Productivity and Host Quality for Viral Production and Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Labavitch, John; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a potential feedstock for biofuel production; however, cell disruption is usually required for collection and utilization of cytoplasmic polysaccharides and lipids. Virus infection might be one approach to disrupt the cell wall. The concentration of yeast extract and presence of KNO3 in algae cultivation media were investigated to observe their effects on Chlorella variabilis NC64A physiology and composition and the subsequent effect on production of Chlorella virus and disruption of infected cells. Cytoplasmic starch accumulation increased from 5% to approximately 35% of the total dry weight when yeast extract decreased from 1 to 0.25 g L(-1). When cells were cultured with the lowest nitrogen levels, the total polysaccharide accounted for more than 50% of the cell wall, which was 1.7 times higher than the content in cells cultured with the highest nitrogen levels. The C/N ratio of the algal biomass decreased by a factor of approximately 2 when yeast extract increased from 0.25 to 1 g L(-1). After virus infection, cells with a low C/N ratio produced a 7.6 times higher burst size than cells with a high C/N ratio, suggesting that the nitrogen content in C. variabilis has a large influence on viral production and cell lysis. The results have implications on management of nitrogen for both the synthesis of products from algae and product recovery via viral lysis.

  5. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. PMID:26912749

  6. In vivo chicken model for peripheral intravascular human fibrin clot detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A chicken model was prepared that provides a simple and economical method of evaluating the use of fibrin-specific monoclonal antibody 64C5 in the detection of peripheral vascular thrombi. Human fibrin was clotted in segments of a chicken's femoral artery and vein prior to intravenous injection of radioiodinated antibody 64C5. After a 3-hr perfusion time, the thrombosed and contralateral control segments of the vessels were excised and counted for radioactivity. The radiolabeled 64C5 uptake ratio of the thrombosed segment to the control segment was 5.4 +/- 1.2 (p less than 0.007) in the femoral artery, and 3.8 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.02) in the femoral vein. This in vivo chicken model may also find application in studies of targeting agents for human fibrin

  7. Study of a novel cell lysis method with titanium dioxide for Lab-on-a-Chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a novel method is proposed and demonstrated to be able to lyse gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria cells for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. The proposed method incorporates using titanium dioxide particles as photocatalysts and a miniaturized UV LED array as an excitation light source to perform cell lysis on microchips. The experimental result demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed prototype device. The working device suggests an inexpensive, easy to be fabricated and effective way for microchip cell lysis. The miniaturized UV LED array and the microchip with a reaction chamber can be easily integrated with other functional components to form a customized whole Lab-on-a-Chip system.

  8. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  9. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668, a new tracer for imaging venous thromboemboli: pre-clinical biodistribution and incorporation into plasma clots in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, David [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lewis, Joanne; Battle, Mark; Lear, Rochelle; Farrar, Gill; Barnett, D.J.; Godden, Vanessa; Oliveira, Alexandra; Coombes, Catherine [Grove Centre, Research and Development, GE Healthcare Bio-Sciences, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); Ahlstroem, Haakan [Uppsala University Hospital, Institution of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 is a new radiotracer being developed to aid the diagnosis of thromboembolism. The structure of NC100668 is similar to a region of human {alpha}{sub 2}-antiplasmin, which is a substrate for factor XIIIa (FXIIIa). The purpose of this study was to confirm the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into forming plasma clot and to establish the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in Wistar rats. The in vitro plasma clot uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 and other compounds with known affinities to FXIIIa was measured using a plasma clot assay. The biodistribution and blood clot uptake of radioactivity of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in normal Wistar rats and those bearing experimentally induced deep vein thrombi were investigated. The in vitro uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was greater than that for [{sup 14}C]dansyl cadaverine, a known substrate of FXIIIa in the plasma clot assay. The biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 in male and female Wistar rats up to 24 h p.i. showed that radioactivity was rapidly excreted, predominantly into the urine, with very little background tissue retention. In vivo the uptake and retention of {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 into the blood clot was greater than could be accounted for by non-specific accumulation of the radiotracer within the blood clot. {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 was retained by plasma clots in vitro and blood clots in vivo. No significant tissue retention which could interfere with the ability to image thrombi in vivo was observed. This evidence suggests that {sup 99m}Tc-NC100668 might be useful in the detection of thromboembolism. (orig.)

  10. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Grünastel, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. PMID:27795344

  11. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Grünastel, Barbara; Becker, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Application of actuator-driven pulsed water jet in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage surgery: its effectiveness for dissection around ruptured aneurysmal walls and subarachnoid clot removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hidenori; Endo, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-07-01

    In clipping surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), critical steps include clot removal and dissection of aneurysms without premature rupture or brain injuries. To pursue this goal, a piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system was introduced in this study. This study included 42 patients, who suffered aSAH and underwent clipping surgery. Eleven patients underwent surgery with the assistance of the ADPJ system (ADPJ group). In the other 31 patients, surgery was performed without the ADPJ system (Control group). The ADPJ system was used for clot removal and aneurysmal dissection. The clinical impact of the ADPJ system was judged by comparing the rate of premature rupture, degree of clot removal, and clinical outcomes. Intraoperatively, a premature rupture was encountered in 18.2 and 25.8% of cases in the ADPJ and control groups, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, intraoperative observation suggested that the ADPJ system was effective in clot removal and dissection of aneurysms in a safe manner. Computed tomography scans indicated the achievement of higher degrees of clot removal, especially when the ADPJ system was used for cases with preoperative clot volumes of more than 25 ml (p = 0.047, Mann-Whitney U test). Clinical outcomes, including incidence of postoperative brain injury or symptomatic vasospasm, were similar in both groups. We described our preliminary surgical results using the ADPJ system for aSAH. Although further study is needed, the ADPJ system was considered a safe and effective tool for clot removal and dissection of aneurysms.

  13. The use of QuikClot combat gauze in cervical and vaginal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Vilardo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available QuikClot combat gauze is a synthetic hemostatic dressing used for hemorrhage control. There is a paucity of data describing the clinical use and hemostatic results of combat gauze in the obstetric and gynecologic setting. This case series demonstrates the use of combat gauze as an effective hemostatic agent when used as vaginal packing in cervical and vaginal hemorrhage. Hemostasis was achieved rapidly in all cases and further interventions were avoided. The combat gauze remained in place for a mean time of 15 h with no adverse side effects observed. The use of combat gauze as vaginal packing may provide an alternative option in the treatment of cervical and vaginal hemorrhage when other traditional conservative and surgical interventions fail or are unavailable.

  14. Platelet microparticle-inspired clot-responsive nanomedicine for targeted fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Christa L; Li, Wei; Sun, Michael; Ravichandran, Kavya; Hickman, DaShawn; Kos, Clarissa; Kaur, Gurbani; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2017-06-01

    Intravascular administration of plasminogen activators is a clinically important thrombolytic strategy to treat occlusive vascular conditions. A major issue with this strategy is the systemic off-target drug action, which affects hemostatic capabilities and causes substantial hemorrhagic risks. This issue can be potentially resolved by designing technologies that allow thrombus-targeted delivery and site-specific action of thrombolytic drugs. To this end, leveraging a liposomal platform, we have developed platelet microparticle (PMP)-inspired nanovesicles (PMINs), that can protect encapsulated thrombolytic drugs in circulation to prevent off-target uptake and action, anchor actively onto thrombus via PMP-relevant molecular mechanisms and allow drug release via thrombus-relevant enzymatic trigger. Specifically, the PMINs can anchor onto thrombus via heteromultivalent ligand-mediated binding to active platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa and P-selectin, and release the thrombolytic payload due to vesicle destabilization triggered by clot-relevant enzyme phospholipase-A 2 . Here we report on the evaluation of clot-targeting efficacy, lipase-triggered drug release and resultant thrombolytic capability of the PMINs in vitro, and subsequently demonstrate that intravenous delivery of thrombolytic-loaded PMINs can render targeted fibrinolysis without affecting systemic hemostasis, in vivo, in a carotid artery thrombosis model in mice. Our studies establish significant promise of the PMIN technology for safe and site-targeted nanomedicine therapies in the vascular compartment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk ( Capra hircus ) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ease to locally produce kid rennet contrary to that of calve has led us to compare the proteolytic and clotting activities of these two rennets depending on their action on goat (Capra hircus) milk and cow (Bos taurus) milk. The proteolysis was measured by determining the increase of non-protein nitrogen according to the ...

  16. Enhanced production of nattokinase from UV mutated Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohanasrinivasan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, nattokinase is one of the most-often employed among the several thrombolytic agents used clinically, particularly because of its lower cost comparing to other thrombolytic agents. In the present research work, Bacillus sp. was isolated from the heterogeneous microbial population present in the soil sample and screened for the production of nattokinase. The production of the enzyme was carried out using two different media (with and without shrimp shell substrate. Nattokinase activity (clot buster was determined by using a modified Holmstorm method. The production strain SFN01 was improved by random mutagenesis (UV radiation and the enzyme activity was checked with the enzyme produced by wild strain. The mutated strains had exhibited a higher clot lysis activity in which 1 unit of the enzyme completely lyses 1 mL of human blood when compared to the wild strain. Nattokinase produced by SFN showed a retention time of 10.6 min in RP-HPLC chromatogram.

  17. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Lyoshenko

    2016-05-01

    Abstract Purpose. To determine the state of various stages of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion as a risk factor for premature detachment of the placenta. Results. There was investigated the state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion by low piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG and standard coagulogram. According to the LPTEG results this group of women was found to have increased plasma coagulation potential manifested in elevated constant thrombin activity (TAC by 76.8%, the intensity of coagulation drive (ICD by 74.9%, maximum clot density (MA by 16.8%, shortening of coagulation time (T3 by 7.8% and inhibition of fibrinolysis manifested by decrease in retraction intensity and clot lysis (RICL by 67.7% (p<0.05. Conclusions. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion is characterized by increased plasma coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis potential that are factors of preparing the woman’s body for the upcoming birth to control and minimize blood loss.   Keywords: pregnancy, hydramnion, hemostasis, thromboelastography.

  18. Clot retraction is mediated by factor XIII-dependent fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin axis in platelet sphingomyelin-rich membrane rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Kohji; Kaneda, Mizuho; Miki, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuko; Sekino-Suzuki, Naoko; Kawashima, Ikuo; Suzuki, Hidenori; Shimonaka, Motoyuki; Arai, Morio; Ohno-Iwashita, Yoshiko; Kojima, Soichi; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Okazaki, Toshiro; Souri, Masayoshi; Ichinose, Akitada; Yamamoto, Naomasa

    2013-11-07

    Membrane rafts are spatially and functionally heterogenous in the cell membrane. We observed that lysenin-positive sphingomyelin (SM)-rich rafts are identified histochemically in the central region of adhered platelets where fibrin and myosin are colocalized on activation by thrombin. The clot retraction of SM-depleted platelets from SM synthase knockout mouse was delayed significantly, suggesting that platelet SM-rich rafts are involved in clot retraction. We found that fibrin converted by thrombin translocated immediately in platelet detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts but that from Glanzmann's thrombasthenic platelets failed. The fibrinogen γ-chain C-terminal (residues 144-411) fusion protein translocated to platelet DRM rafts on thrombin activation, but its mutant that was replaced by A398A399 at factor XIII crosslinking sites (Q398Q399) was inhibited. Furthermore, fibrin translocation to DRM rafts was impaired in factor XIII A subunit-deficient mouse platelets, which show impaired clot retraction. In the cytoplasm, myosin translocated concomitantly with fibrin translocation into the DRM raft of thrombin-stimulated platelets. Furthermore, the disruption of SM-rich rafts by methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired myosin activation and clot retraction. Thus, we propose that clot retraction takes place in SM-rich rafts where a fibrin-αIIbβ3-myosin complex is formed as a primary axis to promote platelet contraction.

  19. Soil pretreatment and fast cell lysis for direct polymerase chain reaction from forest soils for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of fungal communities

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    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0 removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.

  20. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  1. [A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Axel Rodolfo; Hernández, Betsy; Rodríguez, Marina; Romero, Hilda

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique. Out of 450 blood specimens received in one year, 100 where chosen for this comparative study: 60 from patients with AIDS, 15 from leukemic patients, ten from febrile neutropenic patients, five from patients with respiratory infections, five from diabetics and five from septicemic patients. The specimens were processed, simultaneously, according to the above mentioned methodologies with daily inspections searching for fungal growth in order to obtain the final identification of the causative agent. The number (40) of isolates recovered was the same using both methods, which included; 18 Candida albicans (45%), ten Candida spp. (25%), ten Histoplasma capsulatum (25%), and two Cryptococcus neoformans (5%). When the fungal growth time was compared by both methods, growth was more rapid when using the modified lysis/centrifugation technique than when using the conventional method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (pcentrifugation technique showed to be more efficacious than the conventional one, and therefore the implementation of this methodology is highly recommended for the isolation of fungi from blood.

  2. Travail et pouvoir d’agir d’Yves Clot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Leplat

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Yves Clot est titulaire de la Chaire de psychologie du travail du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM au sein duquel il dirige l’équipe de clinique de l’activité. Cet ouvrage est le second qu’il publie dans cette collection, le premier « La fonction psychologique du travail » est paru en 1999. Entre les deux s’inscrivent un grand nombre de publications, dont beaucoup avec d’autres chercheurs, comme on pourra le constater en consultant la bibliographie de ce livre. Ce denier réun...

  3. Effects of neutron-gamma or gamma irradiations on plasma clotting factors. Effect of a treatment by substituted factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestries, J.C.; Martin, S.; Janodet, D.; Herodin, F.; Gourmelon, P.; Fatome, M.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron-gamma irradiation of the baboon at lethal dose altered the plasma clotting factors and induced a fibrinoformation alteration which occurred shortly before death. These disturbances, which were not found after gamma irradiation, could explain the importance of the haemorrhagic syndrome. Treatment by P.P.S.B. (factors II, VII, X and IX) counteracted the alterations of the plasma clotting factors, but had no influence on the lethality nor on the fibrinoformation alteration which seems to be an important cause of death [fr

  4. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Staphylococcus chromogenes, a Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Species That Can Clot Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Danielle Cabral; Lange, Carla Christine; Avellar-Costa, Pedro; Dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is one of the main coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from mastitis of dairy cows. We describe S. chromogenes isolates that can clot plasma. Since the main pathogen causing mastitis is coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the coagulase-positive phenotype of S. chromogenes described here can easily lead to misidentification. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Incorporation of albumin fusion proteins into fibrin clots in vitro and in vivo: comparison of different fusion motifs recognized by factor XIIIa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheffield William P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transglutaminase activated factor XIII (FXIIIa acts to strengthen pathological fibrin clots and to slow their dissolution, in part by crosslinking active α2-antiplasmin (α2AP to fibrin. We previously reported that a yeast-derived recombinant fusion protein comprising α2AP residues 13-42 linked to human serum albumin (HSA weakened in vitro clots but failed to become specifically incorporated into in vivo clots. In this study, our aims were to improve both the stability and clot localization of the HSA fusion protein by replacing α2AP residues 13-42 with shorter sequences recognized more effectively by FXIIIa. Results Expression plasmids were prepared encoding recombinant HSA with the following N-terminal 23 residue extensions: H6NQEQVSPLTLLAG4Y (designated XL1; H6DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y (XL2; H6WQHKIDLPYNGAG4Y (XL3; and their 17 residue non-His-tagged equivalents (XL4, XL5, and XL6. The HSA moiety of XL4- to XL6-HSA proteins was C-terminally His-tagged. All chimerae were efficiently secreted from transformed Pichia pastoris yeast except XL3-HSA, and following nickel chelate affinity purification were found to be intact by amino acid sequencing, as was an N-terminally His-tagged version of α2AP(13-42-HSA. Of the proteins tested, XL5-HSA was cross-linked to biotin pentylamine (BPA most rapidly by FXIIIa, and was the most effective competitor of α2AP crosslinking not only to BPA but also to plasma fibrin clots. In the mouse ferric chloride vena cava thrombosis model, radiolabeled XL5-HSA was retained in the clot to a greater extent than recombinant HSA. In the rabbit jugular vein stasis thrombosis model, XL5-HSA was also retained in the clot, in a urea-insensitive manner indicative of crosslinking to fibrin, to a greater extent than recombinant HSA. Conclusions Fusion protein XL5-HSA (DQMMLPWAVTLG4Y-HSAH6 was found to be more active as a substrate for FXIIIa-mediated transamidation than seven other candidate fusion proteins in

  7. [Ultrasound dynamics lysis apex thrombus as an objective criterion of effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, R E; Suchkov, I A; Pshennikov, A S; Agapov, A B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) for the treatment of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. The study considered ultrasonic characteristics of lysis of the proximal part of thrombus: localization and nature of venous thrombosis, the length and diameter of the proximal floating part of the thrombus, and duration of the venous thrombosis. Depending on the ACT options patients were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (18 patients) received rivaroxaban, group 2 (19 patients) received enoxaparin sodium with subsequent transition to warfarin, and 3 group (19 patietns) received enoxaparin sodium, followed by administration of rivaroxaban. Treatment with rivaroxaban was preferable over standard ACT with enoxaparin/warfarin with regards to the lysis of thrombus when duration of thrombosis did not exceed 10 days. In 10.5% of patients who received warfarin flotation of thrombi remained for 14 days; the length of the floating part of the thrombi did not exceed 3 cm. Such circumstances and inability to reach a therapeutic INR value required cava filter placement. Treatment with enoxaparin sodium followed by the administration of rivaroxaban was found to be the most efficient ACT regimen as there was no negative dynamics of ultrasound characteristics of lysis of thrombi at any duration of the disease.

  8. Polymer Coatings in 3D-Printed Fluidic Device Channels for Improved Cellular Adherence Prior to Electrical Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bethany C; Anderson, Kari B; Meisel, Jayda E; McNitt, Megan I; Spence, Dana M

    2015-06-16

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a polyjet-based three-dimensional (3D)-printed fluidic device where poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) or polystyrene (PS) were used to coat the sides of a fluidic channel within the device to promote adhesion of an immobilized cell layer. The device was designed using computer-aided design software and converted into an .STL file prior to printing. The rigid, transparent material used in the printing process provides an optically transparent path to visualize endothelial cell adherence and supports integration of removable electrodes for electrical cell lysis in a specified portion of the channel (1 mm width × 0.8 mm height × 2 mm length). Through manipulation of channel geometry, a low-voltage power source (500 V max) was used to selectively lyse adhered endothelial cells in a tapered region of the channel. Cell viability was maintained on the device over a 5 day period (98% viable), though cell coverage decreased after day 4 with static media delivery. Optimal lysis potentials were obtained for the two fabricated device geometries, and selective cell clearance was achieved with cell lysis efficiencies of 94 and 96%. The bottleneck of unknown surface properties from proprietary resin use in fabricating 3D-printed materials is overcome through techniques to incorporate PDMS and PS.

