WorldWideScience

Sample records for closure settlement estimates

  1. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing

  2. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  3. METHODOLOGY RELATED TO ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT APPEAL OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Voshev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for production activity vary considerably from region to region, from area to area, from settlement to settlement. In this connection, investors are challenged to choose an optimum site for a new enterprise. To make the decision, investors follow such references as: investment potential and risk level; their interrelation determines investment appeal of a country, region, area, city or rural settlement. At present Russia faces a problem of «black boxes» represented by a lot of rural settlements. No effective and suitable techniques of quantitative estimation of investment potential, rural settlement risks and systems to make the given information accessible for potential investors exist until now.

  4. Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  5. Washington Closure Hanford Report of Settlement Monitoring of the ERDF Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Cameron

    2008-07-30

    This report summarizes the results of the ERDF Settlement Monitoring Program conducted between August 9, 2007, and April 29, 2008, on the 35-foot and 70-foot levels of the ERDF landfill. The purpose of this monitoring program was to verify that the materials already placed under the 35-foot and 70-foot levels satisfy the settlement criteria of the conceptual cap design.

  6. Compressibility of peat and estimation of drainage settlement of a road right-of-way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarilahti, M.

    1991-01-01

    The settlement of peatland road right-of-way can be estimated on the basis of geotechnology. The modulus of compression and the compression index measured by consolidation tests and the obtained values were tested against the observed settlement data from a literature survey. The regression coefficient between observed and calculated settlement was 0.84 when using only load factor (depth of ditches) as an independent variable, and 0.92 when peat moisture content was included into the model. Compression index gave a little higher correlation coefficients, 0.92-0.94. It seems possible to develop simple settlement calculation methods for fores road planning and construction

  7. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  8. Eigenspace perturbations for structural uncertainty estimation of turbulence closure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, Lluis; Mishra, Aashwin; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    With the present state of computational resources, a purely numerical resolution of turbulent flows encountered in engineering applications is not viable. Consequently, investigations into turbulence rely on various degrees of modeling. Archetypal amongst these variable resolution approaches would be RANS models in two-equation closures, and subgrid-scale models in LES. However, owing to the simplifications introduced during model formulation, the fidelity of all such models is limited, and therefore the explicit quantification of the predictive uncertainty is essential. In such scenario, the ideal uncertainty estimation procedure must be agnostic to modeling resolution, methodology, and the nature or level of the model filter. The procedure should be able to give reliable prediction intervals for different Quantities of Interest, over varied flows and flow conditions, and at diametric levels of modeling resolution. In this talk, we present and substantiate the Eigenspace perturbation framework as an uncertainty estimation paradigm that meets these criteria. Commencing from a broad overview, we outline the details of this framework at different modeling resolution. Thence, using benchmark flows, along with engineering problems, the efficacy of this procedure is established. This research was partially supported by NNSA under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) II, and by DARPA under the Enabling Quantification of Uncertainty in Physical Systems (EQUiPS) project (technical monitor: Dr Fariba Fahroo).

  9. Model uncertainty of various settlement estimation methods in shallow tunnels excavation; case study: Qom subway tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademian, Amir; Abdollahipour, Hamed; Bagherpour, Raheb; Faramarzi, Lohrasb

    2017-10-01

    In addition to the numerous planning and executive challenges, underground excavation in urban areas is always followed by certain destructive effects especially on the ground surface; ground settlement is the most important of these effects for which estimation there exist different empirical, analytical and numerical methods. Since geotechnical models are associated with considerable model uncertainty, this study characterized the model uncertainty of settlement estimation models through a systematic comparison between model predictions and past performance data derived from instrumentation. To do so, the amount of surface settlement induced by excavation of the Qom subway tunnel was estimated via empirical (Peck), analytical (Loganathan and Poulos) and numerical (FDM) methods; the resulting maximum settlement value of each model were 1.86, 2.02 and 1.52 cm, respectively. The comparison of these predicted amounts with the actual data from instrumentation was employed to specify the uncertainty of each model. The numerical model outcomes, with a relative error of 3.8%, best matched the reality and the analytical method, with a relative error of 27.8%, yielded the highest level of model uncertainty.

  10. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  11. Estimating the costs of school closure for mitigating an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Elisabeth J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School closure is a key component of many countries' plans to mitigate the effect of an influenza pandemic. Although a number of studies have suggested that such a policy might reduce the incidence, there are no published studies of the cost of such policies. This study attempts to fill this knowledge gap Methods School closure is expected to lead to significant work absenteeism of working parents who are likely to be the main care givers to their dependent children at home. The cost of absenteeism due to school closure is calculated as the paid productivity loss of parental absenteeism during the period of school closure. The cost is estimated from societal perspective using a nationally representative survey. Results The results show that overall about 16% of the workforce is likely to be the main caregiver for dependent children and therefore likely to take absenteeism. This rises to 30% in the health and social care sector, as a large proportion of the workforce are women. The estimated costs of school closure are significant, at £0.2 bn – £1.2 bn per week. School closure is likely to significantly exacerbate the pressures on the health system through staff absenteeism. Conclusion The estimates of school closure associated absenteeism and the projected cost would be useful for pandemic planning for business continuity, and for cost effectiveness evaluation of different pandemic influenza mitigation strategies.

  12. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  13. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  14. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  15. Method for estimating steam hammer effects on swing-check valves during closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are developed for estimating the disk impact velocity resulting from a free swing closure of swing-check valves in normal flow and for pipe rupture. They derive from a phase-plane solution of the differential equation for the disk motion that accounts for the nature of the valve pressure drop variation due to steam-hammer effects during closure. For closure in normal flow, the method presented has a more correct foundation than that given in reference where a constant, average valve pressure differential based upon the steady-state pressure drop for the total piping system (which has no real relationship to the steam-hammer-induced valve pressure changes during the closure transient) is used in the valve disk motion equation

  16. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheillah Simiyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies.

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume III: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option

  18. Kernel density estimation and transition maps of Moldavian Neolithic and Eneolithic settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Brigand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Neo-Eneolithic settlement pattern and salt exploitation in Romanian Moldavia” (Brigand and Weller, 2018 [1]. Kernel density estimation (KDE is used in order to move beyond the discrete distribution of sites and to enable us to work on a continuous surface that reflects the intensity of the occupation in the space. Maps of density per period – Neolithic I (Cris, Neolithic II (LBK, Eneolithic I (Precucuteni, Eneolithic II (Cucuteni A, Eneolithic III-IV (Cucuteni A-B and B – are used to create maps of density difference (Figs. 1–4 in order to analyse the dynamic (either non-existent, negative or positive between two chronological sequences.

  19. Permafrost degradation and associated ground settlement estimation under 2 °C global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donglin; Wang, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    Global warming of 2 °C above preindustrial levels has been considered to be the threshold that should not be exceeded by the global mean temperature to avoid dangerous interference with the climate system. However, this global mean target has different implications for different regions owing to the globally nonuniform climate change characteristics. Permafrost is sensitive to climate change; moreover, it is widely distributed in high-latitude and high-altitude regions where the greatest warming is predicted. Permafrost is expected to be severely affected by even the 2 °C global warming, which, in turn, affects other systems such as water resources, ecosystems, and infrastructures. Using air and soil temperature data from ten coupled model intercomparison project phase five models combined with observations of frozen ground, we investigated the permafrost thaw and associated ground settlement under 2 °C global warming. Results show that the climate models produced an ensemble mean permafrost area of 14.01 × 106 km2, which compares reasonably with the area of 13.89 × 106 km2 (north of 45°N) in the observations. The models predict that the soil temperature at 6 m depth will increase by 2.34-2.67 °C on area average relative to 1990-2000, and the increase intensifies with increasing latitude. The active layer thickness will also increase by 0.42-0.45 m, but dissimilar to soil temperature, the increase weakens with increasing latitude due to the distinctly cooler permafrost at higher latitudes. The permafrost extent will obviously retreat north and decrease by 24-26% and the ground settlement owing to permafrost thaw is estimated at 3.8-15 cm on area average. Possible uncertainties in this study may be mostly attributed to the less accurate ground ice content data and coarse horizontal resolution of the models.

  20. Missing the Mark? A Two Time Point Cohort Study Estimating Intestinal Parasite Prevalence in Informal Settlements in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael Townsend; Searing, Rapha A; Thompson, David M; Bard, David; Carabin, Hélène; Gonzales, Carlos; Zavala, Carmen; Woodson, Kyle; Naifeh, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations list Peru as potentially needing prevention of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). Prevalence of STH varies regionally and remains understudied in the newest informal settlements of the capital city, Lima. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the need for Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of antiparasitic drugs in the newest informal settlements of Lima. The aim of this study was to estimate the season-specific prevalence of STH to determine if these prevalence estimates met the WHO threshold for MDA in 3 informal settlements. Methods : A 2 time point cohort study was conducted among a sample of 140 children aged 1 to 10 years living in 3 purposively sampled informal settlements of Lima, Peru. Children were asked to provide 2 stool samples that were analyzed with the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique. The season-specific prevalence proportions of MDA-targeted STH were estimated using a hidden (latent) Markov modeling approach to adjust for repeated measurements over the 2 seasons and the imperfect validity of the screening tests. Results : The prevalence of MDA targeted STH was low at 2.2% (95% confidence interval = 0.3% to 6%) and 3.8% (95% confidence interval = 0.7% to 9.3%) among children sampled in the summer and winter months, respectively, when using the most conservative estimate of test sensitivity. These estimates were below the WHO threshold for MDA (20%). Conclusions : Empiric treatment for STH by organizations active in the newest informal settlements is not supported by the data and could contribute to unnecessary medication exposures and poor allocation of resources.

  1. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... 2University of Mines and Technology, P.O. Box 237, Tarkwa, Ghana ... The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps and the closure activity ... incur additional cost, it was advised that the mine should execute the closure and reclamation plan without delay. .... Progressively rehabilitate the project area.

  2. Reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake- induced settlements at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, D.W.; Yule, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report documents a reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake-induced settlements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located southwest of Paducah, KY. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was authorized to conduct this study from FY91 to FY94 by the DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), Oak Ridge, TN, through Inter- Agency Agreement (IAG) No. DE-AI05-91OR21971. The study was conducted under the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report (GDP SAR) Program

  3. A comparison of ground-based methods for estimating canopy closure for use in phenology research

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, AM; Ramsay, PM

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Climate change is influencing tree phenology, causing earlier and more prolonged canopy closure in temperate forests. Canopy closure is closely associated with understorey light, so shifts in its timing have wide-reaching consequences for ecological processes in the understorey. Widespread monitoring of forest canopies through time is needed to understand changes in light availability during spring in particular. Canopy openness, derived from hemispherical photography, has frequently...

  4. Prediction of embankment settlement over soft soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this project was to review and verify the current design procedures used by TxDOT : to estimate the total and rate of consolidation settlement in embankments constructed on soft soils. Methods : to improve the settlement predictions ...

  5. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon J; Mladenoff, David J; Cogbill, Charles V; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J; Jackson, Stephen T; Dietze, Michael C; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; McLachlan, Jason S; Williams, John W

    2016-01-01

    EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection. We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog), and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs). Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical forest

  6. Novel and Lost Forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from New Estimates of Settlement-Era Composition, Stem Density, and Biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Goring

    Full Text Available EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US. More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan, using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS, with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection.We compare pre-settlement to modern forests using US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA data to show the prevalence of lost forests (pre-settlement forests with no current analog, and novel forests (modern forests with no past analogs. Differences between pre-settlement and modern forests are spatially structured owing to differences in land-use impacts and accompanying ecological responses. Modern forests are more homogeneous, and ecotonal gradients are more diffuse today than in the past. Novel forest assemblages represent 28% of all FIA cells, and 28% of pre-settlement forests no longer exist in a modern context. Lost forests include tamarack forests in northeastern Minnesota, hemlock and cedar dominated forests in north-central Wisconsin and along the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and elm, oak, basswood and ironwood forests along the forest-prairie boundary in south central Minnesota and eastern Wisconsin. Novel FIA forest assemblages are distributed evenly across the region, but novelty shows a strong relationship to spatial distance from remnant forests in the upper Midwest, with novelty predicted at between 20 to 60km from remnants, depending on historical

  7. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    and to cure when having the right means. This is a humanitarian scandal. In Dharavi / Mumbai, an estimated 700.000 people live and work on less than 250 hectares in a hybrid mix of formal and informal settlement. According to an UN report, in 2006 one toilet seat existed for 1440 dwellers while...

  8. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  9. On the estimation of bias in post-closure performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Gralewski, Z.A.; Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method for recording and evaluating bias in performance assessments for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. The bias estimation approach comprises three principal components: (1) creation of a relational database containing historical assumptions and decisions made during the assessment, (2) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of internal bias through alternative assessment calculations, and (3) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of external bias by estimating degrees of belief probability. Bias corrections may help avoid unnecessary concerns by explaining and scoping the impacts of principal differences without the need to undertake additional site investigation, research, and performance analysis

  10. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  11. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  12. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  13. Novel and lost forests in the Upper Midwestern United States, from new estimates of settlement-era composition, stem density, and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, Simon; Mladenoff, David J.; Cogbill, Charles; Record, Sydne; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Dietze, Michael C.; Dawson, Andria; Matthes, Jaclyn; McLachlan, Jason S.; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    EuroAmerican land-use and its legacies have transformed forest structure and composition across the United States (US). More accurate reconstructions of historical states are critical to understanding the processes governing past, current, and future forest dynamics. Here we present new gridded (8x8km) reconstructions of pre-settlement (1800s) forest composition and structure from the upper Midwestern US (Minnesota, Wisconsin, and most of Michigan), using 19th Century Public Land Survey System (PLSS), with estimates of relative composition, above-ground biomass, stem density, and basal area for 28 tree types. This mapping is more robust than past efforts, using spatially varying correction factors to accommodate sampling design, azimuthal censoring, and biases in tree selection.

  14. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  15. Line-averaging measurement methods to estimate the gap in the CO2 balance closure – possibilities, challenges, and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ziemann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance of surface energy fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC method is observed in global measurement networks although all necessary corrections and conversions are applied to the raw data. Mainly during nighttime, advection can occur, resulting in a closing gap that consequently should also affect the CO2 balances. There is the crucial need for representative concentration and wind data to measure advective fluxes. Ground-based remote sensing techniques are an ideal tool as they provide the spatially representative CO2 concentration together with wind components within the same voxel structure. For this purpose, the presented SQuAd (Spatially resolved Quantification of the Advection influence on the balance closure of greenhouse gases approach applies an integrated method combination of acoustic and optical remote sensing. The innovative combination of acoustic travel-time tomography (A-TOM and open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR will enable an upscaling and enhancement of EC measurements. OP-FTIR instrumentation offers the significant advantage of real-time simultaneous measurements of line-averaged concentrations for CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs. A-TOM is a scalable method to remotely resolve 3-D wind and temperature fields. The paper will give an overview about the proposed SQuAd approach and first results of experimental tests at the FLUXNET site Grillenburg in Germany. Preliminary results of the comprehensive experiments reveal a mean nighttime horizontal advection of CO2 of about 10 µmol m−2 s−1 estimated by the spatially integrating and representative SQuAd method. Additionally, uncertainties in determining CO2 concentrations using passive OP-FTIR and wind speed applying A-TOM are systematically quantified. The maximum uncertainty for CO2 concentration was estimated due to environmental parameters, instrumental characteristics, and retrieval procedure with a total amount of approximately

  16. Line-averaging measurement methods to estimate the gap in the CO2 balance closure - possibilities, challenges, and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Astrid; Starke, Manuela; Schütze, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    An imbalance of surface energy fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) method is observed in global measurement networks although all necessary corrections and conversions are applied to the raw data. Mainly during nighttime, advection can occur, resulting in a closing gap that consequently should also affect the CO2 balances. There is the crucial need for representative concentration and wind data to measure advective fluxes. Ground-based remote sensing techniques are an ideal tool as they provide the spatially representative CO2 concentration together with wind components within the same voxel structure. For this purpose, the presented SQuAd (Spatially resolved Quantification of the Advection influence on the balance closure of greenhouse gases) approach applies an integrated method combination of acoustic and optical remote sensing. The innovative combination of acoustic travel-time tomography (A-TOM) and open-path Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) will enable an upscaling and enhancement of EC measurements. OP-FTIR instrumentation offers the significant advantage of real-time simultaneous measurements of line-averaged concentrations for CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). A-TOM is a scalable method to remotely resolve 3-D wind and temperature fields. The paper will give an overview about the proposed SQuAd approach and first results of experimental tests at the FLUXNET site Grillenburg in Germany. Preliminary results of the comprehensive experiments reveal a mean nighttime horizontal advection of CO2 of about 10 µmol m-2 s-1 estimated by the spatially integrating and representative SQuAd method. Additionally, uncertainties in determining CO2 concentrations using passive OP-FTIR and wind speed applying A-TOM are systematically quantified. The maximum uncertainty for CO2 concentration was estimated due to environmental parameters, instrumental characteristics, and retrieval procedure with a total amount of approximately 30 % for a single

  17. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

  18. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study

  19. Closure requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Closure of a waste management unit can be either permanent or temporary. Permanent closure may be due to: economic factors which make it uneconomical to mine the remaining minerals; depletion of mineral resources; physical site constraints that preclude further mining and beneficiation; environmental, regulatory or other requirements that make it uneconomical to continue to develop the resources. Temporary closure can occur for a period of several months to several years, and may be caused by factors such as: periods of high rainfall or snowfall which prevent mining and waste disposal; economic circumstances which temporarily make it uneconomical to mine the target mineral; labor problems requiring a cessation of operations for a period of time; construction activities that are required to upgrade project components such as the process facilities and waste management units; and mine or process plant failures that require extensive repairs. Permanent closure of a mine waste management unit involves the provision of durable surface containment features to protect the waters of the State in the long-term. Temporary closure may involve activities that range from ongoing maintenance of the existing facilities to the installation of several permanent closure features in order to reduce ongoing maintenance. This paper deals with the permanent closure features

  20. Neural network-based segmentation of satellite imagery for estimating house cluster of an urban settlement from Google Earth images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardaya, P D; Ridha, S

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a backpropagation neural network is utilized to perform house cluster segmentation from Google Earth data. The algorithm is subjected to identify houses in the image based on the RGB pattern within each pixel. Training data is given through cropping selection for a target that is a house cluster and a non object. The algorithm assigns 1 to a pixel belong to a class of object and 0 to a class of non object. The resulting outcome, a binary image, is then utilized to perform quantification to estimate the number of house clusters. The number of the hidden layer is varying in order to find its effect to the neural network performance and total computational time

  1. An estimate of pocket closure and avoided needs of surgery after scaling and root planing with systemic antibiotics: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Mirela; Held, Ulrike; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Sahrmann, Philipp

    2014-12-22

    Relevant benefits of adjunctive medication of antibiotica after conventional root surface debridement in terms of enhanced pocket depth (PD) reduction have been shown. However, means and standard deviations of enhanced reductions are difficult to translate into clinical relevant treatment outcomes such as pocket resolution or avoidance of additional surgical interventions. Accordingly, the aim of this systematic review was to calculate odds ratios for relevant cut-off values of PD after mechanical periodontal treatment with and without antibiotics, specifically the combination of amoxicilline and metronidazol, from published studies. As clinical relevant cut-off values "pocket closure" for PD ≤ 3mm and "avoidance of surgical intervention" for PD ≤ 5 mm were determined. The databases PubMed, Embase and Central were searched for randomized clinical studies assessing the beneficial effect of the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole after non-surgical mechanical debridement. Titles, abstracts and finally full texts were scrutinized for possible inclusion by two independent investigators. Quality and heterogeneity of the studies were assessed and the study designs were examined. From published means and standard deviations for PD after therapy, odds ratios for the clinically relevant cut-off values were calculated using a specific statistical approach. Meta-analyses were performed for the time points 3 and 6 month after mechanical therapy. Generally, a pronounced chance for pocket closure from 3 to 6 months of healing was shown. The administration of antibiotics resulted in a 3.55 and 4.43 fold higher probability of pocket closure after 3 and 6 months as compared to mechanical therapy alone. However, as the estimated risk for residual pockets > 5 mm was 0 for both groups, no odds ratio could be calculated for persistent needs for surgery. Generally, studies showed a moderate to high quality and large heterogeneity regarding treatment protocol, dose of

  2. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Gentleman, W. C.; DiBacco, C.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  3. Restaurant closures

    CERN Document Server

    Novae Restauration

    2012-01-01

    Christmas Restaurant closures Please note that the Restaurant 1 and Restaurant 3 will be closed from Friday, 21 December at 5 p.m. to Sunday, 6 January, inclusive. They will reopen on Monday, 7 January 2013.   Restaurant 2 closure for renovation To meet greater demand and to modernize its infrastructure, Restaurant 2 will be closed from Monday, 17 December. On Monday, 14 January 2013, Sophie Vuetaz’s team will welcome you to a renovated self-service area on the 1st floor. The selections on the ground floor will also be expanded to include pasta and pizza, as well as snacks to eat in or take away. To ensure a continuity of service, we suggest you take your break at Restaurant 1 or Restaurant 3 (Prévessin).

  4. The Use of CT Scans in Estimating Age at Death by Examining the Extent of Ectocranial Suture Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Kristen Leigh; Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    -aged individuals. ANOVA test revealed no difference between two groups of scans and between left and right sides (p > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was good, especially considering the score by sides. The results of this study create the base for developing a robust and simple method to estimate the age at death...

  5. Evolution of chemical conditions and estimated solubility controls on radionuclides in the residual waste layer during post-closure aging of high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Millings, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  6. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  7. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  8. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  9. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  10. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  11. Experience in settlement analysis and related geostatic considerations for the foundation design of heavy reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, R.L.; Yen, B.C.; Bhushan, K.; Haley, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potential settlement problems associated with new, heavier reactor structures are discussed. Methods for obtaining data for settlement analyses are summarized and analysis procedures are compared in an example. Stress history and stress distribution concepts are shown to be important for settlement estimates. (author)

  12. Model for mapping settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  13. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  14. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  15. Structured settlement annuities, part 2: mortality experience 1967--95 and the estimation of life expectancy in the presence of excess mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, R B; Schmidt, C J

    2000-01-01

    the mortality experience for structured settlement (SS) annuitants issued both standard (Std) and substandard (SStd) has been reported twice previously by the Society of Actuaries (SOA), but the 1995 mortality described here has not previously been published. We describe in detail the 1995 SS mortality, and we also discuss the methodology of calculating life expectancy (e), contrasting three different life-table models. With SOA permission, we present in four tables the unpublished results of its 1995 SS mortality experience by Std and SStd issue, sex, and a combination of 8 age and 6 duration groups. Overall results on mortality expected from the 1983a Individual Annuity Table showed a mortality ratio (MR) of about 140% for Std cases and about 650% for all SStd cases. Life expectancy in a group with excess mortality may be computed by either adding the decimal excess death rate (EDR) to q' for each year of attained age to age 109 or multiplying q' by the decimal MR for each year to age 109. An example is given for men age 60 with localized prostate cancer; annual EDRs from a large published cancer study are used at duration 0-24 years, and the last EDR is assumed constant to age 109. This value of e is compared with e from constant initial values of EDR or MR after the first year. Interrelations of age, sex, e, and EDR and MR are discussed and illustrated with tabular data. It is shown that a constant MR for life-table calculation of e consistently overestimates projected annual mortality at older attained ages and underestimates e. The EDR method, approved for reserve calculations, is also recommended for use in underwriting conversion tables.