  9. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  10. In vivo bleeding time and in vitro thrombelastography measurements are better indicators of dilutional hypothermic coagulopathy than prothrombin time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Bijan S; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Deguzman, Rodolfo; Holcomb, John B

    2007-06-01

    The coagulopathy of trauma is generally confirmed by prothrombin time (PT) > or =16 seconds or an international normalized ratio > or =1.5. However, the utility of these values as a screening test is unknown. We examined different coagulation tests to determine the best predictor of coagulopathic bleeding and mortality in a small animal hemorrhage model. Coagulopathy was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by warfarin (W; 2 mg/kg for 2 days; n = 7), or hemodilution and hypothermia (HH; 50% blood exchange with Hextend, 34.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C; n = 7). Normal (N) rabbits without pretreatment served as the control (n = 7). Blood samples collected after coagulopathy induction and analyzed by prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thromboelastography (TEG) tests. Liver bleeding time (BT) was also measured before injury. An uncontrolled hemorrhage was created by a longitudinal splenic incision and the abdomen was closed. Rabbits were resuscitated with Hextend solution (25 mL/kg) to return blood pressure to baseline and monitored for 2 hours or until death at which time blood loss was measured. Warfarin-induced coagulopathy increased BT, PT, and aPTT. TEG showed increased reaction (R) and clot formation (K) times and marked decrease in clotting rate (alpha angle and Vmax). Hemodilution hypothermia coagulopathy increased only BT and aPTT, and decreased the clotting rate (alpha angle and Vmax) and strength of the clot. After injury, blood losses were higher in coagulopathic rabbits (W = 54.6 +/- 4.2 and HH = 51.1 +/- 8.9 mL/kg) than in normal rabbits (30.6 +/- 12.4 mL/kg) and resulted in 86%, 100%, and 0% death, respectively. BT and Vmax consistently predicted coagulopathic bleeding and death in all animals. Although satisfactory in warfarin-induced coagulopathy, PT was not a valid screening test for dilutional and hypothermic coagulopathy. BT and TEG measurements of blood clotting rate are better indicators of coagulopathic bleeding

  11. Three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hoggas, Naouel; Hafid, Kahina

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes for the first time an elegant non-chromatographic method, the three phase partitioning for the purification and recovery of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme, from Zingiber officinale rhizomes. Factors affecting partitioning efficiency such as (NH4)2SO4 saturation, crude extract to t-butanol ratio and pH on zingibain partitioning were investigated. Optimal purification parameters were 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation with 1.0:1.0 ratio of crude extract:t-butanol at pH 7.0, which gave 14.91 purification fold with 215% recovery of zingibain. The enzyme was found to be exclusively partitioned in the aqueous phase. The enzyme showed a prominent single band on SDS-PAGE. It is a monomeric protein of 33.8 kDa and its isoelectric point is 4.38. The enzyme exhibited maximal proteolytic activity at a temperature of 60 °C and pH 7.0. It was found to be stable at 40-65 °C during 2 h. The enzyme was found to be highly stable against numerous metal ions and its activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), K(+) and Na(+). It was completely inhibited by heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+) and Hg(2+) and partially by Cd(+). Zingibain milk-clotting activity (MCA) was found to be highly stable when stored under freezing (-20 °C) for 30 days compared at 4 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Seasonal Changes, Age and Smoking on Haemostatic Factors and Thyroxine Level in Egyptian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Bahgat, M. M.; Haggag, A. M.; Taha, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    ONE hundred and twenty male volunteers arranged into 6 equal groups participated in the present study to investigate the influence of age, smoking and season on clot formation, clot lysis and thyroxine hormone. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clotting time, platelet count, haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, haematocrit, total leukocytic count, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and concentration, partial thromboplastin time, factor V, VIII, plasminogen and thyroxine hormone were estimated in each group. The effect of age was studied by comparing young individuals (11-16 years) with adult non smokers (30-40 years) . Simultaneously adult non smokers were compared to adult smokers to evaluate the effect of smoking.Three groups: young , adult non smokers and adult smokers during winter were compared with their corresponding groups in summer to assess the season effect.The results revealed that most changes in the three groups were due to temperature variation and the young group had a better thermoregulation control than both adult groups .In non smoker adult group winter caused hypercoagulation with a concomitant increase in fibrinolytic activity as a protective mechanism against thrombus formation. Smoking caused disturbances in many coagulation factors and interaction between smoking and season is evident causing vascular disturbances. In summer smokers are more liable to bleeding, while in winter they are more liable to thrombus formation providing the other condition interfering with bleeding and thrombus formation are constant. There is relative hypothyroidism in smoker group only in summer season

  13. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  14. Quality of Clotting Factor Activity in Fresh Frozen Plasma at Thaw with a Microwave System and after Storage at 4 degrees C for 48 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Piotr; Hauck-Dlimi, Barbara; Strobel, Julian; Zimmermann, Robert; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage in polytrauma patients usually results in rapid need of blood products. Despite the shorter thawing times of microwave devices for heating fresh frozen plasma (FFP), their use has remained controversial, and just a few laboratory analyses have been published on this topic. The aim of this study was to analyse the quality of clotting factors immediately after thawing FFP with a microwave device and after 48-hour post thaw storage at 4 degrees C. 24 FFP units of all four ABO blood groups (six of each blood group) were thawed with a Transfusio-therm 2000 and later stored at 4 degrees C for 48 hours. Samples were drawn aseptically and investigated on various clotting factors and protein proteases (fibrinogen, antithrombin, FII, FV, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FX, FXI, FXIII, vWF antigen and activity, protein S, and protein C) using standard coagulation and chromogenic assays immediately after thawing and again after a 48-hour storage period at 4 degrees C. All units were tested for both anaerobic and aerobic microbial contamination using standard operating procedures immediately after thawing. After thawing, all coagulation factors and protein protease activities were within normal ranges. Blood group O individuals had approximately 25% lower plasma levels of vWF antigen and activity. After a 48-hour storage period at 4 degrees C, FVIII and FIX activities declined significantly in all blood groups, whereas the remaining clotting factors remained comparably stable. Immediately after rapid thawing using a microwave system, all FFP units contained adequate coagulation factor activities to maintain hemostatic activity at the time of product thaw. The post thaw refrigerated storage caused an anticipated decrease in factor VIII and IX activities, but retained normal coagulation factor levels of many plasma proteins. Therefore we conclude that the Transfusio-therm 2000 has no clinically significant influence on the activity of clotting factors and plasma

  15. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  16. Interactions between iodinated contrast media and tissue plasminogen activator: In vitro comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Eszter; Deres, László; Halmosi, Róbert; Várady, Edit; Tóth, Kálmán; Battyáni, István

    2017-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (Xenetix®, Ultravist®, Omnipaque®, Visipaque® and Iomeron®) used for computed tomography (CT) may decrease fibrinolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We hypothesized that receiving iodinated contrast media before rt-PA may impair thrombolysis as measured by a new model system. Whole blood from Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 10) was obtained and allowed to form blood clots. Thrombolysis was performed by placing individually the prepared clots into 15 mL tubes and adding 5 mL saline buffer, 100μg rt-PA and a different contrast media; adjusting the quantity of iodine to either 30 mg or 60 mg. The thrombolytic efficacy was quantified by measuring the optical density (OD415) of the supernatant at different time points, namely at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. There was a significant decrease in clot lysis efficiency observed in presence of iodine containing contrast media comparing to positive control group. Moreover, when the quantity of iodine was increased from 30 mg to 60 mg; the dissolution rate downturned with additional ∼50%. In conclusion, our study suggests that high dose of iodine potentially could negatively affect the efficiency of the thrombolytic therapy performed by rt-PA.

  17. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : IX. EVIDENCE OF HYDROLYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN DURING LYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1928-07-31

    1. During the process of lysis by bacteriophage, there is an appreciable increase in the amount of free amino acid present in the culture. 2. The increase of free amino acid is due to hydrolysis of bacterial protein.

  18. High-throughput proteomic characterization of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret)-derived fibrin clot interactome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Prado, Roberto; Azkargorta, Mikel; Rodriguez-Suárez, Eva; Iloro, Ibon; Casado-Vela, Juan; Elortza, Felix; Orive, Gorka

    2015-11-01

    Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF®-Endoret®) is an autologous technology that contains a set of proteins specifically addressed to wound healing and tissue regeneration. The scaffold formed by using this technology is a clot mainly composed of fibrin protein, forming a three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic network. This biomaterial is easily obtained by biotechnological means from blood and can be used in a range of situations to help wound healing and tissue regeneration. Although the main constituent of this clot is the fibrin scaffold, little is known about other proteins interacting in this clot that may act as adjuvants in the healing process. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteins enclosed by PRGF-Endoret scaffold, using a double-proteomic approach that combines 1D-SDS-PAGE approach followed by LC-MS/MS, and 2-DE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The results presented here provide a description of the catalogue of key proteins in close contact with the fibrin scaffold. The obtained lists of proteins were grouped into families and networks according to gene ontology. Taken together, an enrichment of both proteins and protein families specifically involved in tissue regeneration and wound healing has been found. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. In vitro Ca(2+)-dependent maturation of milk-clotting recombinant Epr: minor extracellular protease: from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, José Manuel; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Serrat, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-06-01

    The minor extracellular protease (Epr) is secreted into the culture medium during Bacillus licheniformis, strain USC13, stationary phase of growth. Whereas, B. subtilis Epr has been reported to be involved in swarming; the B. licheniformis protease is also involved in milk-clotting as shown by the curd forming ability of culture broths expressing this protein. The objectives of this study are the characterization of recombinant B. licheniformis Epr (minor extracellular protease) and the determination of its calcium-dependent activation process. In this work, we have cloned and expressed B. licheniformis Epr in Escherichia coli. We were also able to construct a tridimensional model for Epr based on its homology to Thermococcus kodakarensis pro-tk-subtilisin 2e1p, fervidolysin from Fervidobacterium pennivorans 1rv6, and B. lentus 1GCI subtilisin. Recombinant Epr was accumulated into inclusion bodies; after protein renaturation, Epr undergoes an in vitro calcium-dependent activation, similar to that described for tk protease. The recombinant Epr is capable of producing milk curds with the same clotting activity previously described for the native B. licheniformis Epr enzyme although further rheological and industrial studies should be carried out to confirm its real applicability. This work represents for the first time that Epr may be successfully expressed in a non-bacilli microorganism.

  20. Cell-density-dependent lysis and sporulation of Myxococcus xanthus in agarose microbeads.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbluh, A; Nir, R; Sahar, E; Rosenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Vegetative cells of Myxococcus xanthus were immobilized in 25-microns-diameter agarose microbeads and incubated in either growth medium or sporulation buffer. In growth medium, the cells multiplied, glided to the periphery, and then filled the beads. In sporulation buffer, up to 90% of the cells lysed and ca. 50% of the surviving cells formed resistant spores. A strong correlation between sporulation and cell lysis was observed; both phenomena were cell density dependent. Sporulation proficie...

  1. Resistance of some leukemic blasts to lysis by lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotides, P; Sjoegren, A -M; Reizenstein, P; Porwit, A. Immunopathology Lab., Dept. of Pathology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm; Wasserman, J

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and AML patients in remission were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2). These stimulated cells (lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells) showed increased DNA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-Thymidine uptake. A synergistic effect of PHA and IL-2 was found. LAK cells' ability to kill acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts was investigated by the /sup 51/Cr release assay. LAK cells showed a cytotoxicity (over 10% specific /sup 51/Cr release) against 9/12 leukemic blasts, even at effector/target (E/T) ratios as low as 5:1. However, on average only 22.2% (SD 11.8) and 36.5% (SD 12.5) /sup 51/Cr release were obtained in 4- and 18-hour cytotoxicity assays, respectively, at an E/T ratio of 20:1. Leukemic blasts in 3/12 AML cases and normal PBMC were entirely resistant to lysis, even at an E/T ratio of 80:1. Susceptibility to lysis was not correlated to peanut-agglutinin receptor expression. LAK cells were more cytotoxic towards the K-562 cell line (natural killer activity) than unstimulated PBMC.

  2. Does prior administration of enoxaparin influence the effects of levobupivacaine on blood clotting? Assessment using the Thrombelastograph.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, S A

    2012-02-03

    The low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin (by inhibition of factors Xa and IIa) and amide local anaesthetics (by altering platelet function) exert anti-clotting effects. Although these agents are often used in combination during the perioperative period, their potential interactive effect on clotting has not been defined. Blood from 10 ASA I-II patients who received enoxaparin 0.5 mg kg(-1) s.c. was studied using a Thrombelastograph (TEG) either alone or in combination with levobupivacaine (2.5 mg ml(-1) or 2.5 microg ml(-1)) or saline (50% dilution). In blood from patients who had received enoxaparin 0.5 mg kg(-1) s.c. 12 h previously, levobupivacaine 2.5 mg ml(-1) (but not 2.5 microg ml(-1)) produced significant changes in TEG clotting parameters (mean (SD) 15.7 (4.8) mm, 29.6 (25.6) mm, 34.4 (14.6) mm, 34.3 (12.2) degrees compared with control values of 6.1 (1.3) mm, 2.5 (0.5) mm, 63.5 (6.4) mm and 74.1 (2.9) degrees for r, K, MA, and alpha angle respectively).

  3. Comparative evaluation of Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 and Aloe variegata milk-clotting enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The properties of a milk clotting enzyme (MCE produced by bacteria (Bacillus licheniformis 5A5 were investigated and compared to those of rennet extracted from a plant (Aloe variegata. Production of MCE by B. licheniformis 5A5 was better in static than in shaken cultures. Maximum activity (98.3 and 160.3 U/ml of clotting was obtained at 75ºC and 80ºC with bacterial and plant rennet, respectively. In the absence of substrate, the clotting activity of Aloe MCE was found to be less sensitive to heat inactivation up to 80ºC for 75 min, retaining 63.8% of its activity, while bacterial MCE was completely inhibited. CaCl2 stimulated milk clotting activity (MCA up to 2% and 1.5% for bacterial and plant enzymes. NaCl inhibited MCA for both enzymes, even at low concentration (1%. Plant MCE was more sensitive to NaCl at 3% concentration it retained 30.2% of its activity, whereas bacterial MCE retained 64.1%. Increasing skim milk concentration caused a significant increase in MCA up to 6% for both enzymes. Mn2+ stimulated the activity of bacterial and plant enzymes to 158.6 and 177.9%, respectively. EDTA and PMSF increased the activity of plant MCE by 34.4 and 41.1%, respectively, which is higher than those for the bacterial MCE (19.1 and 20.9%. Some natural materials activated MCE, the highest activation of bacterial MCE (128.1% was obtained in the presence of Fenugreek (with acid extraction. However Lupine Giza 1 (with neutral extraction gave the highest activation of plant MCE (137.9%. All extracts from Neem plant increased MCA at range from 105.6% to 136.4%. Plant MCE exhibited much better stability when stored at room temperature (25-30ºC for 30 days, retaining 51.2% of its activity. Bacterial MCE was highly stabile when stored under freezing (-18ºC, retaining 100% of its activity after 30 days. Moreover, bacterial MCE was highly tolerant to repeated freezing and thawing without loss of activity for 8 months.

  4. Arthroscopic lysis and lavage in patients with temporomandibular anterior disc displacement without reduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machoň, V.; Šedý, Jiří; Klíma, K.; Hirjak, D.; Foltán, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2012), s. 109-113 ISSN 0901-5027 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GAP304/10/0320 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0538 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : temporomandibular joint * arthroscopic lysis * arthroscopic lavage Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2012

  5. Availability of the B beta(15-21) epitope on cross-linked human fibrin and its plasmic degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F.; Haber, E.; Matsueda, G. R.

    1992-01-01

    The binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antifibrin antibody 59D8 (specific for fibrin but not fibrinogen) to a series of degraded fibrin clots showed that the availability of the B beta(15-21) epitope (against which 59D8 had been raised) was inversely proportional to the extent of clot lysis. Examination of digest supernatants revealed that the B beta(15-21) epitope was released from clots as a high molecular weight degradation product in the presence of calcium ions but that the generation of low molecular weight peptides occurred in the absence of calcium ions. To address the question of epitope accessibility, we compared levels of fibrin clot binding among four radioactively labeled antibodies: antifibrin monoclonal antibody 59D8, two antifibrinogen monoclonal antibodies that cross-reacted with fibrin, and an affinity-purified polyclonal antifibrinogen antibody. We expected that the antifibrinogen antibodies would show enhanced binding to clots in comparison with the antifibrin antibody. However, the epitope accessibility experiments showed that all four antibody preparations bound fibrin clots at comparable levels. Taken together, these studies demonstrated that one fibrin-specific epitope, B beta(15-21), remains available on clots as they undergo degradation by plasmin and, importantly, that the epitope is not solubilized at a rate faster than the rate at which the clot is itself solubilized. The availability of the B beta(15-21) epitope during the course of plasminolysis assures the potential utility of antifibrin antibodies such as 59D8 for detecting thrombi and targeting plasminogen activators.

  6. Diphtheria toxin- and Pseudomonas A toxin-mediated apoptosis. ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 is required for DNA fragmentation and cell lysis and synergy with tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, H; Bonavida, B

    1992-09-15

    We have reported that diphtheria toxin (DTX) mediates target cell lysis and intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptosis) and also synergizes with TNF-alpha. In this paper, we examined which step in the pathway of DTX-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was important for induction of cytolytic activity and for synergy. Using a DTX-sensitive tumor cell line, we first examined the activity of the mutant CRM 197, which does not catalyze the ADP ribosylation of elongation factor-2 (EF-2). CRM 197 was not cytolytic for target cells and did not mediate intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation of viable cells. The failure of CRM 197 to mediate target cell lysis suggested that the catalytic activity of DTX is prerequisite for target cell lysis. This was corroborated by demonstrating that MeSAdo, which blocks the biosynthesis of diphthamide, inhibited DTX-mediated protein synthesis inhibition and also blocked target cell lysis. Furthermore, the addition of nicotinamide, which competes with NAD+ on the DTX action site of EF-2, also blocked DTX-mediated lysis. These findings suggest that ADP-ribosylation of EF-2 may be a necessary step in the pathway leading to target cell lysis. In contrast to the sensitive line, the SKOV-3 tumor cell line is sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition by DTX but is not susceptible to cytolysis and apoptosis by DTX. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition by DTX is not sufficient to mediate target cell lysis. The synergy in cytotoxicity obtained with the combination of DTX and TNF-alpha was examined in order to determine the pathway mediated by DTX in synergy. Like the direct lysis by DTX, synergy was significantly reduced by MeSAdo and by nicotinamide. Furthermore, synergy was not observed with combination of CRM 197 and TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that, in synergy, DTX may utilize the same pathway required for its cytolytic activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin shared most the properties shown for DTX. Altogether, these findings

  7. Evaluation of cell lysis procedures and use of a micro fluidic system for an automated DNA-based cell identification in interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. A.; Felnagle, E.; Fries, M.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.

    2006-12-01

    A Modular Assay System for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) is being developed to include sample handling, pre-treatment, separation and analysis of biological target compounds by both DNA and protein microarrays. To better design sensitive and accurate initial upstream sample handling of the MASSE instrument, experiments investigating the sensitivity and potential extraction bias of commercially available DNA extraction kits between classes of environmentally relevant prokaryotes such as gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus megatarium), and Archaea ( Haloarcula marismortui) were performed. For extractions of both planktonic cultures and spiked Mars simulated regolith, FTA ® paper demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with detection as low as ˜1×10 1 cells and ˜3.3×10 2 cells, respectively. In addition to the highest sensitivity, custom modified application of FTA ® paper extraction protocol is the simplest in terms of incorporation into MASSE and displayed little bias in sensitivity with respect to prokaryotic cell type. The implementation of FTA paper for environmental microbiology investigations appears to be a viable and effective option potentially negating the need for other pre-concentration steps such as filtration and negating concerns regarding extraction efficiency of cells. In addition to investigations on useful technology for upstream sample handling in MASSE, we have also evaluated the potential for μTAS to be employed in the MASSE instrument by employing proprietary lab-on-a-chip development technology to investigate the potential for microfluidic cell lysis of different prokaryotic cells employing both chemical and biological lysis agents. Real-time bright-field microscopy and quantitative PMT detection indicated that that gram positive, gram negative and archaeal cells were effectively lyzed in a few seconds using the microfluidic chip protocol developed. This included employing a lysis buffer with

  8. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannen, E.J. van; Zwart, G.; Agterveld, M.P. van; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles,

  9. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic community structure after mass lysis of filamentous cyanobacteria associated with viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hannen, E.J.; Zwart, G.; Van Agterveld, M.P.; Gons, H.J.; Ebert, J.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    During an experiment in two laboratory-scale enclosures filled with lake water (130 liters each) we noticed the almost-complete lysis of the cyanobacterial population. Based on electron microscopic observations of viral particles inside cyanobacterial filaments and counts of virus-like particles, we

  10. Mass entrapment and lysis of Mesodinium rubrum cells in mucus threads observed in cultures with Dinophysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojamäe, Karin; Hansen, Per Juel; Lips, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The entrapment and death of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum in the mucus threads in cultures with Dinophysis is described and quantified. Feeding experiments with different concentrations and predator–prey ratios of Dinophysis acuta, Dinophysis acuminata and M. rubrum to study the motility loss...... and aggregate formation of the ciliates and the feeding behaviour of Dinophysis were carried out. In cultures of either Dinophysis species, the ciliates became entrapped in the mucus, which led to the formation of immobile aggregates of M. rubrum and subsequent cell lysis. The proportion of entrapped ciliates...... was influenced by the concentration of Dinophysis and the ratio of predator and prey in the cultures. At high cell concentrations of prey (136 cells mL−1) and predator (100 cells mL−1), a maximum of 17% of M. rubrum cells became immobile and went through cell lysis. Ciliates were observed trapped in the mucus...

  11. A portable blood plasma clot micro-elastometry device based on resonant acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, C R; Li, Ling; Wolberg, Alisa S; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal blood clot stiffness is an important indicator of coagulation disorders arising from a variety of cardiovascular diseases and drug treatments. Here, we present a portable instrument for elastometry of microliter volume blood samples based upon the principle of resonant acoustic spectroscopy, where a sample of well-defined dimensions exhibits a fundamental longitudinal resonance mode proportional to the square root of the Young's modulus. In contrast to commercial thromboelastography, the resonant acoustic method offers improved repeatability and accuracy due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the resonant vibration. We review the measurement principles and the design of a magnetically actuated microbead force transducer applying between 23 pN and 6.7 nN, providing a wide dynamic range of elastic moduli (3 Pa-27 kPa) appropriate for measurement of clot elastic modulus (CEM). An automated and portable device, the CEMport, is introduced and implemented using a 2 nm resolution displacement sensor with demonstrated accuracy and precision of 3% and 2%, respectively, of CEM in biogels. Importantly, the small strains (diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring.