  16. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 785.17 Section 785.17... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order...

  17. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  18. Sternal exploration or closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAC - vacuum-assisted closure - sternal wound; Sternal dehiscence; Sternal infection ... in the wound to look for signs of infection Remove dead or infected ... use a VAC (vacuum-assisted closure) dressing. It is a negative ...

  19. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  20. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.; Petrov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  2. Closure The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bolin, Michael

    2010-01-01

    If you're ready to use Closure to build rich web applications with JavaScript, this hands-on guide has precisely what you need to learn this suite of tools in depth. Closure makes it easy for experienced JavaScript developers to write and maintain large and complex codebases -- as Google has demonstrated by using Closure with Gmail, Google Docs, and Google Maps. Author and Closure contributor Michael Bolin has included numerous code examples and best practices, as well as valuable information not available publicly until now. You'll learn all about Closure's Library, Compiler, Templates, tes

  3. 29 CFR 102.151 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 102.151 Section 102.151 Labor Regulations... Expenses § 102.151 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of... on a proposed settlement of an award before an application has been filed, the proposed settlement...

  4. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10... to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the proceeding propose offers of settlement. All offers of settlement shall...

  5. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20... Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a) The parties may submit a proposed settlement to the ALJ. (b) The proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The...

  6. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 719.19 Section 719.19... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case, the Director of the Office of Export Enforcement will recommend the settlement to the Secretary...

  7. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  8. The Settlement Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    terms. This article explores the trajectory of the comparatively under-researched Danish offspring of the movement. It demonstrates the tempering and compromise that occurred when utopian ideals of ‘brotherly love’, ‘God’s Kingdom’, and ‘radical social change’ were realized in concrete social...... arrangements. Contradictions and ambiguities arose when utopian ideas were confronted with what could be done. The Settlement became a highly ambiguous space, a ‘heterotopia’. The roots of the contradictions cannot simply be identified in the external pressure of legal requirements and funding criteria...

  9. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  10. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  11. Current methodologies for assessing seismically induced settlements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, R.

    1983-08-01

    Earthquake-induced surface settlements have ranged from 0.7 to 10 percent of layer thickness for the relatively few incidences where reliable estimates have been made of settlement magnitudes and soil conditions. Standard penetration test results obtained for pre-earthquake and postearthquake conditions in Japan show that relative densities have changed from 188 percent increase to 44 percent decrease. At present, there are no verified methods of seismic settlement analysis. However, there are current methods of analysis ranging from empirical to fully theoretical, which take into account a few to all of the major variables affecting seismically induced settlement behavior. This report reviews pertinent current knowledge and methodologies related to this subject. 69 references, 9 figures

  12. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  13. The Finite Elements Method (FEM versus traditional Methods (TM, in the estimation of settlement and modulus of soil reaction for foundation slabs design on soils with natural or man-made cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolano-Sánchez, F.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct foundations with continuous elements, such as slabs, provide more advantages than direct foundations with isolated elements, such as footings, and deep foundations, such as piles, in the case of soil with natural or man-made cavities. The slabs are usually designed by two-dimensional models which show their shape on the plant, on a lineal elastic support, represented by a modulus of soil reaction. Regarding the settlement estimation, the following article compares the Finite Elements Method (FEM versus the classical Method (CM to select the modulus of soil reaction used to design foundations slabs in sensitive soils and sites with possible cavities or collapses. This analysis includes one of these cavities in the design to evaluate the risk of fail.Las cimentaciones directas con elementos continuos «losas», tienen ventajas sobre las cimentaciones directas con elementos aislados «zapatas» y sobre las cimentaciones profundas «pilotes», frente a la presencia de terrenos problemáticos. Las losas se diseñan de forma habitual con modelos bidimensionales que representan su forma en planta, apoyada en un medio elástico y lineal, representado por un módulo de balasto. En el presente artículo se realiza un análisis comparativo, para la estimación de asientos, entre el Método de Elementos Finitos (FEM y el Método Clásico (MC, para la elección de los módulos de balasto que se utilizan en el diseño de losas de cimentación en terrenos con blandones y cavidades naturales o antrópicas. Este análisis considera el peligro de la presencia de una de estas cavidades dentro de su diseño, de esta forma, el riesgo de fallo puede ser valorado por ambos métodos.

  14. Tubular closure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for closing openings such as the bore of a conduit and for releasably securing members within the bore. More particularly, this invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors

  15. Simulation of water recovery and its effect on settlement of open-cut coal mine back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderian, A.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Open-cut coal mine back-fill usually undergoes significant settlement due to inundation by surface water infiltration and groundwater rise. The rate and magnitude of inundation settlement is difficult to predict and quantify due to the large number of contributing factors. Consequently, none of the available settlement models and theories has been able to successfully describe the inundation settlement occurring in back-filled open-cut coal mines. A combination of laboratory and numerical simulation of settlement is a valuable means of estimating the inundation settlement of back-fill. The settlements predicted by this simulation are in good agreement with previous observations of inundation settlement in open-cut coal mine back-fill. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  16. Parameterization of the 3-PG model for Pinus elliottii stands using alternative methods to estimate fertility rating, biomass partitioning and canopy closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Eric J. Jokela; Wendell P. Cropper; Rosvel Bracho; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    The forest simulation model, 3-PG, has been widely applied as a useful tool for predicting growth of forest species in many countries. The model has the capability to estimate the effects of management, climate and site characteristics on many stand attributes using easily available data. Currently, there is an increasing interest in estimating biomass and assessing...

  17. Fortified settlement Veletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vojislav S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was

  18. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.21 Section 1427.21 Agriculture... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  19. 39 CFR 962.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 962.26 Section 962.26 Postal Service... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.26 Settlement. (a) Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of... settlement terms to the Attorney General, as appropriate. [59 FR 51860, Oct. 13, 1994] ...

  20. 49 CFR 1016.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1016.306 Section 1016.306... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  1. 49 CFR 826.35 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 826.35 Section 826.35 Transportation... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  2. 17 CFR 148.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 148.25 Section 148... Considering Applications § 148.25 Settlement. The applicant may propose settlement of the award to the Commission before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the adjudicatory...

  3. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation...; Summary Judgment; Settlement § 511.26 Settlement. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to cases of..., 89 Stat. 911 (15 U.S.C. section 2007(3)). Settlement in other cases may be made only in accordance...

  4. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 501.710 Section 501.710... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.710 Settlement. (a) Availability. Either the Director or any..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...

  5. 47 CFR 1.1525 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1.1525 Section 1.1525... Settlement. The applicant and Bureau counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  6. 7 CFR 1.198 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.198 Section 1.198 Agriculture Office of....198 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  7. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  8. 10 CFR 851.41 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 851.41 Section 851.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.41 Settlement. (a) DOE encourages settlement of a proceeding under this subpart at any time if the settlement is consistent with this part. The...

  9. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2200.100 Section 2200.100 Labor Regulations... Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.100 Settlement. (a) Policy. Settlement is permitted and encouraged by the... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement...

  10. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 15.109 Section 15.109... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which... publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the Chief...

  11. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 1025.26 Section 1025.26... PROCEEDINGS Prehearing Procedures, Motions, Interlocutory Appeals, Summary Judgments, Settlements § 1025.26 Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the...

  12. 10 CFR 12.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 12.305 Section 12.305 Energy NUCLEAR... Considering Applications § 12.305 Settlement. The applicant and the NRC counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  13. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may conduct settlement negotiations. If settlement negotiations are conducted during a conference, at the request of one...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1434.19 Section 1434.19 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... commodity: (1) If the value of the collateral at settlement is less than the amount due, the producer shall...

  15. 17 CFR 171.12 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 171.12 Section 171... RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.12 Settlement. At any time before the Commission has reached a... settlement agreement. If, in its view, the settlement is consistent with the public interest, the Commission...

  16. 12 CFR 747.612 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 747.612 Section 747.612 Banks and... Board Adjudications § 747.612 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for NCUA may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  17. Eyelid closure at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Macleod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.

  18. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has sole discretion to decide whether to appoint a settlement judge, except that a settlement judge... assigned to hear and decide the case. (ii) The settlement judge shall not be appointed to hear and decide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18...

  19. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a open-quotes Settlement Agreementclose quotes (or open-quotes Batt Agreementclose quotes) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed

  20. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  1. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  2. Scope and closures

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    No matter how much experience you have with JavaScript, odds are you don’t fully understand the language. This concise yet in-depth guide takes you inside scope and closures, two core concepts you need to know to become a more efficient and effective JavaScript programmer. You’ll learn how and why they work, and how an understanding of closures can be a powerful part of your development skillset.

  3. Digital signal processing of data from borehole creep closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Patrick, W.C.; Duplancic, N.

    1987-01-01

    Digital signal processing, a technique commonly used in the fields of electrical engineering and communication technology, has been successfully used to analyze creep closure data obtained from a 0.91 m diameter by 5.13 deep borehole in bedded salt. By filtering the ''noise'' component of the closure data from a test borehole, important data trends were made more evident and average creep closure rates were able to be calculated. This process provided accurate estimates of closure rates that are used in the design of lined boreholes in which heat-generating transuranic nuclear wastes are emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  4. Simulating school closure policies for cost effective pandemic decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz Ozgur M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the globe, school closures were used sporadically to mitigate the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, such closures can detrimentally impact economic and social life. Methods Here, we couple a decision analytic approach with a mathematical model of influenza transmission to estimate the impact of school closures in terms of epidemiological and cost effectiveness. Our method assumes that the transmissibility and the severity of the disease are uncertain, and evaluates several closure and reopening strategies that cover a range of thresholds in school-aged prevalence (SAP and closure durations. Results Assuming a willingness to pay per quality adjusted life-year (QALY threshold equal to the US per capita GDP ($46,000, we found that the cost effectiveness of these strategies is highly dependent on the severity and on a willingness to pay per QALY. For severe pandemics, the preferred strategy couples the earliest closure trigger (0.5% SAP with the longest duration closure (24 weeks considered. For milder pandemics, the preferred strategies also involve the earliest closure trigger, but are shorter duration (12 weeks for low transmission rates and variable length for high transmission rates. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of obtaining early estimates of pandemic severity and provide guidance to public health decision-makers for effectively tailoring school closures strategies in response to a newly emergent influenza pandemic.

  5. Evolution Of Chemical Conditions And Estimated Plutonium Solubility In The Residual Waste Layer During Post-Closure Aging Of Tank 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, M.

    2012-01-01

    This document updates the Eh-pH transitions from grout aging simulations and the plutonium waste release model of Denham (2007, Rev. 1) based on new data. New thermodynamic data for cementitious minerals are used for the grout simulations. Newer thermodynamic data, recommended by plutonium experts (Plutonium Solubility Peer Review Report, LA-UR-12-00079), are used to estimate solubilities of plutonium at various pore water compositions expected during grout aging. In addition, a new grout formula is used in the grout aging simulations and apparent solubilities of coprecipitated plutonium are estimated using data from analysis of Tank 18 residual waste. The conceptual model of waste release and the grout aging simulations are done in a manner similar to that of Denham (2007, Rev. 1). It is assumed that the pore fluid composition passing from the tank grout into the residual waste layer controls the solubility, and hence the waste release concentration of plutonium. Pore volumes of infiltrating fluid of an assumed composition are reacted with a hypothetical grout block using The Geochemist's Workbench(reg s ign) and changes in pore fluid chemistry correspond to the number of pore fluid volumes reacted. As in the earlier document, this results in three states of grout pore fluid composition throughout the simulation period that are termed Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. The one major difference from the earlier document is that pyrite is used to account for reducing capacity of the tank grout rather than pyrrhotite. This poises Eh at -0.47 volts during Reduced Region II. The major transitions in pore fluid composition are shown. Plutonium solubilities are estimated for discrete PuO2(am,hyd) particles and for plutonium coprecipitated with iron phases in the residual waste. Thermodynamic data for plutonium from the Nuclear Energy Agency are used to estimate the solubilities of the discrete particles for the three stages of pore fluid

  6. Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Koch

    farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca...

  7. Profiling the vulnerabilities and risks of South African settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, towns and settlements provide housing and livelihoods for a growing global population. Estimates indicate that in 2014, 54% of the world’s population and 40% of the population on the African continent were considered urban. African city...

  8. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  9. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holder used in nuclear reactors. The closure mechanism is composed of a latching member which includes a generally circular chamber with a plurality of elongated latches depending therefrom. The latching member circumscribes part of an actuator member which is disposed within the latching member so as to be axially movable. The axial movement of the actuator actuates positioning of the latches between positions in which the latches are locked and secured within the actuator member. Means, capable of being remotely manipulated, are provided to move the actuator in order to position the latches and load the articles within the tube

  10. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  11. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  12. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  13. Monitoring informal settlements using SAR polarimetry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for settlement mapping and detection has remained largely unexplored in Southern Africa. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible role that SAR polarimetry could play in the monitoring of informal settlements....

  14. Professional Closure Beyond State Authorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Sommer Harrits

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the Weberian approach to the study of professions has been strong, emphasizing state authorization and market monopolies as constituting what is considered a profession. Originally, however, the Weberian conception of closure, or the ways in which a profession is constituted and made separate, was broader. This article suggests a revision of the closure concept, integrating insights from Pierre Bourdieu, and conceptualizing professional closure as the intersection of social, symbolic and legal closure. Based on this revision, this article demonstrates how to apply such a concept in empirical studies. This is done by exploring social, symbolic and legal closure across sixteen professional degree programs. The analyses show a tendency for some overlap between different forms of closure, with a somewhat divergent pattern for legal closure. Results support the argument that we need to study these processes as an intersection of different sources of closure, including capital, lifestyles and discourse

  15. MNC Subsidiary Closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel; de Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. In particular, we examine the extent to which the human capital that these employees acquired while employed by the MNC influences the wages they receive in their new jobs. We propose an employee...

  16. Friction or Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundahl, Mikela

    2014-01-01

    Heritage is a discourse that aims at closure. It fixates the narrative of the past through the celebration of specific material (or sometimes immaterial non-) ob-jects. It organizes temporality and construct events and freezes time. How does this unfold in the case of the UNESCO World Heritage si...

  17. Mail Office annual closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On the occasion of the annual closure of CERN, there will be no mail distributed on Friday 20 December 2013 but mail will be collected in the morning. Nevertheless, you will still be able to bring your outgoing mail to Building 555-R-002 until 12 noon.  

  18. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.240 Section... of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.240 Settlement. (a) Availability... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of settlement...

  19. 28 CFR 24.304 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 24.304 Section 24.304... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 24.304 Settlement. A prevailing party and Department counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before...

  20. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers of settlement, or proposals of...

  1. 15 CFR 18.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 18.19 Section 18.19... Procedures for Considering Applications § 18.19 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  2. 49 CFR 6.29 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 6.29 Section 6.29 Transportation... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.29 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection...

  3. 7 CFR 1.345 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.345 Section 1.345 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.345 Settlement. (a) A respondent may make offers of compromise of settlement at any time. (b) The reviewing official has the exclusive authority to...

  4. 22 CFR 134.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 134.25 Section 134.25 Foreign... Considering Applications § 134.25 Settlement. The applicant and the Department of State may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  5. 17 CFR 201.54 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.54 Section 201... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.54 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for the Office or Division of the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final...

  6. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement. A prevailing party and EPA counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before final...

  7. 14 CFR 14.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 14.25 Section 14.25 Aeronautics... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications § 14.25 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  8. 29 CFR 2704.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2704.305 Section 2704.305 Labor Regulations... Settlement. In the event that counsel for the Secretary and an applicant agree to settle an EAJA claim after... of the settlement and request dismissal of the application. [63 FR 63177, Nov. 12, 1998] ...

  9. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during the course of a proceeding, offers of settlement which shall be submitted to the Secretary. If determined to...

  10. 37 CFR 11.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 11.26 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.26 Settlement. Before or after a complaint under § 11.34 is filed, a settlement conference may occur between the OED...

  11. 39 CFR 960.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 960.17 Section 960.17 Postal Service... ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 960.17 Settlement. The applicant and the Postal Service may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  12. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Structured settlements. 536.55 Section 536.55... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.55 Structured settlements. (a) The... of this part, structured settlements cannot be required but are encouraged in situations listed above...

  13. 39 CFR 958.23 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 958.23 Section 958.23 Postal Service..., CLEAN-UP COSTS AND DAMAGES FOR VIOLATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL REGULATIONS § 958.23 Settlement. Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time. The Determining Official has...

  14. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and...

  15. 5 CFR 2430.10 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2430.10 Section 2430.10... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AWARDS OF ATTORNEY FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES § 2430.10 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  16. 19 CFR 212.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 212.24 Section 212.24 Customs Duties... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.24 Settlement. The applicant and the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  17. 15 CFR 904.213 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 904.213 Section 904.213 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Appeal Procedures General § 904.213 Settlements. If settlement is reached before the Judge has...

  18. 12 CFR 1705.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1705.24 Section 1705.24 Banks and... Consideration of the Application for Award § 1705.24 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before the final decision on the application for award is made, either in...

  19. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213 Agriculture... and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it is determined that a debt...

  20. 24 CFR 28.45 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 28.45 Section 28.45... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 28.45 Settlements. (a) HUD and the respondent may enter into a settlement agreement at any time prior to the issuing of a notice of final...

  1. 10 CFR 1023.324 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1023.324 Section 1023.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Justice Act Procedures for Considering Applications § 1023.324 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  2. 24 CFR 3800.60 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 3800.60 Section 3800... DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800.60 Settlements. (a) At any time during an investigation, the Department and the parties subject to an investigation may conduct settlement negotiations...

  3. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1262.305 Section 1262.305... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.305 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  4. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.25 Settlement. Trustees may settle claims for natural resource damages under this part at any time, provided that the settlement is adequate in the judgment of the...

  5. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  6. 45 CFR 13.24 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlements. 13.24 Section 13.24 Public Welfare... ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.24 Settlements. The applicant and the agency's litigating party may agree on a proposed settlement of the award at any time prior to...

  7. 17 CFR 9.7 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 9.7 Section 9.7... DISCIPLINARY, ACCESS DENIAL OR OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS General Provisions § 9.7 Settlement. At any time before... accordance with § 9.20, the parties may file a stipulation for dismissal based on a settlement agreement...

  8. 29 CFR 2204.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2204.306 Section 2204.306 Labor Regulations... Procedures for Considering Applications § 2204.306 Settlement. The applicant and the Secretary may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  9. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.217 Settlement. At any... have settled the case, and may file with such motion a copy of the settlement agreement. If the Judge...

  10. 5 CFR 2610.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2610.306 Section 2610.306... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 2610.306 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application...

  11. 29 CFR 16.303 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement. 16.303 Section 16.303 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 16.303 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  12. 15 CFR 766.18 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 766.18 Section 766.18... PROCEEDINGS § 766.18 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  13. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A prevailing party and the FCA through its counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award at any time...

  14. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894 Debt settlement. Debt settlement of all claims will be handled in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection...

  15. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  16. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  17. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...

  18. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-01-01

    Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the tota...

  19. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  20. Crack closure, a literature study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    1993-08-01

    In this report crack closure is treated. The state of the art is reviewed. Different empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other, and their benefits are discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are discussed, and some results from fatigue tests are also reported. Experimental data from the literature are reported.

  1. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Closure of Marine Corps Air Station El Toro and Tustin, California, and the Realignment to Naval Air Station Miramar, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    ... requested for each military construction project associated with base realignment and closure does not exceed the original estimated cost provided to the Commission on Defense Base Closure and Realignment (the Commission...

  2. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  3. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  4. RELAP-7 Closure Correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, R. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrs, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hansel, J. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sharpe, J. P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johns, Russell C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on the INL’s modern scientific software development framework, MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment). The overall design goal of RELAP-7 is to take advantage of the previous thirty years of advancements in computer architecture, software design, numerical integration methods, and physical models. The end result will be a reactor systems analysis capability that retains and improves upon RELAP5’s and TRACE’s capabilities and extends their analysis capabilities for all reactor system simulation scenarios. The RELAP-7 code utilizes the well-posed 7-equation two-phase flow model for compressible two-phase flow. Closure models used in the TRACE code has been reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past decades and provide a basis for the colure correlations implemented in the RELAP-7 code. This document provides a summary on the closure correlations that are currently implemented in the RELAP-7 code. The closure correlations include sub-grid models that describe interactions between the fluids and the flow channel, and interactions between the two phases.

  5. Urethrovaginal fistula closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Marisa M; Goldman, Howard B

    2017-01-01

    In the developed world, urethrovaginal fistulas are most the likely the result of iatrogenic injury. These fistulas are quite rare. Proper surgical repair requires careful dissection and tension-free closure. The objective of this video is to demonstrate the identification and surgical correction of an urethrovaginal fistula. The case presented is of a 59-year-old woman with a history of pelvic organ prolapse and symptomatic stress urinary incontinence who underwent vaginal hysterectomy, anterior colporrhaphy, posterior colporrhaphy, and synthetic sling placement. Postoperatively, she developed a mesh extrusion and underwent sling excision. After removal of her synthetic sling, she began to experience continuous urinary incontinence. Physical examination and cystourethroscopy demonstrated an urethrovaginal fistula at the midurethra. Options were discussed and the patient wished to undergo transvaginal fistula repair. The urethrovaginal fistula was intubated with a Foley catheter. The fistula tract was isolated and removed. The urethra was then closed with multiple tension-free layers. This video demonstrates several techniques for identifying and subsequently repairing an urethrovaginal fistula. Additionally, it demonstrates the importance of tension-free closure. Urethrovaginal fistulas are rare. They should be repaired with careful dissection and tension-free closure.

  6. Uncertainty Quantification of Multi-Phase Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baglietto, Emilio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-27

    In the ensemble-averaged dispersed phase formulation used for CFD of multiphase ows in nuclear reactor thermohydraulics, closures of interphase transfer of mass, momentum, and energy constitute, by far, the biggest source of error and uncertainty. Reliable estimators of this source of error and uncertainty are currently non-existent. Here, we report on how modern Validation and Uncertainty Quanti cation (VUQ) techniques can be leveraged to not only quantify such errors and uncertainties, but also to uncover (unintended) interactions between closures of di erent phenomena. As such this approach serves as a valuable aide in the research and development of multiphase closures. The joint modeling of lift, drag, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion|forces that lead to tranfer of momentum between the liquid and gas phases|is examined in the frame- work of validation of the adiabatic but turbulent experiments of Liu and Banko , 1993. An extensive calibration study is undertaken with a popular combination of closure relations and the popular k-ϵ turbulence model in a Bayesian framework. When a wide range of super cial liquid and gas velocities and void fractions is considered, it is found that this set of closures can be validated against the experimental data only by allowing large variations in the coe cients associated with the closures. We argue that such an extent of variation is a measure of uncertainty induced by the chosen set of closures. We also nd that while mean uid velocity and void fraction pro les are properly t, uctuating uid velocity may or may not be properly t. This aspect needs to be investigated further. The popular set of closures considered contains ad-hoc components and are undesirable from a predictive modeling point of view. Consequently, we next consider improvements that are being developed by the MIT group under CASL and which remove the ad-hoc elements. We use non-intrusive methodologies for sensitivity analysis and calibration (using

  7. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  8. 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 300 Area Process Trenches, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. For the purposes of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Westinghouse Hanford Company is identified as ''co-operator.'' The 300 Area Process Trenches Closure Plan (Revision 0) consists of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Form 3 and a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Permit Application, Form 3 submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The closure plan consists of nine chapters and six appendices. The 300 Area Process Trenches received dangerous waste discharges from research and development laboratories in the 300 Area and from fuels fabrication processes. This waste consisted of state-only toxic (WT02), corrosive (D002), chromium (D007), spent halogenated solvents (F001, F002, and F003), and spent nonhalogented solvent (F005). Accurate records are unavailable concerning the amount of dangerous waste discharged to the trenches. The estimated annual quantity of waste (item IV.B) reflects the total quantity of both regulated and nonregulated waste water that was discharged to the unit

  9. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  10. Nevada Test Site closure program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use

  11. MNC Subsidiary Closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang; Torres Preto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of MNC subsidiary closures for employees who lose their jobs. We ask to what degree the foreign knowledge that they were exposed to is valued in their new job. We argue theoretically that this foreign knowledge is both valuable and not readily available in the host...... country but is also distant and therefore difficult to absorb. We predict an inverse u-shaped relationship between the exposure to foreign knowledge and the salary in the new job. We empirically support our predictions for a sample of almost 140,000 affected employees in Portugal from 2002 to 2009....

  12. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  13. Chernobyl: closure by 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions on the future of the Chernobyl nuclear plant between the Ukrainian government, the Group of Seven Industrial nations (GT) and the European Union (EU) are summarized. At the G7 meeting, a timetable for the closure of the entire station by 2000 was presented by Ukrainian officials. The timetable depends on financial commitments from Western governments. Without these, the project would take 10 to 15 years. Following this meeting, which took place on 16-17th May 1995. EU finance ministers authorized release of a ECU 85 million loan. On 23 May, the European Parliament's Committee on Research, Technology and Energy held a public hearing on the Chernobyl station. The primary topic was a feasibility study on the clean-up of Chernobyl 4 and plans for the sarcophagus. Other matters discussed included the effect of the delays and indecision in settling the plants's future. Safety improvements being made to other RBMKs were not being carried out at Chernobyl because of the expected closure. The replacement of the power now supplied to the Ukraine by the Chernobyl reactors is also an issue. The solution favoured by the Ukraine is to being on-line three VVER-1000s that are currently close to completion. Western governments find this solution difficult to accept, however. (UK)

  14. Tight closure and vanishing theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Tight closure has become a thriving branch of commutative algebra since it was first introduced by Mel Hochster and Craig Huneke in 1986. Over the past few years, it has become increasingly clear that tight closure has deep connections with complex algebraic geometry as well, especially with those areas of algebraic geometry where vanishing theorems play a starring role. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce tight closure and to explain some of these connections with algebraic geometry. Tight closure is basically a technique for harnessing the power of the Frobenius map. The use of the Frobenius map to prove theorems about complex algebraic varieties is a familiar technique in algebraic geometry, so it should perhaps come as no surprise that tight closure is applicable to algebraic geometry. On the other hand, it seems that so far we are only seeing the tip of a large and very beautiful iceberg in terms of tight closure's interpretation and applications to algebraic geometry. Interestingly, although tight closure is a 'characteristic p' tool, many of the problems where tight closure has proved useful have also yielded to analytic (L2) techniques. Despite some striking parallels, there had been no specific result directly linking tight closure and L∼ techniques. Recently, however, the equivalence of an ideal central to the theory of tight closure was shown to be equivalent to a certain 'multiplier ideal' first defined using L2 methods. Presumably, deeper connections will continue to emerge. There are two main types of problems for which tight closure has been helpful: in identifying nice structure and in establishing uniform behavior. The original algebraic applications of tight closure include, for example, a quick proof of the Hochster-Roberts theorem on the Cohen-Macaulayness of rings of invariants, and also a refined version of the Brianqon-Skoda theorem on the uniform behaviour of integral closures of powers of ideals. More recent, geometric

  15. Livelihoods of squatter settlements : analysis from tenure perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, Ashokkumar; Nepali, Purna; Panday, U.S.; Shrestha, Reshma

    2017-01-01

    Squatter settlements are inevitable in most of the urban areas. Livelihood situation of squatter settlements seem poor, vulnerable and miserable. Living condition in these settlements suffered from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper

  16. Agricultural production and stability of settlement systems in Upper Mesopotamia during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Tuna

    This study investigates the relationship between rainfall variation and rain-fed agricultural production in Upper Mesopotamia with a specific focus on Early Bronze Age urban settlements. In return, the variation in production is used to explore stability of urban settlement systems. The organization of the flow of agricultural goods is the key to sustaining the total settlement system. The vulnerability of a settlement system increases due to the increased demand for more output from agricultural lands. This demand is the key for the success of urbanization project. However, without estimating how many foodstuffs were available at the end of a production cycle, further discussions on the forces that shaped and sustained urban settlement systems will be lacking. While large scale fluctuations in the flow of agricultural products between settlements are not the only determinants of hierarchical structures, the total available agricultural yield for each urban settlement in a hierarchy must have influenced settlement relations. As for the methodology, first, Early Bronze Age precipitation levels are estimated by using modern day associations between the eastern Mediterranean coastal areas and the inner regions of Upper Mesopotamia. Next, these levels are integrated into a remote-sensing based biological growth model. Also, a CORONA satellite imagery based archaeological survey is conducted in order to map the Early Bronze Age settlement system in its entirety as well as the ancient markers of agricultural intensification. Finally, ancient agricultural production landscapes are modeled in a GIS. The study takes a critical position towards the traditionally held assumption that large urban settlements (cities) in Upper Mesopotamia were in a state of constant demand for food. The results from this study also suggest that when variations in ancient precipitation levels are translated into the variations in production levels, the impact of climatic aridification on ancient

  17. NATURE-RURAL SETTLEMENT INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eminağaoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of natural environments are generally brought up upon adverse developments against nature in the humannature interactions. Although individual actions are often considered to be more immediate innatıre-related issuesi ecologic problems tend to spread in time and lead to reginol or even global problems. For this reason, it stands imperative that economic, ecologic and aesthetic values of the environment we live in be protected and used sustainably. Being the scene of nature and the environment landscape signifies the whole with living and nonliving entities where we live in. Dameged and destroyed landscape scenes particularly in urban areas necessitaites the reconsideration of human-nature relations and nature-frendly life style. This study investigates the rural settlements that show harmony with nature and reflects qualities of natural environments on the dwellings. Particularly, with the examples of drawing and pictures it examines the associatiation of rural settlements with nature as well as the use of the green as an occasional or spacial element.

  18. The Changes of the Human Development on Micro-Regional and Settlement Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Lipták

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to define and estimate the human potential of the settlements in South-Cserehát,, Hungary. The human development index in the classical view can be estimated atmicroregional level with only hard distortions, to which the list of starting indicators differ from the usual indicators, such as GDP and GNI, the life expectancy at birth and the portion of taking part in education. However, the estimating calculations made for defining the human potential in a settlement level should be handled with hard restrictions , at the same time it perfectly shows the formation of the human factor in the region. As a research question the following was defined: In what range has the human potential changed on the basis of the census data and what kind of configuration changes have happened in the South-Cserehát? The aim of the study to attempt to estimate the HDI on settlement level.

  19. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.172 Section 1427.172 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a...

  20. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.135 Section 838.135 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  1. 42 CFR 402.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 402.17 Section 402.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS General Provisions § 402.17 Settlement. CMS or OIG has...

  2. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has exclusive...

  3. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive...

  4. 20 CFR 498.126 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 498.126 Section 498.126 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive authority to settle any issues or case...

  5. 5 CFR 838.1018 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.1018 Section 838.1018 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... Settlements. The former spouse may request that an amount be withheld from the retirement benefits that is...

  6. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  7. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , an automated method can be used to help identify human settlements in a fixed, repeatable and timely manner. The main contribution of this work is to improve generalisation on settlement type classification of aerial imagery. Images acquired at different dates...

  8. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  9. Unsaturated consolidation theory for the prediction of long-term municipal solid waste landfill settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Rong-Her; Chen, Kuo-Sheng

    2006-02-01

    The understanding of long-term landfill settlement is important for landfill design and rehabilitation. However, suitable models that can consider both the mechanical and biodecomposition mechanisms in predicting the long-term landfill settlement are generally not available. In this paper, a model based on unsaturated consolidation theory and considering the biodegradation process is introduced to simulate the landfill settlement behaviour. The details of problem formulations and the derivation of the solution for the formulated differential equation of gas pressure are presented. A step-by-step analytical procedure employing this approach for estimating settlement is proposed. The proposed model can generally model the typical features of short-term and long-term behaviour. The proposed model also yields results that are comparable with the field measurements.

  10. Airport Movement Area Closure Planner, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR research develops an automation tool improving temporary and permanent runway closure management. The Movement Area Closure Planner (MACP) provides airport...

  11. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  12. Commuting in the settlement system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial organization of settlement system is the framework for internal migration flows. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between commuting and the settlement structure. Commuting patterns and characteristics of commuters in Serbia are relatively unknown and insufficiently researched, and as such, can not be adequately used in creation of development strategies and public policies which would include commuters' issues. It has been emphasized the importance of research of commuting ties between different settlements and also pointed out in which way commuting flows could be researched and analyzed by using existing sources, due to better understanding of connections between migrations and settlements. Commuting patterns of workers in Serbia and interrelations between the scope and the structure of commuting flows, as well as the type and population size of settlements in Serbia have been examined. Apart from territorial dimension of commuting phenomenon, socio-economic component of commuting population has also been considered. The use of costumised tabulations from 2002 Census have enabled us to examine all types of commuting and emphasise dominant directions of commuting flows of economically active population according to gender, level of education and sector of economic activity, within the settlement hierarchy. Workers have been classified into seven groups according to place of residence and place of work. The findings reveal there is a clear connection between the hierarchy structure and commuting patterns in Serbia. Further, we find some evidence that only 9,5% of workers - commuters have been working in the settlement of the same population size and type such as their residing settlement. Commuting flows within Serbia’s settlement system point out to certain variations when looking at individual categories of population, but it can be concluded that there is general trend of commuting "upwards" within the

  13. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for the Realignment of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, D.C., to Naval Air Station Memphis, Tennessee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    ... requested for each military construction project associated with Defense base realignment and closure does not exceed the original estimated cost provided to the Commission on Defense Base Closure and Realignment (the Commission...

  14. Defense Base Realignment and Closure Budget Data for Realignment of Construction Battalion Unit 416 from Naval Air Station Alameda, California, to Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... requested for each military construction project associated with Defense base realignment and closure does not exceed the original estimated cost provided to the Commission on Defense Base Closure and Realignment (the Commission...

  15. Decontamination strategies in contaminated settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Jouve, A.; Tallec, V. Le

    1996-01-01

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident, decontamination actions had been completed in many places, the contamination could be considered as fixed, especially on urban surfaces and the social situation was felt to be stabilized. Under those conditions the efficiency of the 'classical' decontamination techniques was under question, it was worthwhile to look at new specific techniques. Besides it was necessary to discuss the interest of new decontamination actions in settlements. The European Union (EU) sponsored a project ECP 4 in order to look at the opportunities for further dose reduction actions in the contaminated territories of the three republics affected by the accident. The objective was to provide a local decision maker, faced with many alternatives for decontamination, with all the elements for determining what to do according to the various objectives he might pursue. The main results are presented here. (author)

  16. Closure report for N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule

  17. Closure report for N Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  18. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  19. Biological challenges of true space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.; Mankins, Willa M.; Walter, Helen

    2018-05-01

    "Space Settlements" - i.e., permanent human communities beyond Earth's biosphere - have been discussed within the space advocacy community since the 1970s. Now, with the end of the International Space Station (ISS) program fast approaching (planned for 2024-2025) and the advent of low cost Earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation in the near future, the concept is coming once more into mainstream. Considerable attention has been focused on various issues associated with the engineering and human health considerations of space settlement such as artificial gravity and radiation shielding. However, relatively little attention has been given to the biological implications of a self-sufficient space settlement. Three fundamental questions are explored in this paper: (1) what are the biological "foundations" of truly self-sufficient space settlements in the foreseeable future, (2) what is the minimum scale for such self-sustaining human settlements, and (3) what are the integrated biologically-driven system requirements for such settlements? The paper examines briefly the implications of the answers to these questions in relevant potential settings (including free space, the Moon and Mars). Finally, this paper suggests relevant directions for future research and development in order for such space settlements to become viable in the future.

  20. Interferometric Imaging Directly with Closure Phases and Closure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chael, Andrew A.; Johnson, Michael D.; Bouman, Katherine L.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric imaging now achieves angular resolutions as fine as ∼10 μas, probing scales that are inaccessible to single telescopes. Traditional synthesis imaging methods require calibrated visibilities; however, interferometric calibration is challenging, especially at high frequencies. Nevertheless, most studies present only a single image of their data after a process of “self-calibration,” an iterative procedure where the initial image and calibration assumptions can significantly influence the final image. We present a method for efficient interferometric imaging directly using only closure amplitudes and closure phases, which are immune to station-based calibration errors. Closure-only imaging provides results that are as noncommittal as possible and allows for reconstructing an image independently from separate amplitude and phase self-calibration. While closure-only imaging eliminates some image information (e.g., the total image flux density and the image centroid), this information can be recovered through a small number of additional constraints. We demonstrate that closure-only imaging can produce high-fidelity results, even for sparse arrays such as the Event Horizon Telescope, and that the resulting images are independent of the level of systematic amplitude error. We apply closure imaging to VLBA and ALMA data and show that it is capable of matching or exceeding the performance of traditional self-calibration and CLEAN for these data sets.

  1. Evaluation of Two Energy Balance Closure Parametrizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Fabian; De Roo, Frederik; Kohnert, Katrin; Desjardins, Raymond L.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Mauder, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    A general lack of energy balance closure indicates that tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) measurements underestimate turbulent heat fluxes, which calls for robust correction schemes. Two parametrization approaches that can be found in the literature were tested using data from the Canadian Twin Otter research aircraft and from tower-based measurements of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) programme. Our analysis shows that the approach of Huang et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:273-292, 2008), based on large-eddy simulation, is not applicable to typical near-surface flux measurements because it was developed for heights above the surface layer and over homogeneous terrain. The biggest shortcoming of this parametrization is that the grid resolution of the model was too coarse so that the surface layer, where EC measurements are usually made, is not properly resolved. The empirical approach of Panin and Bernhofer (Izvestiya Atmos Oceanic Phys 44:701-716, 2008) considers landscape-level roughness heterogeneities that induce secondary circulations and at least gives a qualitative estimate of the energy balance closure. However, it does not consider any feature of landscape-scale heterogeneity other than surface roughness, such as surface temperature, surface moisture or topography. The failures of both approaches might indicate that the influence of mesoscale structures is not a sufficient explanation for the energy balance closure problem. However, our analysis of different wind-direction sectors shows that the upwind landscape-scale heterogeneity indeed influences the energy balance closure determined from tower flux data. We also analyzed the aircraft measurements with respect to the partitioning of the "missing energy" between sensible and latent heat fluxes and we could confirm the assumption of scalar similarity only for Bowen ratios 1.

  2. Borehole closure in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1988-12-01

    Constitutive law parameters are determined from salt behavior characterization experiments. The results are applied to predict creep (time-dependent) closure of boreholes in salt specimens subjected to various loading configurations. Rheological models (linear and nonlinear viscoelastic and viscoplastic models), empirical models, and physical theory models have been formulated from the results of uniaxial creep tests, strain and stress rate controlled uniaxial tests, constant strain rate triaxial tests, cyclic loading tests, and seismic velocity measurements. Analytical solutions for a thick-walled cylinder subjected to internal and external pressures and for a circular hole in an infinite plate subjected to a biaxial or uniaxial stressfield have been derived from each of the linear viscoelastic models and from one of the empirical laws. The experimental results indicate that the salt samples behave as an elastic-viscoplastic material. The elastic behavior tends to be linear and time-independent. The plastic deformation is time-dependent. The stress increment to strain rate increment ratio gradually decreases as the stress level increases. The transient potential creep law seems to give the simplest satisfactory governing equation describing the viscoplastic behavior of salt during the transient phase. 204 refs., 27 figs., 29 tabs

  3. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  4. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a TCO...

  5. The health of the poor: women living in informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, G; Arku, R; Montana, L

    2012-06-01

    A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or "slums" today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Health data collected as part of the Women's Health Study of Accra round II (WHSA-II) was combined with data from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to compare the health of female slum dwellers to the health of female non-slum dwellers living in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Group means were calculated and multivariate linear regression models were estimated to compare eight domains of health as measured by the short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Women living in informal settlements were found to display consistently better health. Conditional on all observable characteristics, women living in informal settlements scored higher on all self-reported health outcomes than women living in non-slum areas. The differences appear largest for general health as well as for the physical role functioning domains, and appear smallest for the social role functioning and bodily pain domains. The results presented suggest that slum residence does not have a negative effect on self-reported health among women in Accra. Three factors may contribute to the generally positive association between slum residence and observed outcomes: i) self-selection of individuals with strong health into informal settlements and an accordingly small impact of environmental factors on health ii) self-selection of more driven and ambitious individuals into slum neighborhoods who may have a generally more positive view of their health and iii) the geographic placement of slum neighborhoods in central neighborhoods with relatively easy access to health facilities.

  6. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, P.M.; Pande, K.C.; Patwardhan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  7. Reclamation and closure of an oil sands tailings facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkowicz, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Morgenstern, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of ensuring the successful reclamation of oil sands tailings facilities. Tailings should be reclaimed as mining proceeds in order to avoid an excessive accumulation of fluid fine tailings (FFT). The volume of mature fine tailings (MFT) in ponds should be limited in order to ensure effective tailings management. The reclaimed landforms should have good geotechnical stability and be comprised of self-sustaining native vegetation. Strength is needed to allow for timely capping and initial reclamation, and stiffness is required to minimize future settlement and to allow for the construction of a closure landscape. Reclamation strategies were presented for fines-dominated tailings; sand-depleted tailings; and sand-dominated tailings. Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) criteria for tailings reclamation were discussed, and various monitoring and performance assessment strategies were presented. tabs., figs.

  8. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mos

    Full Text Available Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (90% than a natural biofilm (∼25%. The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%. Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

  9. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  10. The morphological / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation or service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Zukisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available , it is of the utmost importance that a critical evaluation of settlement structure and patterns is undertaken to directly inform the manner in which social services are delivered in different settlement types....

  11. Monitoring and Analysis of Ground Settlement Induced by Tunnelling with Slurry Pressure-Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunku Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study of monitoring and analysis of ground settlement caused by tunnelling of stacked twin tunnels for underground metro line construction through the densely populated area using the slurry pressure-balanced TBM is presented. Detailed ground settlement monitoring was carried out for the initial stage of down-track tunnelling in order to estimate trough width factor and volume losses including face, shield, and tail losses. In addition, using the gap model, prediction of volume loss and ground settlement was carried out with consideration of the ground condition, TBM configurations, and actual operation data. The predictions of the gap model were compared with the observed results, and adjustment factors were determined for volume loss estimation. The adjusted factors were applied to predict ground settlement of the up-track tunnel, and its results were compared with the field measurements.

  12. Material balance and diets in biological life support systems: a relationship with a coefficient of closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Somova, L. A.

    Biological life support systems (BLSS) of various coefficients of closure were considered The basic coefficient of closure was accepted equal to 66%. With increase in coefficient of closure food requirements for the greater degree should be satisfied due to the manufacture of food inside the BLSS. In this connection food values were estimated both in the basic variant, and in those with increased coefficients of closure. Metabolic massflow rates were estimated at the input and output of the BLSS as well as inside it. Human massflow rates were submitted on the basis of characteristics of the 'reference man'. Stoichiometric synthesis - degradation equations of organic substances in the BLSS were obtained. A problem of nitrogen imbalance was shown to occur under an incomplete BLSS closure. To compensate losses of nitrogen with urine and feces, food and nitrogen-containing additives should be introduced into the BLSS.

  13. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  14. Fuel channel closure and adapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanical closure/actuating ram combination particularly suited for use in sealing the ends of the pressure tubes when a CANDU-type reactor is refueled. It provides a cluster that may be inserted into a fuel channel end fitting to provide at least partial closing off of a pressure tube while permitting the disengagement of the fueling machine and its withdrawal from the closure for other purposes. The invention also provides a ram/closure combination wherein the application of loading force to a deformable sealing disk is regulated by a massive load bar component forming part of the fueling machine and being therefore accessible for maintenance or replacement

  15. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  16. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  17. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  18. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... and post-closure care objectives of paragraph (a) of this section: (1) Type and amount of hazardous..., including amount, frequency, and pH of precipitation; (5) Geological and soil profiles and surface and...

  19. Pioneer settlement of U.S. immigrants: Characteristics of pioneer migrants and places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gurak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on immigrant dispersion to new U.S. destinations has not addressed the question of how place and individual characteristics influence pioneer settlement. While origin-group social networks influence immigrants' settlement choices upon U.S. arrival and secondary destination decisions within the USA, other factors must be important when immigrants move to places where they have no compatriots. Objective: By examining national origin differences in pioneer migration for ten Asian and Latin American national origin groups, our goal was to determine whether and how they differed in their pioneer settlement responses to economic, demographic, social, and pan-ethnic labor markets conditions. Methods: We used 1990 and 2000 confidential decennial census data because they have sufficient sample cases and geographic detail to study national origin differences. We estimated two types of model for each origin group: a zero-inflated Poisson model that identifies the place characteristics associated with higher pioneer settlement counts in the 1990s and a logistic regression model that identifies the individual characteristics of immigrants who settled pioneer places. Results: The major context correlates of pioneer settlement were 1990 population size, the pan-ethnic presence of foreign-born from each group's origin region (Asia or Latin America, and the lack of a significant agricultural presence in the labor force. The logistic models indicated that pioneers were likely to be internal migrants rather than recent immigrants, fluent English speakers, and residents of relatively dispersed places prior to moving to pioneer labor markets. Conclusions: The analyses showed the importance of secondary migration and prior dispersion from gateways for pioneer settlement. They also revealed considerable national origin heterogeneity in pioneer settlement dynamics and indicated that national origin differences merit further attention.

  20. Projected Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant and its effect on the area settlement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The current situation of and expected changes in the settlement of the Kecerovce locality, where the Eastern Slovakia nuclear power plant will be sited, are discussed. The estimated requisition of agricultural soil and of forests is considered and the questions are outlined of the resettlement of the population in the power plant protective zone. (M.D.). 6 tabs., 4 refs

  1. Modelling distribution of archaeological settlement evidence based on heterogeneous spatial and temporal data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demján, P.; Dreslerová, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 69, May (2016), s. 100-109 ISSN 0305-4403 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : settlement density * evidence density estimation * predictive modelling * prehistory * large datasets Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2016

  2. Structural behaviour of masonry arch with no-horizontal springing settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zampieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a calculation procedure for assessing the structural integrity of a masonry arch with non-horizontal springing settlement. By applying the Principle of Virtual Work (PVW to the deformed arch system, the procedure proposed herein details the reaction forces and thrust lines for each step of imposed settlement of the support. The procedure can also be used estimate the final displacement that causes complete failure of arch structural capacity. The results of the analysis procedure were compared against those obtained by experimental testing so as to validate the proposed calculation method

  3. 50 CFR 648.161 - Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Bluefish Fishery § 648.161 Closures. (a) EEZ closure. NMFS shall close the EEZ to fishing for bluefish by... dealer permit holders that no commercial quota is available for landing bluefish in that state. ...