  12. Effect of Cold Storage on Shear-induced Platelet Aggregation and Clot Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    hemostasis and are lifesavingwhen transfused to treat thrombocytopenia. In response to vascular injury, platelets adhere, aggregate, and along with fibrin ...Handling Platelet - rich plasma (PRP) was obtained from phlebot- omized blood or AP collection. Blood was drawn in acid cit- rate dextroseYcontaining...aging and senes- cence during storage.35,38 Platelet activation and aggregation lead to clot formation, beginning with the linear polymerization of fibrin

  13. Isolation and Expression of the Lysis Genes of Actinomyces naeslundii Phage Av-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Allan L.; Barcak, Gerard J.; Guo, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Like most gram-positive oral bacteria, Actinomyces naeslundii is resistant to salivary lysozyme and to most other lytic enzymes. We are interested in studying the lysins of phages of this important oral bacterium as potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To identify the Actinomyces phage genes encoding these species-specific enzymes in Escherichia coli, we constructed a new cloning vector, pAD330, that can be used to enrich for and isolate phage holin genes, which are located adjacent to the lysin genes in most phage genomes. Cloned holin insert sequences were used to design sequencing primers to identify nearby lysin genes by using whole phage DNA as the template. From partial digestions of A. naeslundii phage Av-1 genomic DNA we were able to clone, in independent experiments, inserts that complemented the defective λ holin in pAD330, as evidenced by extensive lysis after thermal induction. The DNA sequence of the inserts in these plasmids revealed that both contained the complete lysis region of Av-1, which is comprised of two holin-like genes, designated holA and holB, and an endolysin gene, designated lysA. We were able to subclone and express these genes and determine some of the functional properties of their gene products. PMID:16461656

  14. CTL lysis: there is a hyperbolic relation of killing rate to exocytosable granzyme A for highly cytotoxic murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poe, M; Wu, J K; Talento, A; Koo, G C

    1996-06-10

    The lysis of susceptible targets by efficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) increases both with time and with the ratio of CTL to target. Simple methods for calculating a killing rate constant from the time dependence of killing and for calculating the relation of the killing rate constant to the concentration of exocytosable granzyme A are given. Application of these methods to the killing of target cells by the highly efficient mouse CTL AR1 is presented. AR1 needed granzyme A for efficient killing. AR1 contained sufficient exocytosable granzyme A to kill at about 80% of the rate possible at infinite exocytosable granzyme A.

  15. Clotting of mammalian fibrinogens by papain: a re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F

    2014-10-28

    Papain has long been known to cause the gelation of mammalian fibrinogens. It has also been reported that papain-fibrin is insoluble in dispersing solvents like strong urea or sodium bromide solutions, similar to what is observed with thrombin-generated clots in the presence of factor XIIIa and calcium. In those old studies, both the gelation and subsequent clot stabilization were attributed to papain, although the possibility that the second step might be due to contaminating factor XIII in fibrinogen preparations was considered. I have revisited this problem in light of knowledge acquired over the past half-century about thiol proteases like papain, which mostly cleave peptide bonds, and transglutaminases like factor XIIIa that catalyze the formation of ε-lysyl-γ-glutamyl cross-links. Recombinant fibrinogen, inherently free of factor XIII and other plasma proteins, formed a stable gel when treated with papain alone. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the intermolecular cross-linking in papain-fibrin leads to γ-chain dimers, trimers, and tetramers, just as is the case with thrombin-factor XIIIa-stabilized fibrin. Mass spectrometry of bands excised from gels showed that the cross-linked material is quite different from what occurs with factor XIIIa, however. With papain, the cross-linking occurs between γ chains in neighboring protofibrils becoming covalently linked in a "head-to-tail" fashion by a transpeptidation reaction involving the α-amino group of γ-Tyr1 and a papain cleavage site at γ-Gly403 near the carboxy terminus, rather than by the (reciprocal) "tail-to-tail" manner that occurs with factor XIIIa and that depends on cross-links between γ-Lys406 and γ-Gln398.

  16. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G; Hirata, Roli K; Funk, Sarah E; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this 'missing-self' response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8 + T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression.

  17. HLA-E-expressing pluripotent stem cells escape allogeneic responses and lysis by NK cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornalusse, Germán G.; Hirata, Roli K.; Funk, Sarah; Riolobos, Laura; Lopes, Vanda S.; Manske, Gabriel; Prunkard, Donna; Colunga, Aric G.; Hanafi, Laïla-Aïcha; Clegg, Dennis O.; Turtle, Cameron; Russell, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes can cause the rejection of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived products in allogeneic recipients. Disruption of the Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene eliminates surface expression of all class I molecules, but leaves the cells vulnerable to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Here we show that this ‘missing self’ response can be prevented by forced expression of minimally polymorphic HLA-E molecules. We use adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene editing to knock in HLA-E genes at the B2M locus in human PSCs in a manner that confers inducible, regulated, surface expression of HLA-E single-chain dimers (fused to B2M) or trimers (fused to B2M and a peptide antigen), without surface expression of HLA-A, B or C. These HLA-engineered PSCs and their differentiated derivatives are not recognized as allogeneic by CD8+ T cells, do not bind anti-HLA antibodies, and are resistant to NK-mediated lysis. Our approach provides a potential source of universal donor cells for applications where the differentiated derivatives lack HLA class II expression. PMID:28504668

  18. [Intraoperative lysis and neurostimulation as added therapy in surgery of popliteal artery aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiper, C; Heye, K; Ktenidis, K; Horsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Additional therapy of symptomatic popliteal artery aneurysm includes intraoperative lysis for the treatment of the descending thrombosis and spinal cord stimulation for cases of chronic deterioration of the peripheral perfusion state. Between 1989 and 1996, we treated 50 patients with 55 symptomatic aneurysms using this concept, 18 of them as emergency cases. We reached a postoperative amputation rate of 12.7% and good long-term functional results in 34 of 37 patients.

  19. Impaired respiration elicits SrrAB-dependent programmed cell lysis and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashruwala, Ameya A; van de Guchte, Adriana; Boyd, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface or each other. Biofilm-associated cells are the etiologic agents of recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Infected human tissues are hypoxic or anoxic. S. aureus increases biofilm formation in response to hypoxia, but how this occurs is unknown. In the current study we report that oxygen influences biofilm formation in its capacity as a terminal electron acceptor for cellular respiration. Genetic, physiological, or chemical inhibition of respiratory processes elicited increased biofilm formation. Impaired respiration led to increased cell lysis via divergent regulation of two processes: increased expression of the AtlA murein hydrolase and decreased expression of wall-teichoic acids. The AltA-dependent release of cytosolic DNA contributed to increased biofilm formation. Further, cell lysis and biofilm formation were governed by the SrrAB two-component regulatory system. Data presented support a model wherein SrrAB-dependent biofilm formation occurs in response to the accumulation of reduced menaquinone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23845.001 PMID:28221135

  20. Lysis of Gymnodinium breve by cultures of the green alga Nannochloris eucaryotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E; Sawyers, W G; Martin, D F

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory cultures of Florida's red tide organism, Gymnodinium breve, were killed by the green alga Nannochloris eucaryotum. Studies involved organism-organism interaction as well as organism-cell-free culture (N. eucaryotum) interaction. Both studies demonstrated that N. eucaryotum adversely affected Florida's red tide organism. The lysis has been attributed to compounds called APONINs (apparent oceanic naturally occurring cytolins). N. eucaryotum crude APONIN was extracted from cell-free cultures, partially purified and fractionated. The fractions were bioassayed against G. breve, and 'fingerprints' of the deleterious fractions were obtained.

  1. Microfluidic systems and methods for transport and lysis of cells and analysis of cell lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Christopher T [Oak Ridge, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; McClain, Maxine A [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic systems and methods are disclosed which are adapted to transport and lyse cellular components of a test sample for analysis. The disclosed microfluidic systems and methods, which employ an electric field to rupture the cell membrane, cause unusually rapid lysis, thereby minimizing continued cellular activity and resulting in greater accuracy of analysis of cell processes.

  2. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SELF-EXCITED VIBRATION OF PIPES CONTAINING MOBILE BOILING FLUID CLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Tolbatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling dynamic behavior of a pipe containing inner nonhomogeneous flows of a boiling fluid has been carried out. The system vibrations at different values of the parameters of the flow nonhomogeneity and its velocity are observed. The possibility of forming stable and unstable flows depending on the character ofnonhomogeneity and the velocity of fluid clots has been found.

  3. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent lysis of Fas+ (CD95+/Apo-1+) innocent bystanders by antigen-specific CD8+ CTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Eshima, K; Takayama, H; Sitkovsky, M V

    1997-09-15

    Exquisite specificity toward Ag-bearing cells (cognate targets) is one of the most important properties of CD8+ CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Using highly Ag-specific CD8+ CTL lines and clones, which spare noncognate, Ag-free targets, we found that in the presence of Ag-bearing targets the CTL acquire the ability to lyse noncognate target cells (bystanders). It is shown that the unexpectedly rapid and efficient lysis of bystanders by Ag-activated CTL is mediated by a Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-based mechanism and does not depend on perforin. The CTL lysed Fas-expressing bystanders, but spared the Fas-negative or anti-Fas mAb-resistant bystander cells. Accordingly, the FasL-deficient gld/gld CTL did not kill bystanders, while perforin-deficient CTL did. Unlike anti-Fas mAb-induced cell death, the lysis of bystanders was not only FasL/Fas dependent but also required adhesion molecule LFA-1 on the surface of the activated CTL. Lysis of bystanders is viewed as acceptable "collateral" damage, but the persistent presence of activated CTL could result in immunopathologies involving functional Fas-expressing tissues.

  4. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  5. Very High Throughput Electrical Cell Lysis and Extraction of Intracellular Compounds Using 3D Carbon Electrodes in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Renaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an electrical lysis throughput of 600 microliters per minute at high cell density (108 yeast cells per ml with 90% efficiency, thus improving the current common throughput of one microliter per minute. We also demonstrate the extraction of intracellular luciferase from mammalian cells with efficiency comparable to off-chip bulk chemical lysis. The goal of this work is to develop a sample preparation module that can act as a stand-alone device or be integrated to other functions already demonstrated in miniaturized devices, including sorting and analysis, towards a true lab-on-a-chip.

  6. Blood viscosity during coagulation at different shear rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Laddomada, Tommaso; Ranucci, Matteo; Baryshnikova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the coagulation process, blood changes from a liquid to a solid gel phase. These changes are reflected by changes in blood viscosity; however, blood viscosity at different shear rates (SR) has not been previously explored during the coagulation process. In this study, we investigated the viscosity changes of whole blood in 10 subjects with a normal coagulation profile, using a cone‐on‐plate viscosimeter. For each subject, three consecutive measurements were performed, at a SR of 20, 40, 80 sec−1. On the basis of the time‐dependent changes in blood viscosity, we identified the gel point (GP), the time‐to‐gel point (TGP), the maximum clot viscosity (MCV), and the clot lysis half‐time (CLH). The TGP significantly (P = 0.0023) shortened for increasing SR, and was significantly associated with the activated partial thromboplastin time at a SR of 20 sec−1 (P = 0.038) and 80 sec−1 (P = 0.019). The MCV was significantly lower at a SR of 80 sec−1 versus 40 sec−1 (P = 0.027) and the CLH significantly (P = 0.048) increased for increasing SR. These results demonstrate that measurement of blood viscosity during the coagulation process offers a number of potentially useful parameters. In particular, the association between the TGP and the activated partial thromboplastin time is an expression of the clotting time (intrinsic and common pathway), and its shortening for increasing SR may be interpreted the well‐known activating effects of SR on platelet activation and thrombin generation. Further studies focused on the TGP under conditions of hypo‐ or hypercoagulability are required to confirm its role in the clinical practice. PMID:24994896

  7. Anticoagulant Effect of Sugammadex: Just an In Vitro Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Daniel; Britten, Martin W; Pauling, Henning; Weidle, Juliane; Volbracht, Lothar; Görlinger, Klaus; Peters, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Sugammadex prolongs activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time (PT) suggestive of anticoagulant effects. To pinpoint its presumed anticoagulant site of action, the authors assessed Sugammadex's impact on a panel of coagulation assays. Sugammadex, Rocuronium, Sugammadex and Rocuronium combined, or saline were added to blood samples from healthy volunteers and analyzed using plasmatic (i.e., aPTT, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration) (n = 8 each), PT (quick), activities of plasmatic coagulation factors, and whole blood (extrinsically and intrinsically activated thromboelastometry) assays (n = 18 each). Furthermore, dose-dependent effects of Sugammadex were also assessed (n = 18 each) in diluted Russel viper venom time (DRVVT) assays with low (DRVVT1) and high (DRVVT2) phospholipid concentrations and in a highly phospholipid-sensitive aPTT assay. Sugammadex increased PT (+9.1%; P Sugammadex dose-dependently prolonged both DRVVT1 and the highly phospholipid-sensitive aPTT assays, but additional phospholipids in the DRVVT2 assay almost abolished these prolongations. Thrombin time, a thromboelastometric thrombin generation assay, clot firmness, clot lysis, fibrinogen concentration, and activities of other coagulation factors were unaltered. Rocuronium, Sugammadex and Rocuronium combined, and saline exerted no effects. Sugammadex significantly affects various coagulation assays, but this is explainable by an apparent phospholipid-binding effect, suggesting that Sugammadex`s anticoagulant effects are likely an in vitro artifact.

  8. Tumour lysis syndrome: A rare acute presentation of locally advanced testicular cancer – Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially fatal complication of malignancy or its treatment. This uncommon syndrome comprises laboratory findings of hyperuricaemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperkalaemia and hyperphosphataemia. A literature search revealed a total of eight patients, with testicular cancer, who had TLS. All these patients had metastatic disease. We present a unique case of a 47-year-old gentleman we saw in clinic, who presented with a rapidly growing right groin mass and acute breathlessness, and discuss the diagnosis and management of TLS. TLS is extremely rare in testicular cancer but necessitates the awareness of urologists. TLS can occur spontaneously in testicular malignancy. Cell lysis in a rapidly proliferating germ cell tumour is a possible mechanism. The prompt identification and institution of management for TLS is crucial to improve clinical outcomes.

  9. An improved in-house lysis-filtration protocol for bacterial identification from positive blood culture bottles with high identification rates by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sachio; Murata, Syota; Miyabe, Akiko; Satoh, Mamoru; Takiwaki, Masaki; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now a well-established method for identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures. Pretreatments to effectively remove non-bacterial proteins are a prerequisite for successful identification, and a variety of protocols have been reported. Although commercially available kits, mainly the Sepsityper Kit, are increasingly used, the identification rates reported often are not satisfactory, particularly for Gram-positive isolates. We developed a new, in-house lysis-filtration protocol and prospectively evaluated its performance compared to the Sepsityper kit. The in-house protocol consists of three simple steps: lysis by ammonium chloride, aspiration with a syringe fitted with a 0.45-μm membrane, and centrifugation to collect microbes. The novel protocol requires only 20 min. Performance of the in-house protocol was evaluated using a total of 117 monomicrobial cases of positive blood culture. Medium from blood culture bottles was pretreated by the in-house protocol or the commercial kit, and isolated cells were subjected to direct identification by mass spectrometry fingerprinting in parallel with conventional subculturing for reference identification. The overall MALDI-TOF MS-based identification rates with score > 1.7 and > 2.0 obtained using the in-house protocol were 99.2% and 85.5%, respectively, whereas those obtained using the Sepsityper Kit were 85.4% and 61.5%, respectively. For Gram-positive cases, the in-house protocol yielded scores >1.7 and > 2.0 at 98.5% and 76.1%, respectively, whereas the commercial kit yielded these scores at 76.1% and 43.3%, respectively. Although these are preliminary results, these values suggest that this easy lysis-filtration protocol deserves assessment in a larger-scale test. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  11. Changes to the structure of blood clots formed in the presence of fine particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metassan, Sofian; Routledge, Michael N; Ariens, Robert A S; Scott, D Julian

    2009-01-01

    Both long-term and short-term exposure (one to two hours) to particulate matter are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to cardiovascular events are unclear, however, changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM, the smallest of which can enter the circulation) is a plausible mechanism. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the direct effects of particulate matter on fibrin polymerization, lateral aggregation and the formation of fibrin network structure. Methods: Standard Urban Particulate Matter (PM) was suspended in Tris buffer centrifuged and filtered with <200nm filter to obtain ultrafine PM or their water-soluble components. Purified normal fibrinogen was made to clot by adding thrombin and calcium chloride in the presence of varying concentrations of PM. Permeation properties (Darcy constant [Ks]) and turbidity of clots were measured to investigate the effects on flow-rate, pore size, and fibrin polymerization. In addition, confocal microscopy was performed to study detailed clot structure. Results: Total PM increased the Ks of clots in a dose dependant manner (Ks = 4.4, 6.9 and 13.2 x 10-9 cm2 for 0, 50 and 100 |ag/ml total PM concentrations, respectively). Filtered PM also produced a significant increase in Ks at PM concentration of 17 |ag/ml. Final turbidity measurements at 20min were obtained for varying concentrations of PM. Maximum optical density (OD) for 1 mg/ml fibrinogen at 0, 50, 100 and 200 |ag/ml total PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42, 0.45 and 0.46, respectively. The maximum OD for 0, 17, 34 and 68 |ag/ml filtered PM concentrations were 0.39, 0.42 0.47 and 0.51, respectively, suggesting an increase in fibre diameter with increasing particulate concentration. The lag phase was significantly shorter and the rate of polymerisation was significantly faster in the presence of 68 |ag/ml filtered PM. Confocal microscopy results showed

  12. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Svendsen, M.S.; Salado, J.

    2008-01-01

    thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation...... (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. RESULTS: Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P

  13. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  14. N-terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide, High-sensitivity Troponin and Pulmonary Artery Clot Score as Predictors of Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granér, Marit; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Selander, Tuomas; Laiho, Mia K; Piilonen, Anneli; Raade, Merja; Mustonen, Pirjo

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the ability of cardiac biomarkers and total pulmonary artery (PA) clot score to predict right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) on admission and at seven-month follow-up in subjects with acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Sixty-three normotensive patients with APE were divided into two groups: patients with (n= 32, age 58±19 years) and without (n=31, age 55±16 years) echocardiographic RVD. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) were assessed upon arrival and repeated at seven months. Total PA clot score was determined on admission. The age- and sex dependent NT-proBNP on admission, on day 5, and at seven months exhibited the best sensitivity (admission 94%, day 5 100%, seven months 100%) and negative predictive value (NPV) (89%, 100%, 100%) for detecting RVD. Six patients (10%) had persistent RVD at seven months. Total PA clot score showed only low to moderate sensitivity (77%) and PPV (7%) for detection of RVD at seven months. Normal age- and sex dependent NT-proBNP on admission or measured five days later seems to be useful in exclusion of RVD at follow up. Total PA clot score shows only to be of modest benefit for predicting persistent RVD. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute deep vein thrombosis and endovascular techniques: It is time for a new aggiornamento!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernès, J-M; Auguste, M; Kovarski, S; Borie, H; Renaudin, J-M; Coppe, G

    2012-10-01

    The stated aims of treating acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are to prevent a pulmonary embolism, stop the clot from spreading, reduce the risk of a recurrence; they are less concerned with the late morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). In accordance with the French (Afssaps, 2009) and North American (ACCP, 2008) recommendations, anticoagulants (LMWH, heparin, AVK) form the cornerstone for treating DVT. These treatments appear to be far less effective in preventing post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), associated with venous hypertension, residual occlusion, and with reflux caused by valve incompetence. Given that, the new aim is to optimise the prevention of PTS, the ACCP guidelines, unlike those of Afssaps, "suggest" for selected patients suffering from acute iliofemoral DVT, the use of both classic anticoagulants, and in situ percutaneous administration of thrombolytic drugs (recommendation grade 2B) and simultaneous correction of any underlying anatomical anomalies using angioplasty and stenting (recommendation 2C). Contemporary endovascular methods, referred to collectively as "facilitated" thrombolysis, combine low doses of rtPa or Urokinase administered locally, and the removal of the clot using various mechanical, rotating, rheolytic systems, or using ultrasound. The results of non-randomised, heterogeneous studies objectivised a lysis rate of 80%, a 50% lower risk of haemorrhage complications compared with systemic thrombolysis (modern "open vein" concept which underpins the hope of an improvement in the late prognosis of acute DVT, through the removal of a clot, thereby improving permeability and valve integrity; this hypothesis is supported by the results at 24 months of a randomised CaVent objectifying absolute risk reduction of 15% in the thrombolysis in situ. The current randomised study (ATTRACT trial) comparing the combination of "facilitated thrombolysis" in addition to the usual treatment with the traditional treatment alone for

  16. Purification and characterization of a milk-clotting aspartic proteinase from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Berta E; Brutti, Cristina B; Caffini, Néstor O

    2004-12-29

    The study of proteinase expression in crude extracts from different organs of the globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) disclosed that enzymes with proteolytic and milk-clotting activity are mainly located in mature flowers. Maximum proteolytic activity was recorded at pH 5.0, and inhibition studies showed that only pepstatin, specific for aspartic proteinases, presented a significant inhibitory effect. Such properties, in addition to easy enzyme inactivation by moderate heating, make this crude protease extract potentially useful for cheese production. Adsorption with activated carbon, together with anion exchange and affinity chromatography, led to the isolation of a heterodimeric milk-clotting proteinase consisting of 30- and 15-kDa subunits. MALDI-TOF MS of the 15-kDa chain determined a 15.358-Da mass, and the terminal amino sequence presented 96% homology with the smaller cardosin A subunit. The amino terminal sequence of the 30-kDa chain proved to be identical to the larger cardosin A subunit. Electrophoresis evidenced proteinase self-processing that was confirmed by immunoblots presenting 62-, 30-, and 15-kDa bands.

  17. Surgical treatment of bilateral nondisplaced isthmic lysis by interlaminar fixation device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Mostofi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Spondylolysis is a defect in the portion of pars interarticularis. The latter affects approximately 6% of the population. It is caused by repetitive trauma in hyperextension. Low back pain is the most common symptom. Methods: We implanted interspinous process devices in 12 patients with isthmic lysis without spondylolisthesis for low back pain. The purpose of the surgery was to conduct a minimally invasive procedure. Results: In eight cases, patients became asymptomatic. In two cases, there has been a considerable improvement. In two cases, no change had been noted. Conclusion: This good result motivates us to consider this approach a part of therapeutic arsenal for some cases of spondylolysis.