  4. Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P

    2006-01-01

    ..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...

  5. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  6. 304 Concretion facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon alloy, uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets in the 304 Concretion Facility, located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility). Clean closure of the 304 Facility is the proposed method for closure of the facility. Justification for this proposal is presented. 15 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Telephone switchboard closure | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 4 p.m. on Friday, 19 December, instead of the usual time of 6 p.m., to allow time for closing all systems properly before the annual closure. Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will stop. All other phone services will run as usual.

  8. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  9. Container Closure Integrity Testing of Prefilled Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Sarah S; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Matter, Anja; Koulov, Atanas; Singh, Satish K; Germershaus, Oliver; Mathaes, Roman

    2018-04-04

    Prefilled syringes (PFSs) are increasingly preferred over vials as container closure systems (CCSs) for injectable drug products when facilitated or self-administration is required. However, PFSs are more complex compared to CCSs consisting of vial, rubber stopper and crimp cap. Container closure integrity (CCI) assurance and verification has been a specific challenge for PFSs as they feature several sealing areas. A comprehensive understanding of the CCS is necessary for an appropriate CCI assessment as well as for packaging development and qualification. A comprehensive CCI assessment of six different PFSs from three different manufacturers (including one polymeric PFS) was conducted using helium leak testing. PFS components were manipulated to systematically assess the contribution of the different sealing areas to CCI, namely rigid needle shield (RNS)/needle, RNS/tip cone and the individual ribs of a syringe plunger. The polymeric PFS required an equilibrium measurement for accurate CCIT. The different sealing areas and a single plunger rib were shown to provide adequate CCI. Acceptable tip cap movement until the point of CCI failure was estimated. The assessment of acceptable tip cap movement demonstrated the importance of considering the RNS/tip cone seal design to ensure CCI of the PFS upon post assembly possesses and shipment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. 75 FR 29322 - Base Closure and Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Base Closure and Realignment AGENCY: Office of...)(ii) of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990. It provides a partial list of military installations closing or realigning pursuant to the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment (BRAC) Report. It also...

  11. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsana......Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  12. An economic assessment of patent settlements in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Bret; Orszag, Jonathan; Tyson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in recent years, patent settlements between branded and generic manufacturers involving "reverse payments" from branded manufacturers to generic manufacturers have received close antitrust scrutiny, driven by concerns that such settlements harm consumers by delaying the entry of lower-priced generic drugs. The authors note that such settlements will be a focus of the Obama Administration's antitrust enforcement policy, yet there is a growing consensus among the courts that such settlements are anticompetitive only under narrow sets of circumstances. In this article, the authors present an analytical framework for evaluating the competitive effects of patent settlements, including those involving reverse payments, and demonstrate that these settlements can benefit consumers. Thus, the authors conclude that while continued scrutiny of such settlements is important, broad brush treatments are inappropriate and only a more individualized evaluation can correctly determine the competitive effects of a particular settlement agreement.

  13. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  14. 48 CFR 49.108-3 - Settlement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-3 Settlement procedure. (a) Contractors shall settle with subcontractors in general conformity with the policies and principles relating to settlement...

  15. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during

  16. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  17. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  18. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alzamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases. Keywords: Informal settlements, Physical, Features, Urban, Kampung, Jakarta, Indonesia

  19. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the instructions...

  20. Infrastructure Provision and Classification of Rural Settlements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study classifies the selected rural settlements on the basis of available infrastructure .To achieve this aim, 22 rural settlements were randomly selected. The cluster analysis was applied on the data in order to group the rural settlements on the basis of their infrastructure profiles. Thus the hierarchical method of cluster ...

  1. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any time...

  2. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  3. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology...

  4. Preconsolidation Pressure and Creep Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes results of geotechnical investigations carried out in order to estimate the state of consolidation in Holocene silt and clay sediments of unusual thickness. The clay and silt sediments are overlain by 30 meters of sand,  sedimented within the latest 1000 years. Results of oedo...

  5. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  6. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  7. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  8. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.16 Settlement... the disciplinary committee at any time after the investigation report is completed. The disciplinary...

  10. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  11. Gonioscopy in primary angle closure glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christina A; Alward, Wallace L M

    2002-06-01

    Primary angle closure is a condition characterized by obstruction to aqueous humor outflow by the peripheral iris, and results in changes in the iridocorneal angle that are visible through gonioscopic examination. Gonioscopy in these eyes, however, can be difficult. This chapter discusses techniques that might help in the examination. These include beginning the examination with the inferior angle, methods to help in looking over the iris, cycloplegia, locating the corneal wedge, indentation, van Herick estimation, examining the other eye, and topical glycerin. Finally, there is a discussion about the pathology associated with the closed angle, with emphasis on the appearance of iris bombé, plateau iris, and the distinction between iris processes and peripheral anterior synechiae.

  12. Economic Evaluation of Individual School Closure Strategies: The Hong Kong 2009 H1N1 Pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoie Shui-Yee Wong

    Full Text Available School closures as a means of containing the spread of disease have received considerable attention from the public health community. Although they have been implemented during previous pandemics, the epidemiological and economic effects of the closure of individual schools remain unclear.This study used data from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong to develop a simulation model of an influenza pandemic with a localised population structure to provide scientific justifications for and economic evaluations of individual-level school closure strategies.The estimated cost of the study's baseline scenario was USD330 million. We found that the individual school closure strategies that involved all types of schools and those that used a lower threshold to trigger school closures had the best performance. The best scenario resulted in an 80% decrease in the number of cases (i.e., prevention of about 830,000 cases, and the cost per case prevented by this intervention was USD1,145; thus, the total cost was USD1.28 billion.This study predicts the effects of individual school closure strategies on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. Further research could determine optimal strategies that combine various system-wide and district-wide school closures with individual school triggers across types of schools. The effects of different closure triggers at different phases of a pandemic should also be examined.

  13. Revisiting the Landau fluid closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Adhikari, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced fluid models that are much closer to the full kinetic description than the usual magnetohydrodynamic description are a very useful tool for studying astrophysical plasmas and for interpreting solar wind observational data. The development of advanced fluid models that contain certain kinetic effects is complicated and has attracted much attention over the past years. Here we focus on fluid models that incorporate the simplest possible forms of Landau damping, derived from linear kinetic theory expanded about a leading-order (gyrotropic) bi-Maxwellian distribution function f_0, under the approximation that the perturbed distribution function f_1 is gyrotropic as well. Specifically, we focus on various Pade approximants to the usual plasma response function (and to the plasma dispersion function) and examine possibilities that lead to a closure of the linear kinetic hierarchy of fluid moments. We present re-examination of the simplest Landau fluid closures.

  14. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  15. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  16. Hudson River settlement agreement: Technical rationale and cost considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Boreman, J.; Englert, T.L.; Kirk, W.L.; Horn, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to end litigation over open-cycle cooling at Hudson River power plants, out-of-court negotiations began in August 1979. On December 19, 1980, an agreement that was acceptable to all parties was reached. As an alternative to building cooling towers at the Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton generating stations, the utilities agreed to a variety of technical and operational changes intended to reduce entrainment and impingement. In addition, they agreed to supplement the production of striped bass in the Hudson River estuary by means of a hatchery, to conduct a biological monitoring program, and to fund an independent research foundation for study of Hudson River environmental problems. Although the settlement costs were substantial, they were much smaller than the estimated costs of constructing and operating cooling towers. The settlement was expected to provide 15-43% of the impact reduction that might have been obtained with cooling at approximately 10% of the cost. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  17. 304 Concretion Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials. The 300 Area of the Hanford Site contains reactor fuel manufacturing facilities and several research and development laboratories. Recyclable scrap uranium with Zircaloy-2 and copper silicon allo , uranium-titanium alloy, beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy, and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines were secured in concrete billets (7.5-gal containers) in the 304 Concretion Facility (304 Facility), located in the 300 Area. The beryllium/Zircaloy-2 alloy and Zircaloy-2 chips and fines are designated as low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLRMW) with the characteristic of ignitability. The concretion process reduced the ignitability of the fines and chips for safe storage and shipment. This process has been discontinued and the 304 Concretion Facility is now undergoing closure as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-303-040 (Ecology 1991). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of materials and wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the 304 Facility. The strategy for closure of the 304 Facility is presented in Section 6.0

  18. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  19. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  20. Madrid principles of Nagorno-Karabakh settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Babayan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of this work presents the analysis of the basic document and the legal framework of the peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the modern stage - «Madrid or Basic principles», presented to the sides of the negotiations at the OSCE ministerial conference in the Spanish capital Madrid in November 2007. The both side’s statements, international mediators and institutes form a legal background of the vector and the framework of the negotiation process. There are the fundamental differences and contradictions in the approaches of the sides of the negotiations to the «Basic principles» of the settlement in this article. The work contains a comparison of the various items and elements of the Madrid document both in relation to each other, and to the principles of international law.

  1. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  2. Research on the Starokuybyshevskoye Fortified Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubaydullin Ayrat M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.

  3. Modern settlements in special needs education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2016-01-01

    . Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion....... With intelligence testing, special needs education was to service children whose needs were seen as part of their human nature. Inclusion, in turn, assumes special needs to be stigmatizing cultural labels that need to be abandoned by changing school cultures. Drawing on actor-network theory we can approach......In the history of special needs education, the distinction between human nature and its social environment has been a controversial matter. The controversy regards whether special needs are primarily caused by the child's psycho-medical body or by cultural concepts of normality and deviance...

  4. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  5. COMPENSATORY INTEREST SETTLEMENT AND CREDIT BANKING MORATORIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Sánchez, Esteban Marino

    2014-01-01

    First is explained the reasons for this article, it mentions the specific legal rules that support the settlement of interest on the credit operations of companies in the financial system with end users, and then presents the average interest rates of some operations credit. Then we present the formula for calculating interest, and illustrates its application with examples 1 and 2 (the simplest). The following is, in examples 3 and 4, the calculation of interest with imputation of partial pay...

  6. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  7. Historical topography of the Tsarev settlement site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhov Aleksandr A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topography of the Tsarev settlement site, one of major Golden Horde monuments in the Lower Volga region, is analyzed. The first descriptions of the settlement refer to the second half of the 18th century, while the initial large-scale excavations on the monument were conducted in the mid-19th century. By that time, the scientific community had adhered to the opinion that the ruins of Sarai (the city mainly associated with the Tsarev settlement site would stretch to a great distance from the Akhtuba river-head to Kolobovka village. The results of archaeological research of the 20th – early 21st century make it possible to challenge this view. To date, it is an established fact that the size of the actual urban area had constituted 5 x 2.2–2.3 km. The southern part of the city was occupied by the estates of the nobility, the central and northern parts were represented by trade and artisan quarters. Around the city, there were suburban cemeteries, including brick mausoleums (the ruins of which could be mistaken for the remains of dwellings in the 19th century, as well as the areas of irrigated agriculture.

  8. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  9. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure

  10. Closure Welding of Plutonium Bearing Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannell, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    A key element in the Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials involves closure welding of DOE-STD-3013 Outer Containers (3013 container). The 3013 container provides the primary barrier and pressure boundary preventing release of plutonium-bearing materials to the environment. The final closure (closure weld) of the 3013 container must be leaktight, structurally sound and meet DOE STD 3013 specified criteria. This paper focuses on the development, qualification and demonstration of the welding process for the closure welding of Hanford PFP 3013 outer containers

  11. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minx, Jan; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Creutzig, Felix; Feng, Kuishuang; Förster, Michael; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO2 emissions. Consumption-based CO2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure only

  12. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minx, Jan; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Wiedmann, Thomas; Barrett, John; Creutzig, Felix; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Förster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO 2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO 2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO 2 emissions. Consumption-based CO 2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO 2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure

  13. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore's reefs appears relatively constrained, which could lead

  14. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  15. Closure for spent-fuel transport and storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahner, S.; Knackstedt, H.G.; Srostlik, P.

    1980-01-01

    The container has a transport closure and a shielding closure. This shielding closure consists of two pieces (double closure system), which can be fartened to one another like a bayonet fixing. A central motion of rotation is enough to open the closure. It can be done remote-controlled as well as manually. (DG) [de

  16. Mapping of traditional settlements by unmanned airborne vehicles towards architectural restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Skoutelis, Nikolaos; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Tsatsarounos, Stelios; Tsitonaki, Anna; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2015-06-01

    Conservation and restoration of traditional settlements are amongst the actions that international directives proclaim in order to protect our cultural heritage. Towards this end, a mandatory base step in all archaeological and historical practices includes the surveying and mapping of the study area. Often, new, unexplored or abandoned settlements are considered, where dense vegetation, damaged structures and ruins, incorporation of newer structures and renovation characteristics make the precise surveying procedure a labor intensive and time consuming procedure. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) have been effectively incorporated into several cultural heritage projects mainly for mapping archeological sites. However, the majority of relevant publications lack of quantitative evaluation of their results and when such a validation is provided it is rather a procedural error estimation readily available from the software used, without independent ground truth verification. In this study, a low-cost custom-built hexacopter prototype was employed to deliver accurate mapping of the traditional settlement of Kamariotis in east Crete, Greece. The case of Kamariotis settlement included highly dense urban structures with continuous building forms, curved walls and missing terraces, while wild vegetation made classic geodetic surveying unfeasible. The resulting maps were qualitatively compared against the ones derived using Google Earth and the Greek Cadastral Orthophoto Viewing platforms to evaluate their applicability for architectural mapping. Moreover, the overall precision of the photogrammetric procedure was compared against geodetic surveying.

  17. Socio spatial adaptation as a resilience form of native unplanned settlement in confrontation with new planned settlement development pressure (case study: enclave native settlement in Serpong, Tangerang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischak, Mohammad; Setioko, Bambang; Nurgandarum, Dedes

    2017-12-01

    Urban growth refers to expansion of a metropolitan into sub urban areas as the surrounding environment, with no exception of Jakarta city due to limited availability and high price of land within the city. The city of Jakarta, as a metropolitan, carries of expansion in its surrounding environment including Tangerang. Privat developers may an important role in this urban growth through their large scale of new settlement development project. The formation of establishment of enclave native unplanned sub urban settlement scattered within planned new settlement in Tangerang is to be an consequence of Jakarta urban growth. This fenomena could be comprehended as a form of resilience native settlement in confrontation with the new planned settlement pressure. The aim of this research, presented in this paper is to understand the socio-spatial concept of those enclave native settlement as an adaptation form to the new planned settlement pressure. Through descriptive qualitative research method, with indepth interview as a main research instrument, this research could depict or uncover the facts that there are various form of socio-spatial adaptation as the main theme of resilience native suburban settlement formation.

  18. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, G. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, India and Present Address: Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  19. Criticality assessment of LLRWDF closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrack, A.G.; Weber, J.H.; Woody, N.D.

    1992-01-01

    During the operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF), large amounts (greater than 100 kg) of enriched uranium (EU) were buried. This EU came primarily from the closing and decontamination of the Naval Fuels Facility in the time period from 1987--1989. Waste Management Operations (WMO) procedures were used to keep the EU boxes separated to prevent possible criticality during normal operation. Closure of the LLRWDF is currently being planned, and waste stabilization by Dynamic Compaction (DC) is proposed. Dynamic compaction will crush the containers in the LLRWDF and result in changes in their geometry. Research of the LLRWDF operations and record keeping practices have shown that the EU contents of trenches are known, but details of the arrangement of the contents cannot be proven. Reviews of the trench contents, combined with analysis of potential critical configurations, revealed that some portions of the LLRWDF can be expected to be free of criticality concerns while other sections have credible probabilities for the assembly of a critical mass, even in the uncompacted configuration. This will have an impact on the closure options and which trenches can be compacted

  20. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  1. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  2. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamil, Waleed

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases.

  3. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  4. Key financial ratios can foretell hospital closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, M L; Wertheim, P

    1993-11-01

    An analysis of various financial ratios sampled from open and closed hospitals shows that certain leverage, liquidity, capital efficiency, and resource availability ratios can predict hospital closure up to two years in advance of the closure with an accuracy of nearly 75 percent.

  5. 40 CFR 264.178 - Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.178 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous waste residues must be removed...

  6. Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    From 1975 to 1991 the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites (HPADS) were used for demolition events. These demolition events were a form of thermal treatment for spent or abandoned chemical waste. Because the HPADS will no longer be used for this thermal activity, the sites will be closed. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and 40 CFR 270.1. Closure also will satisfy closure requirements of WAC 173-303-680 and for the thermal treatment closure requirements of 40 CFR 265.381. This closure plan presents a description of the HPADS, the history of the waste treated, and the approach that will be followed to close the HPADS. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. Only dangerous constituents derived from HPADS operations will be addressed in this closure plan in accordance with WAC 173-303-610(2)(b)(i). The HPADS are actually two distinct soil closure areas within the Hanford Patrol Academy training area

  7. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Sarah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR Health Information System (HIS. Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5 was higher than in Africa on average (1.8. Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1. The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient

  8. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Vu, Alexander; Tappis, Hannah; Meyer, Sarah; Haskew, Christopher; Spiegel, Paul

    2011-09-21

    Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable to host community members

  9. Utilization of outpatient services in refugee settlement health facilities: a comparison by age, gender, and refugee versus host national status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparisons between refugees receiving health care in settlement-based facilities and persons living in host communities have found that refugees have better health outcomes. However, data that compares utilization of health services between refugees and the host population, and across refugee settlements, countries and regions is limited. The paper will address this information gap. The analysis in this paper uses data from the United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) Health Information System (HIS). Methods Data about settlement populations and the use of outpatient health services were exported from the UNHCR health information system database. Tableau Desktop was used to explore the data. STATA was used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Differences in various indicators of the use of health services by region, gender, age groups, and status (host national vs. refugee population) were analyzed for statistical significance using generalized estimating equation models that adjusted for correlated data within refugee settlements over time. Results Eighty-one refugee settlements were included in this study and an average population of 1.53 million refugees was receiving outpatient health services between 2008 and 2009. The crude utilization rate among refugees is 2.2 visits per person per year across all settlements. The refugee utilization rate in Asia (3.5) was higher than in Africa on average (1.8). Among refugees, females have a statistically significant higher utilization rate than males (2.4 visits per person per year vs. 2.1). The proportion of new outpatient attributable to refugees is higher than that attributable to host nationals. In the Asian settlements, only 2% outpatient visits, on average, were attributable to host community members. By contrast, in Africa, the proportion of new outpatient (OPD) visits by host nationals was 21% on average; in many Ugandan settlements, the proportion of outpatient visits attributable

  10. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  11. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  12. Some Recent Developments in Turbulence Closure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Turbulence closure models are central to a good deal of applied computational fluid dynamical analysis. Closure modeling endures as a productive area of research. This review covers recent developments in elliptic relaxation and elliptic blending models, unified rotation and curvature corrections, transition prediction, hybrid simulation, and data-driven methods. The focus is on closure models in which transport equations are solved for scalar variables, such as the turbulent kinetic energy, a timescale, or a measure of anisotropy. Algebraic constitutive representations are reviewed for their role in relating scalar closures to the Reynolds stress tensor. Seamless and nonzonal methods, which invoke a single closure model, are reviewed, especially detached eddy simulation (DES) and adaptive DES. Other topics surveyed include data-driven modeling and intermittency and laminar fluctuation models for transition prediction. The review concludes with an outlook.

  13. Judging Fairness in Class Action Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Piché

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe the face of modern civil justice and discuss four paradoxes which justify re-evaluating the role of the judge responsible for reviewing class action settlements, in light of modern judicial culture. I also critically evaluate the existing procedures applicable to the fairness review as well as the judicial role described in the caselaw and doctrine, before suggesting a revised, three-parted role for the reviewing judge in the class action settlement context. Ultimately, I suggest that to reach fairness of process and outcome in class action settlements, judges should remain active and creative in their inquisitorial assessment of proposed class action settlements. They should also remain conciliatory, participating in the search for solutions regarding the proposed settlement, always seeking to find the truth (and what is “just” about the proposed settlement, in the utmost respect for the rights of absent class members, the respect of their interests, and the additional consideration of the interests of the defendants and of the public. Dans cet article, je présente l’état de la face de la justice civile moderne et je discute quatre paradoxes qui justifient une réévaluation du rôle du juge responsable de la révision et de l’approbation d’un règlement de recours collectif, à la lumière de la culture juridique moderne. Je propose aussi une évaluation critique des procédures en place s’appliquant à l’évaluation du caracters équitable de la transaction, de même que le rôle du juge décrit dans la jurisprudence et la doctrine, avant de suggérer un rôle révisé. Ce rôle modifié se décline en trois parties. Finalement, je suggère que pour atteindre l’équité de procédure et de résultat dans le cas de règlements en recours collectif, les juges devraient demeurer actifs et créatifs en enquêtant pour évaluer des règlements proposés dans les cas de recours collectifs. Ils et elles

  14. Pit closures - effects and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, A G

    1987-02-01

    During the last decade, British Coal has closed around 100 mines. This article illustrates the effect of pit closures on the colliery's workforce, and the local community and its economy. Working conditions at Newmarket Colliery and the Selby coalfield are compared within the context of British Coal's national transfer market. British Coal's transfer benefits include resettlement payments and mortgage subsidies. The job creation venture of British Coal Enterprise Ltd. has helped to create over 3700 new jobs in 264 projects, involving a total investment of 38 M pounds sterling. The article also discusses deputies' qualifications and prospects for recently qualified management staff, and gives a comparison of losses suffered by the different mining unions.

  15. Closure for milliliter scale bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, David L.; Laidlaw, Robert D.; Andronaco, Gregory; Boyer, Stephen G.

    2010-12-14

    A closure for a microreactor includes a cap that is configured to be inserted into a well of the microreactor. The cap, or at least a portion of the cap, is compliant so as to form a seal with the well when the cap is inserted. The cap includes an aperture that provides an airway between the inside of the well to the external environment when the cap is inserted into the well. A porous plug is inserted in the aperture, e.g., either directly or in tube that extends through the aperture. The porous plug permits gas within the well to pass through the aperture while preventing liquids from passing through to reduce evaporation and preventing microbes from passing through to provide a sterile environment. A one-way valve may also be used to help control the environment in the well.

  16. Closure of Microcosm for refurbishment

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Since 1994, the Microcosm exhibition has given the opportunity to visitors of all ages and backgrounds to have a first glimpse into the secrets of physics.   To ensure that Microcosm can continue fulfilling its educational aims at the same level of quality for many years to come, it is closing for renovation work on 8 December 2014 and is expected to reopen during Summer 2015. During the closure, the “Fun with Physics” workshop will not take place, but the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe and the Passport to the Big Bang circuit will remain accessible to the public, free of charge and with no need to book in advance.  Guided tours of CERN are also available (advance booking required via this page).

  17. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available an answer to the key question of what (shelter type or model and supportive services) should be built where (in the most suitable location with the highest potential to support sustainable human settlements). The investment potential profile indicator has...

  18. Guidelines and criteria for planning Slovenian settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogačnik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, dividing guidelines hierarchically between the national, regional and local level. The second part or rather different type of text attached to the manual is a glossary. It also includes an index for further research of various sources.

  19. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....

  20. Software Review: A program for testing capture-recapture data for closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Richards, Jon D.

    2005-01-01

    Capture-recapture methods are widely used to estimate population parameters of free-ranging animals. Closed-population capture-recapture models, which assume there are no additions to or losses from the population over the period of study (i.e., the closure assumption), are preferred for population estimation over the open-population models, which do not assume closure, because heterogeneity in detection probabilities can be accounted for and this improves estimates. In this paper we introduce CloseTest, a new Microsoft® Windows-based program that computes the Otis et al. (1978) and Stanley and Burnham (1999) closure tests for capture-recapture data sets. Information on CloseTest features and where to obtain the program are provided.

  1. 76 FR 77997 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cashout Settlement; The Atlantic Richfield Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Ophir Mills and Smelter Site in Tooele County, Utah with the Atlantic Richfield Company based upon a cash-out settlement. The settlement...

  2. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 249.110 Section 249.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow...

  3. 12 CFR 308.15 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 308.15 Section 308.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.15 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may, at any time...

  4. Transparency and public participation in WTO dispute settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlborn, C.S.; Pfitzer, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to offer a comprehensive analysis of transparency and public participation in the WTO dispute settlement system, this memorandum first considers the current participatory practice throughout the various steps of the dispute settlement process. Secondly, the current state of the DSU

  5. Resilience and social costs: centralised towns vs. distributed settlements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    In government reports and political debates in Greenland it is often stated, that the divided settlement in general and especially the settlements are too costly, and that the outlying districts in general do not contribute sufficiently to the national economy. This presumption is used as an argu...

  6. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that an...

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  8. 28 CFR 43.3 - Settlement and waiver of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and waiver of claims. 43.3 Section 43.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RECOVERY OF COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43.3 Settlement and waiver of claims. (a) The...

  9. Conciliation as the traditional method of disputes settlement in PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F. Litvinova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article researches one of the peculiarities of civil disputes settlement in China. This peculiarity is the conciliatory method that is used during disputes settlement. The using of the method is based on Confucianism. The content of the method has been viewed in the article.

  10. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  11. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime...

  12. 32 CFR 537.18 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 537.18 Section 537.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.18 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  13. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  14. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  15. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  16. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support their...

  18. 29 CFR 1603.108 - Settlement and alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. 1603.108... Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. (a) The parties are at all times free to settle all or part of... a neutral mediator or to any other alternative dispute resolution process authorized by the...

  19. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  20. The development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to informal settlements around Daveyton on the East Rand, 1970-1999

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. The purpose of the study is to analyse the development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to the role of the Government in the improvement of informal settlement conditions around Daveyton, especially at the Etwatwa informal settlement. Research has shown that there is common experience in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America in as far as the development of squatter settlements or informal settlements are concerned. This st...

  1. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Guimarães

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Method: Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Results: Of the total participants (n=105, 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9% had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion: High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  2. Use of illicit drugs by adolescents and young adults of an urban settlement in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafael Alves; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Caetano, Karlla Antonieta Amorim; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Matos, Marcos André de

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with illicit drug use by adolescents and young adults of a formal urban settlement. Cross-sectional study including adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of an urban settlement in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Stata, version 12.0. We used Poisson regression model to estimate the factors associated with illicit drug use. Of the total participants (n=105), 27.6% (95CI 20.0-36.9%) had used illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, crack, LSD and inhalants. The consumption of these substances was associated with male gender, use of body piercing and/or tattoos, licit drug use and self-report of signs and/or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. High prevalence of illicit drug use was found in the individuals investigated, ratifying the presence of risk factors to the vulnerability of the settlers to use these substances in the urban settlement population.

  3. Research on dynamic creep strain and settlement prediction under the subway vibration loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhui; Miao, Linchang

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the dynamic characteristics and settlement prediction of soft soil. Accordingly, the dynamic shear modulus formula considering the vibration frequency was utilized and the dynamic triaxial test conducted to verify the validity of the formula. Subsequently, the formula was applied to the dynamic creep strain function, with the factors influencing the improved dynamic creep strain curve of soft soil being analyzed. Meanwhile, the variation law of dynamic stress with sampling depth was obtained through the finite element simulation of subway foundation. Furthermore, the improved dynamic creep strain curve of soil layer was determined based on the dynamic stress. Thereafter, it could to estimate the long-term settlement under subway vibration loading by norms. The results revealed that the dynamic shear modulus formula is straightforward and practical in terms of its application to the vibration frequency. The values predicted using the improved dynamic creep strain formula closed to the experimental values, whilst the estimating settlement closed to the measured values obtained in the field test.

  4. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  5. BATS IN SETTLEMENTS FROM AN ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO GRACO ZEPPELINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bats are key components of ecological networks, and studies in degraded areas are especially important to understand the impact of the human settlements on bats communities. Here, we surveyed the bat fauna in Guaribas Biological Reserve, a protected area in the Atlantic Forest in Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, and compared it with the bat fauna that occupies the nearby villages. In the villages, we recorded 650 individuals from 14 species, while 1,127 individuals from 20 species were recorded in the Reserve. Diversity estimation pointed out 19 species for the settlements, and 22 for the Reserve. A Bray-Curtis/Sorensen similarity cluster analysis informed that the Reserve areas and the villages form two distinct groups. Additionally, a Wilcox test pointed out that both areas have significantly distinct abundances and species richnesses. Only a subset of the assemblage, mainly formed by generalist or opportunist species, occupies the villages, exploring resources that are offered by human activities.

  6. Analysis of an underground structure settlement risk due to tunneling- A case study from Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Vahdatirad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The tunnel of the Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2, Iran, will pass through an underground commercial center onits way. Too little distance between the tunnel crown and the underground structure foundation will probably cause collapseor excessive settlement during the tunnel construction based on studied geotechnical conditions of the region. In this paper,a method of risk level assessment for various types of structures, such as frame and masonry structures, and various typesof foundation, such as continuous and isolated, is well defined and the risk level is classified. Moreover, the value of theunderground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlementrisk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification ofvarious types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes in this section need a special monitoring system and consolidationmeasures before the passage of a tunnel boring machine.

  7. Financial risks of post-closure custodial care for the Barnwell radioactive waste disposal facility - 16155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Robert D.; Newberry, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports evaluations of the adequacy of the Barnwell Extended Care Fund in light of identified risks, with the conclusion that the fund is sufficient to cover the costs and uncertainties associated with planned post-closure care of the Barnwell, South Carolina low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It reviews background information pertinent to the facility's post-closure monitoring and maintenance and describes financial responsibility for post-closure activities. It identifies and briefly characterizes the activities planned to be conducted following facility closure and presents the midrange estimate of planned post-closure costs. The paper identifies and quantifies sources of uncertainty in activities and costs planned for post-closure care and presents 50-, 80-, and 95-percent confidence levels of planned costs. The fund is currently sufficient to cover some but not all of the costs that might be incurred as a result of unplanned events. The paper identifies, characterizes, and quantifies unplanned events, possible consequences, and probabilities of occurrence. The paper presents costs that might be incurred in responding to the unplanned initiating events and identifies levels of confidence that the fund is adequate to cover such costs. (authors)

  8. Material balance and diet in bioregenerative life support systems: Connection with coefficient of closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Somova, L. A.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Sadovsky, M. G.

    Bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) with different coefficients of closure are considered. The 66.2% coefficient of closure achieved in "BIOS-3" facility experiments has been taken as a base value. The increase in coefficient of closure up to 72.6-93.0% is planned due to use of soil-like substrate (SLS) and concentrating of urine. Food values were estimated both in a base variant ("BIOS-3"), and with increases in the coefficient of closure. It is shown that food requirements will be more fully satisfied by internal crop production with an increase in the coefficient of closure of the BLSS. Changes of massflow rates on an 'input-output' and inside BLSS are considered. Equations of synthesis and degradation of organic substances in BLSS were examined using a stoichiometric model. The paper shows that at incomplete closure of BLSS containing SLS there is a problem of nitrogen balancing. To compensate for the removal of nitrogen from the system in urine and feces, it is necessary to introduce food and a nitrogen-containing additive.

  9. 2101-M pond closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a surface impoundment (2101-M Pond) at the Hanford Site. The 2101-H Pond was initially constructed in 1953 to serve as a drainage collection area for the 2101-H Building. (Until the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Laboratory was constructed in the 2101-M Building in 1979--1981, the only source contributing discharge to the pond was condensate water from the 2101-H Building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. The drains for the BWIP Laboratory rooms were plumbed into a 4-in., cast-iron, low-pressure drain pipe that carries waste water from the HVAC system to the pond. During the active life of the BWIP Laboratory, solutions of dissolved barium in groundwater samples were discharged to the 2101-M Pond via the laboratory drains. As a result of the discharges, a Part A permit application was initially submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in August 1986 which designates the 2101-M Pond as a surface impoundment

  10. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated.

  11. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties

  12. 32 CFR 989.25 - Base closure and realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base closure and realignment. 989.25 Section 989... PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.25 Base closure and realignment. Base closure or realignment may entail special requirements for environmental analysis. The permanent base closure...

  13. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect with Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik-Ugan, Sezen; Saltik, Irfan Levent

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus occluders are used for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects, as well as for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. The Occlutech Duct Occluder is a newly introduced device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we present a case in which the Occlutech Duct Occluder was successfully used on a patient for the closure of a perimembraneous ventricular septal defect.

  14. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Otts, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  15. Factors affecting closure of a temporary stoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Claire; Varma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine time to reversal of a temporary ostomy, reasons for delayed closure, and patient satisfaction with the scheduling of their closure and related hospital care. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The target population comprised patients who underwent creation of a temporary ostomy and reversal surgery within one National Health System Hospital Trust in the United Kingdom. The population served by this Trust are ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, predominantly living in urban areas around Greater London. Sixty-one persons who met inclusion criteria were identified. A two-step analytical process was undertaken. First, a literature review examining incidence and causes of delayed stoma closure was undertaken. Second, a postal survey of all patients who had had their stoma closed in 2009 was conducted. Respondents were allowed 2 weeks to complete and return the questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed locally and subjected to content validation using ostomy patients, surgical and nursing colleagues. It consisted of 9 questions querying time from original surgery to closure, reasons for delaying closure surgery beyond 12 weeks, and satisfaction with care. Twenty-seven patients returned their questionnaires, indicating they consented to participate; a response rate of 44%. Half of the respondents (n = 14 [52%]) underwent closure surgery within 6 months of stoma formation; the remaining 48% waited more than 6 months (median: 6.5 months, range: 1.5-26 months). Thirteen patients (48%) reported a delay in receiving their stoma closure; the main reason cited was the need for a course of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. Three quarters of respondents (22 [74%]) were satisfied with the overall care they received. Findings from this study suggest that stoma closure may be associated with fewest complications if performed before 12 weeks.

  16. Exceptional closure of UNIQA office at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The UNIQA office at CERN will be closed from Wednesday 18 February to Friday 20 February due to painting work. During this closure, the Headquarters of UNIQA in Geneva will remain at the disposal of the members. See details https://cern.ch/chis/UNIQA_Offices.asp The CERN office will re-open on Monday 23 February according to the normal schedule. We apologise for any inconvenience caused by this closure.

  17. 40 CFR 264.142 - Cost estimate for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES... may be realized with the sale of hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 264... hazardous wastes, or non-hazardous wastes if applicable under § 264.113(d), that might have economic value...

  18. ASD Closure in Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Dominik M; Carroll, John D

    2018-04-17

    While the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ASD closure has been established, new data have recently emerged regarding the negative impact of residual iatrogenic ASD (iASD) following left heart structural interventions. Additionally, new devices with potential advantages have recently been studied. We will review here the potential indications for closure of iASD along with new generation closure devices and potential late complications requiring long-term follow-up. With the expansion of left-heart structural interventions and large-bore transseptal access, there has been growing experience gained with management of residual iASD. Some recently published reports have implicated residual iASD after these procedures as a potential source of diminished clinical outcomes and mortality. Additionally, recent trials investigating new generation closure devices as well as expanding knowledge regarding late complications of percutaneous ASD closure have been published. While percutaneous ASD closure is no longer a novel approach to managing septal defects, there are several contemporary issues related to residual iASD following large-bore transseptal access and new generation devices which serve as an impetus for this review. Ongoing attention to potential late complications and decreasing their incidence with ongoing study is clearly needed.

  19. Percutaneous Transcatheter PDA Device Closure in Infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.; Sultan, M.; Akhtar, K.; Sadiq, N.; Akbar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications associated with transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infants. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Cardiology Department of Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology / National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD), Rawalpindi, from December 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Infants undergoing transcatheter device closure of PDA were included. All patients were evaluated by experienced Paediatric Cardiologists with 2-D echocardiography and Doppler before the procedure. Success of closure and complications were recorded. Results: The age of patients varied from 05 - 12 months and 31 (56.4%) were females. Out of the 55 infants, 3 (5.4%) were not offered device closure after aortogram (two large tubular type ducts and one tiny duct, considered unsuitable for device closure); while in 50 (96.1%) patients out of remaining 52, the duct was successfully closed with transcatheter PDA device or coil. In one infant, device deployment resulted in acquired coarctation, necessitating device retrieval by Snare followed by surgical duct interruption and another patient had non-fatal cardiac arrest during device deployment leading to abandonment of procedure and subsequent successful surgical interruption. Local vascular complications occurred in 12 (21.8%) of cases and all were satisfactorily treated. Conclusion: Transcatheter device closure of PDA in infants was an effective procedure in the majority of cases; however, here were considerable number of local access site vascular complications. (author)

  20. Antidumping settlement rumors push prices up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The NUKEM price range jumped sharply last month, ending up at $8.05-$8.70. The market took off amidst reports that price and volume quotas would be part of the antidumping settlement being negotiated by certain CIS republics and the US Department of Commerce. And the republics got no relief from the US Court of International Trade. In an opinion issues September 25, Judge Jane Restani upheld the validity of Commerce's investigation, reinforcing the rising trend in prices. The lower end of the range was established by offers of CIS origin uranium to those utilities that will not be affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. Ten deals were completed on the spot market in September. In all but one, the sellers were intermediaries

  1. The settlement of foundation of existing large structure on soft ground and investigation of its allowable settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro

    1987-01-01

    In our laboratory a study of siting on quarternary ground is followed to make possible to construct a nuclear power plant on soil ground in Japan, a important subject is to understand bearing capacity, settlement and seismic responce of foundation. So measured data are collected about relation between ground and type of foundation, total settlement and differential settlement of already constructed large structures, and it is done to investigate the real condition and to examine allowable settlement. Investigated structures are mainly foreign nuclear power plant and domestic and foreign high buildings. The higher buildings are, the more raft foundation are for type of foundation and the higher contact pressure are to similar to a nuclear power plant. So discussion is done about mainly raft foundation. It is found that some measured maximum total settlements are larger than already proposed allowable values. So empirical allowable settlement is derived from measured values considering the effect of the width of base slab, contact pressure and foundation ground. Differential settlement is investigated about relation to maximum total settlement, and is formulated considering the width and the rigidity of base slab. Beside the limit of differential settlement is obtained as foundation is damaged, and the limit of maximum total settlement is obtained by combining this and above mentioned relation. Obtained allowable value is largely influenced by the width of base slab, and becomes less severe than some already proposed values. So it is expected that deformation of foundation is rationaly investigated when large structure as nuclear power plant is constructed on soft ground. (author)

  2. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  3. [Comparative description and retrospective analisis of modern methods of surgical wounds closure for intraoperative prophylaxis of development of pathologic cutaneous cicatrices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavyts'kyĭ, S O; Avetikov, D S; Lokes, K P; Rozkolupa, O O; Boĭko, I V

    2014-05-01

    The experience of application of various methods of closure was presented for the head and neck cutaneous wound surfaces after elective operative interventions. The variant of the postoperative results estimation and optimization of the wounds healing by primary closure was proposed.

  4. 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility closure activities evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The closure activities discussed include: the closure activities for the structures, equipment, soil, and gravel scrubber; decontamination methods; materials made available for recycling or reuse; and waste management. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements and closure plan requirements. The report concludes that the areas identified in the closure plan can be clean closed

  5. Basic Principles and Practices of Integrated Dosimetric Passportization of the Settlements in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhtarov, I A; Kovgan, L M; Masiuk, S V; Ivanova, O M; Chepurny, M I; Boyko, Z N; Gerasymenko, V B

    2015-12-01

    of important radiological parameters, namely over 500 thousands of measurements of concentration of 137Cs and 90Sr in the local foodstuff (milk and potatoes); there are more than 1.3 million of measurements of the cesium content in the body of residents of the settlements of Ukraine; there are 100 thousands of dose estimates (both internal and external ones were measured separately) of inhabitants living on the radioactively contaminated areas. The results of the dosimetric passportization served as one of the main exposure criteria for generalized aftermath of the Chornobyl accident represented in the National reports for the first 15, 20 and 25 years after the accident. I. A. Likhtarov, L. M. Kovgan, S. V. Masiuk, O. M. Ivanova, M. I. Chepurny.

  6. Breaking new ground in mapping human settlements from space - The Global Urban Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Thomas; Heldens, Wieke; Hirner, Andreas; Keil, Manfred; Marconcini, Mattia; Roth, Achim; Zeidler, Julian; Dech, Stefan; Strano, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Today, approximately 7.2 billion people inhabit the Earth and by 2050 this number will have risen to around nine billion, of which about 70% will be living in cities. The population growth and the related global urbanization pose one of the major challenges to a sustainable future. Hence, it is essential to understand drivers, dynamics, and impacts of the human settlements development. A key component in this context is the availability of an up-to-date and spatially consistent map of the location and distribution of human settlements. It is here that the Global Urban Footprint (GUF) raster map can make a valuable contribution. The new global GUF binary settlement mask shows a so far unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.4″ (∼ 12m) that provides - for the first time - a complete picture of the entirety of urban and rural settlements. The GUF has been derived by means of a fully automated processing framework - the Urban Footprint Processor (UFP) - that was used to analyze a global coverage of more than 180,000 TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X radar images with 3 m ground resolution collected in 2011-2012. The UFP consists of five main technical modules for data management, feature extraction, unsupervised classification, mosaicking and post-editing. Various quality assessment studies to determine the absolute GUF accuracy based on ground truth data on the one hand and the relative accuracies compared to established settlements maps on the other hand, clearly indicate the added value of the new global GUF layer, in particular with respect to the representation of rural settlement patterns. The Kappa coefficient of agreement compared to absolute ground truth data, for instance, shows GUF accuracies which are frequently twice as high as those of established low resolution maps. Generally, the GUF layer achieves an overall absolute accuracy of about 85%, with observed minima around 65% and maxima around 98%. The GUF will be provided open and free for any scientific use in

  7. Basic principles and practices of integrated dosimetric passportization of the settlements in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyikhtar'ov, Yi.A.; Kovgan, L.M.; Masyuk, S.V.; Yivanova, O.M.; Chepurnij, M.Yi.; Bojko, Z. N.; Gerasimenko, V.B.

    2015-01-01

    radiological parameters, namely over 500 thousands of measurements of concentration of "1"3"7 Cs and "9"0 Sr in the local foodstuff (milk and potatoes); there are more than 1.3 million of measurements of the cesium content in the body of residents of the settlements of Ukraine; there are 100 thousands of dose estimates (both internal and external ones were measured separately) of inhabitants living on the radioactively contaminated areas. The results of the dosimetric passportization served as one of the main exposure criteria for generalized aftermath of the Chornobyl accident represented in the National reports for the first 15, 20 and 25 years after the accident

  8. Oil and gas development on the Metis settlements of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghostkeeper, E.N. [Metis Settlements General Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Goldie, D. [First Street Law Office, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the Alberta Metis Settlements. In 1990, the Metis Settlement Act defined the Metis as a people of Aboriginal ancestry. The mandate of the Alberta Federation of Metis Settlement Associations is to protect settlement lands, and to take legal action against the province for alleged improper handling of subsurface resource revenues regarding the Metis Population Betterment Trust Fund. The Federation also attains local government authority for the Settlements. The Metis resources include game farming and alternative livestock, oil and gas, diamonds, forestry, and agriculture. The main source of economic development is in the oil and gas sector. Before the 1990 Metis Settlement Accord, the only money earned by the Metis from oil and gas development was through employment and surface rights compensation. No benefits were derived from royalties or participation. Since 1990, 265 wells have been drilled on settlement lands, with participation of the Metis General Council in 136 wells. This paper presents the terms of the Metis Development Agreement with reference to: royalties; General Council's participation rights; operating procedures; disposition of production; and, general matters. 6 figs.

  9. Modern tendencies in developing net of settlements of municipality Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Net of settlements of municipality Smederevo consists of Smederevo city and 26 rural settlements. It is a subsystem of the Belgrade metropolitan region. It has 120,000 inhabitants, and 70,000 of them live in town. From 1960 to 2000 it passes through phase of intensive demographic and functional transformation. Processes of demographic redistribution, deagrarization and urbanization are especially emphasized, caused by polarization influence of Smederevo city. From 1960 to 1980 population was developing by natural and migration components, but in villages occurred emigration of young population and caused increased average of older people and intensive decrease of population growth, which became negative. Demographic growth occurs only in periurban settlements, while stagnation and depopulation are typical for other settlements. Process of functional transformation of settlements is apparent also. Relative single functionality with dominant industry and slow diversification function are characteristic for Smederevo city, while villages are transforming from pure rural to rural-industrial and rural-obliging. It caused their progressive urbanization that is especially expressed in periurban settlements and along main traffic communications. In following period the aim is demographic and functional decentralization of net of settlements, by taking planning measures according to the model of center of villages group.

  10. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  11. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  12. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  13. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  14. Settlement of Canisters with smectite clay envelopes in deposition holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1986-12-01

    Settlement of canisters containing radioactive waste and being surrounded by dense smectite clay is caused by the stresses and heat induced in the clay. Consolidation by water expulsion of the clay underlying a model canister with 5 cm diameter and 30 cm length would theoretically account for a maximum finite settlement of about 70 my m in a few weeks, while shear-induced creep would yield a settlement of only a few microns in the same time period. These predictions were checked by running a laboratory test in which a dead load of 80 kg was applied to a small cylindrical copper canister embedded in Na bentonite. The settlement, which increased in proportion to log time, turned out to be about 6 my m in the first 2.5 months. After the first loading period at room temperature, heating to 50 degrees C and, after a 4 months long 'room temperature' period, to 70 degrees C took place. This cycling gave strong, instant settlement and upheaval because of the different thermal expansion of the interacting components of the system. After the development of constant temperature conditions in the entire system and completion of the consolidation or expansion that followed from the thermo-mechanical interactions, the settlement proceeded at a rather high rate at 70 degrees C, still following a log time creep law, but with somewhat stronger retardation. At room temperature, i.e. in the post-heating periods, the settlement seemed to cease, on the other hand. The conclusion from the study is that the canister movements under isothermal conditions were in accordance with the log t-type creep settlement that was predicted in theoretical grounds. Pre-heating and low stresses may account for extraordinary retardation of the settlement. (author)

  15. Estimation of landfill emission lifespan using process oriented modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Ricken, Tim; Widmann, Renatus

    2006-01-01

    Depending on the particular pollutants emitted, landfills may require service activities lasting from hundreds to thousands of years. Flexible tools allowing long-term predictions of emissions are of key importance to determine the nature and expected duration of maintenance and post-closure activities. A highly capable option represents predictions based on models and verified by experiments that are fast, flexible and allow for the comparison of various possible operation scenarios in order to find the most appropriate one. The intention of the presented work was to develop a experimentally verified multi-dimensional predictive model capable of quantifying and estimating processes taking place in landfill sites where coupled process description allows precise time and space resolution. This constitutive 2-dimensional model is based on the macromechanical theory of porous media (TPM) for a saturated thermo-elastic porous body. The model was used to simulate simultaneously occurring processes: organic phase transition, gas emissions, heat transport, and settlement behavior on a long time scale for municipal solid waste deposited in a landfill. The relationships between the properties (composition, pore structure) of a landfill and the conversion and multi-phase transport phenomena inside it were experimentally determined. In this paper, we present both the theoretical background of the model and the results of the simulations at one single point as well as in a vertical landfill cross section

  16. Types of population dynamics in settlements of Zaplanje area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the main directions of changes in the spatial-demographic settlements organization of Zaplanje, which, due to rapid demographic recession since the 60s of the 20th century, is the strongest depopulation area with the oldest population in Serbia. This research aims is to determine the main types of changes in demographic development of the settlements and indirectly reveals key issues of the sustainable development of Zaplanje settlements and revitalization of villages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  17. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  18. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  19. Settlements and the future Ontario wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlik, K.