  18. Computational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    domain used in our thrombus formation simulations. Fig. 2 B shows the 3D geometry of the flow-chamber section consisting of two channels measuring 250 60...ArticleComputational Study of Thrombus Formation and Clotting Factor Effects under Venous Flow ConditionsVijay Govindarajan,1 Vineet Rakesh,1 Jaques...understanding of thrombus formation as a physicochemical process that has evolved to protect the integrity of the human vasculature is critical to our ability to

  19. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.; Robinson, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by natural killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma

  20. Application of Doehlert experimental design in the optimization of experimental variables for the Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Reges de Sena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the influence of pH and temperature on the lysis of yeast using experimental design. In this study, the enzymatic extract containing β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, obtained from the micro-organism Moniliophthora perniciosa, was used. The experiment showed that the best conditions for lysis of Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 306 and Pseudozyma sp. (CCMB 300 by lytic enzyme were pH 4.9 at 37 ºC and pH 3.9 at 26.7 ºC, respectively. The lytic enzyme may be used for obtaining various biotechnology products from yeast.

  1. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were investigated in treated and untreated diabetics as well as ... decrease the availability of these proteins which affect the clotting ... calcum rabbit brain thromboplastin reagent placed in.

  2. Tranexamic acid combined with recombinant factor VIII increases clot resistance to accelerated fibrinolysis in severe hemophilia A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Sørensen, Hanne Thykjær; Norengaard, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    examined whether the clot stability in hemophiliacs could be improved by treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) in combination with recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII). PATIENTS/METHODS: Baseline blood samples were obtained from eight males with severe hemophilia A. Thereafter, a bolus injection of r...

  3. Evaluation of clot formation in blood-contrast agent mixture: experimental study on ionic/nonionic contrast agents and plastic/ glass syringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Yong Chul; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1991-01-01

    Recent introduction of low-osmolar nonionic contrast agents has allowed the performance of angiography with certain advantages such as reduced pain, reduced osmotic load and other potential advantages, over high osmolar ionic contrast agents. But the potential thrombogenic risk of nonionic contrast agent has been debate because of their weak anticoagulation effect. Several reports have recently documented the formation of thrombi in catheters and syringes containing nonionic contrast agent, and thromboembolic episodes have been noted during angiographic procedures. We have also been experienced blood clotting within blood mixed contrast agent syringe during angiography. Thus, we have studied with blood mixed ionic (Diatrizoate, Ioglicate) agents and nonionic (Iopamidol, Iopromide) agents, that used usually in our hospital, and saline in plastic and glass syringes. Each syringes were checked the clot formation on 10,30,60,90 minutes. Total 340 samples were obtained from 8 adults before angiography. Our data showed that nonionic contrast agents had significantly lesser anticoagulation effect than ionic contrast agents (ρ < 0.0001) on Chi-square test), both in plastic and glass syringes. And formation of clotting in glass syringes were significantly greater than that in plastic syringes (ρ < 0.0001). Thus meticulous technique is required to prevent thrombosis during angiographic procedure using nonionic contrast agents

  4. Porcine pilot study of MRI-guided HIFU treatment for neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Thomas; Waspe, Adam; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Hynynen, Kullervo; Drake, James

    2012-11-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) occurs in 15% of premature babies and 50% of IVH cases progress to posthemorrhagic ventricular dilation due to large blood clots forming in the ventricles. Existing treatments such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and surgical intervention have severe side effects in paediatric patients that include excessive bleeding and complications. This study investigates the feasibility of MR-HIFU for sonothrombolysis of blood clots from IVH using natural acoustic windows, known as fontanelles, in the skulls of newborns. The study involved 2 elements: a phantom study to examine beam limitations and acoustic properties, and an in-vivo porcine study. A phantom skull was created from sample patient data and was used to analyze reachability of the Philips Sonavelle system. Acoustic measurements of the phantom (attenuation of 5-14 dB and speed of sound of 1722-2965 m/s) indicated the phantom effectively mimics neonatal skull bone. For the ex-vivo studies, a porcine clot was created and sonicated for 5 mins at 500W with a 0.5% duty cycle. For the in-vivo experiment, a vertex craniotomy was performed and porcine blood was injected into the lateral ventricle under ultrasound guidance. Sonication using the prior parameters induced cavitation and post-sonication T1 and T2 images verified clot lysis. Further H&E analysis showed no presence of blood in the ventricles. These positive results show that MR-HIFU has potential as a noninvasive tool for sonothrombolysis of neonatal IVH clots.

  5. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Continuous nucleus extraction by optically-induced cell lysis on a batch-type microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Hsuan; Hung, Lien-Yu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-21

    The extraction of a cell's nucleus is an essential technique required for a number of procedures, such as disease diagnosis, genetic replication, and animal cloning. However, existing nucleus extraction techniques are relatively inefficient and labor-intensive. Therefore, this study presents an innovative, microfluidics-based approach featuring optically-induced cell lysis (OICL) for nucleus extraction and collection in an automatic format. In comparison to previous micro-devices designed for nucleus extraction, the new OICL device designed herein is superior in terms of flexibility, selectivity, and efficiency. To facilitate this OICL module for continuous nucleus extraction, we further integrated an optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) module with the OICL device within the microfluidic chip. This on-chip integration circumvents the need for highly trained personnel and expensive, cumbersome equipment. Specifically, this microfluidic system automates four steps by 1) automatically focusing and transporting cells, 2) releasing the nuclei on the OICL module, 3) isolating the nuclei on the ODEP module, and 4) collecting the nuclei in the outlet chamber. The efficiency of cell membrane lysis and the ODEP nucleus separation was measured to be 78.04 ± 5.70% and 80.90 ± 5.98%, respectively, leading to an overall nucleus extraction efficiency of 58.21 ± 2.21%. These results demonstrate that this microfluidics-based system can successfully perform nucleus extraction, and the integrated platform is therefore promising in cell fusion technology with the goal of achieving genetic replication, or even animal cloning, in the near future.

  7. Heat transfer analysis on peristaltically induced motion of particle-fluid suspension with variable viscosity: Clot blood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M M; Zeeshan, A; Ellahi, R

    2016-12-01

    In this article, heat transfer analysis on clot blood model of the particle-fluid suspension through a non-uniform annulus has been investigated. The blood propagating along the whole length of the annulus was induced by peristaltic motion. The effects of variable viscosity and slip condition are also taken into account. The governing flow problem is modeled using lubrication approach by taking the assumption of long wavelength and creeping flow regime. The resulting equation for fluid phase and particle phase is solved analytically and closed form solutions are obtained. The physical impact of all the emerging parameters is discussed mathematically and graphically. Particularly, we considered the effects of particle volume fraction, slip parameter, the maximum height of clot, viscosity parameter, average volume flow rate, Prandtl number, Eckert number and fluid parameter on temperature profile, pressure rise and friction forces for outer and inner tube. Numerical computations have been used to determine the behavior of pressure rise and friction along the whole length of the annulus. The present study is also presented for an endoscope as a special case of our study. It is observed that greater influence of clot tends to rise the pressure rise significantly. It is also found that temperature profile increases due to the enhancement in Prandtl number, Eckert number, and fluid parameter. The present study reveals that friction forces for outer tube have higher magnitude as compared to the friction forces for an inner tube. In fact, the results for present study can also be reduced to the Newtonian fluid by taking ζ → ∞. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (pdirectly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  9. Transfusion packages for massively bleeding patients: the effect on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Stensballe, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of administering a transfusion package encompassing 5 red blood cells (RBC), 5 fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 2 platelet concentrates (PC) on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG) in 10 patients presenting with massive bleeding. Blood was ...

  10. A comparative evaluation of the blood clot, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of necrotic immature permanent teeth: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Narang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was designed as a clinical trial to evaluate and compare the regenerative potential of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF, platelet-rich plasma (PRP, and blood clot in immature necrotic permanent teeth with or without associated apical periodontitis. Methods: Access preparation was done under rubber dam isolation. Copious irrigation was done with 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste was placed as an intracanal medicament. After 4 weeks, the cases were divided into four groups with five patients in each group. The study design had three test arms and one control arm. Group I in which mineral trioxide aggregate apexification was carried out and it was kept as control group to evaluate the regenerative potential of blood clot and platelet concentrates, Group II in which blood clot was used as scaffold in the canal, Group III in PRF was used as scaffold, and Group IV in which PRP carried on collagen was used as a scaffold. Results: The clinical and radiographic evaluation after 6 and 18 months was done by two independent observers who were blinded from the groups. The scoring was done as: None score was denoted by, Fair by 1, Good by 2, and Excellent by 3. The data were then analyzed statistically by Fisher′s exact test using Statistics and Data 11.1(PRP Using harvest Smart PReP2 which showed statistically significant values in Group III as compared to other Groups. Conclusion: PRF has huge potential to accelerate the growth characteristics in immature necrotic permanent teeth as compared to PRP and blood clot.

  11. Clot lysis time and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in young women; results from the RATIO case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegerink, Bob; Meltzer, Mirjam E.; de Groot, Philip G.; Algra, Ale; Lisman, Ton; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    Reduced overall fibrinolytic capacity increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), as demonstrated in studies with predominantly male participants. We determined the influence of altered fibrinolysis on the risk of MI and ischaemic stroke (IS) in young women. The RATIO (Risk of Arterial

  12. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Zoran; Vukasinović-Vesić, Milica; Dincić, Dragan; Surbatović, Maja; Radaković, Sonja S

    2013-07-01

    Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST) either in cool [20 degrees C, 16 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], or hot (40 degrees C, 29 degrees C, (WBGT) environment, unacclimatized (U) or after 10 days of passive (P) or active (A) acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty) and heart rates (HR). Platelet count (PC), antithrombin III (AT), and prothrombin time (PT) were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR), with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  13. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....... participated in an open trial investigating the possible effects of the treatment on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Pain-free and maximal walking distances were measured on a treadmill, and systolic blood pressure was measured on the upper limb, the ankle, and the first toe bilaterally. The threshold...... for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was tested, and the fibrinolytic activity was estimated from the euglobulin clot lysis time. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found during placebo...

  14. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Machen

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS. After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012 category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012 minor error, 1.7% (7/1012 major error, and 1.3% (13/1012 very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001. Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship.

  15. Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne)

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  16. Potential application of immobilized streptokinase extracted from Streptococcus equinus VIT_VB2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnavi, B; Subathra Devi, C

    2017-11-26

    Streptokinase purified from Streptococcus equinus VIT_VB2 isolated from bovine milk sample was immobilized in various solid supports namely entrapment in agarose gel, calcium alginate beads and gelatin gel by cross-linking with formaldehyde. Immobilization of streptokinase in calcium alginate beads showed maximum efficiency (81.8 ± 1.06%) when compared with entrapment with agarose gel (55.6 ± 2.17%) and cross-linked gelatin formaldehyde gel (71.0 ± 1.54%). The purified SK activity was expressed maximum in calcium alginate (1%) and gelatin gel (0.25%) with 1292.68 ± 1.33 and 1121.9 ± 1.2 U mL -1 , respectively. Similarly, SK entrapped in gelatin gel and calcium alginate showed maximum in vitro blood clot lysis activity with 77.67 ± 2.64% and 76.16 ± 2.72%, respectively. The immobilized SK in gelatin gel showed complete clot lysis within 15 min; hence, this application of the study could be used in the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis, phlebitis, and venous thrombosis. These beads were used for three repeated cycles to check the conversion of substrates into their products, and we concluded that SK can be immobilized in the suitable matrices. Therefore, this helps in the drug-delivery strategies in highly efficient way, moreover, economically competent process in the pharmaceutics.

  17. Thrombin generation assay as a possible tool for assessment of reduced activity of clotting factors induced by antiphospholipid antibodies and in-vitro evaluation of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livnat, Tami; Zivelin, Ariella; Tamarin, Ilia; Guetta, Victor; Salomon, Ophira

    2009-12-01

    Bleeding is a rare manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome, unless associated with reduced clotting factors or severe thrombocytopenia. Accurate assessment of the autoantibodies in plasma is very important since the autoantibodies can lead to bleeding or thrombosis. The objective of the present study was to define the inhibitors causing reduced clotting activity in a patient with antiphospholipids antibodies and to assess the potential of thrombin generation assay to assist in establishment of optimal treatment in case of major bleeding. Levels of clotting factors as well as inhibitors to factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were defined. For detection of inhibitors to prothrombin crossed immunoelectrophoresis was used. IgG was purified by commercial protein A column. Thrombin generation was measured using a fluorometric assay in platelet-poor and platelet-rich plasma. Inhibitors toward the activity of factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X and XI were defined and also an inhibitor to prothrombin antigen. No thrombin generation was induced in the patient's plasma by recalcification even in the presence of recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity. In contrast, addition of platelets from either donor or patient or synthetic phospholipids normalized the thrombin generation. The thrombin generation model showed that the addition of platelets and no recombinant factor VIIa or factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity would correct thrombin generation in vitro. On this basis, platelet concentrates were administered to a patient with bleeding caused by lupus anticoagulant and low clotting factors activity.

  18. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  19. Mobile applications for handheld devices to screen and randomize acute stroke patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ai; Connelly, B; Abbott, Ei; Maland, E; Kim, J; Blake, J

    2012-08-01

    The availability of internet connectivity and mobile application software used by low-power handheld devices makes smart phones of unique value in time-sensitive clinical trials. Trial-specific applications can be downloaded by investigators from various mobile software distribution platforms or web applications delivered over HTTP. The Antihypertensive Treatment in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) II investigators in collaboration with MentorMate released the ATACH-II Patient Recruitment mobile application available on iPhone, Android, and Blackberry in 2011. The mobile application provides tools for pre-screening, assessment of eligibility, and randomization of patients. Since the release of ATACH-II mobile application, the CLEAR-IVH (Clot Lysis Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage) trial investigators have also adopted such a mobile application. The video-conferencing capabilities of the most recent mobile devices open up additional opportunities to involve central coordinating centers in the recruitment process in real time.

  20. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A.; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-01-01

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain χ8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis a...

  1. Catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy for thoracic deep vein thrombosis is safe and effective in selected patients with and without cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleux, Geert; Marchal, Pieter; Heye, Sam; Vaninbroukx, Johan; Palmers, Marleen; Verhamme, Peter; Verhaeghe, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    To assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of catheter-directed thrombolysis for thoracic central venous thrombosis in both cancer and non-cancer patients. A retrospective case series of 68 patients, including 35 with active cancer and 33 without cancer, was analysed. They all received catheter-directed thrombolysis with alteplase or urokinase for symptomatic acute major thoracic vein thrombosis. Substantial clot lysis was obtained in 62 out of 68 patients (91%), the results being 88.6 and 93.8% for cancer and non-cancer patients respectively (P = 0.68). The mean infusion time in patients with and without cancer was 2.11 and 1.84 days respectively (P = 0.3259). Procedure-related complications occurred in two cancer patients (8.6%) and in seven non-cancer patients (21%) (P = 0.18). One cancer patient developed a fatal intracranial bleeding. Additional intervention after successful lysis was performed in cancer (n = 18; 51%) as well as in non-cancer patients (n = 29; 88%). Catheter-directed thrombolysis is a feasible and highly effective interventional procedure with an acceptable safety profile in selected patients with and without cancer for the treatment of symptomatic thoracic central venous thrombosis. In most cases, additional endovascular or surgical procedures are required to restore and maintain vessel patency after successful thrombolysis. (orig.)

  2. Prolonged Activated Clotting Time after Protamine Administration Does Not Indicate Residual Heparinization after Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Wolf, Hans-Gerd; Sinzobahamvya, Nicodème; Asfour, Boulos; Hraska, Victor; Schindler, Ehrenfried

    2015-08-01

    In open heart surgery, heparinization is commonly neutralized using an empirical heparin:protamine ratio ranging between 1:1 and 1:1.5. However, these ratios may result in protamine overdose that should be avoided for its negative side effects on the coagulation system. This study aimed to indicate the appropriate treatment for prolonged activated clotting time (ACT) after protamine administration following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in pediatric open heart surgery by investigating the underlying reasons for it. Twenty-seven children (open heart surgery were included. Heparin was administered only before CPB (400 IU/kg) and in the pump priming volume for CPB (2,000 IU) and was neutralized by 1:1 protamine after CPB. The blood heparin concentration was measured using anti-Xa assay. ACT and blood concentrations of heparin, coagulation factors, thrombin-antithrombin complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 were assessed. A rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem International GmbH, München, Bayern, Germany) was used to confirm the coagulation status and residual heparin after protamine administration. Anti-Xa assay showed that there is no residual heparin in the blood after 1:1 protamine administration. Nevertheless, ACT (128.89 ± 3.09 seconds before heparin administration) remained prolonged (177.14 ± 5.43 seconds at 10 minutes after protamine, 182.00 ± 5.90 seconds at 30 minutes after protamine). The blood concentrations of coagulation factors were significantly lower than those before heparin administration (p < 0.01). The low FIBTEM MCF of ROTEM (4.43 ± 0.32 mm) at 10 minutes after protamine indicated low fibrinogen concentration. Prolonged ACT after heparin neutralization by 1:1 protamine administration does not necessarily indicate residual heparin, but low blood concentrations of coagulation factors should be considered as a reason as well. Accordingly, supply of coagulation factors instead of additional protamine should be

  3. TNF induction of EL4 hyposensitivity to lysis by recombinant (soluble) and membrane-associated TNFs: TNF binding, internalization, and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M; Costlow, M

    1994-04-01

    EL4 mouse thymoma cells sensitive to TNF-mediated lysis only in the presence of cycloheximide (S-EL4) or in the presence or absence of cycloheximide (N-EL4) were used in these experiments. Murine tumor cell line (S-EL4) sensitivity to TNF cytotoxicity is augmented when cycloheximide is added together with TNF or when cycloheximide is added 1 hr before or after TNF. No enhanced sensitivity is observed when target cells are incubated with cycloheximide 2-4 hr before or after the addition of TNF. In the absence of cycloheximide, S-EL4 cells preexposed to murine TNF are less susceptible to lysis by TNF and TNF receptor-conjugated TNF but are lysed by integral membrane TNF. TNF-induced hyposensitivity is partially reversed by actinomycin D or by culturing the preexposed cells for 4 hr prior to TNF lytic assay. TNF preincubation of N- and S-EL4 cells results in an immediate decrease in 125I-TNF binding due to TNF receptor occupancy. Recovery of TNF-R occupancy and TNF internalization were subsequently noted.

  4. Viscoelasticity as a measurement of clot structure in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients: towards a precision and personalized medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette

    2016-08-09

    Type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) have a considerably higher cardiovascular risk, which is closely associated with systemic inflammation, and an accompanying pathologic coagulation system. Due to the complexity of the diabetic profile, we suggest that we need to look at each patient individually and particularly at his or her clotting profile; as the healthiness of the coagulation system gives us an indication of the success of clinical intervention. T2D coagulability varied markedly, although there were no clear difference in medication use and the standards of HbA1c levels. Our sample consisted of 90 poorly controlled T2D and 71 healthy individuals. We investigated the medication use and standards of HbA1c levels of T2D and we used thromboelastography (TEG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their clot formation. The latest NIH guidelines suggest that clinical medicine should focus on precision medicine, and the current broad understanding is that precision medicine may in future, provide personalized targets for preventative and therapeutic interventions. Here we suggest a practical example where TEG can be used as an easily accessible point-of-care tool to establish a comprehensive clotting profile analysis for T2D patients; and additionally may provide valuable information that may be used in the envisaged precision medicine approach. Only by closely following each individual patient's progress and healthiness and thereby managing systemic inflammation, will we be able to reduce this pandemic.

  5. Correlation between Packed Cell Volume and ‎Concentration of Clotting Factors FI, FVII, and ‎FVIII in Smokers Polycythemic males in Babylon ‎Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakhel Ghani Omran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking represents a worldwide problem and affects various body functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the available concentration of some clotting factors in smokers polycythemic male patients. A total number of subjects was 120, 80 smokers males were affected with polycythemia and the remainders 40 males were healthy and served as a control group. The polycythemic patients were subdivided into two groups according to their ages (first group ranged between 30-40 years old and the second group ranged between 41-50 years old. PCV, clotting factor (FI, FVII and FVIII were detected. The results of present study indicated that the levels of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastine time (APTT were significantly increased (p˂ 0.05 in both groups of polycythemia in comparison with control group. Regarding concentration of fibrinogen factor (FI and serum prothrombin conversion accelerator factor (FVII were elevated (P˂ 0.05 in both groups and pointed  out a positive correlation (r = 0.437, r = 0.378, respectively with packed cell volume (PCV when compared with those of control group. On the other hand, concentration of antihemophilic factor (FVIII recorded a significant fall (p˂ 0.05 in both tested groups and indicated a low correlation (r = 0.292. The possible explanation to the changes mentioned above is based on the fact that confirm smoking is a dangerous material containing different toxic substances that affect the vital organs of the body and induce abnormalities of hemostatic mechanism

  6. Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS following intrathecal chemotherapy in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana L. Glasser, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS is a well-known complication of induction therapy for hematologic malignancies. It is characterized by rapid breakdown of malignant white blood cells (WBCs leading to metabolic derangements and serious morbidity if left untreated. Most commonly, TLS is triggered by systemic chemotherapy, however, there have been case reports of TLS following intrathecal (IT chemotherapy, all in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL/lymphoma. Here, we report the first case of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML who developed TLS following a single dose of IT cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C.

  7. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  8. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  9. Enhanced lysis of herpes simplex virus type 1-infected mouse cell lines by NC and NK effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenares, C.; Lopez, C.