    1998-01-01

    Settlement system processes which are likely to be in place in Ontario's new deregulated electricity market are discussed. Electricity settlements, i. e. the collection of metered and operational data, the processing of that data to ensure its integrity, the analysis of the data, the determination of payment, and the administration of the required transfer of funds, are analyzed. Some of the actions that those processes will require of prospective wholesale market participants are outlined. The paper also explains why it is that the settlement processes drove certain pivotal market design decisions

  20. 40 CFR 264.228 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... remaining wastes to a bearing capacity sufficient to support final cover; and (iii) Cover the surface....112 must include both a plan for complying with paragraph (a)(1) of this section and a contingent plan... practicably removed at closure; and (ii) The owner or operator must prepare a contingent post-closure plan...

  1. Post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.W.; Maqsood, R.; Saleem, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the mean post-operative analgesic requirement in non-closure and closure of peritoneum during open appendectomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from 1st August 2014 to 30th April 2015. Material and Methods: A total of 60 patients were included in this study and were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A underwent open appendectomy with closure of peritoneum while patients in group B had non-closure of peritoneum during the same procedure. Post-operatively, pain severity was assessed on visual analogue scale (VAS) numeric pain distress scale. On presence of VAS numeric pain distress scale between 5 to 7, intramuscular (IM) diclofenac sodium was given and on score >7, intravascular (IV) tramadol was given. The final outcome was measured at day 0 and day 1. Results: Pain score and analgesic requirements were significantly less in non-closure group than closure group on day 0 and day 1, showing statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Mean post-operative analgesic requirement is significantly less in non-closure group as compared to closure group during open appendectomy. (author)

  2. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1 Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions. (a) In general. Section 5891 imposes...

  3. 11 CFR 116.7 - Debt settlement plans filed by terminating committees; Commission review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the terms under which the creditor has extended credit to nonpolitical debtors of similar risk... settlement plan after the creditors included in the debt settlement plan have agreed to the settlement or... payments to the creditors included in the debt settlement plan until completion of Commission review. The...

  4. Scalp Wound Closure with K wires: An alternative easier method to scalp wound closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S; Ajik, S

    2012-12-01

    Scalp defects and lacerations present a reconstructive challenge to plastic surgeons. Many methods have been described from the use of skin grafting to rotation flaps. Here we present a method of closure of a contaminated scalp wound with the use of Kirschner wires. In our case, closure of scalp laceration was made possible with the use of 1.4 Kirschner wires and cable tie/ zip tie fasteners. The duration to closure of wound was 10 days. In reconstructing the scalp defect, this method was found to adhere to principles of scalp reconstruction. There were no post operative complications found from the procedure. On initial application on the edge of the wound, tension applied caused the K wires to cut through the wound edge. On replacement of K wires 1cm away from wound edge the procedure was not plagued by any further complication. In conclusion we find scalp closure with Kirschner wires are a simple and effective method for scalp wound closure.

  5. Successful determination of larval dispersal distances and subsequent settlement for long-lived pelagic larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Salinas-de-León

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, we still have a poor understanding of the level of connectivity between marine populations in most geographical locations. Taking advantage of the natural features of the southeast coast of New Zealand's North Island, we deployed a series of settlement stations and conducted plankton tows to capture recent settlers and planktonic larvae of the common intertidal gastropod Austrolittorina cincta (6-8 week larval period. Satellite image analysis and ground truthing surveys revealed the absence of suitable intertidal rocky shore habitat for A. cincta over a 100 km stretch of coastline between Kapiti Island to the south and Wanganui to the north. Fifteen settlement stations (3 replicates × 5 sites, which were used to mimic intertidal habitat suitable for A. cincta, were deployed for two months around and north of Kapiti Island (at 0.5, 1, 5, 15, 50 km. In addition, we also conducted plankton tows at each settlement station when the stations were first deployed to collect A. cincta larvae in the water column. On collection, all newly settled gastropods and larvae in the plankton samples were individually isolated, and a species-specific microsatellite marker was used to positively identify A. cincta individuals. Most of the positively identified A. cincta settlers and larvae were collected at the first three sampling stations (<5 km. However, low numbers of A. cincta settlers and larvae were also recorded at the two more distant locations (15 and 50 km. Dispersal curves modeled from our data suggested that <1% of gastropod larvae would travel more than 100 km. While our data show that most larvae are retained close to their natal populations (<5 km, a small proportion of larvae are able to travel much larger geographic distances. Our estimates of larval dispersal and subsequent settlement are one of only a few for marine species with a long-lived larva.

  6. Habitat degradation negatively affects auditory settlement behavior of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Timothy A C; Harding, Harry R; Wong, Kathryn E; Merchant, Nathan D; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I; Radford, Andrew N; Simpson, Stephen D

    2018-05-15

    Coral reefs are increasingly degraded by climate-induced bleaching and storm damage. Reef recovery relies on recruitment of young fishes for the replenishment of functionally important taxa. Acoustic cues guide the orientation, habitat selection, and settlement of many fishes, but these processes may be impaired if degradation alters reef soundscapes. Here, we report spatiotemporally matched evidence of soundscapes altered by degradation from recordings taken before and after recent severe damage on Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Postdegradation soundscapes were an average of 15 dB re 1 µPa quieter and had significantly reduced acoustic complexity, richness, and rates of invertebrate snaps compared with their predegradation equivalents. We then used these matched recordings in complementary light-trap and patch-reef experiments to assess responses of wild fish larvae under natural conditions. We show that postdegradation soundscapes were 8% less attractive to presettlement larvae and resulted in 40% less settlement of juvenile fishes than predegradation soundscapes; postdegradation soundscapes were no more attractive than open-ocean sound. However, our experimental design does not allow an estimate of how much attraction and settlement to isolated postdegradation soundscapes might change compared with isolated predegradation soundscapes. Reductions in attraction and settlement were qualitatively similar across and within all trophic guilds and taxonomic groups analyzed. These patterns may lead to declines in fish populations, exacerbating degradation. Acoustic changes might therefore trigger a feedback loop that could impair reef resilience. To understand fully the recovery potential of coral reefs, we must learn to listen. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  7. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L.; Torkington, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias. PMID:29670882

  8. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace M. Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Observations: Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy. Conclusions and importance: Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control. Keywords: Congenital ectropion uvea, Juvenile glaucoma, Angle-closure glaucoma, Glaucoma drainage device

  9. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  10. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon L. Harries

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias.

  11. Strategic Planning for Hot Cell Closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANGSTAFF, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor were remediating a large hot cell complex to mitigate the radiological hazard. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure unit was determined to be located within the complex. The regulator established a challenge to develop an acceptable closure plan on a short schedule (four months). The scope of the plan was to remove all excess equipment and mixed waste from the closure unit, establish the requirements of the legally binding Closure Plan and develop an acceptable schedule. The complex has several highly radioactive tanks, tank vaults, piping, and large hot cells containing complex chemical processing equipment. Driven by a strong need to develop an effective strategy to meet cleanup commitments, three principles were followed to develop an acceptable plan: (1) Use a team approach, (2) Establish a buffer zone to support closure, and (3) Use good practice when planning the work sequence. The team was composed of DOE, contractor, and Washington State Department of Ecology (Regulator) staff. The team approach utilized member expertise and fostered member involvement and communication. The buffer zone established an area between the unregulated parts of the building and the areas that were allegedly not in compliance with environmental standards. Introduction of the buffer zone provided simplicity, clarity, and flexibility into the process. Using good practice means using the DOE Integrated Safety Management Core Functions for planning and implementing work safely. Paying adequate attention to detail when the situation required contributed to the process credibility and a successful plan

  12. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long term after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Jacob, P.; Alexakhin, R.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Panov, A.; Fesenko, G.; Cecille, L.

    2001-01-01

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a -1 have been classified according to 137 Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137 Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137 Cs contamination above 555 kBq m -2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is

  13. Causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: An exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Marutlulle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM. The article strongly challenges the view that the cause of informal settlements in EMM and other parts of South Africa is predominantly the apartheid government and agrees with literature which provides evidence that to a larger extent, the present government, not the apartheid government, is one of the dominant causes of informal settlements. The article further establishes a common and fertile ground for the convergence of the different views and perspectives into variables which, in addition to the present government, include population growth, government economic policies, economic variables, housing shortage, unavailability of land and unaffordability as the real causes of informal settlements in EMM.

  14. Foundation Settlement Prediction Based on a Novel NGM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of foundation or subgrade settlement is very important during engineering construction. According to the fact that there are lots of settlement-time sequences with a nonhomogeneous index trend, a novel grey forecasting model called NGM (1,1,k,c model is proposed in this paper. With an optimized whitenization differential equation, the proposed NGM (1,1,k,c model has the property of white exponential law coincidence and can predict a pure nonhomogeneous index sequence precisely. We used two case studies to verify the predictive effect of NGM (1,1,k,c model for settlement prediction. The results show that this model can achieve excellent prediction accuracy; thus, the model is quite suitable for simulation and prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous index sequence and has excellent application value in settlement prediction.

  15. The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Issues from a Federal Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antos, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ..., sold, and consumed in the United States. That settlement would impose large payments on the tobacco industry, strengthen regulatory controls, and expand public health initiatives to reduce cigarette smoking...

  16. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  17. 32 CFR 842.129 - Settlement of claims against NAFIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 842.129 Settlement of claims against NAFIs. (a) This subpart does not establish legal theories for adjudication of claims. Refer to the appropriate...

  18. FEATURES OF WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. THE STANDING OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Horia Rogoveanu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The WTO has an innovative system of dispute settlement, with the following features: sui-generis, integrated, resolving the disputes according to the WTO agreements, excluding unilateral solutions, interstate system. These features are detailed in the present article. Another level of analysis concerns the standing of the EU in the WTO, in general, and in the Geneva proceedings for dispute settlement, in particular. Generated by the quality of the European Communities statute as an original member of the Organisation, the EU has become one of the main users of the WTO dispute settlement system. One of the main challenges of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is the implementation of decisions. In view of the cases assessed, while the execution record of the EU is a quite satisfactory one, it is apparent that implementation of decisions in more intricate cases creates difficulties at the Union level.

  19. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  20. 31 CFR 248.7 - Claims requiring settlement action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ISSUE OF SUBSTITUTES OF LOST... claimant and transmit such data to the Claims Division, General Accounting Office, for settlement action. ...

  1. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  2. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-7 Settlement by determination. (a... determination of the amount due consistent with the termination clause, including any cost principles...

  3. 32 CFR 750.10 - Claims: Settlement and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount in full settlement and final satisfaction of the claim. In the latter instance, no payment will be... employee of the Government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim. [57 FR 4722, Feb. 7, 1992, as...

  4. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting data. Actual, standard (appropriately adjusted), or average costs may be used in preparing settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles consistently... not be required to maintain unduly elaborate cost accounting systems merely because their contracts...

  5. 61 Traditional Settlement of Dispute amongst Ikwerre Ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Ogoloma, Fineface I. - Institute of Foundation Studies (IFS), Rivers. State University .... There are many case studies that emphasize Traditional Dispute Settlement in ..... Religion and Social Conflict Management (The case of.

  6. 48 CFR 227.7008 - Settlement of indemnified claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interests of the Government and is coordinated with the Department of Justice with a view to preserving any... the contractors are obtained, the settlement need not be coordinated with the Department of Justice. ...

  7. Application of semi-automated settlement detection for an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRDLR

    The image is displayed as a false colour composite (RGB, 321) with red highlighting vegetation, cyan indicating settlement, and blue as water. 3. ... However, it is still regarded as a relatively new approach for earth observation image analysis ...

  8. An investigation of the closure problem applied to reactor accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brearley, I.R.; Nixon, W.; Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The closure problem, as considered here, focuses attention on the question of when in current research programmes enough has been learned about the source terms for reactor accident releases. Noting that current research is tending to reduce the estimated magnitude of the aerosol component of atmospheric, accidental releases, several possible criteria for closure are suggested. Moreover, using the reactor accident consequence model CRACUK, the effect of gradually reducing the aerosol release fractions of a pressurized water reactor (PWR2) source term (as defined in the WASH-1400 study) is investigated and the implications of applying the suggested criteria to current source term research discussed. (author)

  9. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Szmytkie Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement). When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the n...

  10. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  11. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  12. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  13. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlerick, Michael

    2014-12-01

    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hanford Patrol Academy demolition sites closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    The Hanford Site is owned by the U.S. Government and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites, the unit addressed in this paper. This document consists of a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application, Form 3 (Revision 4), and a closure plan for the site. An explanation of the Part A Form 3 submitted with this closure plan is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. This Hanford Patrol Academy Demolition Sites Closure Plan submittal contains information current as of December 15, 1994.

  15. Development of an arid site closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Barnes, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the development of a prototype plan for the effective closure and stabilization of an arid low-level waste disposal site. This plan will provide demonstrated closure techniques for a trench in a disposal site at Los Alamos. The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed. A specific example is presented showing how the field-validated hydrologic models can be used to develop a final prototype closure plan. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  17. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisler, M.; Kirch, P.V.

    1985-01-01

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society

  18. SETTLEMENT OF BANKING DISPUTE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denico Doly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article talks about dispute between costumer and the bank. Settlement of disputes should be resolved by the principle of fast, accurate and cheap. Issues raised in this paper is how an ideal dispute resolution process to resolve dispute banking. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages in any dispute resolution process both through litigation and non litigation. Based in the principles of fast, accurate and cheap it is explained that banks in Indonesia must resolve their disputes through non litigation or ADR. Tulisan ini membicarakan mengenai penyelesaian sengketa antara nasabah dengan bank. Penyelesaian sengketa harusnya diselesaikan dengan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah. Permasalahan yang diangkat dalam tulisan ini yaitu bagaimana proses penyelesaian sengketa yang ideal dalam menyelesaikan sengketa perbankan. Tulisan ini menggambarkan mengenai kelebihan dan kekurangan dalam setiap proses penyelesaian sengketa baik melalui jalur litigasi maupun non litigasi. Berdasarkan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah maka dipaparkan bahwa perbankan di Indonesia harus menyelesaikan sengketanya melalui jalur non litigasi atau ADR.

  19. Hamiltonian closures in fluid models for plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews recent activity on the Hamiltonian formulation of fluid models for plasmas in the non-dissipative limit, with emphasis on the relations between the fluid closures adopted for the different models and the Hamiltonian structures. The review focuses on results obtained during the last decade, but a few classical results are also described, in order to illustrate connections with the most recent developments. With the hope of making the review accessible not only to specialists in the field, an introduction to the mathematical tools applied in the Hamiltonian formalism for continuum models is provided. Subsequently, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of models based on the magnetohydrodynamics description, including those based on the adiabatic and double adiabatic closure. It is shown how Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems can be applied to impose the incompressibility closure on a magnetohydrodynamic model and how an extended version of barotropic magnetohydrodynamics, accounting for two-fluid effects, is amenable to a Hamiltonian formulation. Hamiltonian reduced fluid models, valid in the presence of a strong magnetic field, are also reviewed. In particular, reduced magnetohydrodynamics and models assuming cold ions and different closures for the electron fluid are discussed. Hamiltonian models relaxing the cold-ion assumption are then introduced. These include models where finite Larmor radius effects are added by means of the gyromap technique, and gyrofluid models. Numerical simulations of Hamiltonian reduced fluid models investigating the phenomenon of magnetic reconnection are illustrated. The last part of the review concerns recent results based on the derivation of closures preserving a Hamiltonian structure, based on the Hamiltonian structure of parent kinetic models. Identification of such closures for fluid models derived from kinetic systems based on the Vlasov and drift-kinetic equations are presented, and

  20. A kinematic view of loop closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsias, Evangelos A; Seok, Chaok; Jacobson, Matthew P; Dill, Ken A

    2004-03-01

    We consider the problem of loop closure, i.e., of finding the ensemble of possible backbone structures of a chain segment of a protein molecule that is geometrically consistent with preceding and following parts of the chain whose structures are given. We reduce this problem of determining the loop conformations of six torsions to finding the real roots of a 16th degree polynomial in one variable, based on the robotics literature on the kinematics of the equivalent rotator linkage in the most general case of oblique rotators. We provide a simple intuitive view and derivation of the polynomial for the case in which each of the three pair of torsional axes has a common point. Our method generalizes previous work on analytical loop closure in that the torsion angles need not be consecutive, and any rigid intervening segments are allowed between the free torsions. Our approach also allows for a small degree of flexibility in the bond angles and the peptide torsion angles; this substantially enlarges the space of solvable configurations as is demonstrated by an application of the method to the modeling of cyclic pentapeptides. We give further applications to two important problems. First, we show that this analytical loop closure algorithm can be efficiently combined with an existing loop-construction algorithm to sample loops longer than three residues. Second, we show that Monte Carlo minimization is made severalfold more efficient by employing the local moves generated by the loop closure algorithm, when applied to the global minimization of an eight-residue loop. Our loop closure algorithm is freely available at http://dillgroup. ucsf.edu/loop_closure/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 510-528, 2004

  1. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  2. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  3. Straight line closure of congenital macrostomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Richard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of patients operated on by Nepal Cleft Lip and Palate Association (NECLAPA surgeons for congenital macrostomia were prospectively studied between January 2000 and December 2002. There were four males and three females with a median age of 10 years. Three had an associated branchial arch syndrome. In all patients an overlapping repair of orbicularis oris was done. Six patients had a straight line closure with excellent cosmetic results and one a Z-plasty with a more obvious scar. All had a normal appearing commissure. Overlapping orbicularis repair with straight line skin closure for this rare congenital anomaly is recommended.

  4. Environmental considerations in mine closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricks, G.

    1997-01-01

    Mine closure planning considers the best ways to plan and manage the environmental changes and socio-economic effects associated with the closing of mines. While the criteria for judging successful closures may vary, it is particularly important for physical, chemical and biological stability to be achieved and for final land use to be appropriate. Trust funds are increasingly favoured as a practical means of fulfilling the requirement for a financial surety and of ensuring that financial provision is available at the end of the mine's life. (author)

  5. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  6. Special closure for radioactive shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otts, J.V.

    1976-03-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a special lid closure for radioactive material shipping containers, typically steel drums. Three closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to protect 1000 lb when dropped 30 ft. The three designs were (1) a 6-in. lid extension (skirt), (2) a 6-in. inner lid, and (3) c-clamps used at the container/lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the 6-in. lid extension is recommended

  7. A Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC) for surface energy balance fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallick, Kaniska; Jarvis, Andrew J.; Boegh, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The use of Penman–Monteith (PM) equation in thermal remote sensing based surface energy balance modeling is not prevalent due to the unavailability of any direct method to integrate thermal data into the PM equation and due to the lack of physical models expressing the surface (or stomatal......) and boundary layer conductances (gS and gB) as a function of surface temperature. Here we demonstrate a new method that physically integrates the radiometric surface temperature (TS) into the PM equation for estimating the terrestrial surface energy balance fluxes (sensible heat, H and latent heat, λ......E). The method combines satellite TS data with standard energy balance closure models in order to derive a hybrid closure that does not require the specification of surface to atmosphere conductance terms. We call this the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC), which is formed by the simultaneous solution...

  8. Settlement duration and materiality: formal chronological models for the development of Barnhouse, a Grooved Ware settlement in Orkney

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin; Jones, Andrew Meirion; MacSween, Ann; Sheridan, Alison; Dunbar, Elaine; Reimer, Paula; Bayliss, Alex; Griffiths, Seren; Whittle, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and Bayesian chronological modelling, undertaken as part of the investigation by the Times of Their Lives project into the development of Late Neolithic settlement and pottery in Orkney, has provided precise new dating for the Grooved Ware settlement of Barnhouse, excavated in 1985–91. Previous understandings of the site and its pottery are presented. A Bayesian model based on 70 measurements on 62 samples (of which 50 samples are thought to date accurately the deposits fro...

  9. The reliability of multistory buildings with the effect of non-uniform settlements of foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'Malul, Rafik; Gadzhuntsev, Michail

    2018-03-01

    The issue is the evaluation of reliability of construction considering the influence of the variation of the support settlement, which is changing during the lifetime of constructions due to the consolidation process of the ground. Recently, the specialists give special emphasis to the necessity to develop the methods for the estimation of reliability and durability of structures. The problem, the article considers, is the determination of the reliability of multistory buildings with non-uniform changing-in-time sediments caused by the consolidation process in soils. Failure of structures may occur before the draft reaches it`s stabilizing value, because of the violations of the conditions of normal use.

  10. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Ranganathan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003 with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H and species richness index (S were high and species evenness index (J was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19, but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  11. Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    2015-04-01

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.

  12. Parents' Attitudes to the Closure of Small Rural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, A.; Nisbet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Attitudes of 134 parents of children from 10 rural schools threatened with closure, and 56 parents of children from seven schools recently closed, were assessed by interview. Most parents opposed closure, and most gave educational reasons for their attitudes. (Author)

  13. The dry closure of Almagrera tailings dam; La clausura seca de la presa de residuos mineros de Almagrera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justo Alpanes, J. L. de; Durand Neyra, P.; Abel Jimenez, F.; Vazquez Boza, M

    2012-07-01

    After the catastrophic failures of Los Frailes dam at Aznalcollar (Huesca), sensitivity towards the safety of mineral waste deposits in Spain, has increased, forcing mining companies to submit in advance a plan for mine closure when the end of exploitation arrives. However, today the Spanish Autonomous Communities are forced to solve the problem of closure of abandoned mines and tailings dams like Almagrera. We present a mechanical model that reproduces all the operations necessary for the dry closure of Almagrera dam, 37.34 meters high. These operations correspond to aspects such as: a. The placement, above the tailings, of toxic coarse mineral residues, thereby reducing the volume of mining dumps. b. Methods to speed up settlements before placing the cover and, this way, prevent damage to it; for example the placement of band-shaped drains, inside the tailings, after the fill has been placed on them. c. This possible liquefaction of tailings during an earthquake. The model has indicated the necessity of placing rock fill reinforcement downstream. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Downstreamness: A concept to analyse basin closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oel, P.R.; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasing water demands have led to the development of infrastructure for freshwater storage and irrigation. Especially in water-scarce regions, this development has led to a growing number of concerns about basin closure. These concerns ask for a structured approach

  15. Scale separation closure and Alfven wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1985-04-01

    Based on the concept of scale separation between coherent response function and incoherent source for renormalized turbulence theories, a closure scheme is proposed. A model problem dealing with shear-Alfven wave turbulence is numerically solved; the solution explicitly shows expected turbulence features such as frequency shift from linear modes, band-broadening, and a power law dependence for the turbulence spectrum

  16. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  17. Opening up closure. Semiotics across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic emergence of new levels of organization in complex systems is related to the semiotic reorganization of discrete/continuous variety at the level below as continuous/discrete meaning for the level above. In this view both the semiotic and the dynamic closure of system levels is reopened to allow the development and evolution of greater complexity.

  18. Individual Consequences of Plant Closures and Cutbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steen

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the segment of unemployment which has its origin in major closures and cutbacks. The argument for this is to make it possible to describe and to analyse a flow into and a flow out of a population of unemployed. Given a major dismissal the following questions are to be answer...

  19. Hexone Storage and Treatment Facility closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The HSTF is a storage and treatment unit subject to the requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous waste. Closure is being conducted under interim status and will be completed pursuant to the requirements of Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and WAC 173-303-640. Because dangerous waste does not include the source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of WAC 173-303 or of this closure plan. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge where appropriate. The known hazardous/dangerous waste remaining at the site before commencing other closure activities consists of the still vessels, a tarry sludge in the storage tanks, and residual contamination in equipment, piping, filters, etc. The treatment and removal of waste at the HSTF are closure activities as defined in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and WAC 173-303

  20. Synthesis of azaphenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette Møller; Lysén, M.; Begtrup, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new and convergent synthesis of azaphenanthridines via an anionic ring closure is reported. Ortho-lithiation/in situ borylation of cyanopyridines produces the corresponding cyanopyridylboronic esters, which undergo a Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling to give the key intermediates. Addition of lithium...

  1. Spontaneous closure of traumatic CSF otorrhoea following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a 40 year-old male who sustained a head injury with left cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea following a road traffic accident. Plain radiograph revealed a defect in the temporal bone extending in to the tympanomastoid area. Patient was managed conservatively with closure of the fistula and resolution of the leakage ...

  2. A Quick Guide to Paravalvular Leak Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Sameer; Franke, Jennifer; Bertog, Stefan; Lam, Simon; Vaskelyte, Laura; Hofmann, Ilona; Matic, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    Paravalvular leak (PVL) is a seldomly covered aspect of structural heart disease. However, this is a condition that frequently presents after valvular replacement. This article will cover the diagnosising and treating PVL (i.e. imaging, access, and device selection). In addition, specific aspects of aortic and mitral PVL closure will be covered in this review. PMID:29588686

  3. Flower opening and closure: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.

    2003-01-01

    Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the

  4. Angle closure glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace M; Thuente, Daniel; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2018-06-01

    Congenital ectropion uvea is a rare anomaly, which is associated with open, but dysplastic iridocorneal angles that cause childhood glaucoma. Herein, we present 3 cases of angle-closure glaucoma in children with congenital ectropion uvea. Three children were initially diagnosed with unilateral glaucoma secondary to congenital ectropion uvea at 7, 8 and 13 years of age. The three cases showed 360° of ectropion uvea and iris stromal atrophy in the affected eye. In one case, we have photographic documentation of progression to complete angle closure, which necessitated placement of a glaucoma drainage device 3 years after combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy. The 2 other cases, which presented as complete angle closure, also underwent glaucoma drainage device implantation. All three cases had early glaucoma drainage device encapsulation (within 4 months) and required additional surgery (cycloablation or trabeculectomy). Congenital ectropion uvea can be associated with angle-closure glaucoma, and placement of glaucoma drainage devices in all 3 of our cases showed early failure due to plate encapsulation. Glaucoma in congenital ectropion uvea requires attention to angle configuration and often requires multiple surgeries to obtain intraocular pressure control.

  5. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  6. Transcatheter Device Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Ullah, M.; Sadiq, N.; Akhtar, K.; Akbar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy, safety and immediate complications encountered during percutaneous device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric Cardiology, AFIC/NIHD, Rawalpindi, from January 2005 to December 2010. Methodology: Consecutive 500 patients who underwent attempted transcatheter PDA device closure were included in the study. Device type position, success of closure and complications were described as frequency percentage. Results: In 491 cases (98.2%), PDA was successfully occluded including 4 cases (0.8%) where devices were dislodged but retrieved and redeployed in Cath laboratory. PDA occluder devices used in 448 cases (91%) while coils (single or multiple) were used in 42 cases (8.5%) and in one case (0.2%) ASD occluder device was used to occlude the PDA. There were 09 (1.8%) unsuccessful cases, 06 (1.2%) were abandoned as ducts were considered unsuitable for device closure, 02 (0.4%) devices dislodged and needed surgical retrieval and one case (0.2%) was abandoned due to faulty equipment. The narrowest PDA diameter ranged from 0.5 - 14 mm with mean of 4.5 +- 2.4 mm. There was a single (0.2%) mortality. Conclusion: Transcatheter occlusion of PDA by coil or occluder device is an effective therapeutic option with high success rate. Complication rate is low in the hands of skilled operators yet paediatric cardiac surgical back-up cover is mandatory. (author)

  7. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  8. The relationship between insurance claim closure and recovery after traffic injuries for individuals with whiplash associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Eleanor; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Carroll, Linda J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if time to claim closure was similar to time to self-reported recovery in a no fault motor vehicle collision insurance system. A prospective cohort of traffic injured adults with a whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) was assembled. We excluded participants who applied for benefits after 42 days of the collision, who were in hospital for more than two days and participants who were not followed up at least once after their injury. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, six weeks, three-, six-, nine- and 12-months after the collision. The mean age of the cohort was 39 years and 66% were female. The mean number of days until claim closure and for self-reported recovery was 291days and 134 days, respectively. We found those who had their claim closed at each follow-up period had lower levels of disability and were more likely to report they were recovered than participants with open claims. We conclude that time to claim closure could be used as an outcome measure in traffic collision; however, this measure should be used with caution since it over-estimates the true time to recovery. Implications for Rehabilitation Time to claim closure as an outcome measure for whiplash-associated disorders has been criticized in the literature because it is thought that closure is not reflective of the health status of the individual. We found that claim closure was associated with lower levels of disability, but the time to claim closure was significantly longer than the time to self-reported recovery. Time to claim closure may be used with caution as a "proxy" measure of recovery from an injury; however, it must be noted that it over-estimates the true time of recovery.

  9. Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy is not inferior to other closure techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Chaer, Rabih A; Naddaf, Abdallah; El-Shazly, Omar M; Marone, Luke; Makaroun, Michel S

    2016-09-01

    Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been much maligned as an inferior technique with worse outcomes than in patch closure. Our purpose was to compare perioperative and long-term results of different CEA closure techniques in a large institutional experience. A consecutive cohort of CEAs between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. Closure technique was used to divide patients into three groups: primary longitudinal arteriotomy closure (PRC), patch closure (PAC), and eversion closure (EVC). End points were perioperative events, long-term strokes, and restenosis ≥70%. Multivariate regression models were used to assess the effect of baseline predictors. There were 1737 CEA cases (bilateral, 143; mean age, 71.4 ± 9.3 years; 56.2% men; 35.3% symptomatic) performed during the study period with a mean clinical follow-up of 49.8 ± 36.4 months (range, 0-155 months). More men had primary closure, but other demographic and baseline symptoms were similar between groups. Half the patients had PAC, with the rest evenly distributed between PRC and EVC. The rate of nerve injury was 2.7%, the rate of reintervention for hematoma was 1.5%, and the length of hospital stay was 2.4 ± 3.0 days, with no significant differences among groups. The combined stroke and death rate was 2.5% overall and 3.9% and 1.7% in the symptomatic and asymptomatic cohort, respectively. Stroke and death rates were similar between groups: PRC, 11 (2.7%); PAC, 19 (2.2%); EVC, 13 (2.9%). Multivariate analysis showed baseline symptomatic disease (odds ratio, 2.4; P = .007) and heart failure (odds ratio, 3.1; P = .003) as predictors of perioperative stroke and death, but not the type of closure. Cox regression analysis demonstrated, among other risk factors, no statin use (hazard ratio, 2.1; P = .008) as a predictor of ipsilateral stroke and severe (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 2.6; P

  10. Comparison of fasciotomy wound closures using traditional dressing changes and the vacuum-assisted closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannis, John; Angobaldo, Jeff; Marks, Malcolm; DeFranzo, Anthony; David, Lisa; Molnar, Joseph; Argenta, Louis

    2009-04-01

    Fasciotomy wounds can be a major contributor to length of stay for patients as well as a difficult reconstructive challenge. Once the compartment pressure has been relieved and stabilized, the wound should be closed as quickly and early as possible to avoid later complications. Skin grafting can lead to morbidity and scarring at both the donor and fasciotomy site. Primary closure results in a more functional and esthetic outcome with less morbidity for the patient, but can often be difficult to achieve secondary to edema, skin retraction, and skin edge necrosis. Our objective was to examine fasciotomy wound outcomes, including time to definitive closure, comparing traditional wet-to-dry dressings, and the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device. This retrospective chart review included a consecutive series of patients over a 10-year period. This series included 458 patients who underwent 804 fasciotomies. Of these fasciotomy wounds, 438 received exclusively VAC. dressings, 270 received only normal saline wet-to-dry dressings, and 96 were treated with a combination of both. Of the sample, 408 patients were treated with exclusively VAC therapy or wet-to-dry dressings and 50 patients were treated with a combination of both. In comparing all wounds, there was a statistically significant higher rate of primary closure using the VAC versus traditional wet-to-dry dressings (P lower extremities and P extremities). The time to primary closure of wounds was shorter in the VAC. group in comparison with the non-VAC group. This study has shown that the use of the VAC for fasciotomy wound closure results in a higher rate of primary closure versus traditional wet-to-dry dressings. In addition, the time to primary closure of wounds or time to skin grafting is shorter when the VAC was employed. The VAC used in the described settings decreases hospitalization time, allows for earlier rehabilitation, and ultimately leads to increased patient satisfaction.

  11. The Rising Rate of Rural Hospital Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Thomas, Sharita R; Randolph, Randy K; Perry, Julie R; Thompson, Kristie W; Holmes, George M; Pink, George H

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the rate of rural hospital closures has increased significantly. This study is a preliminary look at recent closures and a formative step in research to understand the causes and the impact on rural communities. The 2009 financial performance and market characteristics of rural hospitals that closed from 2010 through 2014 were compared to rural hospitals that remained open during the same period, stratified by critical access hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals (ORHs). Differences were tested using Pearson's chi-square (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank test of medians. The relationships between negative operating margin and (1) market factors and (2) utilization/staffing factors were explored using logistic regression. In 2009, CAHs that subsequently closed from 2010 through 2014 had, in general, lower levels of profitability, liquidity, equity, patient volume, and staffing. In addition, ORHs that closed had smaller market shares and operated in markets with smaller populations compared to ORHs that remained open. Odds of unprofitability were associated with both market and utilization factors. Although half of the closed hospitals ceased providing health services altogether, the remainder have since converted to an alternative health care delivery model. Financial and market characteristics appear to be associated with closure of rural hospitals from 2010 through 2014, suggesting that it is possible to identify hospitals at risk of closure. As closure rates show no sign of abating, it is important to study the drivers of distress in rural hospitals, as well as the potential for alternative health care delivery models. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Andrea; Levitt, Marc A; Lawal, Taiwo A; Peña, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48-72 h after the operation. The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung's disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic stricture and no mortality. Based on

  13. 9 CFR 318.301 - Containers and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers and closures. 318.301... Canning and Canned Products § 318.301 Containers and closures. (a) Examination and cleaning of empty containers. (1) Empty containers, closures, and flexible pouch roll stock shall be evaluated by the...

  14. Crack closure and sequential effects in fatigue: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    A literature survey of the phenomenon of crack closure is reported here. The state of the art is reviewed and several empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other. Their properties, advantages and disadvantages are briefly discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are presented and experimental data from the literature are reported.

  15. 40 CFR 267.143 - Financial assurance for closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), utilizing the certificate of insurance for closure specified at 40 CFR 264.151(e). (f) Corporate financial... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial assurance for closure. 267... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.143 Financial assurance for closure. The owner or operator must...

  16. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  17. Numerical approximation of the Boltzmann equation : moment closure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Malik, M.R.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This work applies the moment method onto a generic form of kinetic equations to simplify kinetic models of particle systems. This leads to the moment closure problem which is addressed using entropy-based moment closure techniques utilizing entropy minimization. The resulting moment closure system

  18. Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program

  19. Landscape Features of Evciler Neighborhood as a Rural Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekta Köse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserved rural settlements provide information about the historical rural life. In this line of thought, this study aims to keep an account of a rural settlement before it is altered by urbanization, which is located near Ankara and in which merchandise of agricultural products in the historic markets of the city is its primary pursuit. In accordance with this purpose, a matrix was used. With this matrix, landscape identity features are assessed and elements constituting landscape features are designed in terms of their efficiency. Evciler neighborhood is chosen for study area because of its close location to the city and therefore the high risk of conversion and loss of identity under the pressure of urbanization, with respect to the change of its administrative status from village to neighborhood in correspondance with the 5216 Law on Metropolitan Municipalities. Decisions on developing and protecting distinctive features of landscape of rural settlements should include an objective considering features and identity of settlements from local to regional scale. In order to reach this objective, all dimensions of settlements’ landscape features should be understood. In conclusion, this study argues that rural settlements have been formed due to by the natural landscape and the oppurtunities offered by the natural structure whereby,this natural structure has determined various aspects of rural life from construction materials to the means of earning a living.

  20. Collapse settlement of wetted mine waste - two case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Wade, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Two separate projects, constructed on reclaimed coal mine waste at TransAlta's Highvale Mine complex in west-central Alberta, experienced significant settlements as a result of groundwater recharge. One project, a new service building for large coal haulers and other heavy mining equipment, was constructed in 1981 on a thick, compacted fly ash raft overlying 15 m of dynamically compacted mine waste. Little if any building settlement was observed for the first few years after construction at which time progressive differential settlements were experienced that were related to unanticipated groundwater recharge. The second project, the diversion of an environmentally sensitive creek away from the active mining area, involved the construction of a 1.5 km canal and a 5 m high stepped drop structure over dragline-dumped waste up to 20 m thick. Pre-compression of the mine waste beneath the drop structure was effected by water injection through a series of wells installed in the structure footprint prior to construction. This paper outlines the methods of construction, investigations conducted, confirmatory field test procedures and settlements measured at both projects and, based on the findings, provides guidelines for possible mitigative measures in reducing saturation-induced settlements in future developments on reclaimed land. 6 refs., 10 figs

  1. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  2. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Negotiated settlements and the National Energy Board in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Joseph; Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, settlements between oil and gas pipelines and users have largely superseded the litigation of major pipeline toll cases since 1995. Quantitatively, from the first half to the second half of the period 1985-2007 the average number of pipeline toll hearing days in Canada fell by three-quarters. On average, settlements last more than twice as long as litigated outcomes and have cut regulatory processing times by about one third for gas pipelines and by about two thirds for oil pipelines, with the result that regulatory processing times per effective toll-year have fallen to 13% and 27% respectively of previous levels. Qualitatively, settlements have been used to determine prices, operating and capital cost projections, return on equity, service quality improvements, risk-sharing investments and information requirements. They were the vehicle by which multi-year incentive agreements developed rapidly for all pipelines. They have also been used to introduce light-handed regulation. They have provided a mechanism for fruitful collaboration between pipelines and their customers and have changed attitudes in the industry. Two key actions of the National Energy Board have facilitated settlements by clarifying expectations and property rights: its generic cost of capital decision that removes the market power of the pipeline and enables effective negotiation with users, and its willingness to judge a settlement by the reasonableness of the process leading up to it instead of imposing the Board's own values on the outcome.

  4. Revisit to Grad's Closure and Development of Physically Motivated Closure for Phenomenological High-Order Moment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, R. S.; Nagdewe, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Grad's closure for the high-order moment equation is revisited and, by extending his theory, a physically motivated closure is developed for the one-dimensional velocity shear gas flow. The closure is based on the physical argument of the relative importance of various terms appearing in the moment equation. Also, the closure is derived such that the resulting theory may be inclusive of the well established linear theory (Navier-Stokes-Fourier) as limiting case near local thermal equilibrium.

  5. Geoarchaeological research on Bronze Age settlement mounds in the Kolkheti lowlands at the Black Sea coast of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laermanns, Hannes; Heisterkamp, Arne; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Elashvili, Mikheil; Verheul, Jan; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Helmut, Brückner

    2016-04-01

    0.0.1 Situated between the Rivers Enguri in the north and Khobistsqali in the south, more than 20 settlement mounds (local name Dikhagudzuba), identified by field survey and remote sensing techniques, give evidence of a densely populated landscape in the coastal lowlands of eastern Georgia during the Bronze Age. While the existing chronology of these mounds is based on ceramic evidence obtained during a previous archaeological research, only limited information is available on their internal architecture and their palaeoenvironmental context, and the chronology of the different layers is as yet lacking. 0.0.2 Within the framework of a geoarchaeological research project, we carried out eleven vibracores on and in direct vicinity of three of the most prominent mounds, situated close to the villages of Orulu and Ergeta. Based on these sediment cores, our study aims at (i) establishing a chronostratigraphical framework for the settlements based on radiocarbon dating; (ii) reconstructing possible phases and gaps of occupation; and (iii) identifying the environmental conditions during the time of their existence. Geochemical and sedimentological analyses were carried out to decipher element contents (XRF), granulometry, and organic contents (LOI, C/N) of sediment samples, supporting the interpretation of the mounds' stratigraphical evolution and related human occupation. The three investigated settlement mounds are similar in dimension and stratigraphy, and different settlement layers could be identified in each of them. The 14C age estimates indicate that their formation occurred during the second half of the 3rd and the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, thus confirming the archaeological interpretation of their Bronze Age origin. Based on the granulometric and geochemical data, palaeoenvironmental conditions in the vicinity of the settlements were dominated by fluvial processes.

  6. Temporary Closure of the Open Abdomen: A Systematic Review on Delayed Primary Fascial Closure in Patients with an Open Abdomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, Pieter; Wind, Jan; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was designed to systematically review the literature to assess which temporary abdominal closure (TAC) technique is associated with the highest delayed primary fascial closure (FC) rate. In some cases of abdominal trauma or infection, edema or packing precludes fascial closure

  7. Australia/Japan thermal coal settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2000-01-01

    After prolonged negotiations, Australian suppliers and Japanese buyers have reached agreement on the benchmark thermal coal prices for the Japanese financial year 2000 (April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001). The benchmark price as negotiated with the Chubu and Tohoku power utilities is about US$1.20 down on last year's price of $29.95. The actual price change to each supplier varies slightly depending on the calorific value of each product as calculated against a benchmark value of 6700kcal/kg on a gross air-dried basis. It is strange, but the Australians and Japanese both have some reason to crow about the outcome of the negotiation. In US dollar terms, compared with April 1, 1999, the suppliers have secured a price rise from A$45.39 to A$47.97; while the Japanese can point to having achieved a price reduction from Y3551/t to Y3162/t. The joys of exchange rate fluctuations. The result can only be seen as a good one for Australia, especially as it is alleged that one of the Australian suppliers opened negotiations by putting a US$1 price reduction on the table. It is worth noting that the significance of the benchmark coal price is waning, with the annual negotiations in Japan covering only 14Mt of a total seaborne trade of some 450Mt. Consequently, few tonnes are marketed at the benchmark price and Australia finds itself in fierce competition with suppliers from Indonesia, China and Russia for huge, short-term tenders at FOB prices. Recent winning Australian bids have been barely over US$20/t FOBT ex east coast Australia-nearly 30% below the new US$28.75 benchmark price. Finally, on the negotiating table will come the settlements for the semi coking coals. This is where Australia should hold the trump card. Japan simply cannot replace, from other countries, the near 30Mt of high quality coal it purchases each year from Australia. But already the whiff of a US$1.45-US$1.50 price reduction hangs in the air. Copyright (2000) Australian Journal of Mining

  8. Transient severe left ventricular dysfunction following percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure in an adult with bicuspid aortic valve: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Sohn, Il Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study reported the case of a 60-year-old female with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and a bicuspid aortic valve, who presented with transient severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following percutaneous closure of PDA, as identified by speckle tracking analysis. Transient LV dysfunction following PDA closure has previously been reported; however, severe LV dysfunction is rare. In the present case, the combination of a large PDA size, large amount of shunting, LV remodeling and bicuspid aortic valve may have induced serious deterioration of LV function following PDA closure. Furthermore, speckle-tracking echocardiography may be useful in the estimation of functional alterations in the myocardium of the LV following PDA closure. The observations detailed in the present study may improve the understanding of the pathophysiology and myocardial patterns of transient left ventricular dysfunction following PDA closure in adult humans.

  9. Assessment of consistent two-equation closure for forest flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Cavar, Dalibor; Bechmann, Andreas

    of grid turbulence and wall-bounded flow, the closure suggested is also valid for homogeneous shear flows commonly observed inside tall vegetative canopies. The present work assess the plant drag closure by comparing results of two different CFD models against observations derived over the forested area...... and can be applied for any twoequation closure. Results derived by different CFD models with k-epsilon and k-omega closure are similar and in good comparison with observations. Overall, numerical results show that the closure performs well, opening new possibilities for application to tasks related...... to the atmospheric boundary layer—where it is important to adequately account for the influences of vegetation....

  10. Private sector participation in domestic waste management in informal settlements in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoko, Akunnaya P; Oluwatayo, Adedapo A

    2016-12-01

    Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive. This article examines the effectiveness of this public-private sector collaboration model in waste management in informal settlements in Lagos using empirical data. Major findings of the article include the irregularity of waste collection owing to a poor road network, an inadequate transport infrastructure and the desire to maximise profit, as well as poor waste handling and disposal methods by the private sector participation operators who are not chosen based on competence and capacity to perform. Another major finding is the lack of cooperation from residents evidenced in non-payment of bills and poor packaging of wastes, resulting in wastes being littered. The article concludes on the need to restructure the scheme through proper sensitisation of residents, selection of operators with demonstrable delivery capacity and provision of a well-maintained road network to facilitate access of operators to settlements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Spatial-functional organization of settlements in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of recent exploration of spatial and functional organization of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in the Republic of Serbia (hereinafter referred to as “Vojvodina” based on identification of the level of development of spatial and functional connections and relationships within its settlement network. The research is theoretically and methodically based on principles of regionalization and recent doctrines of regional development, contemporary spatial planning and social and economics disciplines of social geography. Results to a great extent identify and scientifically explain problems of the development of spatial and functional organization of settlement network in Vojvodina. Based on these results, a recommendation for a possible model of a sustainable settlement network in Vojvodina has been given.

  12. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytkie Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement. When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the number of nodes (β index, the number of cycles (urban blocks, which evidences the complexity of the spatial pattern of settlement, and the average rank of nodes of a graph, which expresses the degree of complexity of a street network.