    1986-05-01

    Spontaneously cytotoxic murine lymphocytes lysed certain cell types infected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) better than uninfected cells. Although HSV-1 adsorbed to the surface of all the target cells, those in which the virus replicated more efficiently were lysed to a greater extent. As targets, the authors used cell lines that, when uninfected, were spontaneously lysed by NK cells (YAC-1) or by NC cells (WEHI-164). They also used a fibroblastoid cell line (M50) and a monocytic tumor line (PU51R), which were not spontaneously killed. NK cells lysed HSV-1-infected YAC cells better than uninfected cells, and an NC-like activity selectively lysed HSV-1-infected WEHI cells. These findings were consistent with the results of experiments performed to define the role of interferon in induction of virus-augmented cytolysis. Increased lysis of YAC-HSV and PU51R-HSV was entirely due to interferon activation and was completely abolished by performing the /sup 51/Cr-release assay in the presence of anti-interferon serum. The data show that HSV-1 infection of NK/NC targets induces increased cytotoxity, but the effector cell responsible for lysis is determined by the uninfected target, or by an interaction between the virus and target cell, rather than by a viral determinant alone.

  10. IMPROVED HEALING OF SMALL-CALIBER POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE PROSTHESES BY INDUCTION OF A CLOT LAYER - A REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLEI, B; STRONCK, JW; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    This report reviews our experiments that have been undertaken to test the hypothesis whether the induction of a clot layer on the graft surface of small-caliber polytetrafluoroethylene ( PTFE) prostheses might improve their healing. 1 2 PTFE prostheses with a fibril length of 30-mu-m, PTFE

  11. The clot thickens: an incompletely ligated left  atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient presented with known mechanical mitral valve endocarditis documented by 2D transesophageal echocardiogram (TOE from a recent hospitalization at an outside facility. On admission to our center, there was no prior knowledge of an incompletely ligated left atrial appendage (LAA according to patient- or family-reported history, review of outside records or the outside facility’s 2D TOE report. A 3D TOE performed at our center to assess her pathology, since a month had passed from her prior hospitalization, revealed a LAA ligation with evidence of communication to the left atrium and with clot present in the appendage. This case report highlights the common finding of incomplete closure of the LAA following surgical ligation, thus making it inadequate for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and that 3D TOE plays a valuable role in assessing the durability of LAA ligation.

  12. Purification and characterization of a novel milk-clotting metalloproteinase from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Feng; Wang, Qinbo; Hong, Qing; Liu, Peiyi; Wu, Zhengjun; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a milk-clotting enzyme (MCE) isolated from Paenibacillus spp. BD3526 was purified and characterized. The MCE was purified 8.9-fold with a 10.11% recovery using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography and the specific milk-clotting activity (MCA) reached 6791.73 SU/mg. The enzyme was characterized as a 35kDa metalloproteinase, and the zymogen of which was encoded by a 1671 bp gene named zinc metalloproteinase precursor (zmp) with a predicted molecular weight of 59.6 kDa. The optimal temperature for MCA and proteolytic activity (PA) was 65°C and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 5.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 50°C. The MCA was completely inactivated when the enzyme was heated at 60°C for 30 min, and the PA was totally inactivated for 20 and 10 min when the enzyme was heated at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. The BD3526 enzyme was preferentially active towards κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN), as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE), whereas the hydrolysis of αs-casein (αs-CN) was slow and comparable to that caused by chymosin and asparatic acid proteinase from Rhizomucor miehei. The cleavage site of the metalloproteinase in κ-CN was located at the Met106-Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. [Comparison between Endoscopic Therapy and Medical Therapy in Peptic Ulcer Patients with Adherent Clot: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Cohort Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Hye; Jung, Jin Tae; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Wook; Jeon, Seong Woo; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Park, Jeong Bae; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Youn Sun

    2015-08-01

    The optimal management of bleeding peptic ulcer with adherent clot remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcome between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy. We also evaluated the risk factors of rebleeding in Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding registry data from 8 hospitals in Korea between February 2011 and December 2013 were reviewed and categorized according to the Forrest classification. Patients with acute UGI bleeding from peptic ulcer with adherent clots were enrolled. Among a total of 1,101 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer bleeding, 126 bleedings (11.4%) were classified as Forrest type IIB. Of the 126 patients with adherent clots, 84 (66.7%) received endoscopic therapy and 42 (33.3%) were managed with medical therapy alone. The baseline characteristics of patients in two groups were similar except for higher Glasgow Blatchford Score and pre-endoscopic Rockall score in medical therapy group. Bleeding related mortality (1.2% vs.10%; p=0.018) and all cause mortality (3.7% vs. 20.0%; p=0.005) were significantly lower in the endoscopic therapy group. However, there was no difference between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy regarding rebleeding (7.1% vs. 9.5%; p=0.641). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors of rebleeding were previous medication with aspirin and/or NSAID (OR, 13.1; p=0.025). In patients with Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer bleeding, endoscopic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding related mortality and all cause mortality compared with medical therapy alone. Important risk factor of rebleeding was use of aspirin and/or NSAID.

  14. Fixation of split-thickness skin graft using fast-clotting fibrin glue containing undiluted high-concentration thrombin or sutures: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyun Ho; Jun, Daiwon; Moon, Suk-Ho; Kang, In Sook; Kim, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    For skin defects caused by full-thickness burns, trauma, or tumor tissue excision, skin grafting is one of the most convenient and useful treatment methods. In this situation, graft fixation is important in skin grafting. This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of skin graft fixation between high-concentration fibrin sealant and sutures. There have been numerous studies using fibrin sealant for graft fixation, but they utilized slow-clotting fibrin sealant containing less than 10 IU/mL thrombin. Twenty-five patients underwent split-thickness skin grafting using fast-clotting fibrin sealant containing 400 IU/mL thrombin, while 30 patients underwent grafting using sutures. Rates of hematoma/seroma formation, graft dislocation, graft necrosis, and graft take were investigated postoperatively. The graft surface area was calculated using Image J software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). After 5 days, rates of hematoma/seroma formation and graft dislocation were 7.84 and 1.29% in group I, and 9.55 and 1.45% in group II, respectively. After 30 days, rates of graft necrosis and graft take were 1.86 and 98.14% in group I, and 4.65 and 95.35% in group II. Undiluted fibrin sealant showed significantly superior results for all rates ( p  < 0.05) except graft dislocation. When high-concentration fast-clotting fibrin sealant was applied to skin grafts without dilution, no difficulty was experienced during surgery. Sealant showed superior results compared with sutures and had an excellent graft take rate. II.

  15. Current limitations of the assessment of haemostasis in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients and the role of point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K; Nair, P S; Hoechter, D J; Buscher, H

    2016-11-01

    Haemostatic perturbations are commonly seen in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients and remain a clinical challenge, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality. The approach to anticoagulation monitoring and the management of bleeding varies considerably across ECMO centres. Routine laboratory tests have their limitations in terms of turnaround time and specificity of information provided. Newer point-of-care testing (POCT) for coagulation may overcome these issues, as it provides information about the entire coagulation pathway from clot initiation to lysis. It is also possible to obtain qualitative information on platelet function from these tests. Furthermore, the ability to incorporate these results into a goal-directed algorithm to manage bleeding with targeted transfusion strategies appears particularly attractive and cost effective. Further studies are required to evaluate the utility of POCT to optimise bleeding and anticoagulation management in these complex patients.

  16. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  17. Onset of Coagulation Function Recovery Is Delayed in Severely Injured Trauma Patients with Venous Thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Connelly, Christopher R; Fair, Kelly A; Holcomb, John B; Fox, Erin E; Wade, Charles E; Bulger, Eileen M; Schreiber, Martin A

    2017-07-01

    Altered coagulation function after trauma can contribute to development of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Severe trauma impairs coagulation function, but the trajectory for recovery is not known. We hypothesized that enhanced, early recovery of coagulation function increases VTE risk in severely injured trauma patients. Secondary analysis was performed on data from the Pragmatic Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratio (PROPPR) trial, excluding patients who died within 24 hours or were on pre-injury anticoagulants. Patient characteristics, adverse outcomes, and parameters of platelet function and coagulation (thromboelastography) were compared from admission to 72 hours between VTE (n = 83) and non-VTE (n = 475) patients. A p value value (48 vs 24 hours), α-angle (no recovery), maximum amplitude (24 vs 12 hours), and clot lysis at 30 minutes (48 vs 12 hours). Platelet function recovery mediated by arachidonic acid (72 vs 4 hours), ADP (72 vs 12 hours), and collagen (48 vs 12 hours) was delayed in VTE patients. The VTE patients had lower mortality (4% vs 13%; p < 0.05), but fewer hospital-free days (0 days [interquartile range 0 to 8 days] vs 10 days [interquartile range 0 to 20 days]; p < 0.05) and higher complication rates (p < 0.05). Recovery from platelet dysfunction and coagulopathy after severe trauma were delayed in VTE patients. Suppressed clot lysis and compensatory mechanisms associated with altered coagulation that can potentiate VTE formation require additional investigation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ibrahim A.; Bakir, Mohammad A.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Ahamed, Anis; Al Farhan, Ahmad H.; Al Homaidan, Ali A.; Al Sadoon, Mohammad; Bahkali, Ali H.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae) and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lithium chloride (LiCl) with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M) in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification. PMID:20957085

  19. Hematuria and clot retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modder, Joshua; Kettel, L Michael; Sakamoto, Kyoko

    2006-09-01

    To report a case of bladder injury with hematuria and urinary retention after transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Case report. Emergency room in a university medical center. A 28-year-old woman presented with urinary retention and suprapubic pain 8 hours after oocyte aspiration. Foley catheter, intravenous fluid bolus, bladder irrigation, and computed tomography with postvoid films that showed a blood clot in the bladder. Patient was discharged home with antibiotics and catheter in place. Clinical follow-up. Patient passed voiding trial 4 days later and was artificially inseminated. No further hematuria or voiding problems were reported, and she had a successful pregnancy. Patients who elect to undergo oocyte aspiration should be warned about the possibility of bladder injury because of the close proximity of the ovaries to the bladder, and physicians should have an appropriate treatment plan.

  20. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    /Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially......It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V...

  1. Effects of gastric bypass followed by a randomized study of physical training on markers of coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Funch-Jensen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    disease risk markers within coagulation activation, fibrin clot properties, and fibrinolysis. Setting: Bariatric center, Hospital of Southwest Jutland, Denmark. Methods: Sixty obese patients underwent RYGB and 6 months after RYGB were randomized to 26 weeks of physical training or a control group...

  2. Thromboelastography as a Surrogate Marker of Perisurgical Hemostasis in Gaucher Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioscovich, Alexander; Fadeev, Dmitri; Kenet, Gili; Naamad, Mira; Schtrechman, Gal; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) has long been available for routine monitoring of perisurgical and postpartum hemostasis, especially at point of care. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare TEG parameters to concomitant standard clotting test results in an unselected cohort of patients with Gaucher disease to ascertain whether TEG values are specific and sensitive enough to substitute for classic coagulation tests for decision making. This remains a cogent concern because of high incidence of thrombocytopenia in patients with Gaucher disease. Thromboelastography values were compared to concomitant platelet counts, partial thromboplastin time, international normalization ratio, and plasma fibrinogen. Demographic characteristics were collected from patients' files. There were 22 patients with Gaucher disease (2 children; 12.5%) for whom there were 24 TEG results at the same time as classic coagulation test results and 30% performed platelet function tests. The current study shows linear and/or monotonic relationships between platelet counts and several TEG values that were significant over a range of platelet counts including severe thrombocytopenia. The fibrinogen component, correlating only with the rate of clot lysis, played a lesser role. Based on these preliminary results albeit in a small cohort with only 1 case of hemorrhage, there is putative support for the intention to treat patients with Gaucher disease based on TEG results using the same TEG protocol as for other patients undergoing comparable procedures in our institution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Viral lysis of Phaeocystis pouchetii: implications for algal population dynamics and heterotrophic C, N and P cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Middelboe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    in the microbial food web was associated with significant N and P mineralization, supporting the current view that viral lysates can be an important source of inorganic nutrients in marine systems. In the presence of R. salina, the generated NH(4)(+) supported 11% of the observed R. salina growth. Regrowth...... of virus-resistant P. pouchetii following cell lysis was observed in long-term incubations (150 days), and possibly influenced by nutrient availability and competition from R. salina. The observed impact of viral activity on autotrophic and heterotrophic processes provides direct experimental evidence...

  4. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schäfer

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  5. The role of the lysyl binding site of tissue-type plasminogen activator in the interaction with a forming fibrin clot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.H.F.; Weening-Verhoeff, E.J.D.; Verheijen, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    To describe the role of the lysyl binding site in the interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA, FGK1K2P) with a forming fibrin clot, we performed binding experiments with domain deletion mutants GK1K2P, K2P, and the corresponding point mutants lacking the lysyl binding site in the

  6. Droplet Microfluidics for Compartmentalized Cell Lysis and Extension of DNA from Single-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimny, Philip; Juncker, David; Reisner, Walter

    Current single cell DNA analysis methods suffer from (i) bias introduced by the need for molecular amplification and (ii) limited ability to sequence repetitive elements, resulting in (iii) an inability to obtain information regarding long range genomic features. Recent efforts to circumvent these limitations rely on techniques for sensing single molecules of DNA extracted from single-cells. Here we demonstrate a droplet microfluidic approach for encapsulation and biochemical processing of single-cells inside alginate microparticles. In our approach, single-cells are first packaged inside the alginate microparticles followed by cell lysis, DNA purification, and labeling steps performed off-chip inside this microparticle system. The alginate microparticles are then introduced inside a micro/nanofluidic system where the alginate is broken down via a chelating buffer, releasing long DNA molecules which are then extended inside nanofluidic channels for analysis via standard mapping protocols.

  7. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Sadoon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and lithium chloride (LiCl with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification.

  8. Quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R G; Luo, D; Gruver, N; Khismatullin, D B

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Blood coagulation measurement during contact with an artificial surface leads to unreliable data. Acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry is a novel non-contact method for coagulation monitoring. This method detects differences in the blood coagulation state within 10 min. Coagulation data were obtained using a much smaller sample volume (4 μL) than currently used. Background Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of critical care patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. Objectives To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a non-contact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation. Methods Acoustic tweezing is used to levitate microliter drops of biopolymer and human blood samples. By quasi-statically changing the acoustic pressure we control the sample drop location and deformation. Sample size, deformation and location are determined by digital imaging at each pressure. Results Simple Newtonian liquid solutions maintain a constant, reversible location vs. deformation curve. In contrast, the location/deformation curves for gelatin, alginate, whole blood and blood plasma uniquely change as the samples solidify. Increasing elasticity causes the sample to deform less, leading to steeper stress/strain curves. By extracting a linear regime slope, we show that whole blood or blood plasma exhibits a unique slope profile as it begins to clot. By exposing blood samples to pro- or antithrombotic agents, the slope profile changes, allowing detection of hyper- or hypocoagulable states. Conclusions We demonstrate that quasi-static acoustic tweezing can yield information about clotting onset, maturation

  9. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  10. Comparison of the Lysis Centrifugation Method with the Conventional Blood Culture Method in Cases of Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Harshal R; De, Anuradha S; Baveja, Sujata M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : Physicians and microbiologists have long recognized that the presence of living microorganisms in the blood of a patient carries with it considerable morbidity and mortality. Hence, blood cultures have become critically important and frequently performed test in clinical microbiology laboratories for diagnosis of sepsis. Objectives: To compare the conventional blood culture method with the lysis centrifugation method in cases of sepsis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred ...

  11. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    mg kg-1 h-1 for 32 h in six male subjects. The intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation were monitored with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time, respectively. In addition, the extrinsic coagulation pathway was monitored with the clotting activity of single...... factors II, VII, and X. No effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway was observed. There was a significant and rapid decrease in prothrombin time. Coagulation factors II, VII and X, the three components of prothrombin time, decreased significantly to different degrees. We conclude that infusion of N...

  12. Application of real-time PCR to postharvest physiology – DNA isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time PCR technology has been widely used in the postharvest plant physiology research. One of the difficulties to isolate DNA from plant martial and pathogen cells is the presence of rigid polysaccharide cell walls and capsules, which physically protect DNA from cell lysis. Many materials requi...

  13. Role of adrenal hormones and prostaglandins in the control of mouse thymocytes lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, S; Seillan, C; Duval, D; Homo-Delarche, F

    1984-01-01

    The cytolytic actions of glucocorticoids and of agents increasing cyclic AMP were studied in vitro in thymocyte suspensions isolated from adrenalectomized or hydrocortisone-treated mice. Although considered as corticoresistant cells, the thymocytes isolated from hydrocortisone-treated mice were lysed to the same extent although more slowly in vitro by dexamethasone than whole thymocyte populations (i.e. corticosensitive cells). Moreover, these two cell populations were shown to contain comparable amounts of glucocorticoid receptors and to be almost equally sensitive to the metabolic effects of glucocorticoids when measured by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis. Studies performed with corticosensitive cells showed that prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyrilcyclic AMP were also able to induce cell lysis and that, isoproterenol and dexamethasone exerted additive cytolytic action in vitro. In vivo experiments showed also an additive effect of steroids and isoproterenol on thymus atrophy. In contrast, cells isolated from hydrocortisone-treated animals were not sensitive to the cytotoxic action of prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol and dibutyril cyclic AMP. This difference between the two populations was not associated with any difference in the responsiveness of adenylate cyclase as determined following isoproterenol-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP. The cytolytic action of dexamethasone but also that of prostaglandin E2 and isoproterenol, could be blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, thus suggesting that glucocorticoids and agents increasing cyclic AMP control the synthesis of some proteins involved in the triggering of cell lysis. Among the hypotheses proposed to explain the differences between in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of lymphoid cell to glucocorticoids, it was suggested that the drug may in vivo indirectly control the viability or the proliferation of thymocytes through the release of other mediators. We have

  14. Potential of quixaba (Sideroxylon obtusifolium latex as a milk-clotting agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several obstacles to the use of chymosin in cheese production. Consequently, plant proteases have been studied as possible rennet substitutes, but most of these enzymes are unsuitable for the manufacture of cheese. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of latex from Sideroxylon obtusifolium as a source of milk-clotting proteases and to partially characterize the enzyme. The enzyme extract showed high protease and coagulant activities, with an optimal pH of 8.0 and temperature of 55 °C. The enzyme was stable in wide ranges of temperature and pH. Its activity was not affected by any metal ions tested; but was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and pepstatin. For the coagulant activity, the optimal concentration of CaCl2 was 10 µmol L- 1. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed four bands, with molecular weights between 17 and 64 kDa. These results indicate that the enzyme can be applied to the cheese industry.

  15. Comparison of Clot-based, Chromogenic, and Fluorescence Assays for Measurement of Factor VIII Inhibitors in the U.S. Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Boylan, Brian; Shapiro, Amy D.; Lentz, Steven R.; Wicklund, Brian M.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety, and assessment of population trends. Methods Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA), and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU)NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI-negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0–1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5–0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P=0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, 5 (23.8%) with 0.7–1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5–1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5–1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. PMID:23601690

  16. Anti-PD-L1/TGFβR2 (M7824) fusion protein induces immunogenic modulation of human urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune-mediated recognition and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Gargulak, Morgan L; Lepone, Lauren M; Roselli, Mario; Bilusic, Marijo; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Avelumab has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma. M7824 is a novel first-in-class bifunctional fusion protein comprising a monoclonal antibody against programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1, avelumab), fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) receptor 2, which functions as a TGFβ "trap." Advanced urothelial tumors have been shown to express TGFβ, which possesses immunosuppressive properties that promote cancer progression and metastasis. The rationale for a combined molecule is to block the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction between tumor cells and immune cell infiltrate and simultaneously reduce or eliminate TGFβ from the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we explored the effect of M7824 on invasive urothelial carcinoma cell lines. Human urothelial (transitional cell) carcinoma cell lines HTB-4, HTB-1, and HTB-5 were treated with M7824, M7824mut (M7824 that is mutated in the anti-PD-L1 portion of the molecule and thus does not bind PD-L1), anti-PD-L1 (avelumab), or IgG1 isotype control monoclonal antibody, and were assessed for gene expression, cell-surface phenotype, and sensitivity to lysis by TRAIL, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. M7824 retains the ability to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of tumor cells, although in some cases to a lesser extent than anti-PD-L1. However, compared to anti-PD-L1, M7824 increases (A) gene expression of molecules involved in T-cell trafficking in the tumor (e.g., CXCL11), (B) TRAIL-mediated tumor cell lysis, and (C) antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell-mediated lysis of tumor cells. These studies demonstrate the immunomodulatory properties of M7824 on both tumor cell phenotype and immune-mediated lysis. Compared to anti-PD-L1 or M7824mut, M7824 induces immunogenic modulation of urothelial carcinoma cell lines, rendering them more susceptible to immune

  17. Determination of bacterial endotoxin (pyrogen) in radiopharmaceuticals by the gel clot method. Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki

    2008-01-01

    Before the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test, the only available means of pirogenicity testing for parenteral drugs and medical devices was the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) rabbit pyrogen test. Especially for radiopharmaceuticals, the LAL assay is the elective way to determine bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this work was to validate the gel clot method for some radiopharmaceuticals without measurable interference. The FDA's LALTest guideline defines interference as a condition that causes a significant difference between the endpoints of a positive water control and positive product control series using a standard endotoxin. Experiments were performed in accordance to the USP bacterial endotoxins test in the 131 I- m-iodobenzylguanidine; the radioisotopes Gallium-67 and Thallium-201; the lyophilized reagents DTPA, Phytate, GHA, HSA and Colloidal Tin. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated for each product based upon the clinical dose of the material and a twofold serial dilution below the MVD was performed in duplicate to detect interferences. The labeled sensitivity of the used LAL reagent was 0.125 EU mL -1 (Endotoxin Units per milliliter). For validation, a dilution series was performed, a twofold dilution of control standard endotoxin (CSE) from 0.5 to 0.03 EU mL -1 , to confirm the labeled sensitivity of the LAL reagent being tested in sterile and non pyrogenic water, in quadruplicate. The same dilution series was performed with the CSE and the product in the 1:100 dilution factor, in three consecutive batches of each radiopharmaceutical. The products 131 I-m-iodobenzylguanidine, Gallium-67, Thallium-201, DTPA, HSA and Colloidal Tin were found compatible with the LAL test at a 1:100 dilution factor. Phytate and GHA showed some interference in the gel clot test. Other techniques to determine endotoxins as the chromogenic (color development) and the turbidimetric test (turbidity development), were also assessed to get valuable quantitative and

  18. Proliferative and phenotypical characteristics of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells: comparison of Ficoll gradient centrifugation and red blood cell lysis buffer treatment purification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, Mehdi; Rodrigues, Robim M; Buyl, Karolien; Branson, Steven; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Lagneaux, Laurence; Rogiers, Vera; De Kock, Joery

    2014-09-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue harbors a multipotent stem cell population, the so-called human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs). These cells are able to differentiate in vitro into various cell types and possess immunomodulatory features. Yet procedures to obtain AT-MSCs can vary significantly. The two most extensively used AT-MSC purification techniques are (i) density gradient centrifugation using Ficoll and (ii) red blood cell (RBC) lysis buffer treatment of the stromal vascular fraction. In the context of potential clinical cell therapy, the stem cell yield after purification and upon consecutive passages, as well as the purity of the obtained cell population, are of utmost importance. We investigated the expansion capacity and purity of AT-MSCs purified by both procedures immediately after isolation and upon consecutive passages. We also investigated possible purification-dependent differences in their expression of immune-inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. We found that RBC lysis buffer treatment is a more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs than density gradient fractionation. However, the resulting AT-MSC-RBC population contains a significantly higher number of CD34(+) cells, particularly during the first passages after plating. From passage 4 onward, no significant differences could be observed between both populations with respect to the immunophenotype, expansion capacity and expression of immune inhibitory factors and cell adhesion molecules. Our data show that RBC lysis buffer treatment may be a good alternative to density fractionation, providing a faster, more robust and easier method to purify AT-MSCs with biologically preserved characteristics. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A single lysis solution for the analysis of tissue samples by different proteomic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P.; Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    -based proteomics (reverse-phase lysate arrays or direct antibody arrays), allowing the direct comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yielded by these technologies when applied to the same samples. The usefulness of the CLB1 solution for gel-based proteomics was further established by 2D PAGE analysis...... dissease, is driving scientists to increasingly use clinically relevant samples for biomarker and target discovery. Tissues are heterogeneous and as a result optimization of sample preparation is critical for generating accurate, representative, and highly reproducible quantitative data. Although a large...... number of protocols for preparation of tissue lysates has been published, so far no single recipe is able to provide a "one-size fits all" solubilization procedure that can be used to analyse the same lysate using different proteomics technologies. Here we present evidence showing that cell lysis buffer...

  20. [Prehospital use of haemostatic dressing QuikClot ACS+™ for hemorrhage control of a perineal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, S; Dubourg, O; Ribeiro Parenti, L; Lefort, H; Albarello, S; Domanski, L

    2012-12-01

    First responders are sometimes confronted with external uncontrolled haemorrhage despite compression, bandages, and tourniquets. Several topical haemostatic agents were developed to try to face these situations. Their application was mainly described and studied in military environment. We report the case of a worker victim of an accident of construction site with hemorrhagic perineal trauma for whom the use of a haemostatic bandage QuikClot ACS+™ (Z-Medica) seemed to us particularly useful in prehospital setting. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Sánchez, Elda E; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2016-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1nM). Aprotinin (2nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An enzyme-immunobinding assay for fast screening of expression of tissue plasminogen activator cDNA in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.C.T.; Li, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) has been isolated from normal human tissues and certain human cell lines in culture. The enzyme is a serine protease which converts an inactive zymogen, plasminogen to plasmin, and causes lysis of fibrin clots. The high affinity of TPA for fibrin indicates that it is a potential thrombolytic agent and is superior to urokinase-like plasminogen activators. Recently, TPA has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. Using TPA as a model protein, the authors report here the development of a direct, sensitive enzyme-immunoassay for the screening of a cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and peroxidase-labeled second antibody

  3. Influence of environmental variation on the bacterioplankton community and its loss to viral lysis in the Curonian Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulčius, Sigitas; Reunamo, Anna; Paškauskas, Ričardas; Leskinen, Piia

    2018-05-01

    Coastal lagoons are continuously exposed to strong environmental gradients that determine the distribution and trophic interactions of microbial communities. Therefore, in this study we assessed whether and how environmental changes influence the bacterial community and its vulnerability to viral infection and lysis along the major environmental gradient in the Curonian Lagoon. We found significant differences in bacterial community profiles, their richness and evenness between the riverine, freshwater southern part and the Baltic Sea water intrusion-influenced northern part of the lagoon, suggesting strong environmental control of the structure of bacterial communities. Viruses were found to be play an important role in bacterial mortality in the Curonian Lagoon, being responsible for the removal of 20-50% of the bacterial standing stock. We observed differences in virioplankton decay rates and virus burst sizes between the northern and southern parts of the lagoon. However, no relationships were found between viral activity and bacterial communities within the lagoon ecosystem. The frequency of infected cells and virus-mediated bacterial mortality (VMBM) remained constant among the sampling sites irrespective of differences in bacteria community assemblages and environmental conditions. The results indicate that factors determining changes in bacterial diversity are different from the factors limiting their vulnerability to viral infection and lysis. This study also suggests that under changing environmental conditions, virus-bacteria interactions are more stable than the interacting viral and bacterial communities themselves. These findings are important for understanding the functioning of the coastal ecosystems under the rapidly changing local (spatial and temporal) and global (e.g. eutrophication, climate change) conditions.

  4. The impact of the centrifuge characteristics and centrifugation protocols on the cells, growth factors, and fibrin architecture of a leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) clot and membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Pinto, Nelson R; Pereda, Andrea; Jiménez, Paula; Corso, Marco Del; Kang, Byung-Soo; Nally, Mauricio; Lanata, Nicole; Wang, Hom-Lay; Quirynen, Marc

    2018-03-01

    -PRF. All centrifugations were done using the original L-PRF centrifuge (Intra-Spin), as recommended by the two manufacturers. Half of the membranes were placed individually in culture media and transferred in a new tube at seven experimental times (up to 7 days). The releases of transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1), platelet derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) were quantified using ELISA kits at these seven experimental times. The remaining membranes were used to evaluate the initial quantity of growth factors of the L-PRF and A-PRF membranes, through forcible extraction. Very significant differences in the level of vibrations at each rotational speed were observed between the four tested centrifuges. The original L-PRF centrifuge (Intra-Spin) was by far the most stable machine in all configurations and always remained under the threshold of resonance, unlike the three other tested machines. At the classical speed of production of L-PRF, the level of undesirable vibrations on the original centrifuge was between 4.5 and 6 times lower than with other centrifuges. Intra-Spin showed the lowest temperature of the tubes. A-PRF and Salvin were both associated with a significant increase in temperature in the tube. Intra-Spin produced the heaviest clot and quantity of exudate among the four techniques. A-PRF and LW produced much lighter, shorter and narrower clots and membranes than the two other centrifuges. Light microscopy analysis showed relatively similar features for all L-PRF types (concentration of cell bodies in the first half). However, SEM illustrated considerable differences between samples. The original Intra-Spin L-PRF showed a strongly polymerized thick fibrin matrix and all cells appeared alive with a normal shape, including the textured surface aspect of activated lymphocytes. The A-PRF, Salvin and LW PRF-like membranes presented a lightly polymerized slim fibrin gel and most

  5. The effects of treatment with liraglutide on atherothrombotic risk in obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahal, Hassan; Aburima, Ahmed; Ungvari, Tamas; Rigby, Alan S; Coady, Anne M; Vince, Rebecca V; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Naseem, Khalid M; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-04-02

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with obesity and increased cardiovascular (CV) risk markers. In this study our aim was to assess the effects of six months treatment with liraglutide 1.8 mg od on obesity, and CV risk markers, particularly platelet function, in young obese women with PCOS compared to controls of similar age and weight. Carotid intima-media wall thickness (cIMT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography, platelet function by flow cytometry, clot structure/lysis by turbidimetric assays and endothelial function by ELISA and post-ischaemic reactive hyperemia (RHI). Data presented as mean change (6-month - baseline) ± standard deviation. Nineteen obese women with PCOS and 17 controls, of similar age and weight, were recruited; baseline atherothrombotic risk markers did not differ between the two groups. Twenty five (69.4%) participants completed the study (13 PCOS, 12 controls). At six months, weight was significantly reduced by 3.0 ± 4.2 and 3.8 ± 3.4 kg in the PCOS and control groups, respectively; with no significant difference between the two groups, P = 0.56. Similarly, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, hsCRP, urinary isoprostanes, serum endothelial adhesion markers (sP-selectin, sICAM and sVCAM), and clot lysis area were equally significantly reduced in both groups compared to baseline. Basal platelet P-selectin expression was significantly reduced at six months in controls -0.17 ± 0.26 but not PCOS -0.12 ± 0.28; between groups difference, 95% confidence interval = -0.14 - 0.26, P = 0.41. No significant changes were noted in cIMT or RHI. Six months treatment with liraglutide (1.8 mg od) equally affected young obese women with PCOS and controls. In both groups, liraglutide treatment was associated with 3-4% weight loss and significant reduction in atherothrombosis markers including inflammation, endothelial function and clotting. Our data support the use of liraglutide as weight loss medication in simple obesity

  6. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-07-08

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain chi8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis and additional mutations to enhance complete lysis and antigen delivery. The second component is plasmid pYA3681, which encodes arabinose-regulated murA and asdA expression and C2-regulated synthesis of antisense asdA and murA mRNA transcribed from the P22 P(R) promoter. An arabinose-regulated c2 gene is present in the chromosome. chi8937(pYA3681) exhibits arabinose-dependent growth. Upon invasion of host tissues, an arabinose-free environment, transcription of asdA, murA, and c2 ceases, and concentrations of their gene products decrease because of cell division. The drop in C2 concentration results in activation of P(R), driving synthesis of antisense mRNA to block translation of any residual asdA and murA mRNA. A highly antigenic alpha-helical domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Rx1 PspA was cloned into pYA3681, resulting in pYA3685 to test antigen delivery. Mice orally immunized with chi8937(pYA3685) developed antibody responses to PspA and Salmonella outer membrane proteins. No viable vaccine strain cells were detected in host tissues after 21 days. This system has potential applications with other Gram-negative bacteria in which biological containment would be desirable.

  7. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugat, Ramón; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cuscó, Xavier; Seijas, Roberto; Barastegui, David; Navarro, Jordi; Laiz, Patricia; García-Balletbó, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them). The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  8. Treatment of Knee Osteochondral Lesions Using a Novel Clot of Autologous Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Mixed with Healthy Hyaline Cartilage Chips and Intra-Articular Injection of PRGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cugat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF. Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them. The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.

  9. Application of mitomycin C after endoscopic lysis of congenital laryngeal web combined with epiglottic hypoplasia in a middle-aged man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2006-04-01

    Laryngeal webs and epiglottic hypoplasias are uncommon congenital anomalies. Anterior glottic web combined with epiglottic hypoplasia was found in a middle-aged man presenting with hoarseness and dyspnea on exertion. This can be considered as a unique isolated defect of the larynx during early fetal development. The laryngeal web can be successfully treated in a single stage with endoscopic lysis and topical application of mitomycin C for prevention of anterior glottic restenosis. This case and prior reports suggest that the novel approach may be effective in the treatment of laryngeal webs.

  10. Local lysis with Alteplase for the treatment of acute embolic leg ischemia following the use of the Duett {sup trademark} closure device: preliminary results; Lokale Alteplase-Lyse zur Therapie der akuten embolischen Beinischaemie nach Einsatz des Duett {sup trademark} -Verschluss-Systems: vorlaeufige Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, K.; Buecker, A.; Wingen, M.; Tacke, J.; Wein, B.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik des Universitaetsklinikums der RWTH Aachen (Germany); Janssens, U. [Medizinische Klinik I (Kardiologie) des Universitaetsklinikums der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the result of the alteplase lysis therapy of embolic complications following the use of the Duett closure device. Methods and Materials: For 3.5 years, the Duett closure device was used in 1,398 angiographies to close the femoral puncture site. The Duett device consists of a balloon and a liquid procoagulant containing collagen and thrombin, which is injected into the puncture tract under endovascular balloon protection of the arterial puncture site. In 9 patients (0.64%), the procoagulant was incidentally injected into the femoral artery causing acute leg ischemia. Eight patients received local lysis therapy with alteplase via a contralateral femoral access. One patient underwent surgery. On average, 21 mg alteplase (4-35 mg) were administered within 14 h (4-21 h). The course of the lysis was followed angiographyically and clinically. All patients were inteerviewed by telephone 23 months (4-35 months) later.Results: In 3 patients, lysis was complete. In 5 patients, only little thrombotic material remained. In all patients, symptoms of ischemia resolved completely within the first hours after initiation of lysis. In 5 cases, bleeding occurred at the puncture site closed with the Duett device during lysis, including development of a false aneurysm in 2 cases. Complications led to premature termination (n=2) or interruption of the lysis (n=3). All complications were treated conservatively. Clinically, long-term sequelae were paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the lower leg and foot in 2 patients treated with lysis, and in the patient who underwent surgery. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Das Ergebnis der Alteplase-Lysetherapie von Embolien nach Einsatz des Duett-Verschluss-Systems wurde retrospektiv untersucht. Methoden: Innerhalb von 3,5 Jahren wurde nach 1398 Angiographien das Duett-System zum Verschluss der femoralen Punktionsstelle eingesetzt. Das System besteht aus einem Ballon und einem fluessigen Prokoagulans (Kollagen, Thrombin), das

  11. Produção de protoplastos e lise da parede celular de leveduras utilizando β-1,3 glucanase Protoplasts production and yeast cell wall lysis using β-1,3 glucanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Francisco Fleuri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou a aplicação da β-1,3 glucanase lítica, obtida do microrganismo Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191, na produção de protoplastos e na lise da parede celular de leveduras. A preparação bruta da enzima foi capaz de lisar as leveduras Kluyveromyces lodderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann e Itaiquara, S. cerevisiae KL-88, S. diastaticus NCYC 713, S. cerevisiae NCYC 1001, Candida glabrata NCYC 388, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 e Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500. A β-1,3 glucanase purificada foi capaz de lisar as leveduras Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88, Saccharomyces capensis, Debaromyces vanriji, Pachysolen tannophillus, Kluyveromyces drosophilarum, Candida glabrata, Hansenula mrakii e Pichia membranaefaciens e formar protoplastos de Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88.The aim of this work was the application of lytic β-1,3 glucanase obtained from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans strain 191 in the production of protoplasts and lysis of yeast cell walls. The crude extract demonstrated lysis activity against the yeasts Kluyveromyces lodderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fleischmann and Itaiquara, S. cerevisiae KL-88, S. diastaticus NCYC 713, S. cerevisiae NCYC 1001, Candida glabrata NCYC 388, Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587, and Hansenula mrakii NCYC 500. The purified β-1,3 glucanase demonstrated lysis activity against the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88, Saccharomyces capensis, Debaromyces vanriji, Pachysolen tannophillus, Kluyveromyces drosophilarum, Candida glabrata, Hansenula mrakii, and Pichia membranaefaciens, and it was able to produce Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 protoplasts.

  12. β-1,3 Glucanases e quitinases: aplicação na lise de leveduras e inibição de fungos β-1,3 glucanases and chitinases: application in the yeast cell lysis and fungi inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Francisco Fleuri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, a aplicação de β-1,3 glucanases e quitinases da linhagem Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191 na lise de leveduras e inibição de fungos, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental mostrou que as melhores condições para a lise de Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 pela β-1,3 glucanase foi pH 6,5 e 35ºC. As células de leveduras incubadas por 10 h em frascos sem agitação mostraram-se mais susceptíveis à lise pela ação da enzima. Foi obtido maior lise da levedura quando a suspensão de células foi submetida ao tratamento com β-1,3 glucanase e cisteína 1mM. A enzima invertase intracelular ou ligada à célula de S. cerevisiae KL-88 e K. marxianus NCYC 587 foi extraída após tratamento da suspensão celular com β-1,3 glucanase, sendo que o tratamento prévio das leveduras com a enzima aumentou a susceptibilidade das células à lise com ultra-som. A preparação de quitinase foi capaz de formar halos de inibição de alguns fungos.The aim of this work was the application of β-1,3 glucanases and chitinases by Cellulosimicrobium cellulans 191 strain on yeast cell lysis and fungi inhibition, respectively. The experimental design study showed that the best conditions to Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL-88 lysis by β-1,3 glucanase extract were pH 6,5 and 35ºC. This study also demonstrated that the yeast cells were more susceptible to lysis after 10 h of cultivation in flasks without agitation. Lysis activity was increased when S. cerevisiae KL-88 cell suspension was treated with β-1,3 glucanase and cystein 1mM. The enzyme invertase of S. cerevisiae KL-88 and Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 was extracted after treatment of cell suspension with β-1,3 glucanase and the previous treatment of yeasts with the enzyme, increased the susceptibility to lysis when ultrasonic treatment was used. The chitinase presented growth inhibition halos for some of the fungi.

  13. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  14. Comparison of Streptokinase Activity from Streptococcus mutans using Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia*, Rana Faisal, Rao Zahid Abbas1, Gull-e-Faran, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Junaid Ali Khan3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptokinase is a novel bacterial fibrinolytic enzyme that binds and activates plasminogen and is produced by several species of Streptococci. Streptococcus mutans was selected for optimum production of streptokinase using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass in liquid state fermentation. Substrates were applied in different concentrations ranging from 0.1-0.8%. Maximum fibrinolytic activity was observed by 0.3% corn steep liquor, 0.5% molasses and rice polishing and 0.4% by sugarcane bagass. The fibrinolytic activity achieved by fibrin clot lysis method was 5.5, 5.08, 5.16 and 4.75 units using corn steep liquor, molasses, rice polishing and sugarcane bagass, respectively.

  15. Hemostasia normal y coagulación intravascular diseminada en obstetricia Normal hemostasis and disseminated intravascular clotting in Obstetrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nápoles Méndez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el período gravido - puerperal, la coagulación sanguínea sufre cambios que se impone conocer para interpretar correctamente esos trastornos cuando se presentan en esta etapa, teniendo en cuenta las posibles complicaciones y el peligro para la vida que pueden presentarse. El objetivo del presente artículo es proporcionar a los obstetras una revisión bibliográfica que les permita actualizarse acerca del tema y facilite su modo de actuación ante pacientes con coagulación intravascular diseminada. Se concluye que es preciso diagnosticar tempranamente el proceso en la fase bioquímica de bajo grado y aplicar en las féminas el tratamiento expedito de la enfermedad de base para eliminar las complicaciones o disminuir su ocurrenciaIn the period from pregnancy to puerperium, blood clotting suffers changes which are important to be known in order to interpret correctly those dysfunctions when they appear in this stage, keeping in mind the possible complications and the danger for life which can take place. The objective of the present work is to provide the obstetricians a literature review that allows them to be updated about the topic and facilitate their performance in case of patients with disseminated intravascular clotting. It is concluded that it is necessary to have an early diagnosis on the process during the low grade biochemical phase and to apply in these women the expedite treatment of the base disease to eliminate complications or to decrease their occurrence.

  16. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  17. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for the treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 1: evaluation of in vitro clotting efficacy in the presence of certain contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J K; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    The treatment of penetrating, haemorrhaging injuries sustained within a hazardous environment may be complicated by contamination with toxic chemicals. There are currently no specific medical countermeasures for such injuries. Haemostats with an absorbent mechanism of action have the potential to simultaneously stop bleeding and decontaminate wounds. However, a primary requirement of a 'haemostatic decontaminant' is the retention of clotting function in the presence of chemical contaminants. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy of seven commercially available haemostats in the presence of toxic chemicals (soman, VX, sulphur mustard, petrol, aviation fuel and motor oil). Clot viscosity was assessed ex vivo using thrombelastography following treatment of pig blood with: (i) toxic chemical; (ii) haemostat; or (iii) haemostat in combination with toxic chemical. Several contaminants (VX, petrol and GD) were found to be pro-haemostatic and none had an adverse effect on the rate with which the test products attained haemostasis. However, the total clot strength for blood treated with certain haemostats in the presence of sulphur mustard, soman and petrol was significantly decreased. Three test products failed to demonstrate haemostatic function in this ex vivo (thrombelastography) model; this was tentatively ascribed to the products achieving haemostasis through a tamponade mechanism of action, which can only be replicated using in vivo models. Overall, this study has identified a number of commercial products that may have potential as haemostatic decontaminants and warrant further investigation to establish their decontaminant efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Transgenic rabbits as a model organism for production of human clotting factor VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasicek, D.; Chrenek, P.; Makarevich, A.; Bauer, M.; Jurcik, R.; Suvegova, K.; Rafay, J.; Bulla, J.; Hetenyi, L.; Erickson, J.; Paleyanda, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Human clotting factor VIII (hFVIII) is a very complex and large protein whose expression is difficult, as hFVIII requires extensive post-translational modification to be biologically active. This paper reports the generation of transgenic rabbits as a model species for testing the expression of hFVIII in the mammary gland. For micro-injection, a fusion gene construct was used, consisting of 2.5 kb murine whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter, 7.2 kb cDNA of hFVIII, and 4.6 kb of 3' flanking sequences of the mWAP gene. from 130 micro-injected zygotes transferred into recipients, 30 offspring were delivered. The pups were screened for the transgene by PCR, using DNA isolated from the ear, and results were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transgene was identified in one female founder animal, and it was transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian fashion, thus demonstrating stable integration of the gene construct into the germline of the transgenic rabbits. (author)

  19. Low-grade endotoxemia and clotting activation in the early phase of pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, Roberto; Della Valle, Patrizia; Calvieri, Camilla; Taliani, Gloria; Ferroni, Patrizia; Falcone, Marco; Carnevale, Roberto; Bartimoccia, Simona; D'Angelo, Armando; Violi, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. We investigated if, in patients with CAP, a pro-thrombotic state does exist and its relationship with serum levels of endotoxins. A total of 104 consecutive patients with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up until discharge. At admission and at discharge, serum endotoxins, systemic markers of clotting activation and zonulin, a marker of gut permeability, were analysed. Hospitalized patients matched for gender, age and comorbidities but without infections were used as control. At admission, CAP patients showed higher plasma levels of F 1 +2 , a marker of thrombin generation (P = 0.023), and lower levels of protein C (PC; P zonulin were higher in CAP patients than controls (P zonulin was detected (R = 0.575; P < 0.001) CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that CAP patients disclose an ongoing pro-thrombotic state and suggests a role for endotoxemia in determining enhanced thrombin generation. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Lysis to Kill: Evaluation of the Lytic Abilities, and Genomics of Nine Bacteriophages Infective for Gordonia spp. and Their Potential Use in Activated Sludge Foam Biocontrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe A Dyson

    Full Text Available Nine bacteriophages (phages infective for members of the genus Gordonia were isolated from wastewater and other natural water environments using standard enrichment techniques. The majority were broad host range phages targeting more than one Gordonia species. When their genomes were sequenced, they all emerged as double stranded DNA Siphoviridae phages, ranging from 17,562 to 103,424 bp in size, and containing between 27 and 127 genes, many of which were detailed for the first time. Many of these phage genomes diverged from the expected modular genome architecture of other characterized Siphoviridae phages and contained unusual lysis gene arrangements. Whole genome sequencing also revealed that infection with lytic phages does not appear to prevent spontaneous prophage induction in Gordonia malaquae lysogen strain BEN700. TEM sample preparation techniques were developed to view both attachment and replication stages of phage infection.

  1. Mingled Mortality: the Interplay Between Protist Grazing and Viral Lysis on Emiliania huxleyi Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Bidle, K. D.; Johnson, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi plays a prominent role in global carbon cycling, as their calcite coccoliths account for a third of all oceanic calcite production. Mortality due to grazing by microzooplankton is the largest contributor to phytoplankton loss in the marine environment. However, viral infection of E. huxleyi is now thought to be as important as grazing pressure in contributing to its mortality. To understand the influence of viral infection on grazing dynamics, we examined the response of the dinoflagellate predator, Oxyrrhis marina to E. huxleyi infected with four different strains of the E. huxleyi virus (EhV). Grazing rate was significantly slower on E. huxleyi cultures that had been infected for 48 h compared to an uninfected control and this reduction in grazing rate was dependent on the strain identity of infecting EhVs. Additional experimentation indicated that grazing was the primary source of E. huxleyi loss ( 78-98%) during the first 24 h of exposure to both predator and virus. However, as viral infection progressed into the late lytic phase (48 h hour post infection), the relative contribution of grazing to total E. huxleyi mortality decreased ( 5-60%). These results suggest that mortality is partitioned along a gradient between predator-based consumption and virus-induced cell lysis, dependent on the timing of infection. Deciphering the relative importance and interactive nature of these alga-predator-viral interactions will help to elucidate the mechanisms that drive bulk measurements of phytoplankton loss, a necessary understanding to interpret and predict phytoplankton population dynamics and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  2. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell dea...... protein was the killing agent. In both cases, cell death occurred as a result of impaired respiration, altered membrane permeability, and the release of some cytoplasmic contents to the extracellular medium.......Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  3. Large-scale clinical comparison of the lysis-centrifugation and radiometric systems for blood culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.; Kiehn, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Isolator 10 lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.) was compared with the BACTEC radiometric method (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) with 6B and 7D broth media for the recovery of bacteria and yeasts. From 11,000 blood cultures, 1,174 clinically significant organisms were isolated. The Isolator system recovered significantly more total organisms, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus spp., and yeasts. The BACTEC system recovered significantly more Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., and anaerobes. Of the Isolator colony counts, 87% measured less than 11 CFU/ml of blood. Organisms, on an average, were detected the same day from each of the two culture systems. Only 13 of the 975 BACTEC isolates (0.01%) were recovered by subculture of growth-index-negative bottles, and 12 of the 13 were detected in another broth blood culture taken within 24 h. Contaminants were recovered from 4.8% of the Isolator 10 and 2.3% of the BACTEC cultures

  4. Detection of fungal DNA in lysis-centrifugation blood culture for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in neonatal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, L; Betta, P; Romeo, M G; Oliveri, S

    2012-03-01

    We report data concerning the detection of fungal DNA directly from lysis-centrifugation blood culture to assess its value in the detection of fungaemia in 86 of the 347 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit between January 2009 and December 2010. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were 87.5% and 98.5%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 93.3% and a negative predictive value of 97.1%. Detection of fungal DNA directly from blood culture Isolator 1.5 microbial tubes, without prior cultivation, is a promising approach for the rapid detection of Candida spp. in neonates with suspected candidaemia. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Exploring the In Vitro Thrombolytic Activity of Nattokinase From a New Strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Subathra Devi; Vaithilingam, Mohanasrinivasan; Shanker, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thiyur, Swathi; Babu, Vaishnavi; Selvakumar, Jemimah Naine; Prakash, Suyash

    2015-10-01

    Thrombolytic therapy has become a conventional treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet currently, clinically prescribed thrombolytic drugs have problems such as delayed action and other side effects. Fibrinolytic enzymes have attracted interest as thrombolytic agents because of their efficiency in the fibrinolytic process, including plasmin activation. Nattokinase (NK) is a potent fibrinolytic agent for thrombosis therapy. The aim of this study was to enhance the production of NK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMSS by media optimization and strain improvement. In the present study, a potent NK-producing strain was isolated from cow milk and identified. To enhance the yield of NK, effect of various parameters such as pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inoculum size were optimized. Strain improvement of P. aeruginosa CMSS was done by random UV-mutagenesis. Nattokinase was partially purified and the activity was determined by the casein digestion method, blood clot lysis and fibrin degradation assay. Based on morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization, the strain was confirmed as P. aeruginosa (GenBank accession number: JX112657), designated as P. aeruginosa CMSS. The optimum condition at pH 7 and temperature at 25˚C showed activity of NK as 1514 U mL(-1) and 1532 U mL(-1), respectively. Sucrose as the carbon source and shrimp shell powder (SSP) as the nitrogen source expressed NK activity of 1721 U mL(-1) and 2524 U mL(-1), respectively. At 1% inoculum size, the maximum rate of enzyme production was achieved with 2581 U mL(-1). The NK activity of the mutant strain UV60 was 4263 U mL(-1), indicating a two-fold increase in activity compared to the wild strain (2581 UmL(-1)). Nattokinase produced from mutant strain P. aeruginosa CMSS UV60 showed 94% blood clot lysis at ten minutes. The degradation of fibrin clot by the produced NK was observed after two hours of incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel

  6. Hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome in children with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Sevinir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS in children with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included data from 327 patients (113 NHL and 214 ALL.Results: Hyperuricemia occurred in 26.5% and 12.6% of the patients with NHL and ALL, respectively. The corresponding figures for TLS were 15.9% and 0.47% (p=0.001. All hyperuricemic NHL patients had advanced disease and renal involvement was present in 53%. All hyperuricemic ALL patients had a leukocyte count >50,000 mm3 at the time of diagnosis. Among the hyperuricemic NHL and ALL patients, 96.6% and 66.6% had LDH ≥500 UI/L, respectively. Treatment consisted of hydration and allopurinol; none of the patients received urate oxidase. Among the patients that developed TLS, 26.3% had laboratory TLS, 42.1% had grade I or II TLS, and 31.6% had grade III or IV TLS. Uric acid levels returned to normal after a mean period of 3.5±2.5 and 3.05±0.8 d in NHL and ALL groups, respectively. In all, 7% of the patients with hyperuricemia required hemodialysis. None of the patients died.Conclusion: In this series the factors associated with a high-risk for TLS were renal involvement in NHL and high leucocyte count in ALL. Management with allopurinol and hydration was effective in this group of patients with high tumor burden.

  7. Synthesis, purification, and characterization of an Arg152 → Glu site-directed mutant of recombinant human blood clotting factor VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Berkner, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Coagulation factor VII circulates in blood as a single-chain zymogen of a serine protease and is converted to its activated two-chain form, factor VIIa, by cleavage of an internal peptide bond located at Arg 152 -Ile 153 . Previous studies using serine protease active-site inhibitors suggest that zymogen factor VII may possess sufficient proteolytic activity to initiate the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. In order to assess the putative intrinsic proteolytic activity of single-chain factor VII, the authors have constructed a site-specific mutant of recombinant human factor VII in which arginine-152 has been replaced with a glutamic acid residue. Mutant factor VII was purified in a single step from culture supernatants of baby hamster kidney cells transfected with a plasmid containing the sequence for Arg 152 → Glu factor VII using a calcium-dependent, murine anti-factor VII monoclonal antibody column. The clotting activity of mutant factor VII was completely inhibited following incubation with dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg chloromethyl ketone, suggesting that the apparent clotting activity of mutant factor VII was due to a contaminating serine protease. Immunoblots of mutant factor VII with human factor IXa revealed no cleavage, whereas incubation of mutant factor VII with human factor Xa resulted in cleavage of mutant factor VII and the formation of a lower molecular weight degradation product migrating at M r ∼40 000. The results are consistent with the proposal that zymogen factor VII possesses no intrinsic proteolytic activity toward factor X or factor IX

  8. Data in support of three phase partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Hafid, Kahina; Hoggas, Naouel

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article titled “Three Phase Partitioning of zingibain, a milk-clotting enzyme from Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes” (Gagaoua et al., 2015) [1]. Zingibain (EC 3.4.22.67), is a coagulant cysteine protease and a meat tenderizer agent that have been reported to produce satisfactory final products in dairy and meat technology, respectively. Zingibains were exclusively purified using chromatographic techniques with very low yield purification. This paper includes data of the effect of temperature, usual salts and organic solvents on the efficiency of the three phase partitioning (TPP) system. Also it includes data of the kinetic activity characterization of the purified zingibain using TPP purification approach. PMID:26909379

  9. The effect of formula versus breast feeding and exogenous vitamin K1 supplementation on circulating levels of vitamin K1 and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenbirk, K.; Peters, M.; Bouman, P.; Sturk, A.; Büller, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    The influence of breast or formula feeding together with that of a single supplementation of vitamin K1 at birth, on the vitamin K1 level and vitamin K-dependent clotting factors were studied in 65 breast and 15 formula fed infants. All breast fed newborns without supplementation (n = 25) had very

  10. Floor of the nose mucosa lysis and labial abscess caused by a bee sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán Navas, Ramón Manuel; Martínez Mendoza, María Guadalupe; Herrera, Henry; Herrera, Helen Piccolo de

    2009-01-01

    Hymenoptera order includes bees, which have a stinging apparatus at the tail capable of delivering venom to the affected tissues. Myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, Necrotizing fasciitis, fatal infection and hemifacial asymmetry, are some of the unusual reactions reported following hymenoptera stings. This paper reports a case of bee sting in the right floor of the nose that mimicked an odontogenic infection affecting the upper lip, canine space and nasal cavity such as in cases of infection secondary to pulpal or periodontal pathology of the anterior teeth. After a thorough clinical and radiographic examination, odontogenic infection was discarded and the diagnosis of floor of the nose mucosal lysis and lip abscess secondary to a bee sting was made. This case was successfully managed with adequate incision, drainage and antibiotics without any further complication. There are several reports of unusual reactions following hymenoptera stings. However, just a few of them referred to infections of local reactions and none of them related to the anatomic location affected in the patient of the present case. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented infection dissemination and the likelihood of tissue necrosis as in previously reported cases of Necrotizing fasciitis.

  11. Mechanisms of fever production and lysis: lessons from experimental LPS fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim; Blatteis, Clark M

    2014-10-01

    Fever is a cardinal symptom of infectious or inflammatory insults, but it can also arise from noninfectious causes. The fever-inducing agent that has been used most frequently in experimental studies designed to characterize the physiological, immunological and neuroendocrine processes and to identify the neuronal circuits that underlie the manifestation of the febrile response is lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our knowledge of the mechanisms of fever production and lysis is largely based on this model. Fever is usually initiated in the periphery of the challenged host by the immediate activation of the innate immune system by LPS, specifically of the complement (C) cascade and Toll-like receptors. The first results in the immediate generation of the C component C5a and the subsequent rapid production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The second, occurring after some delay, induces the further production of PGE2 by induction of its synthesizing enzymes and transcription and translation of proinflammatory cytokines. The Kupffer cells (Kc) of the liver seem to be essential for these initial processes. The subsequent transfer of the pyrogenic message from the periphery to the brain is achieved by neuronal and humoral mechanisms. These pathways subserve the genesis of early (neuronal signals) and late (humoral signals) phases of the characteristically biphasic febrile response to LPS. During the course of fever, counterinflammatory factors, "endogenous antipyretics," are elaborated peripherally and centrally to limit fever in strength and duration. The multiple interacting pro- and antipyretic signals and their mechanistic effects that underlie endotoxic fever are the subjects of this review.

  12. Early Erythrolysis in the Hematoma After Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ge; Yang, Yuefan; Wu, Gang; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intra-caudate injection of 100 µl autologous blood and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* MRI scanning and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry. There was marked heterogeneity within the hematoma on T2* MRI, with a hyper- or isointense core and a hypointense periphery. Hematoxylin and eosin staining in the same animals showed significant erythrolysis in the core with the formation of erythrocyte ghosts. The degree of erythrolysis correlated with the severity of perihematomal neuronal loss. Perihematomal CD163 was increased by day 1 after ICH and may be involved in clearing hemoglobin caused by early hemolysis. Furthermore, ICH resulted in more severe erythrolysis, neuronal loss and perihematomal CD163 upregulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar Kyoto rats. In conclusions, T2*MRI detectable early erythrolysis occurred in the clot after ICH, and activated CD163. Hypertension is associated with enhanced erythrolysis in the hematoma. PMID:27783383

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide level (PCO2) on the fibrinolytic activity (FA) of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langleben, D.; Moroz, L.A.; Danes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Recovery from pulmonary thromboembolism depends on the rapidity and completeness of clot lysis. This involves endogenous fibrinolytic mechanisms, particularly the balance between plasminogen activators and inhibitors produced by endothelial cells. Hypocapnia is common in pulmonary embolism, however it is not known if endothelial fibrinolytic function is affected by PCO 2 . The authors therefore measured the FA in medium (MCDB-131, 0.5% albumin) conditioned for 20 hours in-vitro by exposure to confluent cultures of bovine proximal PAEC. During conditioning, cells were exposed to 5% CO 2 in air (PCO 2 - 36-40mm Hg, CONTROL), or various PCO 2 levels (30-55 mmHg, in air). FA of conditioned medium was determined by 125 I-fibrin solid phase assay, with addition of plasminogen (10 ug/ml). With PCO 2 levels ≤ 35 mmHg, FA in the conditioned medium was 5 to 18% higher than CONTROL FA. When PCO 2 was ≥ 45 mmHg, FA decreased 5 to 60% as compared to CONTROL FA. There was a significant negative linear relationship between PCO 2 and FA. Thus, PCO 2 level can affect PAEC mediated plasminogen activation. This finding may be relevant to in-vivo clearance of clots from pulmonary arteries

  14. Transcatheter arterial embolization with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere®) leads to life-threatening tumor lysis syndrome in a rectal carcinoid patient with hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Yuan-Hao; Tsai, Ming-Tsun; Kuo, Chen-Yu; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Li, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Chao, Yee

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal carcinoids appears to be increasing, and the rectum is the third most common location. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere ® ) has been reported as an effective method for hepatic metastases of rectal carcinoids. Complications are uncommon and usually of minor consequence. We report an unusual case of a 34-year-old man with tumor lysis syndrome following TAE with Embosphere ® in a patient with multiple hepatic metastases of a rectal carcinoid. Early detection and effective treatment are essential for this rare but potentially catastrophic complication

  15. Synthesis, purification, and characterization of an Arg sub 152 yields Glu site-directed mutant of recombinant human blood clotting factor VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (USA)); Berkner, K.L. (ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-04-03

    Coagulation factor VII circulates in blood as a single-chain zymogen of a serine protease and is converted to its activated two-chain form, factor VIIa, by cleavage of an internal peptide bond located at Arg{sub 152}-Ile{sub 153}. Previous studies using serine protease active-site inhibitors suggest that zymogen factor VII may possess sufficient proteolytic activity to initiate the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. In order to assess the putative intrinsic proteolytic activity of single-chain factor VII, the authors have constructed a site-specific mutant of recombinant human factor VII in which arginine-152 has been replaced with a glutamic acid residue. Mutant factor VII was purified in a single step from culture supernatants of baby hamster kidney cells transfected with a plasmid containing the sequence for Arg{sub 152} {yields} Glu factor VII using a calcium-dependent, murine anti-factor VII monoclonal antibody column. The clotting activity of mutant factor VII was completely inhibited following incubation with dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg chloromethyl ketone, suggesting that the apparent clotting activity of mutant factor VII was due to a contaminating serine protease. Immunoblots of mutant factor VII with human factor IXa revealed no cleavage, whereas incubation of mutant factor VII with human factor Xa resulted in cleavage of mutant factor VII and the formation of a lower molecular weight degradation product migrating at M{sup r}{approx}40 000. The results are consistent with the proposal that zymogen factor VII possesses no intrinsic proteolytic activity toward factor X or factor IX.

  16. Effect of a Tibetan herbal mixture on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Daniela; Lambrecht, Julia; Radtke, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2015-08-01

    In this 6-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind study, we investigated the effects of a natural herbal remedy based on a recipe from Tibet (Padma® 28), on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation in 80 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (age 66 ± 8 years) on guideline-based medication for secondary prevention. We found no significant effects of Padma 28 and conclude that the addition of Padma 28 to guideline-based secondary prevention treatment of CAD did not lead to significant effects on important surrogate markers in elderly male CAD patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Daratumumab-mediated lysis of primary multiple myeloma cells is enhanced in combination with the human anti-KIR antibody IPH2102 and lenalidomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijhof, I. S.; Lammerts van Bueren, J. J.; van Kessel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent treatment improvements, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Since antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is an important effector mechanism of daratumumab, we explored the possibility of improving daratumumab-mediated cell-mediated cytotoxicity by blocking natural...... killer cell inhibitory receptors with the human monoclonal anti-KIR antibody IPH2102, next to activation of natural killer cells with the immune modulatory drug lenalidomide. In 4-hour antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, IPH2102 did not induce lysis of multiple myeloma cell lines...... effective treatment strategies can be designed for multiple myeloma by combining daratumumab with agents that independently modulate natural killer cell function....

  18. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  19. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda

    2014-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  20. Massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiracofe, H L; Peterson, N

    1975-06-01

    All reported cases of massive postpartum right renal hemorrhage have involved healthy young primigravidas and blacks have predominated (4 of 7 women). Coagulopathies and underlying renal disease have been absent. Hematuria was painless in 5 of 8 cases. Hemorrhage began within 24 hours in 1 case, within 48 hours in 4 cases and 4 days post partum in 3 cases. Our first case is the only report in which hemorrhage has occurred in a primipara. Failure of closure or reopening of pyelovenous channels is suggested as the pathogenesis. The hemorrhage has been self-limiting, requiring no more than 1,500 cc whole blood replacement. Bleeding should stop spontaneously, and rapid renal pelvic clot lysis should follow with maintenance of adequate urine output and Foley catheter bladder decompression. To date surgical intervention has not been necessary.

  1. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional 51 Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism

  2. Human Protein C produces anticoagulation and increased fibrinolytic activity in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdick, M.D.; Schaub, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of activated human Protein C (PCa) infusion on the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems of the Nembutal anesthetized cat was assessed. Human Protein C was activated by incubation with thrombin or by passage over a column of thrombin immobilized on CNBr Sepharose 4B. Cats were given bolus i.v. injections of either vehicle or PCa in a dose range of 3-16 μg/mL of calculated whole body volume. Citrated blood samples (9:1) were taken from a femoral vein prior to and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. after PCa. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) euglobulin clot lysis (ECLT) and I-125 fibrin release (FR) was measured. Vehicle treated cats had no change in any parameter. PCa produced a dose and time dependent prolongation of APTT while TT was unchanged. Anticoagulation was evident immediately after PCa infusion and began to normalize within 20 min. Fibrinolytic activity measured by ECLT and FR was also stimulated by PCa but was not evident until 40-60 minutes after PCa injection. The results show that human PCa induces anticoagulation effects in the cat similar to other species. However, stimulation of fibrinolysis requires a longer period of time before expression. This delay of fibrinolytic stimulation should be considered when assessing the effects of human Protein C in other species

  3. Electrokinetic and Hemostatic Profiles of Nonwoven Cellulosic/Synthetic Fiber Blends with Unbleached Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greige cotton contains waxes and pectin on the outer surface of the fiber that are removed when bleached, but these components present potential wound dressing functionality. Cotton nonwovens blended with hydrophobic and hydrophilic fibers including viscose, polyester, and polypropylene were assessed for clotting activity with thromboelastography (TEG and thrombin production. Clotting was evaluated based on TEG measurements: R (time to initiation of clot formation, K (time from end of R to a 20 mm clot, α (rate of clot formation according to the angle tangent to the curve as K is reached, and MA (clot strength. TEG values correlate to material surface polarity as measured with electrokinetic parameters (ζplateau, Δζ and swell ratio. The material surface polarity (ζplateau varied from −22 to −61 mV. K values and thrombin concentrations were found to be inversely proportional to  ζplateau with an increase in material hydrophobicity. An increase in the swell ratios of the materials correlated with decreased K values suggesting that clotting rates following fibrin formation increase with increasing material surface area due to swelling. Clot strength (MA also increased with material hydrophobicity. Structure/function implications from the observed clotting physiology induced by the materials are discussed.

  4. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

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    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  5. Investigation of the thrombin-generating capacity, evaluated by thrombogram, and clot formation evaluated by thrombelastography of platelets stored in the blood bank for up to 7 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, P I; Svendsen, M S; Salado, J; Bochsen, L; Kristensen, A T

    2008-02-01

    Transfusion based on the Thrombelastograph (TEG) results reduces transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery and in liver transplantation. Taking the pivotal role of thrombin generation in the coagulation process into consideration, the clinical utility of the TEG may, in part, depend on its reflection of the dynamics of thrombin generation. The kinetics of thrombin generation of platelets stored for 2 and 7 days, respectively, was assessed by calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and the lag time (min), time to peak (ttPeak; min), peak (nm thrombin) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP; nm thrombin*min) were registered. Clot formation was evaluated by TEG and the R time (min), maxial amplitude (MA; mm), time to maximum thrombus generation (TMG; min) and maximum thrombus generation (MTG; dynes cm(-2) s(-1)) and total thrombus generation (TTG; dyne cm(-2)) were registered. Platelets become more procoagulant, evaluated both by TEG and CAT during storage. The reduction in CAT lag time and the ttPeak correlated with a decrease in the TEG R time and TMG (P < 0.0001) as did the CAT peak thrombin generation and the TEG MTG (P = 0.0035). No correlation between ETP and TTG was found (P = 0.65). The kinetics of thrombin generation, as evaluated by CAT, correlates with the thrombus generation, as evaluated by thrombelastography and this may in part explain the clinical utility of the TEG in identifying clinically relevant coagulopathies, secondary to impaired thrombin generation.

  6. Factors affecting the lung perfused blood volume in patients with intrapulmonary clots after anti-coagulation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Munemasa, E-mail: radokada@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Masuda, Yu [4th Grade of 6-year Medicine Doctor Program, Department of Medicine, Yamaguchi University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Nakashima, Yoshiteru [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Oosaki 77, Hofu, Yamaguchi 747-8511 (Japan); Nomura, Takafumi; Nakao, Sei [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Suga, Kazuyoshi [Department of Radiology, St Hills Hospital, Imamurakita 3-7-18, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-0155 (Japan); Kido, Shoji [Computer-aided Diagnosis and Biomedical Imaging Research Biomedical Engineering, Applied Medical Engineering Science Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Dual-energy CT can provide morphological and functional lung images in the same examination. • The subsequent dual-energy CT demonstrates the increased whole lung perfused blood volume (V{sub 120}) despite the residual intrapulmonary clots after treatment in one examination. • The increased whole lung perfusion (V{sub 120}) and a decreased low perfusion volume (V{sub 5}) result in the improvement in the low perfusion rate (%V{sub 5}) in the patients with acute pulmonary embolism after treatment. - Abstract: Objectives: Factors affecting the improvement in the lung perfused blood volume (LPBV) were evaluated based on the presence of intrapulmonary clots (IPCs) after anti-coagulation therapy using 64-slice dual-energy CT. Materials and methods: 96 patients exhibiting venous thromboembolism underwent initial and repeated LPBV examinations between December 2008 and July 2014. Fifteen patients were excluded due to pulmonary comorbidities, and a total of 81 patients were included in this study. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was diagnosed in 46 of the patients (56.7%). LPBV images were three-dimensionally reconstructed with two threshold ranges: 1–120 HU (V{sub 120}) and 1–5 HU (V{sub 5}), and the relative value of V{sub 5} per V{sub 120} expressed as %V{sub 5}. These values were subsequently compared with indicators of the severity of PE, such as the D-dimer level, heart rate and CT measurements. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Results: In patients with IPCs, the D-dimer, V{sub 5} and %V{sub 5}values were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.01) in the initial LPBV, although these differences disappeared in subsequent LPBV after treatment. The right ventricular (RV) diameter, RV/left ventricular (RV/LV) diameter ratio and %V{sub 5} values were also significantly reduced, whereas the V{sub 5} value did not significantly decrease (p = 0.07), but V{sub 120} value significantly increased (p < 0.001) after treatment. However, in

  7. Fluorescence interference contrast based approach to study real time interaction of melittin with plasma membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Gui, Dong; Zandi, Roya; Gill, Sarjeet; Mohideen, Umar

    2014-03-01

    Melittin is an anti-bacterial and hemolytic toxic peptide found in bee venom. Cell lysis behavior of peptides has been widely investigated, but the exact interaction mechanism of lytic peptides with lipid membranes and its constituents has not been understood completely. In this paper we study the melittin interaction with lipid plasma membranes in real time using non-invasive and non-contact fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC). Particularly the interaction of melittin with plasma membranes was studied in a controlled molecular environment, where these plasma membrane were composed of saturated lipid, 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) and unsaturated lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(DOPC) with and without cholesterol. We found out that melittin starts to form nanometer size pores in the plasma membranes shortly after interacting with membranes. But the addition of cholesterol in plasma membrane slows down the pore formation process. Our results show that inclusion of cholesterol to the plasma membranes make them more resilient towards pore formation and lysis of membrane.

  8. Thromboelastometric evaluation of horses submitted to experimental thrombosis and jugular thrombectomy

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    Dietrich Pizzigatti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Jugular thrombosis in horses occurs commonly in iatrogenic situations, secondary to endotoxemic clinical condition and disseminated vascular coagulation, potentially leading to death. Thus, hemostatic evaluation becomes necessary and extremely important for monitoring the risks of systemic hypercoagulability and for the efficiency of allopathic and surgical treatment. This paper describes the hemostatic behavior in experimental jugular thrombosis of ten healthy equines, subsequently submitted to two thrombectomy techniques and receiving heparin sodium as anti-rethrombosis therapy. These animals were evaluated for 20 days by thromboelastometry (TEM, platelet count, hematocrit and fibrinogen, at four moments: pre-induction to phlebitis (D0-MPF; three days after thrombophlebitis induction (D3-MFM; 6 days after, - moment of thrombophlebitis - (D9-MT; and 54 (D16 and 126 (D19 hours after thrombectomies (PTM. Thrombectomy was performed via a Vollmar Ring (group 1, n=5 and Fogarty catheter (group 2, n=5. All the animals received heparin (150 UI/kg, SC every 12 hours, for ten days after the respective thrombectomies. Through the blood samples were evaluated TEM, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT, dosing of fibrinogen, hematocrit and platelet count at the abovementioned moments. For comparison between groups and moments the t test was applied at 5% significance level. No significant difference was verified between treatment groups at any of the moments. There were reductions in clotting time (CT and clot formation time (CFT, with increase in maximum lysis (ML until the moment D9-MT. Evaluation through INTEM® reagent presented prolongations of CT and CFT with reduction of α angle and ML starting from D16 and D19. Similarly, aPTT presented significant differences between moments pre- (D0, 3 and 9 and post- (D16 and 19 anticoagulant and surgical treatment. The platelet numbers were diminished at moments D16 and

  9. Sixty-Four-Section Cardiac Computed Tomography in Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valve Dysfunction: Thrombus or Pannus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Sabahattin; Özkan, Mehmet; Kalçik, Macit; Gürsoy, Ozan Mustafa; Astarcioğlu, Mehmet Ali; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Aykan, Ahmet Çağri; Biteker, Murat; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Kaya, Hasan; Yesin, Mahmut; Duran, Nilüfer Ekşi; Sevinç, Deniz; Güneysu, Tahsin

    2015-12-01

    Distinguishing pannus and thrombus in patients with prosthetic valve dysfunction is essential for the selection of proper treatment. We have investigated the utility of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in distinguishing between pannus and thrombus, the latter amenable to thrombolysis. Sixty-two (23 men, mean age 44±14 years) patients with suspected mechanical prosthetic valve dysfunction assessed by transesophageal echocardiography were included in this prospective observational trial. Subsequently, MDCT was performed before any treatment was started. Periprosthetic masses were detected by MDCT in 46 patients, and their attenuation values were measured as Hounsfield Units (HU). Patients underwent thrombolysis unless contraindicated, and those with a contraindication or failed thrombolysis underwent surgery. A mass which was completely lysed or surgically detected as a clot was classified as thrombus, whereas a mass which was surgically detected as tissue overgrowth was classified as pannus. A definitive diagnosis could be achieved in 37 patients with 39 MDCT masses (22 thrombus and 17 pannus). The mean attenuation value of 22 thrombotic masses was significantly lower than that in 17 pannus (87±59 versus 322±122; Ppannus from thrombus. Complete lysis was more common for masses with HUpannus overgrowth, whereas a lower value is associated with thrombus formation. A higher attenuation (HU>90) is associated with reduced lysis rates. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Myocardial infarction in pregnancy associated with clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J Roberto; Raja, Mohammed L

    2007-11-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is commonly prescribed for ovulation induction. It is considered safe, with minimal side effects. Thromboembolism is a rare but life-threatening complication that has been reported after ovulation induction with CC. Spontaneous coronary thrombosis or thromboembolism with subsequent clot lysis has been suggested as one of the most common causes of myocardial infarction (MI) during pregnancy, with a subsequently normal coronary angiogram. A 33-year-old woman with a 5-week gestation had recently received CC for ovulation induction and presented with chest pain. An electrocardiogram showed a lateral and anterior wall myocardial infarction. Cardiac enzymes showed a peak rise in troponin I to 9.10 ng/mL. An initial exercise stress test was normal. At the time of admission, the patient was at high risk of radiation injury to the fetus, so a coronary angiogram was postponed until the second trimester. It showed normal coronary vessels. This appears to be the first reported case documenting a possible association between CC and myocardial infarction. Thrombosis might be a rare but hazardous complication of CC. Given this life-threatening complication, appropriate prophylactic measures should be used in high-risk woman undergoing ovarian stimulation.

  11. CORONARY EMBOLISM WITH FRAGMENTED THROMBUS FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN PATIENT WITH POSTINFARCTION ANEURYSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. F. Salakhova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrombus formation in the left ventricle (LV cavity is a frequent complication of myocardial infarction (MI as well as a risk factor for peripheral arterial embolism. Probability of intraventricular thrombus depends on MI location and its therapy. A case of coronary embolism in a patient with anterior MI and thrombus in the LV aneurysm is considered in details. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in the first 90 minutes after admission was performed. Decision to appoint a three-component antithrombotic therapy (acetylsalicylic acid, clopidogrel, warfarin was made on the 4th day of disease onset taking into account the combination of MI, stent placement in the anterior interventricular artery and the presence of left ventricular aneurysm with parietal thrombus. Recurrence of MI developed on the 9th day of disease onset. Aspiration thromboembolectomy was performed taking into account thrombosis of two coronary arteries. Warfarin therapy was discontinued in connection with subsequent clot lysis and development of not intensive nosebleed. Subsequent MI course was uneventful. In conclusion, even in spite of the timely achievement of PCI and early reperfusion, MI course can be complicated by thrombosis of the left ventricle and subsequent development of thromboembolic complications.

  12. Low hemorrhage-related mortality in trauma patients in a Level I trauma center employing transfusion packages and early thromboelastography-directed hemostatic resuscitation with plasma and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Sørensen, Anne Marie Møller; Larsen, Claus F

    2013-01-01

    (ISS), transfusion therapy, and mortality were registered. Hemostatic resuscitation was based on a massive transfusion protocol encompassing transfusion packages and thromboelastography (TEG)-guided therapy. RESULTS: A total of 182 patients were included (75% males, median age 43 years, ISS of 17, 92....... Nonsurvivors had lower clot strength by kaolin-activated TEG and TEG functional fibrinogen and lower kaolin-tissue factor-activated TEG α-angle and lysis after 30 minutes compared to survivors. None of the TEG variables were independent predictors of massive transfusion or mortality. CONCLUSION: Three......-fourths of the patients transfused with plasma or PLTs within 24 hours received these in the first 2 hours. Hemorrhage caused 14% of the deaths. We introduced transfusion packages and early TEG-directed hemostatic resuscitation at our hospital 10 years ago and this may have contributed to reducing hemorrhagic trauma...

  13. The challenges of treating paraganglioma patients with 177Lu-DOTATATE PRRT: Catecholamine crises, tumor lysis syndrome and the need for modification of treatment protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makis, William; Mccann, Karey; Mcewan, Alexander J. B.

    2015-01-01

    A high percentage of paragangliomas express somatostatin receptors that can be utilized for targeted radioisotope therapy. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the challenges of treating these tumors with 177 Lu-[DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) radioisotope therapy using established protocols. Three paraganglioma patients were treated with 4–5 cycles of 177 Lu-DOTATATE and were evaluated for side effects and response to therapy. Two of the three patients developed severe adverse reactions following their first 177 Lu-DOTATATE treatment. One patient developed a catecholamine crisis and tumor lysis syndrome within hours of treatment, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support, and another developed a catecholamine crisis 3 days after treatment, requiring hospitalization. The treatment protocols at our institution were subsequently modified by increasing the radioisotope infusion time from 15 to 30 min, as recommended in the literature, to 2–4 h and by reducing the administered dose of 177 Lu-DOTATATE. Subsequent 177 Lu-DOTATATE treatments utilizing the modified protocols were well tolerated, and response to therapy was achieved in all three patients, resulting in significantly improved quality of life. 177 Lu-DOTATATE is an exciting new therapeutic option in the management of paragangliomas; however, current treatment protocols described in the literature may need to be modified by lengthening the infusion time and/or lowering the initial treatment dose to prevent or reduce the severity of adverse reactions

  14. Accuracy of the ABC/2 Score for Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Systematic Review and Analysis of MISTIE, CLEAR-IVH, and CLEAR III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair J S; Ullman, Natalie L; Morgan, Tim C; Muschelli, John; Kornbluth, Joshua; Awad, Issam A; Mayo, Stephen; Rosenblum, Michael; Ziai, Wendy; Zuccarrello, Mario; Aldrich, Francois; John, Sayona; Harnof, Sagi; Lopez, George; Broaddus, William C; Wijman, Christine; Vespa, Paul; Bullock, Ross; Haines, Stephen J; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Tuhrim, Stan; Hill, Michael D; Narayan, Raj; Hanley, Daniel F

    2015-09-01

    The ABC/2 score estimates intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, yet validations have been limited by small samples and inappropriate outcome measures. We determined accuracy of the ABC/2 score calculated at a specialized reading center (RC-ABC) or local site (site-ABC) versus the reference-standard computed tomography-based planimetry (CTP). In Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation-II (MISTIE-II), Clot Lysis Evaluation of Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (CLEAR-IVH) and CLEAR-III trials. ICH volume was prospectively calculated by CTP, RC-ABC, and site-ABC. Agreement between CTP and ABC/2 was defined as an absolute difference up to 5 mL and relative difference within 20%. Determinants of ABC/2 accuracy were assessed by logistic regression. In 4369 scans from 507 patients, CTP was more strongly correlated with RC-ABC (r(2)=0.93) than with site-ABC (r(2)=0.87). Although RC-ABC overestimated CTP-based volume on average (RC-ABC, 15.2 cm(3); CTP, 12.7 cm3), agreement was reasonable when categorized into mild, moderate, and severe ICH (κ=0.75; PABC (84% within 5 mL; 48% of scans within 20%) than for site-ABC (81% within 5 mL; 41% within 20%). RC-ABC had moderate accuracy for detecting ≥5 mL change in CTP volume between consecutive scans (sensitivity, 0.76; specificity, 0.86) and was more accurate with smaller ICH, thalamic hemorrhage, and homogeneous clots. ABC/2 scores at local or central sites are sufficiently accurate to categorize ICH volume and assess eligibility for the CLEAR-III and MISTIE III studies and moderately accurate for change in ICH volume. However, accuracy decreases with large, irregular, or lobar clots. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: MISTIE-II NCT00224770; CLEAR-III NCT00784134. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Optical sensing of anticoagulation status: Towards point-of-care coagulation testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Tshikudi

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant overdose is associated with major bleeding complications. Rapid coagulation sensing may ensure safe and accurate anticoagulant dosing and reduce bleeding risk. Here, we report the novel use of Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR for measuring anticoagulation and haemodilution status in whole blood. In the LSR approach, blood from 12 patients and 4 swine was placed in disposable cartridges and time-varying intensity fluctuations of laser speckle patterns were measured to quantify the viscoelastic modulus during clotting. Coagulation parameters, mainly clotting time, clot progression rate (α-angle and maximum clot stiffness (MA were derived from the clot viscoelasticity trace and compared with standard Thromboelastography (TEG. To demonstrate the capability for anticoagulation sensing in patients, blood samples from 12 patients treated with warfarin anticoagulant were analyzed. LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04 and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0.87, p<0.04. To further evaluate the dose-dependent sensitivity of LSR parameters, swine blood was spiked with varying concentrations of heparin, argatroban and rivaroxaban or serially diluted with saline. We observed that anticoagulant treatments prolonged LSR clotting time in a dose-dependent manner that correlated closely with TEG (r = 0.99, p<0.01. LSR angle was unaltered by anticoagulation whereas TEG angle presented dose-dependent diminution likely linked to the mechanical manipulation of the clot. In both LSR and TEG, MA was largely unaffected by anticoagulation, and LSR presented a higher sensitivity to increased haemodilution in comparison to TEG (p<0.01. Our results establish that LSR rapidly and accurately measures the response of various anticoagulants, opening the opportunity for routine anticoagulation monitoring at the point-of-care or for patient self-testing.

  16. Vibrations and spatial patterns in biomimetic surfaces: using the shark-skin effect to control blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maani, Nazanin; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Nosonovsky, Michael

    2016-08-06

    We study the effect of small-amplitude fast vibrations and small-amplitude spatial patterns on various systems involving wetting and liquid flow, such as superhydrophobic surfaces, membranes and flow pipes. First, we introduce a mathematical method of averaging the effect of small spatial and temporal patterns and substituting them with an effective force. Such an effective force can change the equilibrium state of a system as well as a phase state, leading to surface texture-induced and vibration-induced phase control. Vibration and patterns can effectively jam holes in vessels with liquid, separate multi-phase flow, change membrane properties, result in propulsion and locomotion and lead to many other multi-scale, nonlinear effects including the shark-skin effect. We discuss the application of such effects to blood flow for novel biomedical 'haemophobic' applications which can prevent blood clotting and thrombosis by controlling the surface pattern at a wall of a vessel (e.g. a catheter or stent).This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  18. High Milk-Clotting Activity Expressed by the Newly Isolated Paenibacillus spp. Strain BD3526

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    Feng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus spp. BD3526, a bacterium exhibiting a protein hydrolysis circle surrounded with an obvious precipitation zone on skim milk agar, was isolated from raw yak (Bos grunniens milk collected in Tibet, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and whole genome sequence comparison indicated the isolate belong to the genus Paenibacillus. The strain BD3526 demonstrated strong ability to produce protease with milk clotting activity (MCA in wheat bran broth. The protease with MCA was predominantly accumulated during the late-exponential phase of growth. The proteolytic activity (PA of the BD3526 protease was 1.33-fold higher than that of the commercial R. miehei coagulant. A maximum MCA (6470 ± 281 SU mL−1 of the strain BD3526 was reached under optimal cultivation conditions. The protease with MCA was precipitated from the cultivated supernatant of wheat bran broth with ammonium sulfate and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of the protease with MCA was determined as 35 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gelatin zymography. The cleavage site of the BD3526 protease with MCA in κ-casein was located at the Met106–Ala107 bond, as determined by mass spectrometry analysis.

  19. The application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in patients with failed back surgery syndrome A aplicação da lise percutânea de aderências epidurais em pacientes com síndrome pós-laminectomia

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    He Chun-jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and the feasibility of application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS using a stiff type guide wire and 4F vascular catheter. METHODS: Ninety two patients with