  13. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  14. Nosely III Settlement by Results of Studies in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheev Alexey V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article peresents results of new archaeological studies of the medieval horizon of Nosely III settlement in Mari Volga region. It contains defi nitions of objects connected with the medieval layer (household pits. The authors provide results of analysis of the ceramic material represented by the local (hand-made, early wheel and “Slavicoid” ceramics and imported (wheel-made Russian and Bulgar-Horde ware and complex of items. New materials allow us to provide a more precise dating of the settlement and limit the time of its existence to 14th – 15th centuries and defi ne it as a Mari rural settlement belonging to the district of the Maly Sundyr (Vazhnanger hillfort.

  15. Housing Inequalities Regarding the Informal Settlements in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL-GABRIEL VÂLCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and evolution of informal settlements in Romania are the result of a complex of historical and socio-economic factors and of some territorial planning policies dating from the socialist and post-socialist period. The lack of appropriate legislative instruments regarding urban planning, estate restitution and the weak control of the civil engineering department in conjunction with the policy of imposed sedentary life for the Roma population dating from the 50's and 60's generated multiple forms of territorialisation of the informal settlements and pronounced dynamics of this phenomenon at national level. The study shows the housing inequalities regarding the informal settlements in proportion to the place of residence, the access to the technical and urban utilities, the defining elements of the social profile of the inhabitants and the legislative and institutional framework that generated the emergence and the current evolution of this territorial phenomenon.

  16. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  17. Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.

  18. Facilitating Settlement at the Arbitration Table: Comparing Views on Settlement Practice Among Arbitration Practitioners in East Asia and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a cross cultural examination of how international arbitrators in East Asian and Western countries view the goal of settlement in international arbitration. The result of a 115 person survey and 64 follow up interviews shed light on the underlying cultural attitudes and approaches to settlement in international arbitration as practiced in diverse regions. The findings indicate that arbitration practitioner’s perceptions of the frequency of compromise decision in international arbitration demonstrate a high degree of convergence across regions. At the same time, cultural and socio-economic distinctions are reflected in varying arbitrator perceptions regarding the arbitrators’ role in settlement, whether settlement is regarded as a goal in arbitration and the types of efforts made pre-arbitration to settle disputes. In particular, arbitrators working in the East Asian region regard the goal of facilitating voluntary settlement in the context of international arbitration with greater importance and generally make greater efforts pre-arbitration to settle disputes as compared with counterparts in the West.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934138

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan for the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This document presents information on the closure of the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility. Topics discussed include: facility description; closure history; closure performance standard; partial closure; maximum waste inventory; closure activities; schedule; and postclosure care

  20. Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Petrovic, Oliver; Bjelic, Ivana; Kubera, Amber

    2010-08-22

    Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight. The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1) and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6). Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population. There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus future research and public health intervention include maternal

  1. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  2. Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. Methods Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight. Results The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1 and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6. Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population. Conclusions There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus

  3. Echocardiographic predictors of coil vs device closure in patients undergoing percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushdy, Alaa; Abd El Razek, Yasmeen; Mamdouh Tawfik, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    To determine anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic predictors for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device vs coil closure. Seventy-six patients who were referred for elective transcatheter PDA closure were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent full echocardiogram including measurement of the PDA pulmonary end diameter, color flow width and extent, peak and end-diastolic Doppler gradients across the duct, diastolic flow reversal, left atrial dimensions and volume, left ventricular sphericity index, and volumes. The study group was subdivided into 2 subgroups based on the mode of PDA closure whether by coil (n = 42) or device (n = 34). Using univariate analysis there was a highly significant difference between the 2 groups as regard the pulmonary end diameter measured in both the suprasternal and parasternal short-axis views as well as the color flow width and color flow extent (P closure group had statistically significant higher end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes indexed, left atrial volume, and diastolic flow reversal. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a pulmonary end diameter cutoff point from the suprasternal view > 2.5 mm and from parasternal short-axis view > 2.61 mm to have the highest balanced sensitivity and specificity to predict the likelihood for device closure (AUC 0.971 and 0.979 respectively). The pulmonary end diameter measured from the suprasternal view was the most independent predictor of device closure. The selection between PDA coil or device closure can be done on the basis of multiple anatomic and hemodynamic echocardiographic variables. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Settlement Relocation Modeling: Reacting to Merapi’s Eruption Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, A.; Buchori, I.

    2018-02-01

    Merapi eruption has made severe damages in Central Java Province. Klaten was one of the most affected area, specifically in Balerante Village. This research is made to comprehend GIS model on finding alternative locations for impacted settlement in hazardous zones of eruption. The principal objective of the research study is to identify and analyze physical condition, community characteristics, and local government regulation related to settlements relocation plan for impacted area of eruption. The output is location map which classified into four categories, i.e. not available, available with low accessibility, available with medium accessibility, and available with high accessibility.

  5. Biology as a Key Technological Foundation for Settlement Beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Navarrete, J.; Kent, R. E.; McCutcheon, G.; Pless, E.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Moving materials beyond Earth, whether spacecraft, living organisms, or both, is limited by mass constraints. Yet human survival requires an extensive infrastructure, from environmental regulation to life support. In practice this means habitats, food, oxygen, waste recycling, medicine and so on. Thus, there is a mismatch between what will be required in transit and at destination to fulfill dreams of human settlements and what can realistically moved there. Further, settlement off planet with current transportation systems requires the ability to operate independently of the Earth for prolonged periods of time, requiring long-term storage of supplies and the flexibilityto satisfy new needs.

  6. About some Inedited Trade Amphoras from Spina’s Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sciortino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After an introduction about recent studies concerning the settlement of Spina, this paper presents the analysis of about 100 amphorical finds therein rescued in 1966. Autoptical analysis identified nine ceramic sample-groups, corresponding to Greek productions (mainly Corinthian, but also Chios, North-Aegean and Attic types: in particular Attic à la brosse amphora represents so far an unicum in Spina’s finds, Graeco-Italic and local productions too. This contribution ends with some considerations about Adriatic trade courses during Late Iron Age, suggested by other materials, such as Greek Plain Cooking Wares, recently identified in Spina’s settlement.

  7. Geoportal as a way for monitoring land settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталя Бубир

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of geoportals will improve land monitoring through timely detection of changes in land conditions, mobility access to geospatial data. The result of cadastre geoportals analysis of leading countries, including France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria, USA, Canada, has indicated that their content is correlated to cadastre features in one country and often do not contain complex issues of land monitoring settlements. In Ukraine, there is no public online mapping resource of this topic. It is proposed to establish specialized geoportal monitoring land settlements for public use. The geoportal contents should include an interactive map of each settlement, text information about settlements, laws and regulations, data about existing land use, including land-use violations and carried out or planned environmental activities. An important component of this portal is a personal user panel (Personal office, where he can view, save, print information that is of interest to him, including application forms to the local land management. On this basis we have developed a geoportal monitoring land settlements of Stepnogorsk village council within the student’s research work as part of the relevant geoportals in Zaporizhzhia region. The portal main menu includes: Settlements of Zaporizhzhia region; Monitoring land settlements; Land environmental; Virtual Tour; News. Additional menu contains five tabs: Home (go to home page geoportals; laws; Maps; Photo Gallery; Personal office. Interactive maps of settlements are based on Google maps. Map content includes mapping settlement’s functional areas and distribution of adverse natural and anthropogenic processes. The main map’s advantage is active zone, clicking on which the user is able to see which process is unfavorable in the territory, and which intended purpose is in this land. The user can also edit the map by his personal office. Overall, portal development within student

  8. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  9. A regenerative approach towards mucosal fenestration closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandi, Padma; Anumala, Naveen; Reddy, Amarender; Viswa Chandra, Rampalli

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal fenestration is an opening or an interstice through the oral mucosa. A lesion which occurs with greater frequency than generally realised, its occurrence is attributed to a myriad of causes. Mucogingival procedures including connective tissue grafts, free gingival grafts and lateral pedicle grafts are generally considered to be the treatment of choice in the closure of a mucosal fenestration. More often, these procedures are performed in conjunction with other procedures such as periradicular surgery and with bone grafts. However, the concomitant use of gingival grafts and bone grafts in mucosal fenestrations secondary to infections in sites exhibiting severe bone loss is highly debatable. In this article, we report two cases of mucosal fenestrations secondary to trauma and their management by regenerative periodontal surgery with the placement of guided tissue regeneration membrane and bone graft. The final outcome was a complete closure of the fenestration in both the cases. PMID:23749826

  10. Improving environmental performance through mine closure planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, W.; McKenna, G.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude has been investigating landscape redevelopment concepts since 1995 after a two-year tailings technology selection study resulted in a major shift in their long-term tailings disposal strategy. The change from fluid disposal to solid disposal of tailings leads to a different landscape, incorporating a new water material type, new landforms and a new schedule of reclamation activity. A multidisciplinary approach was needed to assess, design and develop the final landscape. Planning approach in progress at Syncrude Canada was described, and the basic concepts and tools of closure planning discovered to date were outlined. The economic impacts of closure planning on mining and tailings operations in general, were discussed. 14 refs

  11. Theater gateway closure: a strategic level barricade

    Science.gov (United States)

    logistical planners at the strategic level can anticipate or mitigate the effects of a theater gateway closure on military operations. Through two...that at the strategic level the effects are based on the economic and diplomatic elements of the national power, affecting proportionally sustainment...Finally, logistical planners at the strategic level need to have a vast and ample knowledge and understanding of the operational environment to

  12. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-22

    leadership . At the same time, he should issue written press releases. Selected senior leaders from the base should be briefed separately from key community...they will hold with other agencies on base. These matters should be the commander’s call; they will reflect his style of leadership and preference for...base closure. He alone must foresee what can most likely go wrong as well as what should go right in this arduous process. DCNSIZING AN ORGANIZATIN The

  13. The Galois closure of Drinfeld modular towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study Drinfeld modular curves X0(pn) associated to congruence subgroups Γ0(pn) of GL(2,Fq[T]) where p is a prime of Fq[T]. For n>r>0 we compute the extension degrees and investigate the structure of the Galois closures of the covers X0(pn)→X0(pr) and some of their variations...

  14. Guidance: Strategies to Achieve Timely Settlement and Implementation of RD/RA at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum recommends strategies to encourage PRPs to enter into a settlement using the model RD/RA Consent Decree; discusses the current model UAO; and suggests practical alternatives to expedite Superfund settlements and the cleanup process.

  15. 76 FR 69733 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Corporation, Bay Side Holding Corporation and Zenith Investment and Management Corporation. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay $45,300.00 to the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement...

  16. 77 FR 11564 - Draft Policy on Consultation With Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit...-199, this consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims...

  17. Deep Fully Convolutional Networks for the Detection of Informal Settlements in VHR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persello, Claudio; Stein, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    This letter investigates fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for the detection of informal settlements in very high resolution (VHR) satellite images. Informal settlements or slums are proliferating in developing countries and their detection and classification provides vital information for

  18. Pre/post-closure assessment of groundwater pharmaceutical fate in a wastewater‑facility-impacted stream reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Barber, Larry B.; Clark, Jimmy M.; Duris, Joseph W.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Givens, Carrie E.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Hutchinson, Kasey J.; Journey, Celeste A.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical contamination of contiguous groundwater is a substantial concern in wastewater-impacted streams, due to ubiquity in effluent, high aqueous mobility, designed bioactivity, and to effluent-driven hydraulic gradients. Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insights into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The USGS conducted a combined pre/post-closure groundwater assessment adjacent to an effluent-impacted reach of Fourmile Creek, Ankeny, Iowa, USA. Higher surface-water concentrations, consistent surface-water to groundwater concentration gradients, and sustained groundwater detections tens of meters from the stream bank demonstrated the importance of WWTF effluent as the source of groundwater pharmaceuticals as well as the persistence of these contaminants under effluent-driven, pre-closure conditions. The number of analytes (110 total) detected in surface water decreased from 69 prior to closure down to 8 in the first post-closure sampling event approximately 30 d later, with a corresponding 2 order of magnitude decrease in the cumulative concentration of detected analytes. Post-closure cumulative concentrations of detected analytes were approximately 5 times higher in proximal groundwater than in surface water. About 40% of the 21 contaminants detected in a downstream groundwater transect immediately before WWTF closure exhibited rapid attenuation with estimated half-lives on the order of a few days; however, a comparable number exhibited no consistent attenuation during the year-long post-closure assessment. The results demonstrate the potential for effluent-impacted shallow groundwater systems to accumulate pharmaceutical contaminants and serve as long-term residual sources, further increasing the risk of adverse ecological effects in groundwater and the near-stream ecosystem.

  19. Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-I. Yano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives. The physical variables that may contribute in defining the convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by performing a linear stability analysis of tropical convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses. Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various different perspectives. The review also emphasizes that the dominant physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas. Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we emphasize the importance of the interplays between these observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is universally applicable. An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.

  20. Stochastic particle acceleration and statistical closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimits, A.M.; Krommes, J.A.

    1985-10-01

    In a recent paper, Maasjost and Elsasser (ME) concluded, from the results of numerical experiments and heuristic arguments, that the Bourret and the direct-interaction approximation (DIA) are ''of no use in connection with the stochastic acceleration problem'' because (1) their predictions were equivalent to that of the simpler Fokker-Planck (FP) theory, and (2) either all or none of the closures were in good agreement with the data. Here some analytically tractable cases are studied and used to test the accuracy of these closures. The cause of the discrepancy (2) is found to be the highly non-Gaussian nature of the force used by ME, a point not stressed by them. For the case where the force is a position-independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (i.e., Gaussian) process, an effective Kubo number K can be defined. For K << 1 an FP description is adequate, and conclusion (1) of ME follows; however, for K greater than or equal to 1 the DIA behaves much better qualitatively than the other two closures. For the non-Gaussian stochastic force used by ME, all common approximations fail, in agreement with (2)

  1. Suggestions for foreign trade enterprises to reduce cost after implementation of RMB cross-border trade settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Min

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available After RMB cross-border trade settlement was implemented, the ability of foreign trade enterprises to evade foreign exchange risk has enhanced to a great extent. In the meantime, with exchange rate fluctuations, foreign trade enterprises have become more sensitive with exchange rate variation. Based on predecessors’achievement, this thesis reasonably proposed a cost model applicable to foreign trade enterprises, in which the variables are all related to exchange rate. Therefore, by making exchange rate estimation, this thesis conducted data analysis and modeling, so as to find a way for foreign trade enterprises to predict exchange rate in a reasonable way. The thesis reached the conclusion that foreign trade enterprises can better control their cost based on RMB cross-border settlement.

  2. Risk and Performance Analyses Supporting Closure of WMA C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas; Aly, Alaa; Kozak, Matthew; Mehta, Sunil; Connelly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C as stipulated by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) under federal requirements and work tasks will be done under the State-approved closure plans and permits. An initial step in meeting the regulatory requirements is to develop a baseline risk assessment representing current conditions based on available characterization data and information collected at the WMA C location. The baseline risk assessment will be supporting a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Field Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for WMA closure and RCRA corrective action. Complying with the HFFACO conditions also involves developing a long-term closure Performance Assessment (PA) that evaluates human health and environmental impacts resulting from radionuclide inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks and ancillary equipment. This PA is being developed to meet the requirements necessary for closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 and Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act. To meet the HFFACO conditions, the long-term closure risk analysis will include an evaluation of human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories along with other performance Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Appropriate and Applicable Requirements (CERCLA ARARs) in residual wastes left in WMA C facilities after retrieval and removal. This closure risk analysis is needed to needed to comply with the requirements for permitted closure. Progress to date in developing a baseline risk assessment of WMA C has involved aspects of an evaluation of soil characterization and groundwater monitoring data collected as a part of the RFI/CMS and RCRA monitoring. Developing the long-term performance assessment aspects has involved the

  3. Risk and Performance Analyses Supporting Closure of WMA C at the Hanford Site in Southeast Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Kemp, Christopher J.

    2013-11-11

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C as stipulated by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) under federal requirements and work tasks will be done under the State-approved closure plans and permits. An initial step in meeting the regulatory requirements is to develop a baseline risk assessment representing current conditions based on available characterization data and information collected at the WMA C location. The baseline risk assessment will be supporting a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) Field Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for WMA closure and RCRA corrective action. Complying with the HFFACO conditions also involves developing a long-term closure Performance Assessment (PA) that evaluates human health and environmental impacts resulting from radionuclide inventories in residual wastes remaining in WMA C tanks and ancillary equipment. This PA is being developed to meet the requirements necessary for closure authorization under DOE Order 435.1 and Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act. To meet the HFFACO conditions, the long-term closure risk analysis will include an evaluation of human health and environmental impacts from hazardous chemical inventories along with other performance Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Appropriate and Applicable Requirements (CERCLA ARARs) in residual wastes left in WMA C facilities after retrieval and removal. This closure risk analysis is needed to needed to comply with the requirements for permitted closure. Progress to date in developing a baseline risk assessment of WMA C has involved aspects of an evaluation of soil characterization and groundwater monitoring data collected as a part of the RFI/CMS and RCRA monitoring. Developing the long-term performance assessment aspects has involved the

  4. Anterior segment changes after pharmacologic mydriasis using Pentacam and optical coherence tomography in angle closure suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the dynamic changes of anterior segment parameters especially iris morphology induced by pharmacologic mydriasis between angle closure suspects and normal controls.METHODS:The study group comprised 19 eyes of 19 angle closure suspects and 19 eyes of 19 age- and sex-matched normal open-angle eyes. Pentacam and optical coherence tomography measurements before and 30min after instillation of compound tropicamide eye drop were performed and compared. Biometric evaluations of iris tomography and anterior chamber angle were estimated by a customized image-processing software.RESULTS:Baseline axial length, iris cross sectional area and volume did not differ significantly between angle closure suspects and normal controls. Angle closure suspects had smaller pupil size, narrower anterior segment dimension and axial length, thinner iris with greater curve in comparison with normal controls. Pharmacologic mydriasis led to significant increments in iris thickness at 750 μm, anterior chamber depth and volume, whereas significant decrements in iris curve, cross sectional area and volume in both groups. Angle opening distance at 500 μm was increased significantly in normal controls (from 0.465±0.115 mm to 0.539±0.167 mm, P=0.009, but not in angle closure suspects (from 0.125±0.100 mm to 0.145±0.131 mm, P=0.326. Iris volume change per millimeter of pupil dilation (△IV/△PD decreased significantly less in angle closure suspects than normal controls (-2.47±1.33 mm2 vs -3.63±1.58 mm2, P=0.019. Linear regression analysis showed that the change of angle opening distance at 500 μm was associated most with the change of central anterior chamber depth (β=0.841, P=0.002 and △IV/△PD (β=0.028, P=0.002, followed by gender (β=0.062, P=0.032.CONCLUSION:Smaller iris volume decrement per millimeter of pupil dilation is related significantly with the less anterior angle opening in angle closure suspects after pharmacologic mydriasis. Dynamic

  5. Ways of Optimising Regional Planning: Settlement Typology. Case Study: Baia Mare Depression

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIAN GAVRA; SORIN FILIP

    2006-01-01

    In a relatively uniform natural environment, the settlements in the Baia Mare Depression have very diverse forms. According to an oriented complex typology, we have identified the features and the problems characteristic of these settlements, according to the following criteria: the infrastructure already, demographic features, education, health, and tourism. By synthesising these criteria, we identified the following settlement types: polarising urban centres, under-pressure urban settlement...

  6. Informal Settlements, A minor field study on the situation in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Marina; Tibbelin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Informal settlements come in many forms and there are different expressions to describe them – illegal settlement or squatter settlement is some examples. Definitions of informal settlements emphasize lack of ownership or non-compliance with the authorities’ regulations. However they are tolerated to some degree by the authorities and are unlikely to be evicted or tested in court, which gives a sense of tenure security but no actual rights. This report aims to create a better understanding fo...

  7. Soil pro consolidation load and settlement computation; Preconsolidacion de los suelos y calculo de asentamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Martinez, D. E.

    2009-07-01

    It is estimated that cohesive soils are present in about in about 80% of the Cuban territory. Most of these soils are pre consolidated as a result of the country's geo-environmental conditions. That's why it is important, in the Cuban context, to determine accurately the soil pre consolidation load, correct the oedometric curve and apply these concepts to settlement computation. In this paper, a study is presented to define how to estimate the pre consolidation pressure by using several methods. A database was created. It consisted of 102 pre consolidated soils, which are typical from the central region of Cuban. These soil we analyzed by several Cuban geotechnical research centers. (Author) 12 refs.

  8. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  9. 48 CFR 49.603 - Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for convenience settlement agreements. 49.603 Section 49.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Formats 49.603 Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements. The formats to be used for termination for convenience settlement agreements should be substantially as shown in this section (see 49.109...

  10. Biotic and abiotic effects of human settlements in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area in which human settlements adjoin or intermix with ecosystems. Although research on the WUI has been focused on wildfire risk to settlements, we argue here that there is a need to quantify the extent of areas in which human settlements interact with adjoining ecosystems, regardless of their ability to support fire spread....

  11. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana E; Uvarova, Tatiana E; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Odland, Jon Ø

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, "Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements." The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements.

  12. 32 CFR 536.122 - Limitation of settlement of maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitation of settlement of maritime claims. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.122 Limitation of settlement of maritime claims. (a) Within the United States the period of completing an administrative settlement under...

  13. 76 FR 13615 - B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the B&B Manufacturing Site located in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama for publication. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments on the settlement... Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...

  14. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... settlements. This settlement is intended to resolve the liabilities of 290 settling parties for the Casmalia... settlement requires these parties to pay over $2 million to EPA. Settling Parties: Parties that have elected...., Entenmann's/Orowheat, Eva Fkiaras, Evans Tank Lines, Exel Corp./Exel Microelectronics, Inc., Fabri Cote...

  15. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the settlement process work? 356.25 Section 356.25 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued...) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought in...

  16. 26 CFR 1.468B-2 - Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of qualified settlement funds and... Taken § 1.468B-2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. (a) In...) of this section is in lieu of any other taxation of the income of a qualified settlement fund under...

  17. 75 FR 48967 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... settlement agreement (``Settlement Agreement'') with Peter S. Austin, the William E. Austin Trust, and Austin & Austin Company, a partnership (``Respondents'') pursuant to Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive... CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), this notice is being published to inform the public of the proposed Settlement...

  18. Newer Demographic Development of the Settlement of Murter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Murter is the largest settlement on the same-named island and also in the entire Šibenik archipelago. As opposed to most of the settlements on the island, its population was less involved in earlier emigration flows, whereas newer emigration began to effect Murter only after the sixties. The effect of the depopulation period is visible in the changes of the age-sex structure, where can be seen primarily in ageing of the population and a disproportion in the sex ratio. Yet it can be confirmed that the settlement of Murter has not such an unfavourable demographic situation as do most Dalmatian islands. A slightly falling birth rate can be noticed, as well as a slight increase in the death rate. The demographic perspective of this population is relatively favourable (due to an expected development of tourism, development of agriculture and trades, nautical infrastructures etc., if addition emigration factors will not come into play. Based on a multiple-criteria evaluation of developmental levels, the island of Murter, primarily due to the central position of the settlement Murter, is ranked 11th out of 47 Croatian islands. The reason is that all higher ranked islands also have a significantly larger area.

  19. 48 CFR 49.109-4 - No-cost settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incurred costs for the terminated portion of the contract or (b) the contractor is willing to waive the costs incurred and (c) no amounts are due the Government under the contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No-cost settlement. 49.109...

  20. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently…