Sample records for closely spaced volcanoes

  1. Volcano spacing and plate rigidity (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.


    In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load of adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

  2. Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan (United States)


    The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international 'Decade Volcano' program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received.

  3. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano (United States)


    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of



    This picture is a composite of a black and white near infrared image of Jupiter and its satellite Io and a color image of Io at shorter wavelengths taken at almost the same time on March 5, 1994. These are the first images of a giant planet or its satellites taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since the repair mission in December 1993. Io is too small for ground-based telescopes to see the surface details. The moon's angular diameter of one arc second is at the resolution limit of ground based telescopes. Many of these markings correspond to volcanoes that were first revealed in 1979 during the Voyager spacecraft flyby of Jupiter. Several of the volcanoes periodically are active because Io is heated by tides raised by Jupiter's powerful gravity. The volcano Pele appears as a dark spot surrounded by an irregular orange oval in the lower part of the image. The orange material has been ejected from the volcano and spread over a huge area. Though the volcano was first discovered by Voyager, the distinctive orange color of the volcanic deposits is a new discovery in these HST images. (Voyager missed it because its cameras were not sensitive to the near-infrared wavelengths where the color is apparent). The sulfur and sulfur dioxide that probably dominate Io's surface composition cannot produce this orange color, so the Pele volcano must be generating material with a more unusual composition, possibly rich in sodium. The Jupiter image, taken in near-infrared light, was obtained with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera in wide field mode. High altitude ammonia crystal clouds are bright in this image because they reflect infrared light before it is absorbed by methane in Jupiter's atmosphere. The most prominent feature is the Great Red Spot, which is conspicuous because of its high clouds. A cap of high-altitude haze appears at Jupiter's south pole. The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced

  5. Linking space observations to volcano observatories in Latin America: Results from the CEOS DRM Volcano Pilot (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D. W. D.; Poland, M. P.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Wauthier, C.; Wnuk, K.; Parker, A. L.; Amelug, F.; Sansosti, E.; Mothes, P. A.; Macedo, O.; Lara, L.; Zoffoli, S.; Aguilar, V.


    Within Latin American, about 315 volcanoes that have been active in the Holocene, but according to the United Nations Global Assessment of Risk 2015 report (GAR15) 202 of these volcanoes have no seismic, deformation or gas monitoring. Following the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a 3-year pilot project to demonstrate how satellite observations can be used to monitor large numbers of volcanoes cost-effectively, particularly in areas with scarce instrumentation and/or difficult access. The pilot aims to improve disaster risk management (DRM) by working directly with the volcano observatories that are governmentally responsible for volcano monitoring, and the project is possible thanks to data provided at no cost by international space agencies (ESA, CSA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES). Here we highlight several examples of how satellite observations have been used by volcano observatories during the last 18 months to monitor volcanoes and respond to crises -- for example the 2013-2014 unrest episode at Cerro Negro/Chiles (Ecuador-Colombia border); the 2015 eruptions of Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes, Chile; the 2013-present unrest and eruptions at Sabancaya and Ubinas volcanoes, Peru; the 2015 unrest at Guallatiri volcano, Chile; and the 2012-present rapid uplift at Cordon Caulle, Chile. Our primary tool is measurements of ground deformation made by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) but thermal and outgassing data have been used in a few cases. InSAR data have helped to determine the alert level at these volcanoes, served as an independent check on ground sensors, guided the deployment of ground instruments, and aided situational awareness. We will describe several lessons learned about the type of data products and information that are most needed by the volcano observatories in different countries.

  6. Space volcano observatory (SVO): a metric resolution system on-board a micro/mini-satellite (United States)

    Briole, P.; Cerutti-Maori, G.; Kasser, M.


    1500 volcanoes on the Earth are potentially active, one third of them have been active during this century and about 70 are presently erupting. At the beginning of the third millenium, 10% of the world population will be living in areas directly threatened by volcanoes, without considering the effects of eruptions on climate or air-trafic for example. The understanding of volcanic eruptions, a major challenge in geoscience, demands continuous monitoring of active volcanoes. The only way to provide global, continuous, real time and all-weather information on volcanoes is to set up a Space Volcano Observatory closely connected to the ground observatories. Spaceborne observations are mandatory and implement the ground ones as well as airborne ones that can be implemented on a limited set of volcanoes. SVO goal is to monitor both the deformations and the changes in thermal radiance at optical wavelengths from high temperature surfaces of the active volcanic zones. For that, we propose to map at high resolution (1 to 1,5 m pixel size) the topography (stereoscopic observation) and the thermal anomalies (pixel-integrated temperatures above 450°C) of active volcanic areas in a size of 6 x 6 km to 12 x 12 km, large enough for monitoring most of the target features. A return time of 1 to 3 days will allow to get a monitoring useful for hazard mitigation. The paper will present the concept of the optical payload, compatible with a micro/mini satellite (mass in the range 100 - 400 kg), budget for the use of Proteus platform in the case of minisatellite approach will be given and also in the case of CNES microsat platform family. This kind of design could be used for other applications like high resolution imagery on a limited zone for military purpose, GIS, evolution cadaster…

  7. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... and ash reach the Earth's surface when a volcano erupts. An eruption can also cause earthquakes, mudflows and flash floods, rock falls and landslides, acid rain, fires, and even tsunamis. Volcanic gas and ash can damage the lungs of small ...

  8. Thermal Interaction of Closely Spaced Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tøgersen, Michael


    This paper presents results from a pilot study on the thermal interaction of closely spaced persons in a large enclosure. The surface temperature at different densities of persons is evaluated using a high resolution thermo vision camera in a controlled thermal environment. The corresponding ther...

  9. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which is also proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with nonvanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no subarc with integrated geodesic curvature pi. We prove that the inverse problem alw...

  10. Principal normal indicatrices of closed space curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter


    A theorem due to J. Weiner, which also is proven by B. Solomon, implies that a principal normal indicatrix of a closed space curve with non-vanishing curvature has integrated geodesic curvature zero and contains no sub arc with integrated geodesic curvature Pi. We prove that the inverse problem...

  11. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a...), notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory...

  12. Controlled Microbial Cenoses in Closed Spaces (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina

    Controlled microbial cenoses have good prospects in closed spaces: for air treatment in LSS and cellars industrial premises; for sewage treatment in LSS; for increase of productivity and protect of plants from infections in LSS. Possible methods of formation of microbiocenoses are: selection, autoselection, artificial formation taking into account their biochemical properties and metabolic interactions. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bidobac-terium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces and Torulop-sis. Microbiocenoses do not contain pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, they possess opposing and probiotic properties. Different examples of microbial cenoses actions are to be presented in the paper.

  13. Mappings with closed range and finite dimensional linear spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.


    This paper looks at two settings, each of continuous linear mappings of linear topological spaces. In one setting, the domain space is fixed while the range space varies over a class of linear topological spaces. In the second setting, the range space is fixed while the domain space similarly varies. The interest is in when the requirement that the mappings have a closed range implies that the domain or range space is finite dimensional. Positive results are obtained for metrizable spaces. (author)

  14. New spaces and Continuity via ˆΩ-closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lellis Thivagar


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce new spaces like ˆΩ Tδ and ωTˆΩ . It turns out that the space δωTδ coincide with semi−T1 and in ωTˆΩ -space every closed set is ˆΩ -closed set and in semi − T12 every ˆΩ -closed set is closed in a topological space.Also we introduce some kinds of generalized continuity such as ˆΩ -continuity, ˆΩ -irresolute,weakly ˆΩ -continuity and ˆΩ -open mappings.

  15. Wθg-Closed and Wδg-Closed in [0,1]-Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. El-Shafei


    Full Text Available We investigate various classes of generalized closed fuzzy sets in [0,1]-topological spaces, namely, Wθg-closed fuzzy sets and Wδg-closed fuzzy sets. Also, we introduce a new separation axiom FT3/4∗ of the [0,1]-topological spaces, and we prove that every FT3/4∗-space is a FT3/4-space. Furthermore, we using the new generalized closed fuzzy sets to construct new types of fuzzy mappings.

  16. g* λµ- closed sets ingeneralized topological spaces


    P. Jeyanthi; P. Nalayini; Marcelina Mocana


    In this paper we introduce some new classes of generalized closed sets called *λµ -g-closed, *λµ -g µ -closed and g* λµ -closed sets in generalized topological spaces, which are related to the classes of gµ -closed sets, g-λµ -closed sets and  λµ -g-closed sets. We investigate the properties of the newly introduced classes, as well as the connections among the above mentioned classes of generalized closed sets. Also, we give a unified framework for the study of several types of generalized cl...

  17. g* λµ- closed sets ingeneralized topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeyanthi


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce some new classes of generalized closed sets called *λµ -g-closed, *λµ -g µ -closed and g* λµ -closed sets in generalized topological spaces, which are related to the classes of gµ -closed sets, g-λµ -closed sets and  λµ -g-closed sets. We investigate the properties of the newly introduced classes, as well as the connections among the above mentioned classes of generalized closed sets. Also, we give a unified framework for the study of several types of generalized closed sets in a space endowed with two generalized topologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi R.


    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.

  19. Generalized Star ωα-Closed Sets in Topological Spaces


    Patil, P.G.; Benchalli, SS; Mirajakar, Pallavi


    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new class ofclosed sets called generalized star ωα-closed sets using ωα-closedsets in topological spaces. This new class of sets lies between theclass of closed sets and the class of generalized ωα-closed sets.Further some of their properties are investigated.

  20. Optimized Autonomous Space In-situ Sensor-Web for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Shirazi, B.; Kedar, S.; Chien, S.; Webb, F.; Tran, D.; Davis, A.; Pieri, D.; LaHusen, R.; Pallister, J.; Dzurisin, D.; Moran, S.; Lisowski, M.


    In response to NASA's announced requirement for Earth hazard monitoring sensor-web technology, a multidisciplinary team involving sensor-network experts (Washington State University), space scientists (JPL), and Earth scientists (USGS Cascade Volcano Observatory (CVO)), is developing a prototype dynamic and scaleable hazard monitoring sensor-web and applying it to volcano monitoring. The combined Optimized Autonomous Space -In-situ Sensor-web (OASIS) will have two-way communication capability between ground and space assets, use both space and ground data for optimal allocation of limited power and bandwidth resources on the ground, and use smart management of competing demands for limited space assets. It will also enable scalability and seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. The prototype will be focused on volcano hazard monitoring at Mount St. Helens, which has been active since October 2004. The system is designed to be flexible and easily configurable for many other applications as well. The primary goals of the project are: 1) integrating complementary space (i.e., Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite) and in-situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor-web; 2) advancing sensor-web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enabling scalability for seamless infusion of future space and in-situ assets into the sensor-web. To meet these goals, we are developing: 1) a test-bed in-situ array with smart sensor nodes capable of making autonomous data acquisition decisions; 2) efficient self-organization algorithm of sensor-web topology to support efficient data communication and command control; 3) smart bandwidth allocation algorithms in which sensor nodes autonomously determine packet priorities based on mission needs and local bandwidth information in real-time; and 4) remote network management and reprogramming tools. The space and in-situ control components of the system will be

  1. Mildly generalized closed sets, almost normal and mildly normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Keun; Park, Jin Han


    The aim of this paper is to introduce and study the class of mildly generalized closed sets, which is properly placed between the classes of strongly generalized closed sets due to Sundaram and Pushpalatha in 2001 and weakly generalized closed sets due to Sundaram and Nagaveni in 1998. The relations with other notions directly or indirectly connected with generalized closed are investigated. Moreover we use it to obtain new characterizations and preservation theorems of almost normal spaces due to Singal and Arya and mildly normal spaces due to Singal and Singal, respectively

  2. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces


    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar


    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  3. Scattering by closely spaced infinite cylinders in an absorbing medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-C. Lee


    Full Text Available Scattering by closely spaced parallel infinite cylinders in an absorbing medium is considered in this paper. The source wave is arbitrarily polarized and propagates in a general direction at the cylinders. The formulation utilizes the Hertz potential approach, and the scattering cross section and intensity distribution in the far-field are developed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the influence of the absorbing medium on the scattering properties of two configurations of closely-spaced cylinders.

  4. Transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammady, M.; Roohi, M.; Delavar, M.R.


    This paper is devoted to introduce the concepts of transfer closed and transfer open multimaps in minimal spaces. Also, some characterizations of them are considered. Further, the notion of minimal local intersection property will be introduced and characterized. Moreover, some maximal element theorems via minimal transfer closed multimaps and minimal local intersection property are given.

  5. Knowledge space theory and union-closed sets conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchawan Panraksa


    Full Text Available The knowledge space theory provides a framework for knowledge management. One of major problems is to find core information for a body of knowledge. Union closed set conjecture, if true, guarantees that for a given knowledge space, there is an information that is linked to at least half of the knowledge units. This paper deals with a variant problem, where the knowledge space is also a topological space and possibly infinite. We prove that there is a point belonging to as many open sets as of the topological space itself.

  6. On semi star generalized closed sets in bitopological spaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan


    Full Text Available K. Chandrasekhara Rao and K. Joseph [5] introduced the concepts of semi star generalized open sets and semi star generalized closed sets in a topological space. The same concept was extended to bitopological spaces by K. Chan-drasekhara Rao and K. Kannan [6,7]. In this paper, we continue the study of τ1τ2-s∗g closed sets inbitopology and we introduced the newly related concept of pairwise s∗g-continuous mappings. Also S∗GO-connectedness and S∗GO-compactness are introduced in bitopological spaces and some of their properties are established.

  7. Grill Nano topological spaces with grill Nano generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Azzam


    Full Text Available The grill Nano generalized closed sets is an expansion of Nano generalized closed sets in grill Nano topological spaces, which is the frame of reference measurement, inference and reasoning in many applications such as computer science and information systems. So, this paper aims to study and analyze this expansion through the topological structure via the concept of grill. Some important characteristics and main properties which are related with these sets are obtained.

  8. D-instantons and closed string tachyons in Misner space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Tai, T.-S.


    We investigate closed string tachyon condensation in Misner space, a toy model for big bang universe. In Misner space, we are able to condense tachyonic modes of closed strings in the twisted sectors, which is supposed to remove the big bang singularity. In order to examine this, we utilize D-instanton as a probe. First, we study general properties of D-instanton by constructing boundary state and effective action. Then, resorting to these, we are able to show that tachyon condensation actually deforms the geometry such that the singularity becomes milder

  9. Theta-Generalized closed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shafei, M.E.; Zakari, A.


    In this paper we introduce the concepts of theta-generalized closed fuzzy sets and generalized fuzzy sets in topological spaces. Furthermore, generalized fuzzy sets are extended to theta-generalized fuzzy sets. Also, we introduce the concepts of fuzzy theta-generalized continuous and fuzzy theta-generalized irresolute mappings. (author)

  10. Can we close large prosthetic space with orthodontics? (United States)

    Mesko, Mauro Elias; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Valentini, Fernanda; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana


    For years, the treatment for the replacement of a missing tooth was a fixed dental prosthesis. Currently, implants are indicated to replace missing teeth due to high clinical success and with the advantage of not performing preparations in the adjacent tooth. Another option for space closure is the use of orthodontics associated to miniscrews for anchorage allowing better control of the orthodontic biomechanics and especially making possible closure of larger prosthetic spaces. Thus, this article describes two cases with indications and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using orthodontics for prosthetic spaces closure. The cases herein presented show that it is possible to close an space when there are available teeth in the adjacent area. It can be concluded that when a malocclusion is present there will be a strong trend to indicate space closure by orthodontic movement as it preserves natural teeth and seems a more physiological approach.

  11. Calculation of Additional Lost Green Time at Closely Spaced Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang


    Full Text Available At closely spaced signalized intersections or interchanges, additional lost green time can occur at upstream intersections when there is a queue spillback. For an accurate estimation of capacities and delays at closely spaced intersections, it is necessary to account such additional lost time. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 provides a model for the estimation of the additional lost time due to the presence of a downstream queue. However, case studies indicate that the HCM model does not provide a very accurate estimation when the distance to the downstream queue is short. In this paper, a new model is developed for the estimation of additional lost time considering queue discharge patterns and traffic flow patterns. Simulation results show that the proposed model provides a more accurate estimation of additional lost time compared with the HCM model when the distance to the downstream queue is limited.

  12. Eyjafjallajokull Volcano Plume Particle-Type Characterization from Space-Based Multi-angle Imaging (United States)

    Kahn, Ralph A.; Limbacher, James


    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Research Aerosol algorithm makes it possible to study individual aerosol plumes in considerable detail. From the MISR data for two optically thick, near-source plumes from the spring 2010 eruption of the Eyjafjallaj kull volcano, we map aerosol optical depth (AOD) gradients and changing aerosol particle types with this algorithm; several days downwind, we identify the occurrence of volcanic ash particles and retrieve AOD, demonstrating the extent and the limits of ash detection and mapping capability with the multi-angle, multi-spectral imaging data. Retrieved volcanic plume AOD and particle microphysical properties are distinct from background values near-source, as well as for overwater cases several days downwind. The results also provide some indication that as they evolve, plume particles brighten, and average particle size decreases. Such detailed mapping offers context for suborbital plume observations having much more limited sampling. The MISR Standard aerosol product identified similar trends in plume properties as the Research algorithm, though with much smaller differences compared to background, and it does not resolve plume structure. Better optical analogs of non-spherical volcanic ash, and coincident suborbital data to validate the satellite retrieval results, are the factors most important for further advancing the remote sensing of volcanic ash plumes from space.

  13. Close-up of Shuttle Thermal Tiles in Space (United States)


    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles, and a portion of the Canadian built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm and the Nile River is visible at the bottom.

  14. Some new properties of fuzzy strongly ${{g}^{*}}$-closed sets and $delta {{g}^{*}}$-closed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahid Kamali


    Full Text Available ‎In this paper, a new class of fuzzy sets called fuzzy strongly ${{g}^{*}}$-closed sets is introduced and its properties are investigated. Moreover, we study some more properties of this type of closed spaces.

  15. Some new properties of fuzzy strongly ${{g}^{*}}$-closed sets and $delta {{g}^{*}}$-closed sets in fuzzy topological spaces


    Anahid Kamali; Hamid Moradi; Balwinder Singh


    ‎In this paper, a new class of fuzzy sets called fuzzy strongly ${{g}^{*}}$-closed sets is introduced and its properties are investigated. Moreover, we study some more properties of this type of closed spaces.

  16. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Special Closed Session. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 10(a... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special closed session will be an...

  17. Performance of Closely Spaced Point Absorbers with Constrained Floater Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.


    The performance of a wave energy converter array of twelve heaving point absorbers has been assessed numerically in a frequency domain model. Each point absorber is assumed to have its own linear power take-off. The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption...... is evaluated and optimal power take-off parameters are determined. For multiple bodies optimal control parameters are not only dependent on the incoming waves, but also on the position and behaviour of the other buoys. Applying the optimal control values for one buoy to multiple closely spaced buoys results...

  18. NASA Research For Instrument Approaches To Closely Spaced Parallel Runways (United States)

    Elliott, Dawn M.; Perry, R. Brad


    Within the NASA Aviation Systems Capacity Program, the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Project is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological condition (IMC). The Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) research within TAP has focused on an airborne centered approach for independent instrument approaches to closely spaced parallel runways using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technologies. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), working in partnership with Honeywell, Inc., completed in AILS simulation study, flight test, and demonstration in 1999 examining normal approaches and potential collision scenarios to runways with separation distances of 3,400 and 2,500 feet. The results of the flight test and demonstration validate the simulation study.


    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Cullinan, F; Lyapin, A


    Radio Frequency (RF) Cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems form a major part of precision position measurement diagnostics for linear accelerators with low emittance beams. Using cavity BPMs, a position resolution of less than 100 nm has been demonstrated in single bunch mode operation. In the case of closely spaced bunches, where the decay time of the cavity is comparable to the time separation between bunches, the BPM signal from a bunch is polluted by the signal induced by the previous bunches in the same bunch-train. This paper discusses our ongoing work to develop the methods to extract the position of closely spaced bunches using cavity BPMs. A signal subtraction code is being developed to remove the signal pollution from previous bunches and to determine the individual bunch position. Another code has been developed to simulate the BPM data for the cross check. Performance of the code is studied on the experimental and simulated data. Application of the analysis techniques to the linear colliders,...

  20. Remarks on soft omega-closed sets in soft topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul


    Full Text Available The paper introduces soft omega-closed sets in soft topological spaces and establishes the relationship between other existing generlised closed sets in soft topological spaces. It derives the basic properties of soft omega-closed sets. As an application it proves that a soft omega-closed set in a soft compact space is soft compact.

  1. Predicting Space Weather Effects on Close Approach Events (United States)

    Hejduk, Matthew D.; Newman, Lauri K.; Besser, Rebecca L.; Pachura, Daniel A.


    The NASA Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team sends ephemeris data to the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) for conjunction assessment screening against the JSpOC high accuracy catalog and then assesses risk posed to protected assets from predicted close approaches. Since most spacecraft supported by the CARA team are located in LEO orbits, atmospheric drag is the primary source of state estimate uncertainty. Drag magnitude and uncertainty is directly governed by atmospheric density and thus space weather. At present the actual effect of space weather on atmospheric density cannot be accurately predicted because most atmospheric density models are empirical in nature, which do not perform well in prediction. The Jacchia-Bowman-HASDM 2009 (JBH09) atmospheric density model used at the JSpOC employs a solar storm active compensation feature that predicts storm sizes and arrival times and thus the resulting neutral density alterations. With this feature, estimation errors can occur in either direction (i.e., over- or under-estimation of density and thus drag). Although the exact effect of a solar storm on atmospheric drag cannot be determined, one can explore the effects of JBH09 model error on conjuncting objects' trajectories to determine if a conjunction is likely to become riskier, less risky, or pass unaffected. The CARA team has constructed a Space Weather Trade-Space tool that systematically alters the drag situation for the conjuncting objects and recalculates the probability of collision for each case to determine the range of possible effects on the collision risk. In addition to a review of the theory and the particulars of the tool, the different types of observed output will be explained, along with statistics of their frequency.

  2. Higher genus moduli spaces in closed string field theory (United States)

    Rahman, Sabbir Ahmed


    We provide an overview of covariant closed string field theory, covering briefly the geometry of moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces, conformal field theory in the operator formalism and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. Several important applications are also described including connections on the space of conformal theories, quantum background independence, the ghost-dilaton theorem, and string field theory around non-conformal backgrounds. The proof of the ghost-dilaton theorem in string theory is completed by showing that the coupling constant dependence of the vacuum vertices appearing in the closed string action is given correctly by one-point functions of the ghost-dilaton. To prove this at genus one the formalism required to evaluate off-shell amplitudes on tori is developed. Higher order background independence conditions arising from multiple commutators of background deformations in quantum closed string field theory are analysed. The conditions are shown to amount to a vanishing theorem for ΔS cohomology classes. This holds by virtue of the existence of moduli spaces of higher genus surfaces with two kinds of punctures. Our result is a generalisation of a previous genus zero analysis relevant to the classical theory. The string theory operators /partial,/ [/cal K] and [/cal I] are shown to be expressible as inner derivations of the B-V algebra of string vertices. As a consequence, the recursion relations for the string vertices are found to take the form of a 'geometrical' quantum master equation, [1/over 2]/[[/cal B],[/cal B]/]+/Delta[/cal B]=0, where '[/cal B]' is the sum of string vertices. That the B-V delta operator cannot be an inner derivation on the algebra is also shown. The set of string vertices of non-negative dimension is completed in a consistent manner. As a consequence the string action takes the simple form S=f([/cal B]). That the action satisfies the B-V master equation follows immediately from the recursion relations for the string

  3. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.


    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  4. Closely spaced fine filament multifilamentary NbTi strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.; Liu, H.; Seuntjens, J.M.


    A series of papers showing the advantages of close spacing and matrix alloying for the development of high J c , fine filament, NbTi materials which have low electrical coupling have appeared in the last seven years. In order to achieve the highest J c 's, it has been shown that close spacing has many advantages. This, however, leads to proximity coupling which has to be overcome by the addition of alloying elements to the matrix between the filaments. Of the three alloying materials normally used for this purpose, Ni, Si, and Mn, the most effective is Mn, which operates by a spin flip scattering mechanism whereas Ni and Si produce decoupling by less effective resistive scattering. Ni and Si, however, harden the matrix more than does the small amount of Mn, [0.5wt%], which has been used in most of the past work on the reduction of proximity coupling. This hardening allows the filaments to be separated to a greater extent than is possible in the case of a pure copper matrix without a significant increase in filament sausaging and a resultant J c decrease. Silicon also has one additional advantage over the other alloying elements in that it reduces the formation of compounds on the surface of the filaments, thus it may obviate the necessity for a Nb barrier layer and thus allow an even greater increase in J c . In this paper the authors explore further some of the effects of the addition of manganese and/or silicon to the matrix between the filaments in an effort to optimize properties at the smaller filament sizes

  5. Common characteristics of paired volcanoes in northern Central America (United States)

    Halsor, Sid P.; Rose, William I.


    Four pairs of active volcanoes along the northern Central American volcanic front have erupted basalt-andesite magmas that show consistent intrapair behavioral and compositional differences. These differences are found in records of volcanic activity and complete major and minor element data on over 200 samples. From northwest to southeast along the volcanic front the four volcano pairs are Cerro Quemado-Santa María, Tolimán-Atitlán, Acatenango-Fuego, and Santa Ana-Izalco. The volcano pair relations help explain compositional differences, apart from those reflecting variation in crustal thickness of about 15 km along the volcanic front, providing insight into across-arc variations and closely spaced subvolcanic plumbing systems. Intravolcano pair spacing is less than 5 km compared with an average intervolcano spacing of 25 km along the entire volcanic front. Within each volcano pair, the seaward volcano has had more frequent historic activity, erupting magmas that are generally more mafic, lower in large ion lithophile elements and higher in Na2O/K2O than magmas erupted from its landward counterpart. Each paired volcano site lies in close proximity to a rhyolitic caldera, situated north or northeast of the volcano pair. However, rare earth element data at the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair imply that mixing between caldera rhyolite and the mafic magma of the paired volcanoes does not occur. Petrographie, isotopic, and other geochemical data from the Tolimán-Atitlán volcano pair suggest that separate but contemporaneous magma bodies beneath each volcano evolve and pass through the crust at different rates. Atitlán magmas are processed through the crust more efficiently and with greater frequency than Tollman magmas, which undergo longer periods of stagnation interrupted by mafic injection and rapid eruption. This relation appears to hold at the other paired volcano sites and is further evidence that closely spaced volcanoes, with similar subcrustal magma

  6. Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010 (United States)

    Schumann, U.; Weinzierl, B.; Reitebuch, O.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Forster, C.; Baumann, R.; Sailer, T.; Graf, K.; Mannstein, H.; Voigt, C.; Rahm, S.; Simmet, R.; Scheibe, M.; Lichtenstern, M.; Stock, P.; Rüba, H.; Schäuble, D.; Tafferner, A.; Rautenhaus, M.; Gerz, T.; Ziereis, H.; Krautstrunk, M.; Mallaun, C.; Gayet, J.-F.; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Stohl, A.; Gasteiger, J.; Olafsson, H.; Sturm, K.


    first order, ash concentration and SO2 mixing ratio in the plumes decreased by a factor of two within less than a day. The ash plumes were often visible as faint dark layers even for concentrations below 0.1 mg m-3. The ozone concentrations and the humidity inside the plumes were often reduced compared to ambient values. The large abundance of volatile Aitken mode particles suggests nucleation of sulfuric acid droplets. Ammonium sulfate particles were also found on the impactors. The effective diameters decreased from about 5 μm in the fresh plume to about 1 μm for plume ages of up to 6 days. The distal ash mass flux on 2 May was of the order 1800 kg s-1; the SO2 mass flux was about a factor of 3-4 smaller. The volcano ejected about 40 Tg of ash mass and 10 Tg of SO2 during the whole eruption period. The results of the Falcon flights were used to support the responsible agencies in their decisions concerning air traffic in the presence of volcanic ash. The data described may be used for further studies, including comparisons to satellite and ground or space based Lidar observations, and for model improvements. 1 Also known as Eyjafjallajökull or Eyjafjöll volcano,"target="_blank">

  7. Calculational models of close-spaced thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, J.B.


    Two new calculational models have been developed in conjunction with the SAVTEC experimental program. These models have been used to analyze data from experimental close-spaced converters, providing values for spacing, electrode work functions, and converter efficiency. They have also been used to make performance predictions for such converters over a wide range of conditions. Both models are intended for use in the collisionless (Knudsen) regime. They differ from each other in that the simpler one uses a Langmuir-type formulation which only considers electrons emitted from the emitter. This approach is implemented in the LVD (Langmuir Vacuum Diode) computer program, which has the virtue of being both simple and fast. The more complex model also includes both Saha-Langmuir emission of positive cesium ions from the emitter and collector back emission. Computer implementation is by the KMD1 (Knudsen Mode Diode) program. The KMD1 model derives the particle distribution functions from the Vlasov equation. From these the particle densities are found for various interelectrode motive shapes. Substituting the particle densities into Poisson's equation gives a second order differential equation for potential. This equation can be integrated once analytically. The second integration, which gives the interelectrode motive, is performed numerically by the KMD1 program. This is complicated by the fact that the integrand is often singular at one end point of the integration interval. The program performs a transformation on the integrand to make it finite over the entire interval. Once the motive has been computed, the output voltage, current density, power density, and efficiency are found. The program is presently unable to operate when the ion richness ratio β is between about .8 and 1.0, due to the occurrence of oscillatory motives

  8. The payload bay doors close on Space Shuttle Discovery (United States)


    The open doors of Space Shuttle Discovery's payload bay show the two elements to be added to the International Space Station on mission STS-92. At top is the third Pressurized Mating Adapter; below it is Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, the cornerstone truss of the Station. Making the 100th Space Shuttle mission launched from Kennedy Space Center, Discovery also will be making its 28th flight into space. On the 11-day mission, the crew of seven will be making four space walks to attach the hardware to the Station. l Space Station. The payload also includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1. During the 11-day mission, four extravehicular activities (EVAs), or space walks, are planned.

  9. A Note on Some Generalized Closed Sets in Bitopological Spaces Associated to Digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan


    Full Text Available Many investigations are undergoing of the relationship between topological spaces and graph theory. The aim of this short communication is to study the nature and properties of some generalized closed sets in the bitopological spaces associated to the digraph. In particular, some relations between generalized closed sets in the bitopological spaces associated to the digraph are characterized.

  10. Visions of Volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Pyle


    Full Text Available The long nineteenth century marked an important transition in the understanding of the nature of combustion and fire, and of volcanoes and the interior of the earth. It was also a period when dramatic eruptions of Vesuvius lit up the night skies of Naples, providing ample opportunities for travellers, natural philosophers, and early geologists to get up close to the glowing lavas of an active volcano. This article explores written and visual representations of volcanoes and volcanic activity during the period, with the particular perspective of writers from the non-volcanic regions of northern Europe. I explore how the language of ‘fire’ was used in both first-hand and fictionalized accounts of peoples’ interactions with volcanoes and experiences of volcanic phenomena, and see how the routine or implicit linkage of ‘fire’ with ‘combustion’ as an explanation for the deep forces at play within and beneath volcanoes slowly changed as the formal scientific study of volcanoes developed. I show how Vesuvius was used as a ‘model’ volcano in science and literature and how, later, following devastating eruptions in Indonesia and the Caribbean, volcanoes took on a new dimension as contemporary agents of death and destruction.

  11. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...

  12. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that the advanced non-contacting stress measurement system (NSMS) was able to address closely spaced modes and...

  13. Nonseparable closed vector subspaces of separable topological vector spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kąkol, Jerzy; Leiderman, A. G.; Morris, S. A.


    Roč. 182, č. 1 (2017), s. 39-47 ISSN 0026-9255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : locally convex topological vector space * separable topological space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2016

  14. Recent unrest (2002-2015) imaged by space geodesy at the highest risk Chilean volcanoes: Villarrica, Llaima, and Calbuco (Southern Andes) (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Ebmeier, Susanna; González, Pablo; Lara, Luis


    Villarrica, Llaima, and Calbuco volcanoes are the most active and dangerous volcanoes in the Southern Andes, and we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations from multiple satellites (ERS-2, ENVISAT, ALOS, RADARSAT-2, COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X, Sentinel-1A and ALOS-2) to constrain ground deformation that spans episodes of unrest and eruption at all three volcanoes between 2002 and 2015. We find episodes of ground deformation at each volcano, which we invert using analytic elastic half-space models to make some of the first geophysical inferences about the source depths of potential magma chambers. At Llaima, we interpret that the VEI 2 April 3, 2009 eruption was preceded by 6-15 cm of precursory ground uplift one month before from a source 5 km below the surface on the western side of the edifice. The VEI 2 March 3, 2015 Villarrica eruption was followed by a short lived uplift of 5 cm in the SE part of the volcano from a source depth of 6 km. The VEI 4 April 22-23, 2015 Calbuco eruption produced 12 cm of coeruptive subsidence from a source depth 8-11 km and offset 2 km S from the summit. Importantly, we do not find clear evidence that the January 1, 2008, the March 3, 2015 and April 22, 2015 eruptions at Llaima, Villarrica and Calbuco volcanoes were preceded by either transient or continuous ground uplift. There are several possible explanations for the lack of precursory deformation at each volcano - it is possible that any precursory deformation occurred only hours before the eruption (e.g., at Calbuco), pre-eruptive inflation was canceled by co-eruptive subsidence (as we inferred happened during the April 2009 Llaima eruption), the pre-eruptive deformation was too small to be detectable in areas with persistent topography correlated phase delays, pressurized source are deep, or that open-vent volcanoes like Villarrica and Llaima do not pressurize. At all three volcanoes, X and C band interferograms decorrelate in a few weeks due to

  15. Geomagnetic excursion captured by multiple volcanoes in a monogenetic field (United States)

    Cassidy, John


    Five monogenetic volcanoes within the Quaternary Auckland volcanic field are shown to have recorded a virtually identical but anomalous paleomagnetic direction (mean inclination and declination of 61.7° and 351.0°, respectively), consistent with the capture of a geomagnetic excursion. Based on documented rates of change of paleomagnetic field direction during excursions this implies that the volcanoes may have all formed within a period of only 50-100 years or less. These temporally linked volcanoes are widespread throughout the field and appear not to be structurally related. However, the general paradigm for the reawakening of monogenetic fields is that only a single new volcano or group of closely spaced vents is created, typically at intervals of several hundred years or more. Therefore, the results presented show that for any monogenetic field the impact of renewed eruptive activity may be significantly under-estimated, especially for potentially affected population centres and the siting of sensitive facilities.

  16. Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Hazard Frequency and Distribution is a 2.5 minute gridded data set based upon the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Volcano Database spanning...

  17. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  18. Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of volcano hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  19. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global volcano total economic loss risks. First, subnational distributions of Gross Domestic...

  20. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.


    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  1. Geodesic motion on closed spaces: Two numerical examples (United States)

    Müller, Daniel


    The geodesic structure is very closely related to the trace of the Laplace operator, involved in the calculation of the expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in Universes with non-trivial topology. The purpose of this work is to provide concrete numerical examples of geodesic flows. Two manifolds with genus g=0 are given. In one the chaotic regions, form sets of negligible or zero measure. In the second example the geodesic flow shows the presence of measurable chaotic regions. The approach is “experimental”, numerical, and there is no attempt to an analytical calculation.

  2. Change of the topology of a physical space in the closed Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guts, A.K.


    The conditions under which a physical space (three-dimensional connective variety) changes the number of connected components are determined. Connectivity breaking means separation of a certain closed field from of the three-dimensional space. It is shown that the small fields separation is prevented by power potential barrier. It follows from the data of the study that neutron stars are close to the possibility of separation from the surrounding space

  3. Decoupling of ground level pressures observed in Italian volcanoes: are they driven by space weather geo-effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia


    Full Text Available Investigations on correlation drops between near-ground atmospheric pressures measured at sea level and at higher altitudes on Italian volcanoes have been carried out. We looked for perturbations of the atmospheric pressure field driven by volcanic activity, but not excluding possible external triggers for the observed anomalies. Decorrelations between atmospheric pressures measured at Stromboli Island in stations located at different altitudes (years 2002-10 have been analysed and compared with data from other volcanic (Vesuvius and non volcanic (Mt. Soro orographic structures. We investigated as their possible triggers volcanic, meteorological and space weather parameters, with particular attention to Total Solar Irradiance (TSI, Kp index and Forbush decreases. Pressure decorrelations seems to be driven by astronomic cycles, with maxima in summer and minima in winter. A further contribution was found, seemingly assignable to TSI anomalies, with correlation minima occurring 12 hours after these but only during phases of high Sun activity. Moreover, during the same phases a main periodicity of about 27 days in pressure decorrelations was revealed by FFT analysis. This period is the same of the Sun Carrington rotation, expressing the periodic reappearance of sunspot groups on Sun’s surface. The strong similarity between recurrences of sunspot number and atmospheric pressure anomalies further supports the role of the former as a possible trigger for the latter.

  4. Spurious results from Fourier analysis of data with closely spaced frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loumos, G.L.; Deeming, T.J.


    It is shown how erroneous results can occur using some period-finding methods, such as Fourier analysis, on data containing closely spaced frequencies. The frequency spacing accurately resolvable with data of length T is increased from the standard value of about 1/T quoted in the literature to approximately 1.5/T. (Auth.)

  5. Spying on volcanoes (United States)

    Watson, Matthew


    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  6. Collapsing volcanoes (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Self, Stephen


    A series of studies has been conducted which examined Landsat images of volcanoes in the central Andes in order to identify previously unknown avalanche deposits, with attention to the Socompa volcano in Chile. The occasional, massive collapse of an unstable volcanic cone may be seen as a normal event in the life cycle of a volcano; this is especially true in the case of large 'stratovolcanoes', of which there are many hundreds in the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific rim. Stratovolcanoes are susceptible to collapse because of their association with subduction zones. Three kinds of collapse can be distinguished among stratovolcanoes.

  7. More on generalized b-closed sets in double fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah M. Mohammed


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study a new class of sets called (r, s-generalized fuzzy b-regular weakly closed sets which is lies between the new class of (r,s-fuzzy regular weakly closed sets and (r,s-generalized fuzzy b-closed sets in double fuzzy topological spaces. Several fundamental properties are introduced and discussed. Furthermore, the relationships between the new concepts are introduced and established with some interesting counter examples.

  8. Precision multiloop (PM Design with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha P Mankar


    Full Text Available The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the entire interbracket distance is used as loop area.

  9. Precision multiloop (PM Design) with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics


    Mugdha P Mankar; Achint Chachada; Harish Atram; Avanti Kulkarni


    The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the ent...

  10. Closed Crawl Space Performance: Proof of Concept in the Production Builder Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin-Weber, Melissa; Dastur, Cyrus; Mauceri, Maria; Hannas, Benjamin


    This overview is intended to be a very concise, limited summary of the key project activities discussed in the detailed report that follows. Due to the large scope of this project, the detailed report is broken into three individually titled sections. Each section repeats key background information, with the goal that the sections will eventually stand alone as complete reports on the major activities of the project. The information presented herein comes from ongoing research, so please note that all observations, findings and recommendations presented are preliminary and subject to change in the future. We invite and welcome your comments and suggestions for improving the project. Advanced Energy completed its first jointly-funded crawl space research project with the Department of Energy in 2005. That project, funded under award number DE-FC26-00NT40995 and titled 'A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South' demonstrated the substantial energy efficiency and moisture management benefits that result from using properly closed crawl space foundations for residential construction instead of traditional wall vented crawl space foundations. Two activities of this first project included (1) an assessment of ten existing homes to document commonly observed energy and moisture failures associated with wall-vented crawl space foundations and (2) a detailed literature review that documented both the history of closed crawl space research and the historical lack of scientific justification for building code requirements for crawl space ventilation. The most valuable activity of the 2005 project proved to be the field demonstration of various closed crawl space techniques, which were implemented in a set of twelve small (1040 square feet), simply designed homes in eastern North Carolina. These homes had matched envelope, mechanical and architectural designs, and comparable

  11. Close interpersonal proximity modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. (United States)

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Szpak, Ancret; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R


    Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate. All object images were in participants' reachable space but appeared relatively closer to the participant or the confederate. Results revealed when participants were alone, objects in both locations produced an affordance congruency effect but when the confederate was present, only objects nearer the participant elicited the effect. Findings suggest space is divided between strangers to preserve independent near-body space boundaries, and in turn this process influences motor coding for stimuli within that social space. To demonstrate that this visuomotor modulation represents a social phenomenon, rather than a general, attentional effect, two subsequent experiments employed nonhuman joint conditions. Neither a small, Japanese, waving cat statue (Experiment 2) nor a metronome (Experiment 3) modulated the affordance effect as in Experiment 1. These findings suggest a truly social explanation of the key interaction from Experiment 1. This study represents an important step toward understanding object affordance processing in real-world, social contexts and has implications broadly across fields of social action and cognition, and body space representation.

  12. Transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities in trains of closely spaced bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Ruth, R.D.


    Damping rings for the next generation of linear collider may need to contain several bunch trains within which the bunches are quire closely spaced (1 or 2 RF wavelengths). Methods are presented for studying the transverse and longitudinal coupled bunch instabilities, applicable to this problem and to other cases in which the placement of the bunches is not necessarily symmetric. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Compression Tests on Circular Cylinders Stiffened Longitudinally by Closely Spaced Z-Section Stringers (United States)

    Peterson, James P.; Dow, Marvin B.


    Six circular cylinders stiffened longitudinally by closely spaced Z-section stringers were loaded to failure in compression. The results obtained are presented and compared with available theoretical results for the buckling of orthotropic cylinders. The results indicate that the large disparity that exists between theory and experiment for unstiffened compression cylinders may be significantly smaller for stiffened cylinders.

  14. The impact of close spacing on yield of arabica coffee under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such impacts of close spacing on coffee yield performances were largely associated with the prevailing climatic factors that determined the rate of vegetative growth and subsequent adverse mutual shading effects. RESUME En vue de chercher l'efficacité d'un espacement étroit et déterminer la densité optimale des cafés ...

  15. (r,s)-Fuzzy F-open sets and (r,s)-fuzzy F-closed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab Abd-Allah, M.; El-Saady, Kamal; Ghareeb, A.


    In this paper, we introduce the concepts of (r,s)-fuzzy F-open and (r,s)-fuzzy F-closed sets in double fuzzy topological spaces. We used them to explain the notions of (r,s)-fuzzy F-closed spaces. Also, we give some characterization of (r,s)-fuzzy F-closeness in terms of fuzzy filterbasis.

  16. Engineering of closed ecological system in space and inter-organismal interactions. (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi


    Space agriculture is a concept of synthesis and operation of closed ecological system for controlling living environment and supplying materials in order to sustain life and to meet metabolic needs of space crew. It revitalizes metabolites and other excretion of crew for their recycled usage. It is an advanced concept for life support for long and large scaled manned space missions, where open loop system for materials cycle is not feasible to apply. Several issues, such as cost-benefit analysis with considering benefits of amenity and psychological factors of crew, are discussed in this essay, together with reliability and productivity of biological systems. Studies on plant physiology for inter-organismal interaction contribute to design work for space agriculture, and associate with our engagements to our future, sustainable development of our civilization both on the earth and extending to outer space.

  17. Experimental identification of closely spaced modes using NExT-ERA (United States)

    Hosseini Kordkheili, S. A.; Momeni Massouleh, S. H.; Hajirezayi, S.; Bahai, H.


    This article presents a study on the capability of the time domain OMA method, NExT-ERA, to identify closely spaced structural dynamic modes. A survey in the literature reveals that few experimental studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of the NExT-ERA methodology in case of closely spaced modes specifically. In this paper we present the formulation for NExT-ERA. This formulation is then implemented in an algorithm and a code, developed in house to identify the modal parameters of different systems using their generated time history data. Some numerical models are firstly investigated to validate the code. Two different case studies involving a plate with closely spaced modes and a pulley ring with greater extent of closeness in repeated modes are presented. Both structures are excited by random impulses under the laboratory condition. The resulting time response acceleration data are then used as input in the developed code to extract modal parameters of the structures. The accuracy of the results is checked against those obtained from experimental tests.

  18. Conditions for Bounded Closed and Convex Sets to Have a Unique Completion in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JI Dong-hai


    Full Text Available In order to study the conditions for bounded closed and convex sets to have a unique completion inreal Banach spaces,known results in this direction are summarized. Based on this,a sufficient condition as well as some necessary and sufficient conditions for bounded closed and convex sets to have a unique completion areprovided. The notion of ( K,u -completeness is extended,and the relation of this notion to the uniqueness of completion in real Banach spaces is discussed.

  19. Properties of closely spaced independently addressable lasers fabricated by impurity-induced disordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, R.L.; Mosby, W.J.; Donaldson, R.M.; Paoli, T.L. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (USA))


    We describe the fabrication and characteristics of closely spaced (10 {mu}m) dual-beam laser sources by the process of impurity-induced disordering. We present data demonstrating that these devices are capable of high efficiency and reliable operation when operated in a {ital p}-side up configuration. We also show that these devices can be placed in close proximity with a minimal amount of thermal and electrical interaction between devices. These features have significant implications for the realization of high-density arrays of independently addressable lasers for optical interconnection of integrated circuits and optical imaging systems.

  20. Pixel partition method using Markov random field for measurements of closely spaced objects by optical sensors (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Li, Jun; Sheng, Weidong; An, Wei; Du, Qinfeng


    ABSTRACT In Space-based optical system, during the tracking for closely spaced objects (CSOs), the traditional method with a constant false alarm rate(CFAR) detecting brings either more clutter measurements or the loss of target information. CSOs can be tracked as Extended targets because their features on optical sensor's pixel-plane. A pixel partition method under the framework of Markov random field(MRF) is proposed, simulation results indicate: the method proposed provides higher pixel partition performance than traditional method, especially when the signal-noise-rate is poor.

  1. Space Physics of Close-in Exoplanets and its Implications for Planet Habitability (United States)

    Cohen, Ofer


    The search for habitable exoplanets is currently focused on planets orbiting M-dwarf stars, due to the close proximity of the habitable zone to the star. However, the traditional habitability definition does not account for the physical space environment near the planets, which can be extreme at close-in orbits, and can lead to erosion of te planetary atmosphere. In order to sustain their atmosphers, M-dwarf planets need to have either an intrinsic magnetic field, or a thick atmosphere. Here we present a set of numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of an Earth-like magnetized planet and a Venus-like non-magnetized planet with the stellar wind of M-dwarf star. We study space physics aspects of these interactions and their implications for planet habitability

  2. Seismic anisotropy and its time variation on active volcanoes (United States)

    Savage, M. K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Iguchi, M.; Johnson, J. H.; Ohminato, T.; Roman, D. C.


    Seismic anisotropy, the directional dependence of wave speeds, is caused by stress-oriented cracks and can be used to monitor stresses from magmatic movement. Shear wave splitting fast polarisations (Φ) align with cracks and hence with the compressive stress field. Delay times (dt) measure the density of cracks. Time variations in both Φ and dt on volcanoes have been reported by ourselves and other workers. Here we report results from a new objective automatic technique, developed on Ruapehu, New Zealand and Asama, Japan. We also applied it to Okmok; Soufrière Hills; Aso; Unzen and Sakurajima. Thousands of measurements made on each volcano allow us to determine correlations with other volcano monitoring techniques. We examine volcano-tectonic earthquakes local to each volcano and more distant regional earthquakes. Seismic waves from local earthquakes travel solely through the volcano, so that anisotropy in the mantle or lower crustal mineral alignment will not affect the measurements, but care must be taken because earthquake locations and hence ray paths may change due to magma movement. Spatial changes are thus difficult to disentangle from temporal changes. We analyse families of earthquakes with near-identical waveforms to try to overcome this limitation. Deep regional earthquakes occur mostly in subducted plates and their paths are affected by mantle and lower crustal mineral anisotropy as well as by crustal stress. They are also affected by laterally varying properties, but earthquakes far removed from the volcano should not have systematic variations in location that are correlated with magma movement. Therefore, changes in measurements from regional events that correlate with magma movement can be interpreted as temporal rather than spatial variations. Common features at all volcanoes are that stations closest to the craters yield the fewest good measurements, and even those tend to give varying results at closely spaced stations. Scattering from the

  3. Closely spaced mirror pair for reshaping and homogenizing pump beams in laser amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, I.L.


    Channeling a laser beam by multiple reflections between two closely-spaced, parallel or nearly parallel mirrors, serves to reshape and homogenize the beam at the output gap between the mirrors. Application of this device to improve the spatial overlap of a copper laser pump beam with the signal beam in a dye laser amplifier is described. This technique has been applied to the AVLIS program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  4. Yield of determinate tomato cultivars grown in a closed hydroponic system as affected by plant spacing


    Maboko, Martin M; Plooy, Christian P Du; Chiloane, Silence


    ABSTRACT In South Africa there are no established spacing recommendations for determinate tomato cultivar production under closed hydroponic systems. This study was conducted to determine yield and quality of hydroponically grown determinate tomato cultivars at different plant densities. Four determinate tomato cultivars (Dynimo, Mariana, Mion and Sama) were subjected to four plant densities (10, 16, 20 and 25 plants/m2) during the spring/summer and summer/fall seasons. Experimental layout wa...

  5. Klyuchevskaya Volcano (United States)


    The Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula continued its ongoing activity by releasing another plume on May 24, 2007. The same day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image, at 01:00 UTC. In this image, a hotspot marks the volcano's summit. Outlined in red, the hotspot indicates where MODIS detected unusually warm surface temperatures. Blowing southward from the summit is the plume, which casts its shadow on the clouds below. Near the summit, the plume appears gray, and it lightens toward the south. With an altitude of 4,835 meters (15,863 feet), Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) is both the highest and most active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. As part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Klyuchevskaya is estimated to have experienced more than 100 flank eruptions in the past 3,000 years. Since its formation 6,000 years ago, the volcano has seen few periods of inactivity. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region.

  6. Portable Low-Frequency Noise Reduction Device for Both Small Open and Closed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang


    Full Text Available Noise pollution has been given more attention due to its negative impacts on human health and disease. The portable low-frequency noise reduction device we developed in this research can provide an effective way for solving low-frequency noise pollution problem in the small space. This work describes the design principle and the prototype structures for two versions of V1.5 and V2.0 and builds the noise test systems for small spaces, respectively. These devices, installed on the outer surface of the small spaces, can automatically identify the noise spectrum and implement noise reduction by means of the active noise control (ANC technology. The testing results indicate that the noise can be reduced 12 dB in the range of 250 Hz~400 Hz for the small closed space while, for the small open space, the best effect of 5.88 dB occurs in the optimal frequency of 450 Hz. These effects will be weakened with the increasing distance away from the source and show the obvious axisymmetric distribution in the inverted cone space.

  7. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey. (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E


    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  8. Factors influencing efficiency of sliding mechanics to close extraction space: a systematic review. (United States)

    Barlow, M; Kula, K


    To review recent literature to determine strength of clinical evidence concerning the influence of various factors on the efficiency (rate of tooth movement) of closing extraction spaces using sliding mechanics. A comprehensive systematic review on prospective clinical trials. An electronic search (1966-2006) of several databases limiting the searches to English and using several keywords was performed. Also a hand search of five key journals specifically searching for prospective clinical trials relevant to orthodontic space closure using sliding mechanics was completed. Outcome Measure - Rate of tooth movement. Ten prospective clinical trials comparing rates of closure under different variables and focusing only on sliding mechanics were selected for review. Of these ten trials on rate of closure, two compared arch wire variables, seven compared material variables used to apply force, and one examined bracket variables. Other articles which were not prospective clinical trials on sliding mechanics, but containing relevant information were examined and included as background information. CONCLUSION - The results of clinical research support laboratory results that nickel-titanium coil springs produce a more consistent force and a faster rate of closure when compared with active ligatures as a method of force delivery to close extraction space along a continuous arch wire; however, elastomeric chain produces similar rates of closure when compared with nickel-titanium springs. Clinical and laboratory research suggest little advantage of 200 g nickel-titanium springs over 150 g springs. More clinical research is needed in this area.

  9. Close to you: embodied simulation for peripersonal space in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schaefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that in contrast to the classic understanding the primary somatosensory cortex (SI reflects merely seen touch (in the absence of any real touch on the own body. Based on these results it has been discussed that SI may play a role in understanding touch seen on other bodies. In order to further examine this understanding of observed touch, the current study aimed to test if mirror-like responses in SI are affected by the perspective of the seen touch. Thus, we presented touch on a hand and close to the hand either in first-person-perspective or in third-person-perspective. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI revealed stronger vicarious brain responses in SI/BA2 for touch seen in first-person-perspective. Surprisingly, the third-person viewpoint revealed activation in SI both when subjects viewed a hand being stimulated as well as when the space close to the hand was being touched. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results we conclude that vicarious somatosensory responses in SI/BA2 are affected by the viewpoint of the seen hand. Furthermore, we argue that mirror-like responses in SI do not only reflect seen touch, but also the peripersonal space surrounding this body (in third-person-perspective. We discuss these findings with recent studies on mirror responses for action observation in peripersonal space.

  10. Closed surfaces of constant visual acuity in symmetric dioptric power space. (United States)

    Rubin, A; Harris, W F


    This paper demonstrates a multivariate approach to understanding the complicated relations of visual acuity to refractive state or ametropia. Other approaches, as previously used, included graphical representations of lines or profiles of iso-oxyopia (Peters, 1961). But one limitation of Peters' method is that cylinder axis was ignored. However, here the relationship between visual acuity and refractive power will be represented by estimated closed surfaces of constant visual acuity in symmetric dioptric power space. At or near the common center (of several closed surfaces, for example) is the refractive compensation. Coming outwards from such a center, the visual acuity drops in all directions in the space. The primary purpose of this paper was to present estimated closed surfaces of constant visual acuity for several eyes. Various procedures were performed on several subjects including measurement of iris aperture diameter, subjective refraction, and autorefraction. Thereafter, an automated phoropter and either Jackson cross-cylinders or spheres were used to influence dioptric blur or defocus in the subjects. The visual stimulus was a computer-generated nondirectional or meridionally independent letter O. Ovoidal surfaces fit the measurements obtained (with Jackson cross-cylinders and spheres) better than ellipsoidal surfaces. The cross-section, in symmetric dioptric power space, at powers with the same nearest equivalent sphere as the refractive compensation is elliptical in many cases and reflects a dependence of visual acuity on cylinder axis. The surfaces differ when powers are changed so that one is moving away from (decompensation surfaces) or toward (accompensation surfaces) the refractive compensation. The multivariate and graphical methods used in this paper probably have implications for the direction of future research in a number of areas involving measures of vision function such as autorefraction, retinoscopy, subjective refraction, and visual

  11. Synthesis of molybdenum oxide microsheets via close-spaced vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goiz, O., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Chavez, F. [Department of Physical-Chemical Materials, ICUAP-BUAP, 72050 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Felipe, C. [Department of Biosciences and Engineering, CIIEMAD-IPN, 07340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, N. [Department of Physical-Chemical Materials, ICUAP-BUAP, 72050 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pena-Sierra, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Growth of molybdenum oxide microsheets on silicon (1 0 0) substrates using the close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique is proposed. Molybdenum oxide powder is employed as source, the synthesis is carried out at atmospheric pressure with a nitrogen ambient by employing short times (a few minutes), water as reactant and moderate temperatures. The growth process is efficient, fast, and without the use of catalysts. Changes in morphology and structure of products when temperature varies are reported. The produced molybdenum oxide microsheets are analyzed with SEM, XRD and micro-Raman techniques.

  12. Close encounters of the third kind with the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Nicollier, Claude

    Close encounters of the third kind are encounters with contact. Since its launch in 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope has been visited four times by Space Shuttle crews - including several former astronomers - for exchange of failed or degraded components, or installation of higher performance subsystems and scientific instruments. Following a description of the servicing philosophy and a brief narrative of the four encounters so far, this paper describes the challenge of working on Hubble spacewalking, with thick gloves, and in the absence of gravity where everything tends to float away if not held or retained in some manner ... This paper also attempts to detail some of the reasons for the remarkable success rate of these on-orbit interventions that have kept the orbiting observatory healthy and remarkably productive over more than twelve years.

  13. Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010 (United States)

    Schumann, U.; Weinzierl, B.; Reitebuch, O.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Forster, C.; Baumann, R.; Sailer, T.; Graf, K.; Mannstein, H.; Voigt, C.; Rahm, S.; Simmet, R.; Scheibe, M.; Lichtenstern, M.; Stock, P.; Rüba, H.; Schäuble, D.; Tafferner, A.; Rautenhaus, M.; Gerz, T.; Ziereis, H.; Krautstrunk, M.; Mallaun, C.; Gayet, J.-F.; Lieke, K.; Kandler, K.; Ebert, M.; Weinbruch, S.; Stohl, A.; Gasteiger, J.; Groß, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.; Ansmann, A.; Tesche, M.; Olafsson, H.; Sturm, K.


    Airborne lidar and in-situ measurements of aerosols and trace gases were performed in volcanic ash plumes over Europe between Southern Germany and Iceland with the Falcon aircraft during the eruption period of the Eyjafjalla volcano between 19 April and 18 May 2010. Flight planning and measurement analyses were supported by a refined Meteosat ash product and trajectory model analysis. The volcanic ash plume was observed with lidar directly over the volcano and up to a distance of 2700 km downwind, and up to 120 h plume ages. Aged ash layers were between a few 100 m to 3 km deep, occurred between 1 and 7 km altitude, and were typically 100 to 300 km wide. Particles collected by impactors had diameters up to 20 μm diameter, with size and age dependent composition. Ash mass concentrations were derived from optical particle spectrometers for a particle density of 2.6 g cm-3 and various values of the refractive index (RI, real part: 1.59; 3 values for the imaginary part: 0, 0.004 and 0.008). The mass concentrations, effective diameters and related optical properties were compared with ground-based lidar observations. Theoretical considerations of particle sedimentation constrain the particle diameters to those obtained for the lower RI values. The ash mass concentration results have an uncertainty of a factor of two. The maximum ash mass concentration encountered during the 17 flights with 34 ash plume penetrations was below 1 mg m-3. The Falcon flew in ash clouds up to about 0.8 mg m-3 for a few minutes and in an ash cloud with approximately 0.2 mg m-3 mean-concentration for about one hour without engine damage. The ash plumes were rather dry and correlated with considerable CO and SO2 increases and O3 decreases. To first order, ash concentration and SO2 mixing ratio in the plumes decreased by a factor of two within less than a day. In fresh plumes, the SO2 and CO concentration increases were correlated with the ash mass concentration. The ash plumes were often

  14. Thermal/vacuum measurements of the Herschel space telescope by close-range photogrammetry (United States)

    Parian, J. Amiri; Cozzani, A.; Appolloni, M.; Casarosa, G.


    In the frame of the development of a videogrammetric system to be used in thermal vacuum chambers at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) and other sites across Europe, the design of a network using micro-cameras was specified by the European Space agency (ESA)-ESTEC. The selected test set-up is the photogrammetric test of the Herschel Satellite Flight Model in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator. The photogrammetric system will be used to verify the Herschel Telescope alignment and Telescope positioning with respect to the Cryostat Vacuum Vessel (CVV) inside the Large Space Simulator during Thermal-Vacuum/Thermal-Balance test phases. We designed a close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation and a videogrammetric system with an overall accuracy of 1:100,000. A semi-automated image acquisition system, which is able to work at low temperatures (-170°C) in order to acquire images according to the designed network has been constructed by ESA-ESTEC. In this paper we will present the videogrammetric system and sub-systems and the results of real measurements with a representative setup similar to the set-up of Herschel spacecraft which was realized in ESTEC Test Centre.

  15. Advances in defining a closed brayton conversion system for future ARIANE 5 space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.


    The present European ARIANE space program will expand into the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle from 1995. It is assumed that important associated missions would require the generation of 200 kWe or more in space during several years at the very beginning of the next century. It is the reason why, in 1983, the French C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) have initiated preliminary studies of a space nuclear power system. The currently selected conversion system is a closed Brayton cycle. Reasons for this choice are given: high efficiency of a dynamic system; monophasic, inert working fluid; extensive turbomachinery experience, etc... A key aspect of the project is the adaptation to the heat rejection conditions, namely to the radiator geometry which depends upon the dimensions of the ARIANE 5 spacecraft. In addition to usual concepts already studied for space applications, another cycle arrangement is being investigated which could offer satisfactory compromises among many considerations, increase the efficiency of the system and make it more attractive as far as the specific mass (kg/kWe), the specific radiator area (m 2 /kWe) and various technological aspects are concerned. Comparative details are presented

  16. K-Ar ages of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukui, Masashi; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Nagao, Keisuke.


    Seventeen volcanic rocks of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano, in southwest Japan, were dated by the K-Ar method to clarify the age of volcanic activity in this region and the evolution of these composite volcanoes. The eruption ages of the Hiruzen volcano group were revealed to be about 0.9 Ma to 0.5 Ma, those of the Daisen volcano to be about 1 Ma to very recent. These results are consistent with geological and paleomagnetic data of previous workers. Effusion of lavas in the area was especially vigorous at 0.5+-0.1 Ma. It was generally considered that the Hiruzen volcano group had erupted during latest Pliocene to early Quaternary and it is older than the Daisen volcano, mainly from their topographic features. However, their overlapping eruption ages and petrographical similarities of the lavas of the Hiruzen volcano group and the Daisen volcano suggest that they may be included in the Daisen volcano in a broad sense. The aphyric andesite, whose eruption age had been correlated to Wakurayama andesite (6.34+-0.19 Ma) in Matsue city and thought to be the basement of the Daisen volcano, was dated to be 0.46+-0.04 Ma. It indicates that petrographically similar aphyric andesite erupted sporadically at different time and space in the San'in district. (author)

  17. Multiport well design for sampling of ground water at closely spaced vertical intervals (United States)

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.


    Detailed vertical sampling is useful in aquifers where vertical mixing is limited and steep vertical gradients in chemical concentrations are expected. Samples can be collected at closely spaced vertical intervals from nested wells with short screened intervals. However, this approach may not be appropriate in all situations. An easy-to-construct and easy-to-install multiport sampling well to collect ground-water samples from closely spaced vertical intervals was developed and tested. The multiport sampling well was designed to sample ground water from surficial sand-and-gravel aquifers. The device consists of multiple stainless-steel tubes within a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) protective casing. The tubes protrude through the wall of the PVC casing at the desired sampling depths. A peristaltic pump is used to collect ground-water samples from the sampling ports. The difference in hydraulic head between any two sampling ports can be measured with a vacuum pump and a modified manometer. The usefulness and versatility of this multiport well design was demonstrated at an agricultural research site near Princeton, Minnesota where sampling ports were installed to a maximum depth of about 12 m below land surface. Tracer experiments were conducted using potassium bromide to document the degree to which short-circuiting occurred between sampling ports. Samples were successfully collected for analysis of major cations and anions, nutrients, selected herbicides, isotopes, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorcarbon concentrations.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.


    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  19. Experiments and simulation of a net closing mechanism for tether-net capture of space debris (United States)

    Sharf, Inna; Thomsen, Benjamin; Botta, Eleonora M.; Misra, Arun K.


    This research addresses the design and testing of a debris containment system for use in a tether-net approach to space debris removal. The tether-net active debris removal involves the ejection of a net from a spacecraft by applying impulses to masses on the net, subsequent expansion of the net, the envelopment and capture of the debris target, and the de-orbiting of the debris via a tether to the chaser spacecraft. To ensure a debris removal mission's success, it is important that the debris be successfully captured and then, secured within the net. To this end, we present a concept for a net closing mechanism, which we believe will permit consistently successful debris capture via a simple and unobtrusive design. This net closing system functions by extending the main tether connecting the chaser spacecraft and the net vertex to the perimeter and around the perimeter of the net, allowing the tether to actuate closure of the net in a manner similar to a cinch cord. A particular embodiment of the design in a laboratory test-bed is described: the test-bed itself is comprised of a scaled-down tether-net, a supporting frame and a mock-up debris. Experiments conducted with the facility demonstrate the practicality of the net closing system. A model of the net closure concept has been integrated into the previously developed dynamics simulator of the chaser/tether-net/debris system. Simulations under tether tensioning conditions demonstrate the effectiveness of the closure concept for debris containment, in the gravity-free environment of space, for a realistic debris target. The on-ground experimental test-bed is also used to showcase its utility for validating the dynamics simulation of the net deployment, and a full-scale automated setup would make possible a range of validation studies of other aspects of a tether-net debris capture mission.

  20. Homojunction GaAs solar cells grown by close space vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jason W. [University of Oregon; Ritenour, Andrew J. [University of Oregon; Greenaway, Ann L. [University of Oregon; Aloni, Shaul [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Boettcher, Shannon W. [University of Oregon


    We report on the first pn junction solar cells grown by homoepitaxy of GaAs using close space vapor transport (CSVT). Cells were grown both on commercial wafer substrates and on a CSVT absorber film, and had efficiencies reaching 8.1%, open circuit voltages reaching 909 mV, and internal quantum efficiency of 90%. The performance of these cells is partly limited by the electron diffusion lengths in the wafer substrates, as evidenced by the improved peak internal quantum efficiency in devices fabricated on a CSVT absorber film. Unoptimized highly-doped n-type emitters also limit the photocurrent, indicating that thinner emitters with reduced doping, and ultimately wider band gap window or surface passivation layers, are required to increase the efficiency.

  1. The closed Brayton cycle: An energy conversion system for near-term military space missions (United States)

    Davis, Keith A.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR)-closed Brayton cycle (CBC) provides a 5 to 30 kWe class nuclear power system for surveillance and communication missions during the 1990s and will scale to 100 kWe and beyond for other space missions. The PBR-CBC is technically feasible and within the existing state of the art. The PBR-CBC system is flexible, scaleable, and offers development economy. The ability to operate over a wide power range promotes commonality between missions with similar but not identical power spectra. The PBR-CBC system mass is very competitive with rival nuclear dynamic and static power conversion and systems. The PBR-CBC provides growth potential for the future with even lower specific masses.

  2. Carbon-Carbon Recuperators in Closed-Brayton-Cycle Space Power Systems (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.; Johnson, Paul K.; Naples, Andrew G.


    The feasibility of using carbon-carbon (C-C) recuperators in conceptual closed-Brayton-cycle space power conversion systems was assessed. Recuperator performance expectations were forecast based on notional thermodynamic cycle state values for potential planetary missions. Resulting thermal performance, mass and volume for plate-fin C-C recuperators were estimated and quantitatively compared with values for conventional offset-strip-fin metallic designs. Mass savings of 30 to 60 percent were projected for C-C recuperators with effectiveness greater than 0.9 and thermal loads from 25 to 1400 kWt. The smaller thermal loads corresponded with lower mass savings; however, 60 percent savings were forecast for all loads above 300 kWt. System-related material challenges and compatibility issues were also discussed.

  3. Strong Metrizability for Closed Operators and the Semi-Fredholm Operators between Two Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Benharrat


    Full Text Available To be able to refine the completion of C(H1, H2, the of set all closed densely defined linear operators between two Hilbert spaces  H1 and H2, we define in this paper some new strictly stronger metrics than the gap metric g and we characterize the closure with respect to theses metrics of the subset L(H1, H2 of bounded elements of C(H1, H2. In addition, several operator norm inequalities concerning the equivalence of some metrics on L(H1, H2 are presented. We also establish the semi-Fredholmness and Fredholmness of unbounded in terms of bounded pure contractions.

  4. Mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) thin films fabricated by close spaced sublimation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Basharat, M.; Ali, A.; Shah, N.A.; Maqsood, A.


    Thin films of HgCdTe were fabricated by deposition of HgTe on the CdTe thin film substrates. Both depositions were carried out through close spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. The structural investigation performed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed that the deposited films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with large number of sharp grain boundaries. The samples were then characterized optically to determine the refractive index. Absorption coefficient and the optical band gaps. The estimated band gap decreased, typically from 1.46 to 1.43 Ev as Hg content in the films increased from 1.41 to 3.29-wt. the deposited films showed high value of resistivity. Which decreased with increasing temperature showing the semiconducting behavior of the films. The prepared films gave response to infrared radiation. (author)

  5. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station (United States)

    Liddle, Donn


    When photogrammetrists read an article entitled "Photogrammetry in Space" they immediately think of terrestrial mapping using satellite imagery. However in the last 19 years the roll of close range photogrammetry in support of the manned space flight program has grown exponentially. Management and engineers have repeatedly entrusted the safety of the vehicles and their crews to the results of photogrammetric analysis. In February 2010, the Node 3 module was attached to the port side Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Since this was not the location at which the module was originally designed to be located on the ISS, coolant lines containing liquid ammonia, were installed externally from the US Lab to Node 3 during a spacewalk. During mission preparation I had developed a plan and a set of procedures to have the astronauts acquire stereo imagery of these coolant lines at the conclusion of the spacewalk to enable us to map their as-installed location relative to the rest of the space station. Unfortunately, the actual installation of the coolant lines took longer than expected and in an effort to wrap up the spacewalk on time, the mission director made a real-time call to drop the photography. My efforts to reschedule the photography on a later spacewalk never materialized, so rather than having an as-installed model for the location of coolant lines, the master ISS CAD database continued to display an as-designed model of the coolant lines. Fast forward to the summer of 2015, the ISS program planned to berth a Japanese cargo module to the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), immediately adjacent to the Node 3 module. A CAD based clearance analysis revealed a negative four inch clearance between the ammonia lines and a thruster nozzle on the port side of the cargo vehicle. Recognizing that the model of the ammonia line used in the clearance analysis was "as-designed" rather than "as-installed", I was asked to determine the

  6. Significance of structure–soil–structure interaction for closely spaced structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Christine, E-mail:; Bolourchi, Said, E-mail:; Eggers, Daniel, E-mail:


    Nuclear facilities typically consist of many closely spaced structures with different sizes and depths of embedment. Seismic response of each structure could be influenced by dynamic structure–soil–structure interaction (SSSI) behavior of adjacent closely spaced structures. This paper examines the impact of SSSI on the in-structure response spectra (ISRS) and peak accelerations of a light structure adjacent to a heavy structure and of a heavy structure adjacent to a similar heavy structure for several soil cases, foundation embedment depths, and separation distances. The impacts of a heavy surface or embedded structure on adjacent ground motions were studied. The analyses demonstrated the adjacent ground motions are sensitive to foundation embedment, soil profile, response frequency, and distance from the structure. Seismic responses of a light structure located near a heavy structure are calculated either by modeling both structures subjected to free field motions, or performing a cascade analysis by considering the light structure model subjected to modified ground motions due to the heavy structure. Cascade SSSI analyses are shown to adequately account for the effect of the heavy structure on the light structure without explicitly modeling both structures together in a single analysis. To further study the influence of SSSI behavior, this paper examines dynamic response of two adjacent heavy structures and compares this response to response of a single heavy structure neglecting adjacent structures. The SSSI responses of the two heavy structures are evaluated for varying soil conditions and structure separation distances using three-dimensional linear SSI analyses and considering anti-symmetry boundary conditions. The analyses demonstrate that the SSSI response of a light or a heavy structure can be influenced by the presence of a nearby heavy structure. Although this study considers linear analysis methodology, the conclusion of SSSI influences on dynamic

  7. Output channel design for collecting closely-spaced particle streams from spiral inertial separation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff


    Full Text Available Recent advances in inertial microfluidics designs have enabled high throughput, label-free separation of cells for a variety of bioanalytical applications. Various device configurations have been proposed for binary separation with a focus on enhancing the separation distance between particle streams to improve the efficiency of separate particle collection. These configurations have not demonstrated scaling beyond 3 particle streams either because the channel width is a constraint at the collection outlets or particle streams would be too closely spaced to be collected separately. We propose a method to design collection outlets for inertial focusing and separation devices which can collect closely-spaced particle streams and easily scale to an arbitrary number of collection channels without constraining the outlet channel width, which is the usual cause of clogging or cell damage. According to our approach, collection outlets are a series of side-branching channels perpendicular to the main channel of egress. The width and length of the outlets can be chosen subject to constraints from the position of the particle streams and fluidic resistance ratio computed from fluid dynamics simulations. We show the efficacy of this approach by demonstrating a successful collection of upto 3 particle streams of 7μm, 10μm and 15μm fluorescent beads which have been focused and separated by a spiral inertial device with a separation distance of only 10μm -15μm. With a throughput of 1.8mL/min, we achieved collection efficiency exceeding 90% for each particle at the respective collection outlet. The flexibility to use wide collection channels also enabled us to fabricate the microfluidic device with an epoxy mold that was created using xurography, a low cost, and imprecise fabrication technique.

  8. An investigation into the interaction of closely-spaced starting jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rival, D.; Ciccarelli, G. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston (Canada)


    The transient, three-dimensional scavenging flow inside a novel two-stroke engine has been investigated both experimentally in a scaled water model as well as numerically using a commercial CFD code incorporating an unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) formulation. The scavenging flow consists of 16 round jets in close proximity of each other and the cylinder wall, developing from the top of the combustion chamber down towards the exhaust ports located along the wall at the bottom of the cylinder. Flow visualization of the scavenging flow was performed using a scaled fixed-piston water model and was used as a means of validating the URANS simulations themselves. The flow visualization experiments provided insight into the complex jet-jet and jet-wall interactions within the engine cylinder. These interactions were not as well predicted by the CFD simulations. In fact, the CFD simulations were found to significantly under-predict the turbulent mixing between the jets. This suggests that unsteady-RANS formulations are incapable of reproducing the large-scale and unsteady mixing structures associated with the vortex shedding between the closely-spaced jets. (author)

  9. Developing an Adaptive Robotic Assistant for Close-Proximity Human-Robot Interaction in Space Environments (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As mankind continues making strides in space exploration and associated technologies, the frequency, duration, and complexity of human space exploration missions...

  10. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent times long-term stay has become a common occurrence in the International Space Station (ISS). However adaptation to the space environment can sometimes...

  11. (r, s-(τ12,τ12*-θ-Generalized double fuzzy closed sets in bitopological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. El-Sanousy


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the notion of (r, s-(i, j-θ-generalized double fuzzy closed sets in double fuzzy bitopological spaces. A new θ-double fuzzy closure C12θ on double fuzzy bitopological spaces by using double supra fuzzy topological spaces are defined. Furthermore, generalized double fuzzy θ-continuous (resp. irresolute and double fuzzy strongly θ-continuous mappings are introduced and some of their properties studied.

  12. An unusual volcano on Venus (United States)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Schenk, P. M.; Head, J. W.


    Materials that issued from an unusual Venusian volcano produced (1) a complex domical structure about 100 km across with thick, broad flow lobes up to 41 wide, (2) an extensive sheet of thick flows, and (3) radar-bright surfaces that extend to 360-400 km from the volcano. Altimetry indicates that the relief of the domical structure is about 0.5-1.1 km. The lobes and flows have prominant regularly spaced ridges about 686-820 m apart. Thick flows with large ridge separations and broad lobes are rare on Venus. The viscosities of these flows were larger than those of most lava flows on Venus. Comparisons of the dimensions of the volcano's lobes with lava flows on earth suggest that the Venusian lavas may have large silica contents. Radar-bright surfaces around the volcano may represent the result of an explosive eruption or very thin deposits of low-viscosity lavas. Thus, the radar-bright surfaces and lavas of the volcano were derived from a magma that differentiated within the crust or mantle of Venus. The differentiation produced (1) a gas-rich low-viscosity phase, (2) high-viscosity lavas, and (3) a residual primary magma.

  13. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians" (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu


    Volcanoes have always represent an attractive subject for students. Europe has a small number of volcanoes and Romania has none active ones. The curricula is poor in the study of volcanoes. We want to make a parallel between the Mediterranean active volcanoes and the old extinct ones in the Oriental Carpathians. We made an comparison of the two regions in what concerns their genesis, space and time distribution, the specific relief and the impact in the landscape, consequences of their activities, etc… The most of the Mediterranean volcanoes are in Italy, in the peninsula in Napoli's area - Vezuviu, Campi Flegrei, Puzzoli, volcanic islands in Tirenian Sea - Ischia, Aeolian Islands, Sicily - Etna and Pantelleria Island. Santorini is located in Aegean Sea - Greece. Between Sicily and Tunisia there are 13 underwater volcanoes. The island called Vulcano, it has an active volcano, and it is the origin of the word. Every volcano in the world is named after this island, just north of Sicily. Vulcano is the southernmost of the 7 main Aeolian Islands, all volcanic in origin, which together form a small island arc. The cause of the volcanoes appears to be a combination of an old subduction event and tectonic fault lines. They can be considered as the origin of the science of volcanology. The volcanism of the Carpathian region is part of the extensive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. The Carpathian Neogene/Quaternary volcanic arc is naturally subdivided into six geographically distinct segments: Oas, Gutai, Tibles, Calimani, Gurghiu and Harghita. It is located roughly between the Carpathian thrust-and-fold arc to the east and the Transylvanian Basin to the west. It formed as a result of the convergence between two plate fragments, the Transylvanian micro-plate and the Eurasian plate. Volcanic edifices are typical medium-sized andesitic composite volcanoes, some of them attaining the caldera stage, complicated by submittal or peripheral domes

  14. The topology of perceptive functions as a corollary of the theorem of existence in closed spaces. (United States)

    Bounias, M; Bonaly, A


    The capability for a system of perceiving both outer objects and an inner self are two fundamental features of abstract mathematical objects endowed with the properties of topologically closed sets. Such structures exist upon intersection of topological spaces owning different dimensions. Then, the theorem of Jordan-Veblen provides their capability of being observable, while the theorems of Brouwer and of Banach-Caccioppoli provide two kinds of fixed points which account for the properties of so-called right and left brain functions. Fixed points account for the biological 'self', and the system provides theoretical justification for the existence of brain structure/function relationships, including memory, emotion, and respective characteristics of right and left hemispheres. Hence, an abstract topological reasoning based on set properties, provides evidence that the observer's function directly infers from the phenomenon of existence and that it belongs to the same mathematical system as the property of being observable. Order relations are raised from equivalence relations by Poincaré groups, upon mappings on the sets of functions and related homotopic transformations in sequences of intersections. Therefore, time is a construction of abstract brain functions, and a living organism just fills the system with appropriate molecular structures.

  15. Of Rings and Volcanoes (United States)


    show it. The bright spot close to the equator is the remnant of a giant storm in Saturn's extended atmosphere that has lasted more than 5 years. The present photo provides what is possibly the sharpest view of the ring system ever achieved from a ground-based observatory . Many structures are visible, the most obvious being the main ring sections, the inner C-region (here comparatively dark), the middle B-region (here relatively bright) and the outer A-region, and also the obvious dark "divisions", including the well-known, broad Cassini division between the A- and B-regions, as well as the Encke division close to the external edge of the A-region and the Colombo division in the C-region. Moreover, many narrow rings can be seen at this high image resolution , in particular within the C-region - they may be compared with those seen by the Voyager spacecraft during the flybys, cf. the weblinks below. This image demonstrates the capability of NAOS-CONICA to observe also extended objects with excellent spatial resolution. It is a composite of four short-exposure images taken through the near-infrared H (wavelength 1.6 µm) and K (2.2 µm) filters. This observation was particularly difficult because of the motion of Saturn during the exposure. To provide the best possible images, the Adaptive Optics system of NAOS was pointed towards the Saturnian moon Tethys , while the image of Saturn was kept at a fixed position on the CONICA detector by means of "differential tracking" (compensating for the different motions in the sky of Saturn and Tethys). This is also why the (faint) image of Tethys - visible south of Saturn (i.e., below the planet in PR Photo 04a/02 ) - appears slightly trailed. Io - volcanoes and sulphur ESO PR Photo 04b/02 ESO PR Photo 04b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 478 pix - 39k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 955 pix - 112k] ESO PR Photo 04c/02 ESO PR Photo 04c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 58k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 937 pix - 368k] Caption : PR Photo 04b/02 shows

  16. Global Volcano Locations Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  17. Experimental Study of Collision Detection Schema Used by Pilots During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (United States)

    Pritchett, Amy R.; Hansman, R. John


    An experimental flight simulator study was conducted to examine the mental alerting logic and thresholds used by subjects to issue an alert and execute an avoidance maneuver. Subjects flew a series of autopilot landing approaches with traffic on a closely-spaced parallel approach; during some runs, the traffic would deviate towards the subject and the subject was to indicate the point when they recognized the potential traffic conflict, and then indicate a direction of flight for an avoidance maneuver. A variety of subjects, including graduate students, general aviation pilots and airline pilots, were tested. Five traffic displays were evaluated, with a moving map TCAS-type traffic display as a baseline. A side-task created both high and low workload situations. Subjects appeared to use the lateral deviation of the intruder aircraft from its approach path as the criteria for an alert regardless of the display available. However, with displays showing heading and/or trend information, their alerting thresholds were significantly lowered. This type of range-only schema still resulted in many near misses, as a high convergence rate was often established by the time of the subject's alert. Therefore, the properties of the intruder's trajectory had the greatest effect on the resultant near miss rate; no display system reliably caused alerts timely enough for certain collision avoidance. Subjects' performance dropped significantly on a side-task while they analyzed the need for an alert, showing alert generation can be a high workload situation at critical times. No variation was found between subjects with and with out piloting experience. These results suggest the design of automatic alerting systems should take into account the range-type alerting schema used by the human, such that the rationale for the automatic alert should be obvious to, and trusted by, the operator. Although careful display design may help generate pilot/automation trust, issues such as user non

  18. Spectroscopic, microscopic, and internal stress analysis in cadmium telluride grown by close-space sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Salazar, Jessica G.; Diaz, Aryzbe; Quinones, Stella A.


    High quality materials with excellent ordered structure are needed for developing photovoltaic and infrared devices. With this end in mind, the results of our research prove the importance of a detailed, comprehensive spectroscopic and microscopic analysis in assessing cadmium telluride (CdTe) characteristics. The goal of this work is to examine not only material crystallinity and morphology, but also induced stress in the deposit material. A uniform, selective growth of polycrystalline CdTe by close-space sublimation on patterned Si(111) and Si(211) substrates is demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy images. Besides good crystallinity of the samples, as revealed by both Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared absorption investigations, the far-infrared transmission data also show the presence of surface optical phonon modes, which is direct evidence of confinement in such a material. The qualitative identification of the induced stress was achieved by performing confocal Raman mapping microscopy on sample surfaces and by monitoring the existence of the rock-salt and zinc-blende structural phases of CdTe, which were associated with strained and unstrained morphologies, respectively. Although the induced stress in the material is still largely due to the high lattice mismatch between CdTe and the Si substrate, the current results provide a direct visualization of its partial release through the relaxation effect at crystallite boundaries and of preferential growth directions of less strain. Our study, thus offers significant value for improvement of material properties, by targeting the needed adjustments in the growth processes. - Highlights: • Assessing the characteristics of CdTe deposited on patterned Si substrates • Proving the utility of confocal Raman microscopy in monitoring the induced stress • Confirming the partial stress release through the grain boundary relaxation effect • Demonstrating the phonon confinement effect in low

  19. Physiological Disorders in Closed Environment-Grown Crops for Space Life Support (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Morrow, Robert

    Crop production for life support systems in space will require controlled environments where temperature, humidity, CO2, and light might differ from natural environments where plants evolved. Physiological disorders, i.e., abnormal plant growth and development, can occur under these controlled environments. Among the most common of these disorders are Ca deficiency injuries such as leaf tipburn (e.g., lettuce), blossom-end-rot in fruits (e.g., tomato and pepper), and internal tissue necrosis in fruits or tubers (e.g., cucumber and potato). Increased Ca nutrition to the plants typically has little effect on these disorders, but slowing overall growth or providing better air circulation to increase transpiration can be effective. A second common disorder is oedema or intumescence, which appears as callus-like growth or galls on leaves (e.g., sweetpotato, potato, pepper, and tomato). This disorder can be reduced by increasing the near UV radiation ( 300-400 nm) to the plants. Leaf injury and necrosis can occur under long photoperiods (e.g., tomato, potato, and pepper) and at super-elevated (i.e., ¿ than 4000 mol mol-1) CO2 concentrations (e.g., soybean, potato, and radish), and these can be managed by reducing the photoperiod and CO2 concentration, respectively. Lack of blue light in the spectrum (e.g., under red LEDs or LPS lamps) can result in leggy growth and/or leaves lacking in chlorophyll (e.g., wheat, bean, and radish). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most commonly ethylene, can accumulate in tightly closed systems and result in a variety of negative responses. Most of these disorders can be mitigated by altering the environmental set-points or by using more resistant cultivars.

  20. Behind the Photos and the Tears: Media Images, Neoliberal Discourses, Racialized Constructions of Space and School Closings in Chicago (United States)

    Allweiss, Alexandra; Grant, Carl A.; Manning, Karla


    This critical article provides insights into how media frames influence our understandings of school reform in urban spaces by examining images of students during the 2013 school closings in Chicago. Using visual framing analysis and informed by framing theory and critiques of neoliberalism we seek to explore two questions: (1) What role do media…

  1. Volcano seismology (United States)

    Chouet, B.


    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand active magmatic systems, to characterize the configuration of such systems, and to determine the extent and evolution of source regions of magmatic energy. Such understanding is critical to our assessment of eruptive behavior and its hazardous impacts. With the emergence of portable broadband seismic instrumentation, availability of digital networks with wide dynamic range, and development of new powerful analysis techniques, rapid progress is being made toward a synthesis of high-quality seismic data to develop a coherent model of eruption mechanics. Examples of recent advances are: (1) high-resolution tomography to image subsurface volcanic structures at scales of a few hundred meters; (2) use of small-aperture seismic antennas to map the spatio-temporal properties of long-period (LP) seismicity; (3) moment tensor inversions of very-long-period (VLP) data to derive the source geometry and mass-transport budget of magmatic fluids; (4) spectral analyses of LP events to determine the acoustic properties of magmatic and associated hydrothermal fluids; and (5) experimental modeling of the source dynamics of volcanic tremor. These promising advances provide new insights into the mechanical properties of volcanic fluids and subvolcanic mass-transport dynamics. As new seismic methods refine our understanding of seismic sources, and geochemical methods better constrain mass balance and magma behavior, we face new challenges in elucidating the physico-chemical processes that cause volcanic unrest and its seismic and gas-discharge manifestations. Much work remains to be done toward a synthesis of seismological, geochemical, and petrological observations into an integrated model of volcanic behavior. Future important goals must include: (1) interpreting the key types of magma movement, degassing and boiling events that produce characteristic seismic phenomena; (2) characterizing multiphase fluids in subvolcanic

  2. Galactic Super-volcano in Action (United States)


    A galactic "super-volcano" in the massive galaxy M87 is erupting and blasting gas outwards, as witnessed by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and NSF's Very Large Array. The cosmic volcano is being driven by a giant black hole in the galaxy's center and preventing hundreds of millions of new stars from forming. Astronomers studying this black hole and its effects have been struck by the remarkable similarities between it and a volcano in Iceland that made headlines earlier this year. At a distance of about 50 million light years, M87 is relatively close to Earth and lies at the center of the Virgo cluster, which contains thousands of galaxies. M87's location, coupled with long observations over Chandra's lifetime, has made it an excellent subject for investigations of how a massive black hole impacts its environment. "Our results show in great detail that supermassive black holes have a surprisingly good control over the evolution of the galaxies in which they live," said Norbert Werner of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, who led one of two papers describing the study. "And it doesn't stop there. The black hole's reach extends ever farther into the entire cluster, similar to how one small volcano can affect practically an entire hemisphere on Earth." The cluster surrounding M87 is filled with hot gas glowing in X-ray light, which is detected by Chandra. As this gas cools, it can fall toward the galaxy's center where it should continue to cool even faster and form new stars. However, radio observations with the Very Large Array suggest that in M87 jets of very energetic particles produced by the black hole interrupt this process. These jets lift up the relatively cool gas near the center of the galaxy and produce shock waves in the galaxy's atmosphere because of their supersonic speed. The scientists involved in this research have found the interaction of this cosmic

  3. Wigner’s phase-space function and atomic structure: II. Ground states for closed-shell atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder


    We present formulas for reduced Wigner phase-space functions for atoms, with an emphasis on the first-order spinless Wigner function. This function can be written as the sum of separate contributions from single orbitals (the natural orbitals). This allows a detailed study of the function. Here we...... display and analyze the function for the closed-shell atoms helium, beryllium, neon, argon, and zinc in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The quantum-mechanical exact results are compared with those obtained with the approximate Thomas-Fermi description of electron densities in phase space....

  4. Mantle to surface degassing of alkalic magmas at Erebus volcano, Antarctica (United States)

    Oppenheimer, C.; Moretti, R.; Kyle, P.R.; Eschenbacher, A.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Hervig, R.L.; Dunbar, N.W.


    Continental intraplate volcanoes, such as Erebus volcano, Antarctica, are associated with extensional tectonics, mantle upwelling and high heat flow. Typically, erupted magmas are alkaline and rich in volatiles (especially CO2), inherited from low degrees of partial melting of mantle sources. We examine the degassing of the magmatic system at Erebus volcano using melt inclusion data and high temporal resolution open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements of gas emissions from the active lava lake. Remarkably different gas signatures are associated with passive and explosive gas emissions, representative of volatile contents and redox conditions that reveal contrasting shallow and deep degassing sources. We show that this unexpected degassing signature provides a unique probe for magma differentiation and transfer of CO2-rich oxidised fluids from the mantle to the surface, and evaluate how these processes operate in time and space. Extensive crystallisation driven by CO2 fluxing is responsible for isobaric fractionation of parental basanite magmas close to their source depth. Magma deeper than 4kbar equilibrates under vapour-buffered conditions. At shallower depths, CO2-rich fluids accumulate and are then released either via convection-driven, open-system gas loss or as closed-system slugs that ascend and result in Strombolian eruptions in the lava lake. The open-system gases have a reduced state (below the QFM buffer) whereas the closed-system gases preserve their deep oxidised signatures (close to the NNO buffer). ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Victims Themselves of a Close Encounter: On the Sensory Language and Bass Fiction of Space Ape (In Memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tobias c. van Veen


    Full Text Available This text is written in memoriam to dubstep emcee and poet Space Ape (Stephen Samuel Gordon, b. June 17th, 1970; d. October 2nd, 2014. By his own words, Space Ape arose from the depths of the black Atlantic, on a mission to relieve the “pressure” through bass fiction. My aim is to explicate Space Ape’s bass fiction as the intersection of material and imaginal forces, connecting it to a broader Afrofuturist constellation of mythopoetic becomings. Memory and matter converge in the affect and sounding of Space Ape the “hostile alien” (“Space Ape”, Burial, 2006, a figure shaped at the intersection of the dread body, riddim warfare, and speculative lyricism. Space Ape set out to “xorcise” that which consumed him from within by embracing the “spirit of change”. Turning to process philosophy, I demonstrate how Space Ape’s bass fiction—his virtual body—activates the abstract concepts of becoming in the “close encounter” with the hostile alien.

  6. Highly Efficient Closed-Loop CO2 Removal System for Deep-Space ECLSS, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research Inc.(TDA) in collaboration with University of Puerto Rico ? Mayaguez (UPRM is proposing to develop a highly efficient CO2 removal system based on UPRM...

  7. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile) (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.


    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used to explain the peculiar geochemical features (e.g. the mild alkalinity and relatively low ratios between large ion lithophile and high field strength elements) of the Hudson volcano, which is located even closer to the slab window than the Cay and Maca volcanoes are.

  8. Long-term monitoring on a closed-conduit volcano: A 25 year long time-series of temperatures recorded at La Fossa cone (Vulcano Island, Italy), ranging from 250 °C to 520 °C (United States)

    Diliberto, Iole Serena


    The longest record of temperature data from an active volcano in southern Italy is presented. The dataset comes from continuous monitoring of fumarole temperatures from the La Fossa cone of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands) running from 1991 to 2016. The discussion includes an empirical approach, based on a large number of direct measurements. At Vulcano Island, geochemical monitoring of the uprising fluids allows detection of the surface effects of perturbation in the state variables of the buried hydrothermal and magmatic systems. The presented datasets show that fumaroles' changing temperatures, which are related to surface heat flow, are useful indicators. Over the past 25 years, the combined effects of runoff and chemo-physical alterations were negligible on the output temperature of the earliest monitored fumaroles. The maximum recorded variation was 298 °C (measured in the ground very close to the steaming vents, at a depth of 0.5 m). Repetition of output temperature values occurred after 19 years in the same position; the time variations suggest a cyclic characteristic, although more years are needed to register the complete cyclic modulation. A combination of minor cyclical variations has also been registered in the fumarole output. The minor cycles appeared in this long series of data after 1995, and they can be interpreted as one of the surface effects of temporary departures from a stationary state assumed for the system feeding the La Fossa area. In this sector of the Mediterranean area, the steady state pressure field, as well as the steady state temperature gradients, can be perturbed either by magmatism or by seismo-tectonic processes related to regional dynamics. This long-term monitoring allowed comparisons of many temperature subsets with other validated geochemical and geophysical data series and highlighted common source mechanisms accounting for endogenous processes. Changes in the magma source and/or seismo-tectonic activity have been the primary

  9. Volcano infrasound: A review (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Bruce; Ripepe, Maurizio


    Exploding volcanoes, which produce intense infrasound, are reminiscent of the veritable explosion of volcano infrasound papers published during the last decade. Volcano infrasound is effective for tracking and quantifying eruptive phenomena because it corresponds to activity occurring near and around the volcanic vent, as opposed to seismic signals, which are generated by both surface and internal volcanic processes. As with seismology, infrasound can be recorded remotely, during inclement weather, or in the dark to provide a continuous record of a volcano's unrest. Moreover, it can also be exploited at regional or global distances, where seismic monitoring has limited efficacy. This paper provides a literature overview of the current state of the field and summarizes applications of infrasound as a tool for better understanding volcanic activity. Many infrasound studies have focused on integration with other geophysical data, including seismic, thermal, electromagnetic radiation, and gas spectroscopy and they have generally improved our understanding of eruption dynamics. Other work has incorporated infrasound into volcano surveillance to enhance capabilities for monitoring hazardous volcanoes and reducing risk. This paper aims to provide an overview of volcano airwave studies (from analog microbarometer to modern pressure transducer) and summarizes how infrasound is currently used to infer eruption dynamics. It also outlines the relative merits of local and regional infrasound surveillance, highlights differences between array and network sensor topologies, and concludes with mention of sensor technologies appropriate for volcano infrasound study.

  10. Volcanoes in outer space and inner space (United States)

    Francis, P.


    AS a teenager, I spent many long, bone-chilling hours studying the Moon and the planets with a rickety, homemade telescope. After 30 years, I still recall the pain and pleasure of creeping illicitly out of the house in the small hours of the morning for the few moments of satisfaction when the boiling, bouncing image of Jupiter would come to rest momentarily in sharp focus, the Galilean satellites strung out like brilliant beads on either side of the flattened disc. For me, then, the most remarkable piece of volcanology in the last twenty years was the discovery of active volcanism on Io, one of those tiny points of light I grew to know so well, though I was never really sure which satellite was which. To be sure, flying in a helicopter over the wasteland surrounding Mount St. Helens shortly after the 1980 eruption left an indelible, visceral impression on me, as it must have done to a great many others. But the discovery of volcanism on Io was a stunning piece of pure science. 

  11. Parametric thermodynamic analysis of closed-cycle gas-laser operation in space (United States)

    Burns, R. K.


    Cycle efficiency and radiator area required were calculated for thermally and electrically pumped lasers operating in closed cycles with a compressor and the required heat exchangers. A thermally pumped laser included within a Brayton cycle was also analyzed. Performance of all components, including the laser, was parametrically varied. For the thermally pumped laser the cycle efficiencies range below 10 percent and are very sensitive to the high-pressure losses associated with the supersonic diffuser required at the laser cavity exit. The efficiencies predicted for the electrically pumped laser cycles range slightly higher, but radiator area also tends to be larger.

  12. Polygonal approximation and scale-space analysis of closed digital curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Kumar S


    This book covers the most important topics in the area of pattern recognition, object recognition, computer vision, robot vision, medical computing, computational geometry, and bioinformatics systems. Students and researchers will find a comprehensive treatment of polygonal approximation and its real life applications. The book not only explains the theoretical aspects but also presents applications with detailed design parameters. The systematic development of the concept of polygonal approximation of digital curves and its scale-space analysis are useful and attractive to scholars in many fi

  13. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, D.G.


    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27{pi}. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon.

  14. Quantum field theory in spaces with closed time-like curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, D.G.


    Gott spacetime has closed timelike curves, but no locally anomalous stress-energy. A complete orthonormal set of eigenfunctions of the wave operator is found in the special case of a spacetime in which the total deficit angle is 27π. A scalar quantum field theory is constructed using these eigenfunctions. The resultant interacting quantum field theory is not unitary because the field operators can create real, on-shell, particles in the acausal region. These particles propagate for finite proper time accumulating an arbitrary phase before being annihilated at the same spacetime point as that at which they were created. As a result, the effective potential within the acausal region is complex, and probability is not conserved. The stress tensor of the scalar field is evaluated in the neighborhood of the Cauchy horizon; in the case of a sufficiently small Compton wavelength of the field, the stress tensor is regular and cannot prevent the formation of the Cauchy horizon

  15. Italy: the first European country to forbid smoking in closed spaces. First results. (United States)

    Laurendi, G; Galeone, D; Spizzichino, L; Vasselli, S; D'Argenio, P


    Second-hand smoke is a well-known risk factor for several diseases, including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma. Evidence exists that smoke-free policies have an effect on reducing or eliminating the exposure to second-hand smoke, decreasing the prevalence of smokers, encouraging smokers to quit or preventing the initiation of smoking, and reducing cigarettes consumption among smokers. Italy has been the first European country to forbid smoking in closed places, also in working areas not open to the public, as protection to the health of the entire population. This article describes the first results obtained from the application of this new law, the positive effects and unexpected modifications in the behaviour and social habits of the Italian people, thus, revealing itself an important instrument to protect public health.

  16. A technique for measuring an electron beam close-quote s longitudinal phase space with sub-picosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A.; Smith, T.I.; Swent, R.L.


    We have developed a technique for measuring the longitudinal phase space distribution of the Stanford Superconducting Accelerator close-quote s (SCA) electron beam which involves applying tomographic techniques to energy spectra taken as a function of the relative phase between the beam and the accelerating field, and optionally, as a function of the strength of a variable dispersion section in the system. The temporal profile of the beam obtained by projecting the inferred distribution onto the time axis is compared with that obtained from interferometric transition radiation measurements. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Characterization of Cu-doped CdTe thin films prepared by closed space sublimation (css) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, N.; Shah, N.; Ali, A.; Maqsood, A.


    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films of different thickness are deposited on the microscopic slides of water-white glass substrates using the close spaced sublimation (CSS) method. The films are doped with Cu by immersion in Cu (NO/sub 3/)2-H/sub 2/O solution for different times and the effect of immersion time and subsequent heating in vacuum on the electrical, structural and optical properties are presented. The XRD and SEM results show that appropriate Cu doping would be favorable to the growth of CdTe crystallite. The Hall Effect measurements indicate that the conductivity of the films could be improved by Cu doping. (author)

  18. GelBandFitter – A computer program for analysis of closely spaced electrophoretic and immunoblotted bands (United States)

    Mitov, Mihail I.; Greaser, Marion L.; Campbell, Kenneth S.


    GelBandFitter is a computer program that uses non-linear regression techniques to fit mathematical functions to densitometry profiles of protein gels. This allows for improved quantification of gels with partially overlapping and potentially asymmetric protein bands. The program can also be used to analyze immunoblots with closely spaced bands. GelBandFitter was developed in Matlab and the source code and/or a Windows executable file can be downloaded at no cost to academic users from PMID:19197901

  19. Space-Bounded Church-Turing Thesis and Computational Tractability of Closed Systems (United States)

    Braverman, Mark; Schneider, Jonathan; Rojas, Cristóbal


    We report a new limitation on the ability of physical systems to perform computation—one that is based on generalizing the notion of memory, or storage space, available to the system to perform the computation. Roughly, we define memory as the maximal amount of information that the evolving system can carry from one instant to the next. We show that memory is a limiting factor in computation even in lieu of any time limitations on the evolving system—such as when considering its equilibrium regime. We call this limitation the space-bounded Church-Turing thesis (SBCT). The SBCT is supported by a simulation assertion (SA), which states that predicting the long-term behavior of bounded-memory systems is computationally tractable. In particular, one corollary of SA is an explicit bound on the computational hardness of the long-term behavior of a discrete-time finite-dimensional dynamical system that is affected by noise. We prove such a bound explicitly.

  20. Space-Bounded Church-Turing Thesis and Computational Tractability of Closed Systems. (United States)

    Braverman, Mark; Schneider, Jonathan; Rojas, Cristóbal


    We report a new limitation on the ability of physical systems to perform computation-one that is based on generalizing the notion of memory, or storage space, available to the system to perform the computation. Roughly, we define memory as the maximal amount of information that the evolving system can carry from one instant to the next. We show that memory is a limiting factor in computation even in lieu of any time limitations on the evolving system-such as when considering its equilibrium regime. We call this limitation the space-bounded Church-Turing thesis (SBCT). The SBCT is supported by a simulation assertion (SA), which states that predicting the long-term behavior of bounded-memory systems is computationally tractable. In particular, one corollary of SA is an explicit bound on the computational hardness of the long-term behavior of a discrete-time finite-dimensional dynamical system that is affected by noise. We prove such a bound explicitly.

  1. Closed Loop Guidance Trade Study for Space Launch System Block-1B Vehicle (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The design of the next evolution of SLS, Block-1B, is well underway. The Block-1B vehicle is more capable overall than Block-1; however, the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) presents a challenge to the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm used by Block-1. To handle the long burn durations (on the order of 1000 seconds) of EUS missions, two algorithms were examined. An alternative algorithm, OPGUID, was introduced, while modifications were made to PEG. A trade study was conducted to select the guidance algorithm for future SLS vehicles. The chosen algorithm needs to support a wide variety of mission operations: ascent burns to LEO, apogee raise burns, trans-lunar injection burns, hyperbolic Earth departure burns, and contingency disposal burns using the Reaction Control System (RCS). Additionally, the algorithm must be able to respond to a single engine failure scenario. Each algorithm was scored based on pre-selected criteria, including insertion accuracy, algorithmic complexity and robustness, extensibility for potential future missions, and flight heritage. Monte Carlo analysis was used to select the final algorithm. This paper covers the design criteria, approach, and results of this trade study, showing impacts and considerations when adapting launch vehicle guidance algorithms to a broader breadth of in-space operations.

  2. Closed-String Tachyons and the Hagedorn Transition in AdS Space

    CERN Document Server

    Barbón, José L F


    We discuss some aspects of the behaviour of a string gas at the Hagedorn temperature from a Euclidean point of view. Using AdS space as an infrared regulator, the Hagedorn tachyon can be effectively quasi-localized and its dynamics controled by a finite energetic balance. We propose that the off-shell RG flow matches to an Euclidean AdS black hole geometry in a generalization of the string/black-hole correspondence principle. The final stage of the RG flow can be interpreted semiclassically as the growth of a cool black hole in a hotter radiation bath. The end-point of the condensation is the large Euclidan AdS black hole, and the part of spacetime behind the horizon has been removed. In the flat-space limit, holography is manifest by the system creating its own transverse screen at infinity. This leads to an argument, based on the energetics of the system, explaining why the non-supersymmetric type 0A string theory decays into the supersymmetric type IIB vacuum. We also suggest a notion of `boundary entropy'...

  3. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction (United States)

    Tilling, R.I.


    Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks - ground-based as well space-based - has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions) are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA) in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines) in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-ofthe-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  4. The critical role of volcano monitoring in risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tilling


    Full Text Available Data from volcano-monitoring studies constitute the only scientifically valid basis for short-term forecasts of a future eruption, or of possible changes during an ongoing eruption. Thus, in any effective hazards-mitigation program, a basic strategy in reducing volcano risk is the initiation or augmentation of volcano monitoring at historically active volcanoes and also at geologically young, but presently dormant, volcanoes with potential for reactivation. Beginning with the 1980s, substantial progress in volcano-monitoring techniques and networks – ground-based as well space-based – has been achieved. Although some geochemical monitoring techniques (e.g., remote measurement of volcanic gas emissions are being increasingly applied and show considerable promise, seismic and geodetic methods to date remain the techniques of choice and are the most widely used. Availability of comprehensive volcano-monitoring data was a decisive factor in the successful scientific and governmental responses to the reawakening of Mount St. elens (Washington, USA in 1980 and, more recently, to the powerful explosive eruptions at Mount Pinatubo (Luzon, Philippines in 1991. However, even with the ever-improving state-of-the-art in volcano monitoring and predictive capability, the Mount St. Helens and Pinatubo case histories unfortunately still represent the exceptions, rather than the rule, in successfully forecasting the most likely outcome of volcano unrest.

  5. "I would like to get close to you": Making robot personal space invasion less intrusive with a social gaze cue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suvei, Stefan-Daniel; Vroon, Jered; Somoza Sanchez, Vella Veronica


    participants (n=83), with/without personal space invasion, and with/without a social gaze cue. With a questionnaire, we measured subjective perception of warmth, competence, and comfort after such an interaction. In addition, we used on-board sensors and a tracking system to measure the dynamics of social......How can a social robot get physically close to the people it needs to interact with? We investigated the effect of a social gaze cue by a human-sized mobile robot on the effects of personal space invasion by that robot. In our 2x2 between-subject experiment, our robot would approach our...... positioning behavior. While we did find significant differences in the social positioning dynamics of the participants, no such effect was found upon quantitative analysis of perception of the robot. In a subsequent inductive analysis we further investigated these results, our findings suggesting...

  6. An echolocation model for range discrimination of multiple closely spaced objects: transformation of spectrogram into the reflected intensity distribution. (United States)

    Matsuo, Ikuo; Kunugiyama, Kenji; Yano, Masafumi


    Using frequency-modulated echolocation, bats can discriminate the range of objects with an accuracy of less than a millimeter. However, bats' echolocation mechanism is not well understood. The delay separation of three or more closely spaced objects can be determined through analysis of the echo spectrum. However, delay times cannot be properly correlated with objects using only the echo spectrum because the sequence of delay separations cannot be determined without information on temporal changes in the interference pattern of the echoes. To illustrate this, Gaussian chirplets with a carrier frequency compatible with bat emission sweep rates were used. The delay time for object 1, T1, can be estimated from the echo spectrum around the onset time. The delay time for object 2 is obtained by adding T1 to the delay separation between objects 1 and 2 (extracted from the first appearance of interference effects). Further objects can be located in sequence by this same procedure. This model can determine delay times for three or more closely spaced objects with an accuracy of about 1 micros, when all the objects are located within 30 micros of delay separation. This model is applicable for the range discrimination of objects having different reflected intensities and in a noisy environment (0-dB signal-to-noise ratio) while the cross-correlation method is hard to apply to these problems.

  7. Enhanced electro-magnetic energy transfer between a hot and cold body at close spacing due to evanescent fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)


    Theoretical studies have demonstrated that the energy transfer between a hot and cold body at close spacing (on the order of the radiation wavelength) can greatly exceed the limit for black body radiation (ie, Power = {sigma}T{sup 4}). This effect, due to the coupling of evanescent fields, presents an attractive option for thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) applications (assuming the considerable technical challenges can be overcome). The magnitude of the enhanced energy transfer depends on the optical properties of the hot and cold bodies as characterized by the dielectric functions of the respective materials. The present study considers five different situations as specified by the materials choices for the hot/cold sides: metal/metal, metal/insulator, metal/semiconductor, insulator/insulator, and semiconductor/semiconductor. For each situation, the dielectric functions are specified by typical models. An increase in energy transfer (relative to the black body law) is found for all situations considered, for separations less than one micron, assuming a temperature difference of 1,000 C. The metal/metal situation has the highest increase vs. separation while the semiconductor/semiconductor has the lowest. Factor-of-ten increases are obtained at roughly 0.1 microns for the metal/metal and roughly 0.02 microns for the metal/semiconductor. These studies are helping to increase the understanding of the close-spaced effect in the context of a radiator/TPV context.

  8. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.


    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  9. Variations in Seismic Anisotropy with time on Volcanoes in Kyushu Island, Southern Japan (United States)

    Savage, M. K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Kohno, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Wessel, A.; Mori, J.


    Using a newly developed automatic processing technique, we have calculated shear wave splitting on and near three active volcanoes in Kyushu, southern Japan (Aso, Unzen and Sakurajima). Shear wave splitting is considered to be caused by aligned cracks and microcracks. The polarisation of the first arriving phase, φ, gives a measure of the crack orientation, which is expected to align with the maximum principal stress. The delay time dt between the two phases depends upon the crack density and the path length. High quality measurements include the following: a) over 1700 from local events recorded and located near Aso Volcano between 2001 and 2008; b) over 2000 from local events recorded and located near Unzen volcano between 1988 and 1997 (spanning the most active period of seismic activity related to the large eruption in 1991); c) over 600 from regional events originating in the subducting Phillipine Sea plate recorded near Sakurajima volcano between 2003 and 2005, (during which time numerous small eruptions have occcurred, and GPS measurements have been modeled as caused by inflation of a Mogi source and a near-vertical crack). Most of the stations were located in boreholes or tunnels, providing excellent signals. Common features at all three volcanoes are that stations closest to the craters yield the fewest good measurements, and even those tend to give varying results at closely spaced stations. Scattering from the volcanic edifice may be making the S waves difficult to pick, and the local stresses may be varied. Stations on the volcanic flanks give many good measurements. Some stations yield variations in φ and dt that depend upon the earthquake location. But at each volcano, some stations show changes that are better explained by variations in time than in space. Where GPS measurements are available, the variations sometimes but not always correlate with previously-modeled inflation or deflation events. The temporal variations in φ are large, ranging

  10. What Are Volcano Hazards? (United States)

    ... 000 square miles in the Western United States. Heavy ash fall can collapse buildings, and even minor ash fall can damage crops, electronics, and machinery. Volcanic Gases Volcanoes emit gases during eruptions. Even ...

  11. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding


    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H 2 O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the partially

  12. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan


    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  13. Global Volcano Model (United States)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Loughlin, S. C.; Cottrell, E.; Valentine, G.; Newhall, C.; Jolly, G.; Papale, P.; Takarada, S.; Crosweller, S.; Nayembil, M.; Arora, B.; Lowndes, J.; Connor, C.; Eichelberger, J.; Nadim, F.; Smolka, A.; Michel, G.; Muir-Wood, R.; Horwell, C.


    Over 600 million people live close enough to active volcanoes to be affected when they erupt. Volcanic eruptions cause loss of life, significant economic losses and severe disruption to people's lives, as highlighted by the recent eruption of Mount Merapi in Indonesia. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in 2010 illustrated the potential of even small eruptions to have major impact on the modern world through disruption of complex critical infrastructure and business. The effects in the developing world on economic growth and development can be severe. There is evidence that large eruptions can cause a change in the earth's climate for several years afterwards. Aside from meteor impact and possibly an extreme solar event, very large magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions may be the only natural hazard that could cause a global catastrophe. GVM is a growing international collaboration that aims to create a sustainable, accessible information platform on volcanic hazard and risk. We are designing and developing an integrated database system of volcanic hazards, vulnerability and exposure with internationally agreed metadata standards. GVM will establish methodologies for analysis of the data (eg vulnerability indices) to inform risk assessment, develop complementary hazards models and create relevant hazards and risk assessment tools. GVM will develop the capability to anticipate future volcanism and its consequences. NERC is funding the start-up of this initiative for three years from November 2011. GVM builds directly on the VOGRIPA project started as part of the GRIP (Global Risk Identification Programme) in 2004 under the auspices of the World Bank and UN. Major international initiatives and partners such as the Smithsonian Institution - Global Volcanism Program, State University of New York at Buffalo - VHub, Earth Observatory of Singapore - WOVOdat and many others underpin GVM.

  14. Differential tolerance to biological and subjective effects of four closely spaced doses of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. (United States)

    Strassman, R J; Qualls, C R; Berg, L M


    Tolerance of the behavioral effects of the short-acting, endogenous hallucinogen, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is seen inconsistently in animals, and has not been produced in humans. The nature and time course of responses to repetitive, closely spaced administrations of an hallucinogenic dose of DMT were characterized. Thirteen experienced hallucinogen users received intravenous 0.3 mg/kg DMT fumarate, or saline placebo, four times, at 30 min intervals, on 2 separate days, in a randomized, double-blind, design. Tolerance to "psychedelic" subjective effects did not occur according to either clinical interview or Hallucinogen Rating Scale scores. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, cortisol, and heart rate responses decreased with repeated DMT administration, although blood pressure did not. These data demonstrate the unique properties of DMT relative to other hallucinogens and underscore the differential regulation of the multiple processes mediating the effects of DMT.

  15. Preparation of SnS thin films with gear-like sheet appearance by close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation (United States)

    Shao, Zhangpeng; Shi, Chengwu; Chen, Junjun; Zhang, Yanru


    SnS thin films with gear-like sheet appearance were successfully prepared by close-spaced vacuum thermal evaporation using SnS powders as a source. The influence of substrate temperature on the surface morphology, chemical composition, crystal structure and optical property of SnS thin films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The results revealed that serration architecture appeared obviously in the edge of the SnS sheet and the strongest peak at 2𝜃=31.63∘ was broadened and many shoulder peaks were observed with increasing substrate temperature. The atomic ratio of Sn to S increased from 1:1.08 to 1:1.20, the grain size became slightly smaller and the optical absorption edge had a blueshift in the SnS thin film with decreasing substrate temperature.

  16. Volcano Flank Terraces on Mars (United States)

    Byrne, P. K.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Murray, J. B.; Troll, V. R.


    Flank terraces are bulge-like structures that occur on the slopes of at least nine large shield volcanoes on Mars, and three on Earth. Terraces have a convex-upward, convex-outward morphology, with an imbricate "fish scale" stacking pattern in plan. They occur at all elevations, are scale-invariant structures, and have similar proportions to thrust faults on Earth. Suggested mechanisms of formation include elastic self-loading, lithospheric flexure, magma chamber tumescence, flank relaxation, and shallow gravitational slumping. Terrace geometries predicted by most of these mechanisms do not agree with our observations, however. Only lithospheric flexure can fully account for terrace geometry on Mars and Earth, and so is the most likely candidate mechanism for flank terrace formation. To verify this hypothesis, we conducted scaled analogue modelling experiments, and investigated the structures formed during flexure. Cones of a sand-gypsum mix were placed upon a deep layer of silicone gel, to simulate volcanic loads upon viscoelastic Martian crust. Key parameters were varied across our experimental program. In all cases convex topographic structures developed on the cones' flanks, arranged in an imbricate, overlapping plan-view pattern. These structures closely resemble flank terraces observed on Mars, and our results provide for a basic kinematic model of terrace formation. Analogue volcanoes experienced a decrease in upper surface area whilst volume was conserved; the contractional surface strain was accommodated by outward verging, circumferentially striking thrusts. The morphology of experimental structures suggests an orientation of the principal stress axes of σ1 = radial, σ2 = concentric, and σ3 = vertical. Elsewhere (J. B. Murray et al., this volume) we detail the relationship between flank terraces and other structures such as pit craters and gräben, using Ascraeus Mons as a case study. We suggest that terraces may influence the distribution and location

  17. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters (United States)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie


    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the locations of volcanos in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Vector points in the data set represent the location of the volcanos....

  19. The First Historical Eruption of Kambalny Volcano in 2017 . (United States)

    Gordeev, E.


    The first historical eruption at Kambalny volcano began about 21:20 UTC on March 24, 2017 with powerful ash emissions up to 6 km above sea level from the pre-summit crater. According to tephrochronological data, it is assumed that the strong eruptions of the volcano occurred 200 (?) and 600 years ago. KVERT (Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team) of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS has been monitoring Kambalny volcano since 2002. KVERT worked closely with AMC Elizovo and Tokyo VAAC during the eruption at Kambalny volcano in 2017. The maximum intensity of ash emissions occurred on 25-26 March: a continuous plume laden with ash particles spread over several thousand kilometers, changing the direction of propagation from the volcano from the south-west to the south and south-east. On 27-29 March, the ash plume extended to the west, on 30 March - to the southeast of the volcano. On March 31 and April 01, the volcano was relatively quiet. The resumption of the volcano activity after two days of rest was expressed in powerful ash emissions up to 7 km above sea level. Gas-steam plumes containing some amount of ash were noted on 02-05 April, and powerful ash emissions up to 7 km above sea level occurred on 09 April. The explosive activity at the volcano ended on 11 April. The area of ash deposits was about 1500 km2, the total area covered by ash falls, for example, on 25 March, was about 650 thousand km2. To monitor and study the Kambalny volcano eruption we mainly used satellite images of medium resolution available in the information system "Monitoring volcanic activity in Kamchatka and Kurile Islands" (VolSatView). This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project No. 16-17-00042.

  20. Monitoring remote volcanoes: The 2010-2012 unrest at Sotará volcano (Colombia) (United States)

    Alpala, Jorge; Alpala, Rosa; Battaglia, Maurizio


    Sotará is a little known andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano in southern Colombia (Central Cordillera, Cauca Department). Its remote location and the lack of accessible roads make studying and monitoring Sotará volcano difficult. No historical eruptions are known, though there is current geothermal activity. Between the fall of 2010 and the fall of 2012 a small magma intrusion (depth 1 km, ΔV 105 m3) triggered surface deformation and volcano-tectonic earthquakes but failed to reach the surface. This episode of unrest started with the volcano-tectonic earthquake of September 2010 (ML 4.4). Although one electronic tiltmeter recorded significant deformation between Jan 2011 and July 2012 (137 ± 7 μrad), seismic activity remained at background levels until May 2012. Between June and September 2012, seismicity increased dramatically with an average of 120 volcano-tectonic events per day of magnitude up to 2.2. The epicenters of these events were initially located 6 km NE of the volcano but then migrated along a linear fracture towards the NW summit of the volcano. At the same time, the hypocenters moved closer to the surface as well: from a depth of 3-6 km for the initial events to a depth of 1-4 km for the events at the end of the summer. Although the dike intrusion did not culminate in an eruption, and seismicity and deformation returned close to background levels by January 2013, this episode of unrest is a reminder that Sotará is an active volcano and should be carefully monitored.

  1. Ice-clad volcanoes (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Edwards, B.R.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Huggel, C.; Carey, Mark; Clague, John J.; Kääb, Andreas


    An icy volcano even if called extinct or dormant may be active at depth. Magma creeps up, crystallizes, releases gas. After decades or millennia the pressure from magmatic gas exceeds the resistance of overlying rock and the volcano erupts. Repeated eruptions build a cone that pokes one or two kilometers or more above its surroundings - a point of cool climate supporting glaciers. Ice-clad volcanic peaks ring the northern Pacific and reach south to Chile, New Zealand, and Antarctica. Others punctuate Iceland and Africa (Fig 4.1). To climb is irresistible - if only “because it’s there” in George Mallory’s words. Among the intrepid ascents of icy volcanoes we count Alexander von Humboldt’s attempt on 6270-meter Chimborazo in 1802 and Edward Whymper’s success there 78 years later. By then Cotopaxi steamed to the north.

  2. Organizational changes at Earthquakes & Volcanoes (United States)

    Gordon, David W.


    Primary responsibility for the preparation of Earthquakes & Volcanoes within the Geological Survey has shifted from the Office of Scientific Publications to the Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering (OEVE). As a consequence of this reorganization, Henry Spall has stepepd down as Science Editor for Earthquakes & Volcanoes(E&V).

  3. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin


    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  4. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação Ciências e Tecnologias Espaciais


    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  5. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.


    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  6. Comparison of the orthodontic load systems created with elastomeric power chain to close extraction spaces on different rectangular archwires. (United States)

    Kroczek, Catherine; Kula, Katherine; Stewart, Kelton; Baldwin, James; Fu, Tie; Chen, Jie


    The 3-dimensional load system (forces and moments) was quantified at the canine bracket during space closure with sliding mechanics with elastomeric chain on dry and wet stainless steel and beta-titanium 0.019 × 0.025-in archwires. A custom-made maxillary dentoform simulating first premolar extractions was attached to an orthodontic force tester. The canine was attached to a load cell through an adaptor with silicone simulating the periodontal ligament. The orthodontic force tester simultaneously measured the entire load system produced at the canine bracket by an elastomeric chain. The effects of archwire material, time (activation and 1 hour), and lubrication were analyzed by using 3-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, α = 0.05). Stainless steel provided a greater (P = 0.001) load system than did beta-titanium. The force was greatest on the canine in the lingual axis. The greatest moment was about the y-axis. The moment-to-force ratio, the most critical ratio, was greater for beta-titanium than stainless steel; however, both were close to the ideal 10:1. With a stainless steel archwire for retraction sliding mechanics, a canine will experience a greater load system in all 3 dimensions than with a beta-titanium wire. Both archwires produced a moment-to-force ratio adequate for translation. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency-Dependent Amplitude Panning for the Stereophonic Image Enhancement of Audio Recorded Using Two Closely Spaced Microphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jun Chun


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new frequency-dependent amplitude panning method for stereophonic image enhancement applied to a sound source recorded using two closely spaced omni-directional microphones. The ability to detect the direction of such a sound source is limited due to weak spatial information, such as the inter-channel time difference (ICTD and inter-channel level difference (ICLD. Moreover, when sound sources are recorded in a convolutive or a real room environment, the detection of sources is affected by reverberation effects. Thus, the proposed method first tries to estimate the source direction depending on the frequency using azimuth-frequency analysis. Then, a frequency-dependent amplitude panning technique is proposed to enhance the stereophonic image by modifying the stereophonic law of sines. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we compare its performance with that of a conventional method based on the beamforming technique in terms of directivity pattern, perceived direction, and quality degradation under three different recording conditions (anechoic, convolutive, and real reverberant. The comparison shows that the proposed method gives us better stereophonic images in a stereo loudspeaker reproduction than the conventional method without any annoying effects.

  8. Growth, surface treatment and characterization of polycrystalline lead iodide thick films prepared using close space deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Sun, Hui; Yang, Dingyu; Zheng, Xiaolin


    Lead iodide (PbI 2 ) polycrystalline thick films were fabricated on glass substrates with a conductive indium–tin-oxide layer using a close space deposition technique. The morphology of the as-deposited PbI 2 films is typically and highly oriented polycrystalline structure, made up of microcrystal platelets upright on the substrate plane. Two techniques including the surface mechanical cutting and after-growth cadmium telluride coating were employed to improve the films′ surface properties. It was shown that both of the film surface treatment methods markedly decreased the dark current of PbI 2 films. The photo-to-dark current ratio of about 2.05 under 241 Am γ-ray source with activity of 2.78 μCi irradiation was obtained from the film treated using both surface cutting and after-growth CdTe coating. Charge transport characteristics of these films were measured and the hole mobility 7.7×10 −2 –1.67×10 −1 cm 2 /V s was estimated.

  9. Anatomy of a volcano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooper, A.; Wassink, J.


    The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull caused major disruption in European airspace last year. According to his co-author, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, the reconstruction published in Nature six months later by aerospace engineering researcher, Dr Andy Hooper, opens up a new direction in volcanology. “We

  10. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun


    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  11. Classification of simple surface points and a global theorem for simple closed surfaces in three-dimensional digital spaces (United States)

    Chen, Li; Zhang, Jianping


    In this paper, we present two theorems: classification theorem and corner point theorem for closed digital surfaces. The classification theorem deals with the categorization of simple surface points and states that there are exactly six different types of simple surface points. On the basis of the classification theorem and Euler formula on planar graph, we have proved the corner point theorem: Any simple closed surface has at least eight corner points, where a corner point of a closed surface is a point in the surface which has exactly three adjacent points in the closed surface. Another result reported in this paper is that any simple closed surface has at least fourteen points.

  12. Holocene record of large explosive eruptions from Chaitén and Michinmahuida Volcanoes, Chile


    Amigo,Álvaro; Lara,Luis E; Smith,Victoria C


    Tephra fall deposits and one large ignimbrite close to Chaitén and Michinmahuida Volcanoes were analyzed for chemistry and radiocarbon dated to correlate the eruptive units and establish the timing of eruptions. These data suggest that both volcanoes were the source of large (VEI ≥5) and small to moderate (VEI

  13. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador (United States)

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.


    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  14. Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Nutraceuticals, and Materials: Closing the Loop for Long-Term Space Travel (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is impractical for astronauts to travel with all necessary supplies in future long-term space exploration missions. Therefore, it is imperative that technologies...

  15. Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes (United States)


    A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

  16. Volcanoes can generate devastating waves (United States)


    Explosions. Noxious gases. Lava fountains and flows. Avalanches of superheated pyroclastics. Although volcanic eruptions can cause all these frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. this destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves) Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. 

  17. Earthquake sources near Uturuncu Volcano (United States)

    Keyson, L.; West, M. E.


    Uturuncu, located in southern Bolivia near the Chile and Argentina border, is a dacitic volcano that was last active 270 ka. It is a part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex, which spans 50,000 km2 and is comprised of a series of ignimbrite flare-ups since ~23 ma. Two sets of evidence suggest that the region is underlain by a significant magma body. First, seismic velocities show a low velocity layer consistent with a magmatic sill below depths of 15-20 km. This inference is corroborated by high electrical conductivity between 10km and 30km. This magma body, the so called Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) is the likely source of volcanic activity in the region. InSAR studies show that during the 1990s, the volcano experienced an average uplift of about 1 to 2 cm per year. The deformation is consistent with an expanding source at depth. Though the Uturuncu region exhibits high rates of crustal seismicity, any connection between the inflation and the seismicity is unclear. We investigate the root causes of these earthquakes using a temporary network of 33 seismic stations - part of the PLUTONS project. Our primary approach is based on hypocenter locations and magnitudes paired with correlation-based relative relocation techniques. We find a strong tendency toward earthquake swarms that cluster in space and time. These swarms often last a few days and consist of numerous earthquakes with similar source mechanisms. Most seismicity occurs in the top 10 kilometers of the crust and is characterized by well-defined phase arrivals and significant high frequency content. The frequency-magnitude relationship of this seismicity demonstrates b-values consistent with tectonic sources. There is a strong clustering of earthquakes around the Uturuncu edifice. Earthquakes elsewhere in the region align in bands striking northwest-southeast consistent with regional stresses.

  18. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo


    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  19. A Validated Set of MIDAS V5 Task Network Model Scenarios to Evaluate Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts (United States)

    Gore, Brian Francis; Hooey, Becky Lee; Haan, Nancy; Socash, Connie; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.


    The Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) scenario is a complex, human performance model scenario that tested alternate operator roles and responsibilities to a series of off-nominal operations on approach and landing (see Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013). The model links together the procedures, equipment, crewstation, and external environment to produce predictions of operator performance in response to Next Generation system designs, like those expected in the National Airspaces NextGen concepts. The task analysis that is contained in the present report comes from the task analysis window in the MIDAS software. These tasks link definitions and states for equipment components, environmental features as well as operational contexts. The current task analysis culminated in 3300 tasks that included over 1000 Subject Matter Expert (SME)-vetted, re-usable procedural sets for three critical phases of flight; the Descent, Approach, and Land procedural sets (see Gore et al., 2011 for a description of the development of the tasks included in the model; Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013 for a description of the model, and its results; Hooey, Gore, Mahlstedt, Foyle, 2013 for a description of the guidelines that were generated from the models results; Gore, Hooey, Foyle, 2012 for a description of the models implementation and its settings). The rollout, after landing checks, taxi to gate and arrive at gate illustrated in Figure 1 were not used in the approach and divert scenarios exercised. The other networks in Figure 1 set up appropriate context settings for the flight deck.The current report presents the models task decomposition from the tophighest level and decomposes it to finer-grained levels. The first task that is completed by the model is to set all of the initial settings for the scenario runs included in the model (network 75 in Figure 1). This initialization process also resets the CAD graphic files contained with MIDAS, as well as the embedded

  20. Understanding cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns at volcanoes: Intriguing lessons from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Neuberg, Jürgen W.; Collinson, Amy S. D.; Mothes, Patricia A.; Ruiz, Mario C.; Aguaiza, Santiago


    Cyclic seismicity and ground deformation patterns are observed on many volcanoes worldwide where seismic swarms and the tilt of the volcanic flanks provide sensitive tools to assess the state of volcanic activity. Ground deformation at active volcanoes is often interpreted as pressure changes in a magmatic reservoir, and tilt is simply translated accordingly into inflation and deflation of such a reservoir. Tilt data recorded by an instrument in the summit area of Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador, however, show an intriguing and unexpected behaviour on several occasions: prior to a Vulcanian explosion when a pressurisation of the system would be expected, the tilt signal declines significantly, hence indicating depressurisation. At the same time, seismicity increases drastically. Envisaging that such a pattern could carry the potential to forecast Vulcanian explosions on Tungurahua, we use numerical modelling and reproduce the observed tilt patterns in both space and time. We demonstrate that the tilt signal can be more easily explained as caused by shear stress due to viscous flow resistance, rather than by pressurisation of the magmatic plumbing system. In general, our numerical models prove that if magma shear viscosity and ascent rate are high enough, the resulting shear stress is sufficient to generate a tilt signal as observed on Tungurahua. Furthermore, we address the interdependence of tilt and seismicity through shear stress partitioning and suggest that a joint interpretation of tilt and seismicity can shed new light on the eruption potential of silicic volcanoes.

  1. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.


    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  2. The Powell Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group Overview (United States)

    Reath, K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Poland, M. P.; Wessels, R. L.; Biggs, J.; Carn, S. A.; Griswold, J. P.; Ogburn, S. E.; Wright, R.; Lundgren, P.; Andrews, B. J.; Wauthier, C.; Lopez, T.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rumpf, M. E.; Webley, P. W.; Loughlin, S.; Meyer, F. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.


    Hazards from volcanic eruptions pose risks to the lives and livelihood of local populations, with potential global impacts to businesses, agriculture, and air travel. The 2015 Global Assessment of Risk report notes that 800 million people are estimated to live within 100 km of 1400 subaerial volcanoes identified as having eruption potential. However, only 55% of these volcanoes have any type of ground-based monitoring. The only methods currently available to monitor these unmonitored volcanoes are space-based systems that provide a global view. However, with the explosion of data techniques and sensors currently available, taking full advantage of these resources can be challenging. The USGS Powell Center Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group is working with many partners to optimize satellite resources for global detection of volcanic unrest and assessment of potential eruption hazards. In this presentation we will describe our efforts to: 1) work with space agencies to target acquisitions from the international constellation of satellites to collect the right types of data at volcanoes with forecasting potential; 2) collaborate with the scientific community to develop databases of remotely acquired observations of volcanic thermal, degassing, and deformation signals to facilitate change detection and assess how these changes are (or are not) related to eruption; and 3) improve usage of satellite observations by end users at volcano observatories that report to their respective governments. Currently, the group has developed time series plots for 48 Latin American volcanoes that incorporate variations in thermal, degassing, and deformation readings over time. These are compared against eruption timing and ground-based data provided by the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program. Distinct patterns in unrest and eruption are observed at different volcanoes, illustrating the difficulty in developing generalizations, but highlighting the power of remote sensing

  3. Fuzzy Λ gX r -sets and generalization of closed sets in generalized fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasree Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce fuzzy ΛgXr-set and to study some of its generalized forms. The structure constituted by fuzzy Λ g X r -set is also included in the treatise. Moreover we define generalized fuzzy gX -closed set and fuzzy Λ g X r -closed set, which are the weaker forms of fuzzy gX -closed set. The above two weaker forms are independent to each other but jointly they imply fuzzy gX -closed set. Finally, in addition, as the application of fuzzy Λ g X r -closed set, we study fuzzy (Λ , g X r Y g - continuity and fuzzy (Λ , gf g X r X Y  g g -continuity and a few of their properties. In general, fuzzy contra ( , X Y g g -continuity does not imply fuzzy ( , X Y g g -continuity, but this paper provides one condition under which the fact is true.

  4. ‘New’ Antarctic volcanos (United States)

    Two previously unknown volcanos that show evidence o f recent eruptions were discovered in March on the east side of the Antarctic Peninsula, according to the National Science Foundation. The discovery brings to five the number of known active volcanos on the continent.Volcanic debris still covers a large swath of the adjacent Larsen Ice Shelf, pointing to very recent activity. In addition, one of the volcanos was steaming when the discovery was made, reports Oscar Gonzalez-Ferran of the University of Chile at Santiago. He made the discovery while doing a geophysical survey by helicopter of the Antarctic Peninsula. The two volcanos constitute the southernmost extension of the eastern side of the ‘ring of fire,’ a ring of volcanos that is believed to mark the active subduction zone on the periphery of the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Volcano Inflation prior to Gas Explosions at Semeru Volcano, Indonesia (United States)

    Nishimura, T.; Iguchi, M.; Kawaguchi, R.; Surono, S.; Hendrasto, M.; Rosadi, U.


    Semeru volcano in east Java, Indonesia, is well known to exhibit small vulcanian eruptions at the summit crater. Such eruptive activity stopped on April 2009, but volcanic earthquakes started to occur in August and a lava dome was found in the summit crater on November. Since then, lava sometimes flows downward on the slope and small explosions emitting steams from active crater frequently occur every a few to a few tens of minutes. Since the explosions repeatedly occur with short intervals and the active crater is located close to the summit with an altitude of 3676m, the explosions are considered to originate from the gas (steams) from magma itself in the conduit and not to be caused by interactions of magma with the underground water. We installed a tiltmeter at the summit on March 2010 to study the volcanic eruption mechanisms. The tiltmeter (Pinnacle hybrid type, accuracy of measurement is 1 nrad ) was set at a depth of about 1 m around the summit about 500 m north from the active crater. The data stored every 1 s in the internal memory was uploaded every 6 hours by a small data logger with GPS time correction function. More than one thousand gas explosion events were observed for about 2 weeks. We analyze the tilt records as well as seismic signals recorded at stations of CVGHM, Indonesia. The tilt records clearly show uplift of the summit about 20 to 30 seconds before each explosion. Uplifts before large explosions reach to about 20 - 30 n rad, which is almost equivalent to the volume increase of about 100 m^3 beneath the crater. To examine the eruption magnitude dependence on the uplift, we classify the eruptions into five groups based on the amplitudes of seismograms associated with explosions. We stack the tilt records for these groups to reduce noises in the signals and to get general characteristics of the volcano inflations. The results show that the amplitudes of uplifts are almost proportional to the amplitudes of explosion earthquakes while the

  6. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  7. Soufriere Hills Volcano (United States)


    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  8. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.


    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  9. Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Founded in 1912 at the edge of the caldera of Kīlauea Volcano, HVO was the vision of Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., a geologist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, whose studies of natural disasters around the world had convinced him that systematic, continuous observations of seismic and volcanic activity were needed to better understand—and potentially predict—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Jaggar summarized the aim of HVO by stating that “the work should be humanitarian” and have the goals of developing “prediction and methods of protecting life and property on the basis of sound scientific achievement.” These goals align well with those of the USGS, whose mission is to serve the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage natural resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.

  10. Dynamics of magma supply, storage and migration at basaltic volcanoes: Geophysical studies of the Galapagos and Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco

    Basaltic shields forming ocean island volcanoes, in particular those of Hawai'i and of the Galapagos Islands, constitute some of the largest volcanic features on Earth. Understanding subsurface processes such as those controlling magma supply, storage and migration at these volcanoes, is essential to any attempt to anticipate their future behavior. This dissertation presents a series of studies carried out at Hawaiian and Galapagos volcanoes. InSAR measurements acquired between 2003 and 2010 at Fernandina Volcano, Galapagos, are used to study the structure and the dynamics of the shallow magmatic system of the volcano (Chapter 3). Spatial and temporal variations in the measured displacements reveal the presence of two hydraulically connected areas of magma storage, and the modeling of the deformation data provides an estimate of their location and geometry. The same dataset also provides the first geodetic evidence for two subvolcanic sill intrusions (in 2006 and 2007) deep beneath the volcano's flank. The lateral migration of magma from the reservoirs during these intrusions could provide an explanation for enigmatic volcanic events at Fernandina such as the 1968 caldera collapse without significant eruption. Space-geodetic measurements of the surface deformation produced by the most recent eruptions at Fernandina, reveal that all have initiated with the intrusion of subhorizontal sills from the shallow magma reservoir (Chapter 4). A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired 1-2 h before the start of a radial fissure eruption in 2009 captures one of these sills in the midst of its propagation toward the surface. Galapagos eruptive fissures of all orientations have previously been presumed to be fed by vertical dikes, but these new findings allow a reinterpretation of the internal structure and evolution of Galapagos volcanoes and of similar basaltic shields elsewhere on Earth and on other planets. A joint analysis of InSAR and groud-based microgravity data

  11. Subdifferential Properties of Minimal Time Functions Associated with Set-Valued Mappings with Closed Convex Graphs in Hausdorff Topological Vector Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaoud Bounkhel


    Full Text Available For a set-valued mapping M defined between two Hausdorff topological vector spaces E and F and with closed convex graph and for a given point (x,y∈E×F, we study the minimal time function associated with the images of M and a bounded set Ω⊂F defined by M,Ω(x,y:=inf{t≥0:M(x∩(y+tΩ≠∅}. We prove and extend various properties on directional derivatives and subdifferentials of M,Ω at those points of (x,y∈E×F (both cases: points in the graph gph M and points outside the graph. These results are used to prove, in terms of the minimal time function, various new characterizations of the convex tangent cone and the convex normal cone to the graph of M at points inside gph M and to the graph of the enlargement set-valued mapping at points outside gph M. Our results extend many existing results, from Banach spaces and normed vector spaces to Hausdorff topological vector spaces (Bounkhel, 2012; Bounkhel and Thibault, 2002; Burke et al., 1992; He and Ng, 2006; and Jiang and He 2009. An application of the minimal time function M,Ω to the calmness property of perturbed optimization problems in Hausdorff topological vector spaces is given in the last section of the paper.

  12. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 2 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  13. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67 (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.


    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  14. Volcanoes in Eruption - Set 1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The word volcano is used to refer to the opening from which molten rock and gas issue from Earth's interior onto the surface, and also to the cone, hill, or mountain...

  15. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (United States)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner


    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  16. Complete Mapping of Complex Disulfide Patterns with Closely-Spaced Cysteines by In-Source Reduction and Data-Dependent Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V


    Mapping of disulfide bonds is an essential part of protein characterization to ensure correct cysteine pairings. For this, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used technique due to fast and accurate characterization. However, MS-based disulfide mapping is challenged when multiple disulfide...... of individual disulfide bonds could be done in species containing closely spaced disulfide bonds. The strength of this methodology was demonstrated by complete mapping of all four disulfide bonds in lysozyme and all 17 disulfide bonds in human serum albumin, including nested disulfide bonds and motifs...

  17. Kinematic change of the meniscus and the tibiofemoral joint space in asymptomatic volunteers using a wide bore 3T closed MRI system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eugene; Kim, Yeo Ju; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Choong-gu, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Hyung [Inha University Hospital, Clinical Trail Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ryuh Sup [Inha University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate kinematic changes in menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in extension and flexion using asymptomatic volunteers using a wide-bore 3-T closed MRI system. Twenty-two knees from asymptomatic volunteers were examined in knee extension and flexion using a 3-T MRI (sagittal 2D FSE T2-weighted sequence and sagittal 3D isotropic FSE proton density-weighted cube sequence). The meniscal positions, meniscal floating and flounce were evaluated. The widths of the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint spaces and coronal tibiofemoral angles were measured. In the anteroposterior direction, meniscal extrusion was most frequently seen in the anterior horn of the medial menisci (100 %) in extensions (maximum 6.04 mm). Most of the menisci moved significantly to the posterior side from extension to flexion. The anteroposterior meniscal movement was the greatest for the anterior horn of the medial meniscus and least for the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. In the mediolateral direction, meniscal extrusion was seen in 52 % of the medial menisci in extensions (maximum 1.91 mm) and 29 % of lateral menisci in flexions (maximum 2.36 mm). From the extension to flexion, all medial and lateral menisci moved significantly to the lateral side. Meniscal floating was frequently observed in the posterior horn of medial menisci in extension. Meniscal flounce was frequently seen in lateral menisci in flexion with a widened lateral tibiofemoral joint space gap. The coronal tibiofemoral angle showed medial wedging in flexion, but not in extension. Wide-bore 3-T closed MRI revealed significant kinematic changes in the menisci and tibiofemoral joint spaces in asymptomatic volunteers. (orig.)

  18. Chiliques volcano, Chile (United States)


    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  19. The added value of time-variable microgravimetry to the understanding of how volcanoes work (United States)

    Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael; Greco, Filippo; Diament, Michel


    During the past few decades, time-variable volcano gravimetry has shown great potential for imaging subsurface processes at active volcanoes (including some processes that might otherwise remain “hidden”), especially when combined with other methods (e.g., ground deformation, seismicity, and gas emissions). By supplying information on changes in the distribution of bulk mass over time, gravimetry can provide information regarding processes such as magma accumulation in void space, gas segregation at shallow depths, and mechanisms driving volcanic uplift and subsidence. Despite its potential, time-variable volcano gravimetry is an underexploited method, not widely adopted by volcano researchers or observatories. The cost of instrumentation and the difficulty in using it under harsh environmental conditions is a significant impediment to the exploitation of gravimetry at many volcanoes. In addition, retrieving useful information from gravity changes in noisy volcanic environments is a major challenge. While these difficulties are not trivial, neither are they insurmountable; indeed, creative efforts in a variety of volcanic settings highlight the value of time-variable gravimetry for understanding hazards as well as revealing fundamental insights into how volcanoes work. Building on previous work, we provide a comprehensive review of time-variable volcano gravimetry, including discussions of instrumentation, modeling and analysis techniques, and case studies that emphasize what can be learned from campaign, continuous, and hybrid gravity observations. We are hopeful that this exploration of time-variable volcano gravimetry will excite more scientists about the potential of the method, spurring further application, development, and innovation.

  20. Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.


    Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux

  1. Histologic characterization of engineered tissues in the canal space of closed-apex teeth with apical periodontitis. (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Duarte, Paulo Carvalho Tobias; Ervolino, Edilson; Mogami Bomfim, Suely Regina; Xavier Abimussi, Caio José; Mota da Silva Santos, Ludmilla; Lodi, Carolina Simonetti; Penha De Oliveira, Sandra Helena; Dezan, Elói; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo


    The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of endodontic regenerative procedures combining an induced blood clot, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and bone marrow aspirate (BMA) to regenerate dental pulp in canine closed-apex necrotic teeth. Apical periodontitis was induced in 20 upper and lower premolars of 2 dogs. After biomechanical preparation, enlargement to a #60 file, and disinfection with a triantibiotic paste for 28 days, the roots were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups: blood clot (BC), BC + PRP gel, BC + BMA gel, and BC + BMA/PRP gel. Negative controls were also included. After a 3-month follow-up period, the animals were killed. Histologic analysis showed the presence of newly formed vital tissues (connective, cement-like, and bone-like tissue) in 23 of the 32 treated roots (71.87%). There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups. New vital tissues were formed and characterized as connective, cementum-like, or bone-like, but not as pulp-like tissue; PRP and/or BMA did not improve the tissue ingrowth. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature-dependent growth and XPS of Ag-doped ZnTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potlog, Tamara, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, MD 2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Duca, Dumitru [Department of Physics and Engineering, Moldova State University, MD 2009 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dobromir, Marius [Faculty of Physics, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, 11 Carol I Blvd., Iasi 700506 (Romania)


    Highlights: • Close space sublimation was used for deposition of ZnTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. • Crystallinity is improved evidently with increasing the substrate temperatures. • XPS analysis of Ag-doped ZnTe films by immersion proved the presence of Ag and revealed the increase of the Ag composition with the increasing of the thickness of ZnTe films. - Abstract: Zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were sublimated on a glass substrate using closed space sublimation (CSS) technique. The influence of the substrate temperature on the physical properties is studied. The deposited films were immersed in AgNO{sub 3} solution with different concentrations, and then annealed in air. The structure and composition are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray diffraction patterns of as-deposited ZnTe thin films exhibited polycrystalline behavior. The preferred orientation of (1 1 1) having cubic phase irrespective of the substrate temperature was observed. The XPS analysis confirmed the presence of Ag in the ZnTe thin films after doping by immersion in the AgNO{sub 3} solution of different concentrations.

  3. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes (United States)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A systematic aircraft program to monitor changes in the thermal emission from volcanoes of the Cascade Range has been initiated and is being carried out in conjunction with ERTS-1 thermal surveillance experiments. Night overflights by aircraft equipped with thermal infrared scanners sensitive to terrestrial emission in the 4-5.5 and 8-14 micron bands are currently being carried out at intervals of a few months. Preliminary results confirm that Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Mount Saint Helens, Mount Shasta, and the Lassen area continue to be thermally active, although with the exception of Lassen which erupted between 1914 and 1917, and Mount Saint Helens which had a series of eruptions between 1831 and 1834, there has been no recent eruptive activity. Excellent quality infrared images recorded over Mount Rainier, as recently as April, 1972, show similar thermal patterns to those reported in 1964-1966. Infrared images of Mount Baker recorded in November 1970 and again in April 1972 revealed a distinct array of anomalies 1000 feet below the crater rim and associated with fumaroles or structures permitting convective heat transfer to the surface.

  4. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  5. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces. (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard


    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  7. Vegetable production facility as a part of a closed life support system in a Russian Martian space flight scenario (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Krivobok, N. M.; Erokhin, A. N.; Agureev, A. N.; Shanturin, N. A.


    A Manned Mars Mission scenario had been developed in frame of the Project 1172 supported International Science & Technology Center in Moscow. The Mars transit vehicle (MTV) supposed to have a crew of 4-6 with Pilot Laboratory compartment volume of 185 m 3 and with inner diameter of 4.1 m. A vegetable production facility with power consumption up to 10 kW is being considered as a component of the life support system to supply crew members by fresh vegetables during the mission. Proposed design of conveyor-type plant growth facility (PGF) comprised of 4-modules. Each module has a cylindrical planting surface and spiral cylindrical LED assembly to provide a high specific productivity relative to utilized onboard resources. Each module has a growth chamber that will be from 0.7 m to 1.5 m in length, and a crop illuminated area from 1.7 m 2 to 4.0 m 2. Leafy crops (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, chard, etc.) have been selected for module 1, primarily because of the highest specific productivity per consumed resources. Dietitians have recommended also carrot crop for module 2, pepper for module 3 and tomato for module 4. The maximal total PGF light energy estimated as 1.16 kW and total power consumption as about 7 kW. The module 1 characteristics have been calculated using own experimental data, information from the best on ground plant growth experiments with artificial light were used to predict crop productivity and biomass composition in the another modules. 4-module PGF could produce nearly 0.32 kg per crew member per day of fresh edible biomass, which would be about 50% of recommended daily vegetable supplement. An average crop harvest index is estimated as 0.75. The MTV food system could be entirely closed in terms of vitamins C and A with help of the PGF. In addition the system could provide 10-25% of essential minerals and vitamins of group B, and about 20% of food fibers. The present state of plant growth technology allows formulating of requirements specification

  8. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.


    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  9. Monitoring volcano activity through Hidden Markov Model (United States)

    Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.; Aliotta, M.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.


    During 2011-2013, Mt. Etna was mainly characterized by cyclic occurrences of lava fountains, totaling to 38 episodes. During this time interval Etna volcano's states (QUIET, PRE-FOUNTAIN, FOUNTAIN, POST-FOUNTAIN), whose automatic recognition is very useful for monitoring purposes, turned out to be strongly related to the trend of RMS (Root Mean Square) of the seismic signal recorded by stations close to the summit area. Since RMS time series behavior is considered to be stochastic, we can try to model the system generating its values, assuming to be a Markov process, by using Hidden Markov models (HMMs). HMMs are a powerful tool in modeling any time-varying series. HMMs analysis seeks to recover the sequence of hidden states from the observed emissions. In our framework, observed emissions are characters generated by the SAX (Symbolic Aggregate approXimation) technique, which maps RMS time series values with discrete literal emissions. The experiments show how it is possible to guess volcano states by means of HMMs and SAX.

  10. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.


    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Cataloging tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Thelen, W. A.; Wech, A.


    Tremor is a ubiquitous seismic feature on Kilauea volcano, which emanates from at least three distinct sources. At depth, intermittent tremor and earthquakes thought to be associated with the underlying plumbing system of Kilauea (Aki and Koyanagi, 1981) occurs approximately 40 km below and 40 km SW of the summit. At the summit of the volcano, nearly continuous tremor is recorded close to a persistently degassing lava lake, which has been present since 2008. Much of this tremor is correlated with spattering at the lake surface, but tremor also occurs in the absence of spattering, and was observed at the summit of the volcano prior to the appearance of the lava lake, predominately in association with inflation/deflation events. The third known source of tremor is in the area of Pu`u `O`o, a vent that has been active since 1983. The exact source location and depth is poorly constrained for each of these sources. Consistently tracking the occurrence and location of tremor in these areas through time will improve our understanding of the plumbing geometry beneath Kilauea volcano and help identify precursory patterns in tremor leading to changes in eruptive activity. The continuous and emergent nature of tremor precludes the use of traditional earthquake techniques for automatic detection and location of seismicity. We implement the method of Wech and Creager (2008) to both detect and localize tremor seismicity in the three regions described above. The technique uses an envelope cross-correlation method in 5-minute windows that maximizes tremor signal coherency among seismic stations. The catalog is currently being built in near-realtime, with plans to extend the analysis to the past as time and continuous data availability permits. This automated detection and localization method has relatively poor depth constraints due to the construction of the envelope function. Nevertheless, the epicenters distinguish activity among the different source regions and serve as

  12. Lifespans of Cascade Arc volcanoes (United States)

    Calvert, A. T.


    Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.

  13. 3D position and velocity vector computations of objects jettisoned from the international space station using close-range photogrammetry approach (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshel, Edward; Adamo, Daniel


    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object's imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object's position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies.

  14. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias


    closed LSTT is reduced, if one RIO has small velocity wrt another RIO. Thus, we have infinite number of closed LSTTs, each one with the corresponding SR theory. In case that we relate accelerated observers with variable metric of spacetime, we have the case of General Relativity (GR). For being that clear, we produce a generalized Schwarzschild metric, which is in accordance with any SR based on this closed complex LSTT and Einstein equations. The application of this kind of transformations to the SR and GR is obvious. But, the results may be applied to any linear space of dimension four endowed with steady or variable metric, whose elements (four- vectors) have spatial part (vector) with Euclidean metric.

  15. Euclidean Closed Linear Transformations of Complex Spacetime and generally of Complex Spaces of dimension four endowed with the Same or Different Metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias


    any other closed LSTT is reduced, if one RIO has small velocity wrt another RIO. Thus, we have infinite number of closed LSTTs, each one with the corresponding SR theory. In case that we relate accelerated observers with variable metric of spacetime, we have the case of General Relativity (GR). For being that clear, we produce a generalized Schwarzschild metric, which is in accordance with any SR based on this closed complex LSTT and Einstein equations. The application of this kind of transformations to the SR and GR is obvious. But, the results may be applied to any linear space of dimension four endowed with steady or variable metric, whose elements (four- vectors) have spatial part (vector) with Euclidean metric. (paper)

  16. Volcano Hazards - A National Threat (United States)



    When the violent energy of a volcano is unleashed, the results are often catastrophic. The risks to life, property, and infrastructure from volcanoes are escalating as more and more people live, work, play, and travel in volcanic regions. Since 1980, 45 eruptions and 15 cases of notable volcanic unrest have occurred at 33 U.S. volcanoes. Lava flows, debris avalanches, and explosive blasts have invaded communities, swept people to their deaths, choked major riverways, destroyed bridges, and devastated huge tracts of forest. Noxious volcanic gas emissions have caused widespread lung problems. Airborne ash clouds have disrupted the health, lives, and businesses of hundreds of thousands of people; caused millions of dollars of aircraft damage; and nearly brought down passenger flights.

  17. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes (United States)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.


    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  18. Surface Deformation Caused by a Shallow Magmatic Source at Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Arc (United States)

    Miyagi, Y.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kimata, F.; Sato, T.; Mann, D.; Kasahara, M.


    Okmok Volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc, last erupted in 1997. Okmok consists of a 10 km wide caldera with several cones located inside. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been measured using InSAR. However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern part of the caldera, with some additional coherent areas along the outer flanks of the volcano. With support from NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and the International Arctic Research Center, we carried out GPS campaigns in 2000 and 2001 to supplement the InSAR data with 3D measurements of deformation at well-distributed points. We surveyed 24 sites on and around Okmok in 2000, and 31 sites in 2001. As of this date, no SAR data from suitable passes has been acquired in the summer of 2001; if any are acquired, we will also analyze this data. InSAR data for the period 1997-2000 show what appears to be a radially-symmetric pattern of displacements, consistent with the inflation of a shallow (3-4 km) pressure (Mogi) source located beneath the geoemtric center of the caldera. A deflation source at the same location and depth was inferred from an interferogram spanning the eruption. The 2000-2001 GPS data, on the other hand, show evidence for rapid horizontal extension between sites in center of the caldera. This signal cannot be explained by a Mogi source, and may represent the intrusion of a shallow dike. In addition to this probable dike source, it appears that overall inflation of the volcano continues. The proposed dike extends from roughly the center of the caldera toward the 1997 eruptive vent. In May 2001, a swarm of micro-earthquakes occurred somewhere close to Okmok Volcano (location errors are very large as the closest permanent seismic site is ~100 km from Okmok). It is possible that this small earthquake swarm could have been associated with the intrusion of the shallow dike.

  19. Geophysical Observations Supporting Research of Magmatic Processes at Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín. S.; Hjaltadóttir, Sigurlaug; Roberts, Matthew J.


    Magmatic processes at volcanoes on the boundary between the European and North American plates in Iceland are observed with in-situ multidisciplinary geophysical networks owned by different national, European or American universities and research institutions, but through collaboration mostly operated by the Icelandic Meteorological Office. The terrestrial observations are augmented by space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images of the volcanoes and their surrounding surface. Together this infrastructure can monitor magma movements in several volcanoes from the base of the crust up to the surface. The national seismic network is sensitive enough to detect small scale seismicity deep in the crust under some of the voclanoes. High resolution mapping of this seismicity and its temporal progression has been used to delineate the track of the magma as it migrates upwards in the crust, either to form an intrusion at shallow levels or to reach the surface in an eruption. Broadband recording has also enabled capturing low frequency signals emanating from magmatic movements. In two volcanoes, Eyjafjallajökull and Katla, just east of the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ), seismicity just above the crust-mantle boundary has revealed magma intruding into the crust from the mantle below. As the magma moves to shallower levels, the deformation of the Earth‘s surface is captured by geodetic systems, such as continuous GPS networks, (InSAR) images of the surface and -- even more sensitive to the deformation -- strain meters placed in boreholes around 200 m below the Earth‘s surface. Analysis of these signals can reveal the size and shape of the magma as well as the temporal evolution. At near-by Hekla volcano flanking the SISZ to the north, where only 50% of events are of M>1 compared to 86% of earthquakes in Eyjafjallajökull, the sensitivity of the seismic network is insufficient to detect the smallest seismicity and so the volcano appears less

  20. Studies of CdS/CdTe interface: Comparison of CdS films deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jun-feng; Fu, Gan-hua; Krishnakumar, V.; Schimper, Hermann-Josef; Liao, Cheng; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Besland, M.P.


    The CdS layers were deposited by two different methods, close space sublimation (CSS) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The CdS/CdTe interface properties were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM images showed a large CSS-CdS grain size in the range of 70-80 nm. The interface between CSS-CdS and CdTe were clear and sharp, indicating an abrupt hetero-junction. On the other hand, CBD-CdS layer had much smaller grain size in the 5-10 nm range. The interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe was not as clear as CSS-CdS. With the stepwise coverage of CdTe layer, the XPS core levels of Cd 3d and S 2p in CSS-CdS had a sudden shift to lower binding energies, while those core levels shifted gradually in CBD-CdS. In addition, XPS depth profile analyses indicated a strong diffusion in the interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe. The solar cells prepared using CSS-CdS yielded better device performance than the CBD-CdS layer. The relationships between the solar cell performances and properties of CdS/CdTe interfaces were discussed. - Highlights: • Studies of CdS deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition • An observation of CdS/CdTe interface by transmission electron microscope • A careful investigation of CdS/CdTe interface by X ray photoelectron spectra • An easier diffusion at the chemical bath deposition CdS and CdTe interface

  1. What Happened to Our Volcano? (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva


    In this article, the author presents an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." The author states that students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. Here, their geology unit helped them understand…

  2. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe


    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  3. Morphometry of terrestrial shield volcanoes (United States)

    Grosse, Pablo; Kervyn, Matthieu


    Shield volcanoes are described as low-angle edifices built primarily by the accumulation of successive lava flows. This generic view of shield volcano morphology is based on a limited number of monogenetic shields from Iceland and Mexico, and a small set of large oceanic islands (Hawaii, Galápagos). Here, the morphometry of 158 monogenetic and polygenetic shield volcanoes is analyzed quantitatively from 90-meter resolution SRTM DEMs using the MORVOLC algorithm. An additional set of 24 lava-dominated 'shield-like' volcanoes, considered so far as stratovolcanoes, are documented for comparison. Results show that there is a large variation in shield size (volumes from 0.1 to > 1000 km3), profile shape (height/basal width (H/WB) ratios mostly from 0.01 to 0.1), flank slope gradients (average slopes mostly from 1° to 15°), elongation and summit truncation. Although there is no clear-cut morphometric difference between shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes, an approximate threshold can be drawn at 12° average slope and 0.10 H/WB ratio. Principal component analysis of the obtained database enables to identify four key morphometric descriptors: size, steepness, plan shape and truncation. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these descriptors results in 12 end-member shield types, with intermediate cases defining a continuum of morphologies. The shield types can be linked in terms of growth stages and shape evolution, related to (1) magma composition and rheology, effusion rate and lava/pyroclast ratio, which will condition edifice steepness; (2) spatial distribution of vents, in turn related to the magmatic feeding system and the tectonic framework, which will control edifice plan shape; and (3) caldera formation, which will condition edifice truncation.

  4. Volcano geodesy: Challenges and opportunities for the 21st century (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.


    Intrusions of magma beneath volcanoes deform the surrounding rock and, if the intrusion is large enough, the overlying ground surface. Numerical models generally agree that, for most eruptions, subsurface volume changes are sufficient to produce measurable deformation at the surface. Studying this deformation can help to determine the location, volume, and shape of a subsurface magma body and thus to anticipate the onset and course of an eruption. This approach has been successfully applied at many restless volcanoes, especially basaltic shields and silicic calderas, using various geodetic techniques and sensors. However, its success at many intermediate-composition strato-volcanoes has been limited by generally long repose intervals, steep terrain, and structural influences that complicate the history and shape of surface deformation. These factors have made it difficult to adequately characterize deformation in space and time at many of the world's dangerous volcanoes. Recent technological advances promise to make this task easier by enabling the acquisition of geodetic data of high spatial and temporal resolution from Earth-orbiting satellites. Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) can image ground deformation over large areas at metre-scale resolution over time-scales of a month to a few years. Global Positioning System (GPS) stations can provide continuous information on three-dimensional ground displacements at a network of key sites -information that is especially important during volcanic crises. By using InSAR to determine the shape of the displacement field and GPS to monitor temporal changes at key sites, scientists have a much better chance to capture geodetic signals that have so far been elusive at many volcanoes. This approach has the potential to provide longer-term warnings of impending volcanic activity than is possible with other monitoring techniques.

  5. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan


    In this chapter, the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor active geological processes is described. Specifically, threats posed by volcanic eruptions are briefly outlined, and essential monitoring requirements are discussed. As an application example, a collaborative, multi-agency operational volcano monitoring system in the north Pacific is highlighted with a focus on the 2007 eruption of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Russia. The data from this system have been used since 2004 to detect the onset of volcanic activity, support the emergency response to large eruptions, and assess the volcanic products produced following the eruption. The overall utility of such integrative assessments is also summarized. The work described in this chapter was originally funded through two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science research grants that focused on the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument. A skilled team of volcanologists, geologists, satellite tasking experts, satellite ground system experts, system engineers and software developers collaborated to accomplish the objectives. The first project, Automation of the ASTER Emergency Data Acquisition Protocol for Scientific Analysis, Disaster Monitoring, and Preparedness, established the original collaborative research and monitoring program between the University of Pittsburgh (UP), the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, and affiliates on the ASTER Science Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as associates at the Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center (ERSDAC) in Japan. This grant, completed in 2008, also allowed for detailed volcanic analyses and data validation during three separate summer field campaigns to Kamchatka Russia. The second project, Expansion and synergistic use

  6. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Dorava, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.


    Redoubt Volcano is a stratovolcano located within a few hundred kilometers of more than half of the population of Alaska. This volcano has erupted explosively at least six times since historical observations began in 1778. The most recent eruption occurred in 1989-90 and similar eruptions can be expected in the future. The early part of the 1989-90 eruption was characterized by explosive emission of substantial volumes of volcanic ash to altitudes greater than 12 kilometers above sea level and widespread flooding of the Drift River valley. Later, the eruption became less violent, as developing lava domes collapsed, forming short-lived pyroclastic flows associated with low-level ash emission. Clouds of volcanic ash had significant effects on air travel as they drifted across Alaska, over Canada, and over parts of the conterminous United States causing damage to jet aircraft. Economic hardships were encountered by the people of south-central Alaska as a result of ash fallout. Based on new information gained from studies of the 1989-90 eruption, an updated assessment of the principal volcanic hazards is now possible. Volcanic hazards from a future eruption of Redoubt Volcano require public awareness and planning so that risks to life and property are reduced as much as possible.

  7. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: VOLCANOS (Volcano Points) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains point locations of active volcanoes as compiled by Motyka et al., 1993. Eighty-nine volcanoes with eruptive phases in the Quaternary are...

  8. AgGaSe2 thin films grown by chemical close-spaced vapor transport for photovoltaic applications: structural, compositional and optical properties. (United States)

    Merschjann, C; Mews, M; Mete, T; Karkatzinou, A; Rusu, M; Korzun, B V; Schorr, S; Schubert-Bischoff, P; Seeger, S; Schedel-Niedrig, Th; Lux-Steiner, M-Ch


    Thin films of chalcopyrite AgGaSe(2) have been successfully grown on glass and glass/molybdenum substrates using the technique of chemical close-spaced vapor transport. The high crystallinity of the samples is confirmed by grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and optical transmission/reflection spectroscopy. Here, two of the three expected direct optical bandgaps are found at 1.77(2) and 1.88(6) eV at 300 K. The lowest bandgap energy at 4 K is estimated to be 1.82(3) eV. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has further revealed the nature of the point defects within the AgGaSe(2), showing evidence for the existence of very shallow acceptor levels of 5(1) and 10(1) meV, and thus suggesting the AgGaSe(2) phase itself to exhibit a p-type conductivity. At the same time, electrical characterization by Hall, Seebeck and four-point-probe measurements indicate properties of a compensated semiconductor. The electrical properties of the investigated thin films are mainly influenced by the presence of Ag(2)Se and Ga(2)O(3) nanometer-scaled surface layers, as well as by Ag(2)Se inclusions in the bulk and Ag clusters at the layers' rear side. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  9. Comparative study of CdTe sources used for deposition of CdTe thin films by close spaced sublimation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Anacleto Pinheiro


    Full Text Available Unlike other thin film deposition techniques, close spaced sublimation (CSS requires a short source-substrate distance. The kind of source used in this technique strongly affects the control of the deposition parameters, especially the deposition rate. When depositing CdTe thin films by CSS, the most common CdTe sources are: single-crystal or polycrystalline wafers, powders, pellets or pieces, a thick CdTe film deposited onto glass or molybdenum substrate (CdTe source-plate and a sintered CdTe powder. In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by CSS technique from different CdTe sources: particles, powder, compact powder, a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol and source-plates (CdTe/Mo and CdTe/glass. The largest deposition rate was achieved when a paste made of CdTe and propylene glycol was used as the source. CdTe source-plates led to lower rates, probably due to the poor heat transmission, caused by the introduction of the plate substrate. The results also showed that compacting the powder the deposition rate increases due to the better thermal contact between powder particles.

  10. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides (United States)


    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  11. The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.


    Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) that will emphasize studies of volcanic history, volcano hazard assessments, and establishing real time monitoring at 43 of the highest threat volcanoes. To prioritize monitoring and hazard mitigation efforts in Chile, SERNAGEOMIN has adopted the threat assessment methodology developed by the USGS for U.S. volcanoes along with the USGS conceptual framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). When complete, the new Chilean volcano monitoring networks will close one of the largest gaps in global volcano monitoring.

  12. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio


    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  13. Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece. (United States)

    Browning, John; Drymoni, Kyriaki; Gudmundsson, Agust


    How much magma needs to be added to a shallow magma chamber to cause rupture, dyke injection, and a potential eruption? Models that yield reliable answers to this question are needed in order to facilitate eruption forecasting. Development of a long-lived shallow magma chamber requires periodic influx of magmas from a parental body at depth. This redistribution process does not necessarily cause an eruption but produces a net volume change that can be measured geodetically by inversion techniques. Using continuum-mechanics and fracture-mechanics principles, we calculate the amount of magma contained at shallow depth beneath Santorini volcano, Greece. We demonstrate through structural analysis of dykes exposed within the Santorini caldera, previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions, and geodetic measurements of the 2011-2012 unrest period, that the measured 0.02% increase in volume of Santorini's shallow magma chamber was associated with magmatic excess pressure increase of around 1.1 MPa. This excess pressure was high enough to bring the chamber roof close to rupture and dyke injection. For volcanoes with known typical extrusion and intrusion (dyke) volumes, the new methodology presented here makes it possible to forecast the conditions for magma-chamber failure and dyke injection at any geodetically well-monitored volcano.

  14. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (United States)


    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  15. Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Jensen, Robert A.


    Most of Newberry Volcano's youngest lava flows are found within the Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established November 5, 1990, the monument is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Deschutes National Forest. Since 2011, a series of aerial surveys over the monument collected elevation data using lidar (light detection and ranging) technology, which uses lasers to directly measure the ground surface. These data record previously unseen detail in the volcano’s numerous lava flows and vents. On average, a laser return was collected from the ground’s surface every 2.17 feet (ft) with ±1.3 inches vertical precision.

  16. Three different types of plumbing system beneath the neighboring active volcanoes of Tolbachik, Bezymianny, and Klyuchevskoy in Kamchatka (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Al Arifi, Nassir; Deev, Evgeny; Droznina, Svetlana; Gordeev, Evgeny I.; Jakovlev, Andrey; El Khrepy, Sami; Kulakov, Roman I.; Kugaenko, Yulia; Novgorodova, Anzhelika; Senyukov, Sergey; Shapiro, Nikolay; Stupina, Tatyana; West, Michael


    The Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes (KGV) in Kamchatka includes three presently active volcanoes (Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik) located close together in an area of approximately 50 × 80 km. These three volcanoes have completely different compositions and eruption styles from each other. We have analyzed new data recorded by a temporary seismic network consisting of 22 seismic stations operated within the area of Tolbachik in 2014-2015 in conjunction with the data from the permanent network and the temporary PIRE network deployed at the Bezymianny volcano in 2009. The arrival times of the P and S waves were inverted using a local earthquake tomography algorithm to derive 3-D seismic models of the crust beneath the KGV as well as accurate seismicity locations. High-resolution structures beneath the Tolbachik volcanic complex were identified for the first time in this study. The tomography results reveal three different types of feeding system for the main KGV volcanoes. The basaltic lavas of the Klyuchevskoy volcano are supplied directly from a reservoir at a depth of 25-30 km through a nearly vertical pipe-shaped conduit. The explosive Bezymianny volcano is fed through a dispersed system of crustal reservoirs where a lighter felsic material separates from the mafic component and ascends to the upper crust to form andesitic magma sources. For Tolbachik, low-viscosity volatile-saturated basalts ascend from two deep reservoirs following a system of fractures in the crust associated with the intersections of regional faults.

  17. Transport phenomena in the close-spaced sublimation deposition process for manufacture of large-area cadmium telluride photovoltaic panels: Modeling and optimization (United States)

    Malhotra, C. P.

    With increasing national and global demand for energy and concerns about the effect of fossil fuels on global climate change, there is an increasing emphasis on the development and use of renewable sources of energy. Solar cells or photovoltaics constitute an important renewable energy technology but the major impediment to their widespread adoption has been their high initial cost. Although thin-film photovoltaic semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide-cadmium telluride (CdS/CdTe) can potentially be inexpensively manufactured using large area deposition techniques such as close-spaced sublimation (CSS), their low stability has prevented them from becoming an alternative to traditional polycrystalline silicon solar cells. A key factor affecting the stability of CdS/CdTe cells is the uniformity of deposition of the thin films. Currently no models exist that can relate the processing parameters in a CSS setup with the film deposition uniformity. Central to the development of these models is a fundamental understanding of the complex transport phenomena which constitute the deposition process which include coupled conduction and radiation as well as transition regime rarefied gas flow. This thesis is aimed at filling these knowledge gaps and thereby leading to the development of the relevant models. The specific process under consideration is the CSS setup developed by the Materials Engineering Group at the Colorado State University (CSU). Initially, a 3-D radiation-conduction model of a single processing station was developed using the commercial finite-element software ABAQUS and validated against data from steady-state experiments carried out at CSU. A simplified model was then optimized for maximizing the steady-state thermal uniformity within the substrate. It was inferred that contrary to traditional top and bottom infrared lamp heating, a lamp configuration that directs heat from the periphery of the sources towards the center results in the minimum temperature

  18. The 2014 eruptions of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Wallace, Kristi; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Schneider, David J.


    Pavlof Volcano is one of the most frequently active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island arc, having erupted more than 40 times since observations were first recorded in the early 1800s . The volcano is located on the Alaska Peninsula (lat 55.4173° N, long 161.8937° W), near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge. The towns and villages closest to the volcano are Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove, which are all within 90 kilometers (km) of the volcano (fig. 1). Pavlof is a symmetrically shaped stratocone that is 2,518 meters (m) high, and has about 2,300 m of relief. The volcano supports a cover of glacial ice and perennial snow roughly 2 to 4 cubic kilometers (km3) in volume, which is mantled by variable amounts of tephra fall, rockfall debris, and pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during historical eruptions. Typical Pavlof eruptions are characterized by moderate amounts of ash emission, lava fountaining, spatter-fed lava flows, explosions, and the accumulation of unstable mounds of spatter on the upper flanks of the volcano. The accumulation and subsequent collapse of spatter piles on the upper flanks of the volcano creates hot granular avalanches, which erode and melt snow and ice, and thereby generate watery debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow lahars. Seismic instruments were first installed on Pavlof Volcano in the early 1970s, and since then eruptive episodes have been better characterized and specific processes have been documented with greater certainty. The application of remote sensing techniques, including the use of infrasound data, has also aided the study of more recent eruptions. Although Pavlof Volcano is located in a remote part of Alaska, it is visible from Cold Bay, Sand Point, and Nelson Lagoon, making distal observations of eruptive activity possible, weather permitting. A busy air-travel corridor that is utilized by a numerous transcontinental and regional air carriers passes near Pavlof Volcano. The frequency of air travel

  19. Volcanoes: effusions and explosions. Interactive exhibits to understand how volcanoes work. (United States)

    Nostro, C.; Freda, L.; Castellano, C.; Arcoraci, L.; Baroux, E.


    The Educational & Outreach Group (EOG) of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica & Vulcanologia created a portable museum to provide educational opportunities in volcanology, volcanic risk and Earth science for students and visitors. The EOG developed this project for the "Festival della Scienza", organized in Genoa, Italy, in October - November, 2007, which was a parade of over 200 events, including scientific and technological exhibitions, workshops, meetings, lectures, books and video presentations. In this museum visitors can successively see many posters and movies and play with interactive exhibits. A little 3D-movie shows the Big Bang, the formation of Solar System and, in particular the formation of the Earth. Many interactive exhibits illustrate why, where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur around the world and allow to introduce the visitor to the plate tectonics theory. A 3D magnetic plate tectonic puzzle can be put down and reconstructed by visitors to understand the Earth's surface configuration. Then two other 3D Earth models show what drives the plates and the inner Earth structure. An interactive program illustrates where and when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in accelerated time on maps of various areas around the world. Playing with a block diagram it is possible to produce an earthquake along a 1 meter long strike slip fault in a destroying all the man-made constructions close to it. A little movie introduces to volcanoes' world. Two small interactive exhibits allow visitors to understand the mechanism for the explosive and the effusive eruptions. Two other exciting interactive exhibits allow visitors to "create" two different eruptions: the explosive and the effusive ones. It is possible to get inside a volcano (a 2 meter high interactive exhibit) to attend an eruption from the magmatic chamber to the Earth surface. A big hall is completed dedicated to Italian volcanoes (Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, Etna, Stromboli, Vulcano

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    association between the mud volcanoes suggests different nature and depth of parent layers and fluids feeding the mud volcanoes in gulf of Cadiz. Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION. The study of marine mud volcanoes is of large interest ...

  1. EUROPEAN VOLCANOES' NIGHT: building a link between general public and volcanologists in a relaxed and welcoming setting (United States)

    Calvo, David; González-Cárdenas, María E.; Baldrich, Laura; Solana, Carmen; Nave, Rosella; Calvari, Sonia; Harangi, Szabolcs; Chouraqui, Floriane; Dionis, Samara; Silva, Sonia V.; Forjaz, Victor H.; D'Auria, Luca; Pérez, Nemesio M.


    European Volcanoes' Night ( is a "volcanic eruption" of art, culture, music, gastronomy, school activities, geotourism, exhibitions and scientific debates. The event aims to bring together members of the general public with scientists who work on the study of volcanoes, in order to meet and ask questions in a relaxed and welcoming setting. It is open to both locals and tourists who appreciate the beauty and power of this natural phenomena. This celebration gives attendees, and in particular young people, the opportunity to meet researchers in a relaxed and festive setting, which will feature many activities and which will be used to highlight the attractiveness of a career research on one of the most attractive natural phenomena; volcanoes. The 2016 European Volcanoes' Night was held at 16 different municipalities of Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, United Kingdom and Cape Verde on September 30, 2016, coinciding with the celebration of "European Researchers' Night" held annually throughout Europe and neighbouring countries the last Friday of September. The spirit of the European VolcanoeśNight fits perfectly in the aim of the ERN, trying to close the gap between the scientific community and the rest of the society. In this case, volcanoes are the driving force of this event, celebrating the singularity of living on volcanoes, and how these affect our daily lives, our culture and our heritage. European VolcanoeśNight also celebrates volcano science, with avantgarde talks and presentations on different volcanic topics and becomes a meeting point for children discovering volcanoes as a pastime or a leisure topic, making this event a must for tourists and locals wherever has been held. At the end of 2016 European VolcanoeśNight, almost 150 activities were performed for thousands of spectators, a big success that confirms something as crucial as science as a communication issue, and as a tool to strengthen the ties between researchers

  2. Geophysical Exploration on the Structure of Volcanoes: Two Case Histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumoto, A. S.


    Geophysical methods of exploration were used to determine the internal structure of Koolau Volcano in Hawaii and of Rabaul Volcano in New Guinea. By use of gravity and seismic data the central vent or plug of Koolau Volcano was outlined. Magnetic data seem to indicate that the central plug is still above the Curie Point. If so, the amount of heat energy available is tremendous. As for Rabaul Volcano, it is located in a region characterized by numerous block faulting. The volcano is only a part of a large block that has subsided. Possible geothermal areas exist near the volcano but better potential areas may exist away from the volcano.

  3. Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.


    As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at

  4. The FUTUREVOLC Supersite's e-Infrastructure - A multidisciplinary data hub and data service for Icelandic Volcanoes (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sverrisson, Sverrir Th.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur F.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Arnarsson, Ólafur S.; Kristinsson, Ingvar; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna Ýr; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi Th.; Hjartansson, Kristján R.


    The FUTUREVOLC volanological supersite will establish a data hub and dataservice, where researchers, hazard managers and other stake holders can freely obtain access to multidisciplinary data and products on activity, unrest and eruptions at Icelandic volcanoes. The supersite is firmly founded on close interaction between the main Icelandic volcanological research and monitoring institutions, in coordination with expertise from European researchers participating in FUTUREVOLC. The hub is located at the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), an institution responsible for monitoring and archiving data on all natural hazards in Iceland and, which also has a mandate as the state volcano observatory. This association will ensure a long-term sustainable data service. The data accessible at the hub include in-situ and space-based observations, products and models from all the relevant disciplines contributing to volcanological research and local as well as cross-border hazard management, i.e. Earth sciences, atmospheric science, hydrology, remote sensing and space science. Access to the data will be in compliance with the access policy of the GEO (Group on Earth Observations), providing registered users with easy and timely access to data and products of documented quality. This commitment has already led to the acceptance of FUTUREVOLC as a permanent geohazard supersite by CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), which will ensure access to additional satellite data and products on Icelandic volcanoes. To facilitate services to seismological data at the supersite hub, the IMO is reconstructing its existing data base and utilizing the SeisComp3 software to manage waveform and parameter data. The accompanying ArcLink component will be used to provide access to event data and waveforms. Access to GPS data will be provided by the GSAC web service which has been installed at the IMO through collaboration with UNAVCO. If appropriate, the format and data base

  5. Permafrost on tropical Maunakea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Leopold, Matthias; Schorghofer, Norbert; Yoshikawa, Kenji


    Maunakea volcano on Hawaii Island is known for one of the most unusual occurrences of sporadic permafrost. It was first documented in two cinder cone craters in the 1970's near the summit of the mountain where mean annual air temperatures are currently around +4 deg. Our study investigates the current state of this permafrost, by acquiring multi-year ground temperature data and by applying electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar techniques along several survey lines. Both of the previously known ice bodies still exist, but one of them has dramatically shrunken in volume. Based on current warming trends it might disappear soon. In addition insolation modelling, temperature probing, and geomorphological indicators were used to prospect for additional permafrost bodies on the wider summit region, however, none was found. It seems that permafrost preferentially appears in the interiors of cinder cones, even though there are exterior slopes that receive less sunlight annually. We hypothesis that snow cover with its high albedo, and a layer of coarse boulders where cold air settles in the pore space during calm nights, play a significant role in cooling the subsurface. Due to the relatively simple setting, the study site is an ideal model system and may also serve as an analogue to Mars.

  6. Volcanoes (United States)

    ... About . Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Earthquakes Being Prepared Emergency Supplies Home Hazards Indoor Safety ... Are You Prepared? Information for Specific Groups Disaster Evacuation Centers Infection Control Infection Control Guidance for Community ...

  7. Structural evolution of deep-water submarine intraplate volcanoes / Azores (United States)

    Stakemann, Josefine; Huebscher, Christian; Beier, Christoph; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Terrinha, Pedro; Weiß, Benedikt


    We present multibeam and high-resolution reflection seismic data which elucidate the architecture of three submarine intraplate volcanoes located in the southern Azores Archipelago. Data have been collected during RV Meteor cruise M113 in 2015. Four GI-Guns served as the seismic source. The digital streamer comprised 144 channels distributed over a length of 600 m. The three cones are situated in a depth down to 2300 m with heights varying between 200 m and 243 m, an average diameter of 1360 m and an average slope angle of ca. 22°. All three circular cones are surrounded by a circular channel. These features, previously named "fried eggs" were previously interpreted as impact crater (Dias et al., 2009). A comparison with nearby submarine volcanoes close to São Miguel island (Weiß et al., 2015), however, strongly suggests a volcanic origin. The seismic data indicate that the volcanic cones formed on top of a ca. 100 m thick pelagic succession covering the igneous basement. Magma ascent deformed the volcanic basement, displaced the pelagic sediments and a first eruption phase formed a small, seismically transparent volcanic cone. Further eruptions created a volcanic cone with rather transparent reflections within the inferior region changing to strong reflection amplitudes with a chaotic pattern in the superior area. Compared to the igneous basement internal reflection amplitudes are mainly weak. The seismic transparency and slope angle exclude the presence of effusive rocks, since lavas usually create strong impedance contrasts. A comparison of the seismic characteristics with those from submarine Kolumbo volcano (Hübscher et al., 2015) suggests volcaniclastic lithologies from explosive eruptions. The circular channel around the volcanic cone shows the characteristics of a moat channel created by bottom currents. References: Dias, F.C., Lourenco, N., Lobo, A., Santos de Campos, A., Pinto de Abreu, M., 2009. "Fried Egg": An Oceanic Impact Crater in the Mid

  8. Correction of a Class III malocclusion with over 20 mm of space to close in the maxilla by using miniscrews for extra anchorage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning, K.H.


    Unilateral closure of maxillary extraction spaces in patients with Class III malocclusion can be challenging. This case report describes the closure of first premolar and first molar extraction spaces in a patient with a Class III dental relationship. Two miniscrews were used for intraoral skeletal

  9. Magmatic architecture within a rift segment: Articulate axial magma storage at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia (United States)

    Xu, Wenbin; Rivalta, Eleonora; Li, Xing


    Understanding the magmatic systems beneath rift volcanoes provides insights into the deeper processes associated with rift architecture and development. At the slow spreading Erta Ale segment (Afar, Ethiopia) transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading is ongoing on land. A lava lake has been documented since the twentieth century at the summit of the Erta Ale volcano and acts as an indicator of the pressure of its magma reservoir. However, the structure of the plumbing system of the volcano feeding such persistent active lava lake and the mechanisms controlling the architecture of magma storage remain unclear. Here, we combine high-resolution satellite optical imagery and radar interferometry (InSAR) to infer the shape, location and orientation of the conduits feeding the 2017 Erta Ale eruption. We show that the lava lake was rooted in a vertical dike-shaped reservoir that had been inflating prior to the eruption. The magma was subsequently transferred into a shallower feeder dike. We also find a shallow, horizontal magma lens elongated along axis inflating beneath the volcano during the later period of the eruption. Edifice stress modeling suggests the hydraulically connected system of horizontal and vertical thin magmatic bodies able to open and close are arranged spatially according to stresses induced by loading and unloading due to topographic changes. Our combined approach may provide new constraints on the organization of magma plumbing systems beneath volcanoes in continental and marine settings.

  10. Utility of regional satellite volcano deformation monitoring in Latin America: The CEOS pilot project (United States)

    Delgado, F.; Pritchard, M. E.; Biggs, J.; Arnold, D.


    Satellite observations are a cost effective tool for monitoring large numbers of volcanoes in areas with scarce instrumentation or difficult access. In the context of the 2012 Santorini Report on satellite Earth Observation and Geohazards, CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) has developed a pilot project to showcase remote sensing for volcano hazard mitigation and response. Specifically, the pilot aims to demonstrate the feasibility of global volcano monitoring of Holocene volcanoes by undertaking regional monitoring of volcanic arcs in Latin America, using satellite earth observations data to track deformation as well as gas, ash, and thermal emissions. Latin America was chosen because the volcanoes are situated in a diversity of environments, providing a good test of the capabilities of different types of satellite data under different conditions; volcanic activity is abundant, and monitoring agencies in Latin American countries would directly benefit from the resources that this pilot will make available. It is hoped that the regional study will demonstrate that Earth observation data can help to identify volcanoes that may become active in the future as well as track eruptive activity that may impact populations and infrastructure on the ground and in the air, ultimately leading to improved targeting for permanent satellite-based observations and in-situ volcanic monitoring efforts. The pilot project is posible thanks to data provided by the various space agencies (ESA, ASI, DLR, JAXA, NASA, CNES, CSA). In this contribution, we focus on premilinary ground deformation results using SAR satellites for selected areas in the Northern and Southern Andes as well as the Caribbean with recent unrest. For example, in the Southern Andes we will present ALOS time series at Llaima (-38.7 S) and Peteroa (-35.2 S) volcanoes, both of which have had eruptions during the past ten years.

  11. Generalized closed sets: a unified approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiling Cao


    Full Text Available We investigate various classes of generalized closed sets of a topological space in a unified way by studying the notion of qr-closed sets. New characterizations of some existing classes of generalized closed sets and topological spaces are given. A new class of generalized closed sets are introduced.

  12. Multiple inflation events at Akutan volcano, Alaska, from GPS observations (United States)

    Hyeun Ji, Kang; Rim, Hyoung-Rae


    Detecting anomalous volcanic activities helps constrain characteristics of eruption cycles. We have developed a signal detection tool, called Targeted Projection Operator (TPO), to monitor surface deformation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. We assume that deformation events of a volcano have similar spatial patterns but with different amplitudes. This assumption is reasonable because a deformation source (e.g., a magma chamber) is relatively stationary in space but its strength varies in time. TPO projects GPS position time series onto a pre-determined spatial pattern (or "target") and calculates the amplitude of the projection at each epoch. Large amplitudes imply that an event occurs with a spatial pattern similar to the target. We have applied the TPO technique to monitor surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska, using GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations collected during 2005-2016. The 2008 inflationary event was used as a target. We detected three inflationary events occurred in 2011, 2014 and 2016. The last event is larger than the first two but smaller than the 2008 event that has maximum horizontal displacement of about 9 mm. The three events are significant in TPO detection because changes in the amplitude of projection are larger than the root-mean-square (RMS) error from relatively quiet periods. A simple Mogi model, as well as the pattern similarity, indicates that the deformation source of Akutan volcano has remained stationary in space during the 11-year period of observation. However, the source has activated episodically as inflationary events, which suggests that magma has accumulated in the magma chamber continually and magma accumulation could eventually cause the next eruption.

  13. Lahar hazards at Agua volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.; Matías, O.; Howell, M.M.


    At 3760 m, Agua volcano towers more than 3500 m above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2000 m above the Guatemalan highlands to the north. The volcano is within 5 to 10 kilometers (km) of Antigua, Guatemala and several other large towns situated on its northern apron. These towns have a combined population of nearly 100,000. It is within about 20 km of Escuintla (population, ca. 100,000) to the south. Though the volcano has not been active in historical time, or about the last 500 years, it has the potential to produce debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas.

  14. Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina A.; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick L.


    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  15. Moessbauer Spectroscopy study of Quimsachata Volcano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, A.G.B.


    It has been studied volcanic lava from Quimsachata Volcano in Pem. Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electronic and optical microscopy allowed the identification of different mineralogical phases. (A.C.AS.) [pt

  16. Eruption of Alaska Volcano Breaks Historic Pattern (United States)

    Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick


    In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (˜2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud “thunder,” lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

  17. Radial anisotropy ambient noise tomography of volcanoes (United States)

    Mordret, Aurélien; Rivet, Diane; Shapiro, Nikolai; Jaxybulatov, Kairly; Landès, Matthieu; Koulakov, Ivan; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph


    The use of ambient seismic noise allows us to perform surface-wave tomography of targets which could hardly be imaged by other means. The frequencies involved (~ 0.5 - 20 s), somewhere in between active seismic and regular teleseismic frequency band, make possible the high resolution imaging of intermediate-size targets like volcanic edifices. Moreover, the joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves extracted from noise correlations allows us to invert for crustal radial anisotropy. We present here the two first studies of radial anisotropy on volcanoes by showing results from Lake Toba Caldera, a super-volcano in Indonesia, and from Piton de la Fournaise volcano, a hot-spot effusive volcano on the Réunion Island (Indian Ocean). We will see how radial anisotropy can be used to infer the main fabric within a magmatic system and, consequently, its dominant type of intrusion.

  18. Watching magma from space (United States)

    Lu, Zhong; Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Mann, Dorte


    Westdahl is a broad shield volcano at the western end of Unimak Island in the Aleutian chain. It has apparently been dormant since a 1991-92 eruption and seismicity levels have been low. However, satellite radar imaging shows that in the years following 1992 the upper flanks of Westdahl have risen several centimeters, probably from the influx of new magma deep below its summit. Until now, deep magma reservoirs have been difficult to detect beneath most volcanoes. But using space geodetic technologies, specifically interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), we have discovered a deep magmatic source beneath Westdahl. 

  19. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe


    In response to the EC call ENV.2012.6.4-2 (Long-term monitoring experiments in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept - FP7-ENV-2012-two-stage) a wide community of volcanological institutions proposed the project Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV), which is in the negotiation phase at the time of writing. The Consortium is composed by 18 European University and research institutes, four Small or Medium Enterprises (SME) and two non-European University and research institutes. MED-SUV will improve the consortium capacity of assessment of volcanic hazards in Supersites of Southern Italy by optimising and integrating existing and new observation/monitoring systems, by a breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes and by increasing the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities. More than 3 million of people are exposed to potential volcanic hazards in a large region in the Mediterranean Sea, where two among the largest European volcanic areas are located: Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. This project will fully exploit the unique detailed long-term in-situ monitoring data sets available for these volcanoes and integrate with Earth Observation (EO) data, setting the basic tools for a significant step ahead in the discrimination of pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of volcanic phenomena observed on these volcanoes, which can be assumed as archetypes of 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcano, together with the long-term multidisciplinary data sets give an exceptional opportunity to improve the understanding of a very wide spectrum of geo-hazards, as well as implementing and testing a large variety of innovative models of ground deformation and motion. Important impacts on the European industrial sector are expected, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new

  20. Spreading and collapse of big basaltic volcanoes (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Peltier, Aline; Poland, Michael


    Among the different types of volcanoes, basaltic ones usually form the most voluminous edifices. Because volcanoes are growing on a pre-existing landscape, the geologic and structural framework of the basement (and earlier volcanic landforms) influences the stress regime, seismicity, and volcanic activity. Conversely, the masses of these volcanoes introduce a morphological anomaly that affects neighboring areas. Growth of a volcano disturbs the tectonic framework of the region, clamps and unclamps existing faults (some of which may be reactivated by the new stress field), and deforms the substratum. A volcano's weight on its basement can trigger edifice spreading and collapse that can affect populated areas even at significant distance. Volcano instability can also be driven by slow tectonic deformation and magmatic intrusion. The manifestations of instability span a range of temporal and spatial scales, ranging from slow creep on individual faults to large earthquakes affecting a broad area. In the frame of MED-SVU project, our work aims to investigate the relation between basement setting and volcanic activity and stability at three Supersite volcanoes: Etna (Sicily, Italy), Kilauea (Island of Hawaii, USA) and Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island, France). These volcanoes host frequent eruptive activity (effusive and explosive) and share common features indicating lateral spreading and collapse, yet they are characterized by different morphologies, dimensions, and tectonic frameworks. For instance, the basaltic ocean island volcanoes of Kilauea and Piton de la Fournaise are near the active ends of long hotspot chains while Mt. Etna has developed at junction along a convergent margin between the African and Eurasian plates and a passive margin separating the oceanic Ionian crust from the African continental crust. Magma supply and plate velocity also differ in the three settings, as to the sizes of the edifices and the extents of their rift zones. These

  1. An alternative modeling framework for better interpretation of the observed volcano-hydrothermal system data (United States)

    Yue, Z. Q. Q.


    Many phenomena and data related to volcanoes and volcano eruptions have been observed and collected over the past four hundred years. They have been interpreted with the conventional and widely accepted hypothesis or theory of hot magma fluid from mantle. However, the prediction of volcano eruption sometimes is incorrect. For example, the devastating eruption of the Mount Ontake on Sept. 27, 2014 was not predicted and/or warned at all, which caused 55 fatalities, 9 missing and more than 60 injured. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the cause and mechanism of active volcano and its hydrothermal system. On the basis of more than 30 year study and research in geology, volcano, earthquake, geomechanics, geophysics, geochemistry and geohazards, the author has developed a new and alternative modeling framework (or hypothesis) to better interpret the observed volcano-hydrothermal system data and to more accurately predict the occurrence of volcano explosion. An active volcano forms a cone-shape mountain and has a crater with vertical pipe conduit to allow hot lava, volcanic ash and gases to escape or erupt from its chamber (Figure). The chamber locates several kilometers below the ground rocks. The active volcanos are caused by highly compressed and dense gases escaped from the Mantle of the Earth. The gases are mainly CH4 and further trapped in the upper crustal rock mass. They make chemical reactions with the surrounding rocks in the chamber. The chemical reactions are the types of reduction and decomposition. The reactions change the gas chemical compounds into steam water gas H2O, CO2, H2S, SO2 and others. The oxygen in the chemical reaction comes from the surrounding rocks. So, the product lava has a less amount of oxygen than that of the surrounding rocks. The gas-rock chemical reactions produce heat. The gas expansion and penetration power and the heat further break and crack the surrounding rock mass and make them into lavas, fragments, ashes or bombs. The

  2. Growth History of Kaena Volcano, the Isolated, Dominantly Submarine, Precursor Volcano to Oahu, Hawaii (United States)

    Sinton, J. M.; Eason, D. E.


    The construction of O'ahu began with the recently recognized, ~3.5-4.9 Ma Ka'ena Volcano, as an isolated edifice in the Kaua'i Channel. Ka'ena remained submarine until, near the end of its lifetime as magma supply waned and the volcano transitioned to a late-shield stage of activity, it emerged to reach a maximum elevation of ~1000 m above sea level. We estimate that Ka'ena was emergent only for the last 15-25% of its lifespan, and that subaerial lavas make up < 5% of the total volume (20-27 x 103 km3). O'ahu's other volcanoes, Wai'anae (~3.9-2.85 Ma) and Ko'olau (~3.0-1.9 Ma), were built at least partly on the flanks of earlier edifices and both were active subaerial volcanoes for at least 1 Ma. The constructional history of Ka'ena contrasts with that of Wai'anae, Ko'olau, and many other Hawaiian volcanoes, which likely emerge within a few hundred kyr after inception, and with subaerial lavas comprising up to 35 volume % of the volcano. These relations suggest that volcano growth history and morphology are critically dependent on whether volcanic initiation and growth occur in the deep ocean floor (isolated), or on the flanks of pre-existing edifices. Two other volcanoes that likely formed in isolation are West Moloka'i and Kohala, both of which have long submarine rift zones, and neither attained great heights above sea level despite having substantial volume. The partitioning of volcanism between submarine and subaerial volcanism depends on the distance between volcanic centers, whether new volcanoes initiate on the flanks of earlier ones, and the time over which neighboring volcanoes are concurrently active. Ka'ena might represent an end-member in this spectrum, having initiated far from its next oldest neighbor and completed much of its evolution in isolation.

  3. An experimental study of the volcano-sagging to volcano-spreading transition (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan; Poppe, Sam; Kervyn, Matthieu; Delcamp, Audray; Byrne, Paul; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin


    Volcanoes on Earth and other planets undergo gravitational deformation on a variety of timescales. Two end-member modes of gravity-driven deformation are volcano sagging (or volcano flexure) and volcano spreading. It has been long known that the mechanical and geometric properties of the basement rocks below the volcano strongly influence such gravitational deformation modes. One key mechanical property is the presence of a zone or layer that is sufficiently widespread and that has an effective viscosity low enough to produce ductile behavior in response to the load of the overlying volcanic edifice. Key geometric properties include the ratios between (1) volcano height and ductile basement thickness and (2) volcano height and brittle basement thickness. Despite such longstanding knowledge, a thorough parametric exploration of these properties has hitherto not been carried out experimentally. Consequently, the circumstances under which one gravitational deformation mode transitions to the other (i.e. the recently proposed spreading-sagging continuum) is imprecisely defined. To address this issue, we conducted a series of scaled analogue experiments involving a sand-plaster cone overlying a simple basement structure that comprises a single sand-plaster (brittle) layer and a single silicone (ductile) layer. By systematically varying the above-mentioned geometric ratios, we comprehensively define the transition from volcano-spreading through to volcano-sagging for a simple conically-loaded two-layer basement system. These results form a more robust experimental basis for distinguishing and interpreting the structural and morphological features of volcanoes subject to combined gravitational deformation processes, as observed in the field or in remote sensing data.

  4. Compound dislocation models (CDMs) for volcano deformation analyses (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Walter, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Paul R.; Prats-Iraola, Pau


    Volcanic crises are often preceded and accompanied by volcano deformation caused by magmatic and hydrothermal processes. Fast and efficient model identification and parameter estimation techniques for various sources of deformation are crucial for process understanding, volcano hazard assessment and early warning purposes. As a simple model that can be a basis for rapid inversion techniques, we present a compound dislocation model (CDM) that is composed of three mutually orthogonal rectangular dislocations (RDs). We present new RD solutions, which are free of artefact singularities and that also possess full rotational degrees of freedom. The CDM can represent both planar intrusions in the near field and volumetric sources of inflation and deflation in the far field. Therefore, this source model can be applied to shallow dikes and sills, as well as to deep planar and equidimensional sources of any geometry, including oblate, prolate and other triaxial ellipsoidal shapes. In either case the sources may possess any arbitrary orientation in space. After systematically evaluating the CDM, we apply it to the co-eruptive displacements of the 2015 Calbuco eruption observed by the Sentinel-1A satellite in both ascending and descending orbits. The results show that the deformation source is a deflating vertical lens-shaped source at an approximate depth of 8 km centred beneath Calbuco volcano. The parameters of the optimal source model clearly show that it is significantly different from an isotropic point source or a single dislocation model. The Calbuco example reflects the convenience of using the CDM for a rapid interpretation of deformation data.

  5. Classification of Martian Volcanoes on Basis of Volcano Ground Ice Interaction (United States)

    Helgason, J.


    Most Martian volcanoes have common morphological features indicating mass wasting and erosion compatible with large scale break down of ground ice. While some features suggest the ground ice melted rapidly resulting in catastrophic erosive events, other features indicate a slow melting process (e.g sublimation) resulting in collapse structures. To determine relative volcano age and activity on Mars it is suggested that volcano interactions with an overlying ice sheet may be helpful. Examples of the various morphological features indicating volcano-ice interaction are drawn from the literature: (1) valley formation that probably formed in response to joekulhlaups and subglacial volcanism, (2) isolated thermocarst depressions probably formed by geothermal melting of ground ice, (3) large scale sublimation of distal strata, (4) small fluvial valleys, (5) large scale failure of volcano flanks through aureole development, (6) rimless craters without ash collars, (7) rampart craters on volcanoes, (8) channels, (9) mud flows or lahars. A Viking Orbiter image showing possible thermocarst landscape on the flank of the volcano Hadriaca Patera (Dao Vallis). Although various other explanations can account for some of these features they are all compatible with a ground ice-volcano interaction. These features suggests that to an extent most Martian volcanoes are covered with sheet of ground ice of variable thickness. Over a vast time interval this ground ice layer (or ice sheet) has been failing to a variable extent and in a number of ways depending on different volcano characteristics. As a result it is suggested that Martian volcanoes can be classified or assigned an evolutionary status depending on how widespread their interaction is with the ground ice layer. Thus, for example, within the Tharsis region the volcanoes Olympus Mons and Arsia Mons can be regarded as two evolutionary end points. Volcanism in the former has completely built up through and destroyed the ice sheet

  6. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation (United States)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.


    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  7. Ion-Specific Nutrient Management in Closed Systems: The Necessity for Ion-Selective Sensors in Terrestrial and Space-Based Agriculture and Water Management Systems


    Alain Berinstain; Alan Scott; Matthew Bamsey; Michael Dixon; Cody Thompson; Thomas Graham


    The ability to monitor and control plant nutrient ions in fertigation solutions, on an ion-specific basis, is critical to the future of controlled environment agriculture crop production, be it in traditional terrestrial settings (e.g., greenhouse crop production) or as a component of bioregenerative life support systems for long duration space exploration. Several technologies are currently available that can provide the required measurement of ion-specific activities in solution. The greenh...

  8. Effects of Volcanoes on the Natural Environment (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.


    The primary focus of this project has been on the development of techniques to study the thermal and gas output of volcanoes, and to explore our options for the collection of vegetation and soil data to enable us to assess the impact of this volcanic activity on the environment. We originally selected several volcanoes that have persistent gas emissions and/or magma production. The investigation took an integrated look at the environmental effects of a volcano. Through their persistent activity, basaltic volcanoes such as Kilauea (Hawaii) and Masaya (Nicaragua) contribute significant amounts of sulfur dioxide and other gases to the lower atmosphere. Although primarily local rather than regional in its impact, the continuous nature of these eruptions means that they can have a major impact on the troposphere for years to decades. Since mid-1986, Kilauea has emitted about 2,000 tonnes of sulfur dioxide per day, while between 1995 and 2000 Masaya has emotted about 1,000 to 1,500 tonnes per day (Duffel1 et al., 2001; Delmelle et al., 2002; Sutton and Elias, 2002). These emissions have a significant effect on the local environment. The volcanic smog ("vog" ) that is produced affects the health of local residents, impacts the local ecology via acid rain deposition and the generation of acidic soils, and is a concern to local air traffic due to reduced visibility. Much of the work that was conducted under this NASA project was focused on the development of field validation techniques of volcano degassing and thermal output that could then be correlated with satellite observations. In this way, we strove to develop methods by which not only our study volcanoes, but also volcanoes in general worldwide (Wright and Flynn, 2004; Wright et al., 2004). Thus volcanoes could be routinely monitored for their effects on the environment. The selected volcanoes were: Kilauea (Hawaii; 19.425 N, 155.292 W); Masaya (Nicaragua; 11.984 N, 86.161 W); and Pods (Costa Rica; 10.2OoN, 84.233 W).

  9. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano (United States)

    Maldonado, Luisa Fernanda Meza; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Jaramillo, Marco Tulio; Valencia, Gustavo Garzón; Mazot, Agnes


    Total CO2 output of Puracé volcano (Colombia) was estimated on the basis of fluids discharged by fumaroles, soil gases, and dissolved carbon species in the aquifer. The soil CO2 emission was computed from a field survey of 512 points of CO2 soil flux measurements at the main degassing areas of Puracé volcano. The CO2 flux from Puracé's plume was estimated using an indirect method, that used the SO2 plume flux and CO2/SO2 ratio of the main high temperature fumarole. The total output of CO2 was estimated at ≅ 1500 t/day. The main contribution of CO2 comes from the plume (summit degassing) and from soil degassing that emit 673 and 812 t/day, respectively. The contributions of summit and soil degassing areas are comparable, indicating an intermediate degassing style partitioned between closed and open conduit systems. The estimated water vapor discharge (as derived from the chemical composition of the fumaroles, the H2O/CO2 ratio, and the SO2 plume flux) allowed calculation of the total thermal energy (fumarolic, soil degassing, and aquifer) released from the Puracé volcanic system. This was 360 MW.

  10. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo


    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  11. Sustained long-period seismicity at Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Petersen, Tanja; Caplan-Auerbach, Jacqueline; McNutt, Stephen R.


    From September 1999 through April 2004, Shishaldin Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, exhibited a continuous and extremely high level of background seismicity. This activity consisted of many hundreds to thousands of long-period (LP; 1–2 Hz) earthquakes per day, recorded by a 6-station monitoring network around Shishaldin. The LP events originate beneath the summit at shallow depths (0–3 km). Volcano tectonic events and tremor have rarely been observed in the summit region. Such a high rate of LP events with no eruption suggests that a steady state process has been occurring ever since Shishaldin last erupted in April–May 1999. Following the eruption, the only other signs of volcanic unrest have been occasional weak thermal anomalies and an omnipresent puffing volcanic plume. The LP waveforms are nearly identical for time spans of days to months, but vary over longer time scales. The observations imply that the spatially close source processes are repeating, stable and non-destructive. Event sizes vary, but the rate of occurrence remains roughly constant. The events range from magnitude ∼0.1 to 1.8, with most events having magnitudes eruptive activity. Every indication is that the high rate of seismicity will continue without reflecting a hazardous state. Sealing of the conduit and/or change in gas flux, however, would be expected to change Shishaldin's behavior.

  12. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe


    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  13. Ion-Specific Nutrient Management in Closed Systems: The Necessity for Ion-Selective Sensors in Terrestrial and Space-Based Agriculture and Water Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Berinstain


    Full Text Available The ability to monitor and control plant nutrient ions in fertigation solutions, on an ion-specific basis, is critical to the future of controlled environment agriculture crop production, be it in traditional terrestrial settings (e.g., greenhouse crop production or as a component of bioregenerative life support systems for long duration space exploration. Several technologies are currently available that can provide the required measurement of ion-specific activities in solution. The greenhouse sector has invested in research examining the potential of a number of these technologies to meet the industry’s demanding requirements, and although no ideal solution yet exists for on-line measurement, growers do utilize technologies such as high-performance liquid chromatography to provide off-line measurements. An analogous situation exists on the International Space Station where, technological solutions are sought, but currently on-orbit water quality monitoring is considerably restricted. This paper examines the specific advantages that on-line ion-selective sensors could provide to plant production systems both terrestrially and when utilized in space-based biological life support systems and how similar technologies could be applied to nominal on-orbit water quality monitoring. A historical development and technical review of the various ion-selective monitoring technologies is provided.

  14. Ion-specific nutrient management in closed systems: the necessity for ion-selective sensors in terrestrial and space-based agriculture and water management systems. (United States)

    Bamsey, Matthew; Graham, Thomas; Thompson, Cody; Berinstain, Alain; Scott, Alan; Dixon, Michael


    The ability to monitor and control plant nutrient ions in fertigation solutions, on an ion-specific basis, is critical to the future of controlled environment agriculture crop production, be it in traditional terrestrial settings (e.g., greenhouse crop production) or as a component of bioregenerative life support systems for long duration space exploration. Several technologies are currently available that can provide the required measurement of ion-specific activities in solution. The greenhouse sector has invested in research examining the potential of a number of these technologies to meet the industry's demanding requirements, and although no ideal solution yet exists for on-line measurement, growers do utilize technologies such as high-performance liquid chromatography to provide off-line measurements. An analogous situation exists on the International Space Station where, technological solutions are sought, but currently on-orbit water quality monitoring is considerably restricted. This paper examines the specific advantages that on-line ion-selective sensors could provide to plant production systems both terrestrially and when utilized in space-based biological life support systems and how similar technologies could be applied to nominal on-orbit water quality monitoring. A historical development and technical review of the various ion-selective monitoring technologies is provided.

  15. Developing monitoring capability of a volcano observatory: the example of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (United States)

    Todman, S.; Garaebiti, E.; Jolly, G. E.; Sherburn, S.; Scott, B.; Jolly, A. D.; Fournier, N.; Miller, C. A.


    Vanuatu lies on the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'. With 6 active subaerial and 3 submarine (identified so far) volcanoes, monitoring and following up their activities is a considerable work for a national observatory. The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory is a good example of what can be done from ‘scratch’ to develop a volcanic monitoring capability in a short space of time. A fire in June 2007 completely destroyed the old observatory building and many valuable records leaving Vanuatu with no volcano monitoring capacity. This situation forced the Government of Vanuatu to reconsider the structure of the hazards monitoring group and think about the best way to rebuild a complete volcano monitoring system. Taking the opportunity of the re-awakening of Gaua volcano (North of Vanuatu), the Vanuatu Geohazards section in partnership with GNS Science, New Zealand developed a new program including a strategic plan for Geohazards from 2010-2020, the installation of a portable seismic network with real-time data transmission in Gaua, the support of the first permanent monitoring station installation in Ambrym and the design and implementation of volcano monitoring infrastructure and protocol. Moreover the technology improvements of the last decade and the quick extension of enhanced communication systems across the islands of Vanuatu played a very important role for the development of this program. In less than one year, the implementation of this program was beyond expectations and showed considerable improvement of the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory volcano monitoring capability. In response to increased volcanic activity (or unrest) in Ambae, the Geohazards section was fully capable of the installation of a portable seismic station in April 2010 and to follow the development of the activity. Ultimately, this increased capability results in better and timelier delivery of information and advice on the threat from volcanic activity to the National Disaster Management Office and

  16. Tremor Source Location at Okmok Volcano (United States)

    Reyes, C. G.; McNutt, S. R.


    Initial results using an amplitude-based tremor location program have located several active tremor episodes under Cone A, a vent within Okmok volcano's 10 km caldera. Okmok is an andesite volcano occupying the north-eastern half of Umnak Island, in the Aleutian islands. Okmok is defined by a ~2000 y.b.p. caldera that contains multiple cinder cones. Cone A, the youngest of these, extruded lava in 1997 covering the caldera floor. Since April 2003, continuous seismic data have been recorded from eight vertical short-period stations (L4-C's) installed at distances from Cone A ranging from 2 km to 31 km. In 2004 four additional 3- component broadband stations were added, co-located with continuous GPS stations. InSAR and GPS measurements of post-eruption deformation show that Okmok experienced several periods of rapid inflation (Mann and Freymueller, 2002), from the center of the 10 km diameter caldera. While there are few locatable VT earthquakes, there has been nearly continuous low-level tremor with stronger amplitude bursts occurring at variable rates and durations. The character of occurrence remained relatively constant over the course of days to weeks until the signal ceased in mid 2005. Within any day, tremor behavior remains fairly consistent, with bursts closely resembling each other, suggesting a single main process or source location. The tremor is composed of irregular waves with a broad range of frequencies, though most energy resides between ~2 Hz and 6 Hz. Attempts to locate the tremor using traditional arrival time methods fail because the signal is emergent, with envelopes too ragged to correlate on time scales that hold much hope for a location. Instead, focus was shifted to the amplitude ratios at various stations. Candidates for the tremor source include the center of inflation and Cone A, 3 km to the south-west. For all dates on record, data were band pass filtered between 1 and 5 Hz, then evaluated in 20.48 second windows (N=2048, sampling rate

  17. Contiuous gas monitoring at the volcano Galeras, Colombia (United States)

    Faber, E.; Morán, C.; Poggenburg, J.; Garzón, G.; Teschner, M.; Weinlich, F. H.


    (1) Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover, Germany (, (2) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia (3) Instituto de Investigación en Geocientifica, Mineroambiental y Nuclear - INGEOMINAS, Manizales, Colombia A gas monitoring system has been installed on the volcano Galeras in Colombia as part of a multi-parameter station. Gases are extracted from the fumarolic vapour through a short pipe. After the water has been condensed the gas passes over sensors for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and radon. Other parameters measured are temperature of the fumarolic vapour, fumarolic pressure, temperature of the ambient air and the ambient atmospheric pressure. The signals of the sensors are digitised in the electronics. The digital data are transmitted every 6 seconds by a telemetry system to the observatory down in the city of Pasto via a repeater station at the rim of the Galeras. The system at the volcano is powered by batteries connected to solar panels. Data are stored in the observatory, they are plotted and compared with all the other information of the multi-parameter station. Although the various compounds of the gas system are well preserved for the very aggressive environment close to the fumarole some problems still remain: Sulphur often plugs the pipe to the sensors and requires maintenance more often than desired. As the volcano is most of the time in clouds the installed solar power system (about 400 Watts maximum power) does not enable to run the system at the fumarole (consumption about 15 Watts) continuously during all nights. Despite these still existing problems some results have been obtained encouraging us to continue the operation of the system, to further develop the technical quality and to increase the number of fumaroles included into a growing monitoring network. In March 2000 seismic activity in the crater increased accompanied by a

  18. Gas Concentration Mapping of Arenal Volcano Using AVEMS (United States)

    Diaz, J. Andres; Arkin, C. Richard; Griffin, Timothy P.; Conejo, Elian; Heinrich, Kristel; Soto, Carlomagno


    The Airborne Volcanic Emissions Mass Spectrometer (AVEMS) System developed by NASA-Kennedy Space Center and deployed in collaboration with the National Center for Advanced Technology (CENAT) and the University of Costa Rica was used for mapping the volcanic plume of Arenal Volcano, the most active volcano in Costa Rica. The measurements were conducted as part of the second CARTA (Costa Rica Airborne Research and Technology Application) mission conducted in March 2005. The CARTA 2005 mission, involving multiple sensors and agencies, consisted of three different planes collecting data over all of Costa Rica. The WB-57F from NASA collected ground data with a digital camera, an analog photogrametric camera (RC-30), a multispectral scanner (MASTER) and a hyperspectral sensor (HYMAP). The second aircraft, a King Air 200 from DoE, mounted with a LIDAR based instrument, targeted topography mapping and forest density measurements. A smaller third aircraft, a Navajo from Costa Rica, integrated with the AVEMS instrument and designed for real-time measurements of air pollutants from both natural and anthropogenic sources, was flown over the volcanoes. The improved AVEMS system is designed for deployment via aircraft, car or hand-transport. The 85 pound system employs a 200 Da quadrupole mass analyzer, has a volume of 92,000 cubic cm, requires 350 W of power at steady state, can operate up to an altitude of 41,000 feet above sea level (-65 C; 50 torr). The system uses on-board gas bottles on-site calibration and is capable of monitoring and quantifying up to 16 gases simultaneously. The in-situ gas data in this work, consisting of helium, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and acetone, was acquired in conjunction of GPS data which was plotted with the ground imagery, topography and remote sensing data collected by the other instruments, allowing the 3 dimensional visualization of the volcanic plume at Arenal Volcano. The modeling of possible scenarios of Arenal s activity and its

  19. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit. (United States)

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  20. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole


    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  1. Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit. (United States)

    Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard


    Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

  2. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli


    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  3. Deformation associated with the January 17, 2002, eruption of Nyiragongo volcano, Democratic Republic of the Congo, from radar interferometry (United States)

    Poland, M.; Lu, Z.


    Nyiragongo volcano, in the western branch of the East African Rift in the Democratic Republic of Congo, erupted on January 17, 2002, after several years of repose. The activity lasted for approximately one day and sent lava flows into the city of Goma (18 km south of the summit), destroying approximately 13% (4.5 km2) of the city and causing several deaths. Unfortunately, there are few surface deformation measurements that span the eruption. Lake level measurements suggest subsidence in the Goma area, but this cannot be confirmed by other terrestrial geodetic methods. Intermittent volcanism at the summit of Nyiragongo continued throughout 2002 and 2003, including an active lava lake and gas plume. We produced radar interferograms of the Nyiragongo region using data from RADARSAT-1, ERS-1, and ERS-2. Between mid-1998 and January 14, 2002, there is no indication of significant deformation except for subsidence of a lava flow that was emplaced on the north flank of Nyamulagira (a neighboring volcano 14 km northwest of Nyiragongo) in 1989-1991 and possible inflation of that volcano (which erupted multiple times between 1998 and 2001). Interferograms covering January 14 to February 13, 2002, show a broad pattern of fringes across the entire rift valley with closely spaced fringes in the vicinity of Goma. After February 13 there are no indications of major surface displacements until July-August 2002, when fringes suggesting uplift appeared at the summit of Nyamulagira (possibly related to an eruption there in July 2002). Several large (M > 5) earthquakes that occurred ~50 km south of Nyiragongo in October 2002 and the resumption of lava lake activity following the January 2002 eruption do not appear to have caused notable deformation. Preliminary modeling of radar interferograms spanning the eruption suggests a broad rifting event dominated by horizontal extension. The displacements must have occurred in a relatively brief period of time with little precursory or post

  4. Volcanoes muon imaging using Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, O. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Del Santo, M., E-mail: [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Mineo, T.; Cusumano, G.; Maccarone, M.C. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica cosmica di Palermo, via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Pareschi, G. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)


    A detailed understanding of a volcano inner structure is one of the key-points for the volcanic hazards evaluation. To this aim, in the last decade, geophysical radiography techniques using cosmic muon particles have been proposed. By measuring the differential attenuation of the muon flux as a function of the amount of rock crossed along different directions, it is possible to determine the density distribution of the interior of a volcano. Up to now, a number of experiments have been based on the detection of the muon tracks crossing hodoscopes, made up of scintillators or nuclear emulsion planes. Using telescopes based on the atmospheric Cherenkov imaging technique, we propose a new approach to study the interior of volcanoes detecting of the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic cosmic-ray muons that survive after crossing the volcano. The Cherenkov light produced along the muon path is imaged as a typical annular pattern containing all the essential information to reconstruct particle direction and energy. Our new approach offers the advantage of a negligible background and an improved spatial resolution. To test the feasibility of our new method, we have carried out simulations with a toy-model based on the geometrical parameters of ASTRI SST-2M, i.e. the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope currently under installation onto the Etna volcano. Comparing the results of our simulations with previous experiments based on particle detectors, we gain at least a factor of 10 in sensitivity. The result of this study shows that we resolve an empty cylinder with a radius of about 100 m located inside a volcano in less than 4 days, which implies a limit on the magma velocity of 5 m/h.

  5. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.


    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  6. Mariana Forearc Serpentine Mud Volcanoes Harbor Novel Communities of Extremophilic Archaea (United States)

    Curtis, A. C.; Moyer, C. L.


    Since the Eocene (45 Ma) the Pacific Plate has been subducting beneath the Philippine Plate in the western Pacific ocean. This process has given rise to the Mariana Islands. As a direct result of this non-accretionary subduction, the Mariana Island Arc contains a broad forearc zone of serpentinite mud volcanoes located between the island chain and the trench. Forearc faulting, due to high pressure and low temperature build-up, produce slurries of mud and rock that mix with slab derived fluids and rise in conduits. Due to dehydration of the overlying mantle, native rock is converted to serpentinite, which squeezes out at fractures along the sea floor. This results in giant mud volcanoes (~30 km diameter and ~2 km high) that form a chain between 50 and 150 km behind the trench axis. Microbial samples were collected using Jason II from seven mud volcanoes along the length of the forearc and community fingerprinting was applied to genomic DNA using terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The resulting data were compared with traditional clone library and sequence analysis from samples obtained from the southernmost mud volcano, South Chamorro, site 1200, holes D and E, sampled during ODP Leg 195. The dominant archaeal phylotypes found clustered into two groups within the Methanobacteria, a class of anaerobic methanogens and methylotrophs. These phylotypes were detected at three of the seven mud volcanoes sampled and comprised 61% of the archaeal clone library from 1200 E. The first group was most closely related to the order Methanobacteriales, however, these novel phylotypes had similarity values of up to 0.90 at best with some resulting at 0.48. The second novel group of phylotypes were most closely related to order Methanosarcinales, with similarity values in the range of 0.50 to 0.22, indicating a relatively weak association with known phylotypes. At 1200 D, phylotypes associated with non-thermophilic Marine Group I Crenarchaeota were detected

  7. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, John


    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  8. Ionospheric "Volcanology": Ionospheric Detection of Volcano Eruptions (United States)

    Astafyeva, E.; Shults, K.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rakoto, V.


    It is known that volcano eruptions and explosions can generate acoustic and gravity waves. These neutral waves further propagate into the atmosphere and ionosphere, where they are detectable by atmospheric and ionospheric sounding tools. So far, the features of co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations are not well understood yet. The development of the global and regional networks of ground-based GPS/GNSS receivers has opened a new era in the ionospheric detection of natural hazard events, including volcano eruptions. It is now known that eruptions with the volcanic explosivity index (VEI) of more than 2 can be detected in the ionosphere, especially in regions with dense GPS/GNSS-receiver coverage. The co-volcanic ionospheric disturbances are usually characterized as quasi-periodic oscillations. The Calbuco volcano, located in southern Chile, awoke in April 2015 after 43 years of inactivity. The first eruption began at 21:04UT on 22 April 2015, preceded by only an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic activity. This first eruption lasted 90 minutes and generated a sub-Plinian (i.e. medium to large explosive event), gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater. A larger second event on 23 April began at 04:00UT (01:00LT), it lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km. The VEI was estimated to be 4 to 5 for these two events. In this work, we first study ionospheric TEC response to the Calbuco volcano eruptions of April 2015 by using ground-based GNSS-receivers located around the volcano. We analyze the spectral characteristics of the observed TEC variations and we estimate the propagation speed of the co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations. We further proceed with the normal mode summation technique based modeling of the ionospheric TEC variations due to the Calbuco volcano eruptions. Finally, we attempt to localize the position of the volcano from the ionospheric measurements, and we also estimate the time of the

  9. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.


    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  10. Constraining recent Shiveluch volcano eruptions (Kamchatka, Russia by means of dendrochronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Solomina


    Full Text Available Shiveluch (N 56°38´, E 161°19´; elevation: active dome ~2500 m, summit of Old Shiveluch 3283 m is one of the most active volcanoes in Kamchatka. The eruptions of Shiveluch commonly result in major environmental damage caused by debris avalanches, hot pyroclastic flows, tephra falls and lahars. Constraining these events in time and space is important for the understanding and prediction of these natural hazards. The last major eruption of Shiveluch occurred in 2005; earlier ones, dated by instrumental, historical, 14C and tephrochronological methods, occurred in the last millennium around AD 1030, 1430, 1650, 1739, 1790–1810, 1854, 1879–1883, 1897–1898, 1905, 1927–1929, 1944–1950, and 1964. A lava dome has been growing in the 1964 crater since 1980, occasionally producing tephra falls and pyroclastic flows. Several Shiveluch eruptions (~AD 1050, 1650, 1854, 1964 may have been climatically effective and are probably recorded in the Greenland ice cores.

    Previously, most dates for eruptions before AD 1854 were obtained by tephrochronology and constrained by radiocarbon dating with an accuracy of several decades or centuries. In this paper we report tree-ring dates for a recent pyroclastic flow in Baidarnaia valley. Though the wood buried in these deposits is carbonized, fragile and poorly preserved, we were able to measure ring-width using standard tree-ring equipment or photographs and to cross-date these samples against the regional Kamchatka larch ring-width chronology. The dates of the outer rings indicate the date of the eruptions. In the Baidarnaia valley the eruption occurred shortly after AD 1756, but not later than AD 1758. This date coincides with the decrease of ring-width in trees growing near Shiveluch volcano in 1758–1763 in comparison with the control "non-volcanic" chronology. The pyroclastic flow in Kamenskaia valley, although similar in appearance to the one in Baidarnaia valley, definitively

  11. [Comparison between one-step and two-step space closing methods of sliding mechanics using three-dimensional finite element]. (United States)

    Han, Yaohui; Mou, Lan; Xu, Gengchi; Yang, Yiqiang; Ge, Zhenlin


    To construct a three-dimensional finite element model comparing between one-step and two-step methods in torque control of anterior teeth during space closure. Dicom image data including maxilla and upper teeth were obtained though cone-beam CT. A three-dimensional model was set up and the maxilla, upper teeth and periodontium were separated using Mimics software. The models were instantiated using Pro/Engineer software, and Abaqus finite element analysis software was used to simulate the sliding mechanics by loading 1.47 Nforce on traction hooks with different heights (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm, respectively) in order to compare the initial displacement between six maxillary anterior teeth (one-step method) and four maxillary anterior teeth (two-step method). When moving anterior teeth bodily, initial displacements of central incisors in two-step method and in one-step method were 29.26 × 10⁻⁶ mm and 15.75 × 10⁻⁶ mm, respectively. The initial displacements of lateral incisors in two-step method and in one-step method were 46.76 × 10(-6) mm and 23.18 × 10(-6) mm, respectively. Under the same amount of light force, the initial displacement of anterior teeth in two-step method was doubled compared with that in one-step method. The root and crown of the canine couldn't obtain the same amount of displacement in one-step method. Two-step method could produce more initial displacement than one-step method. Therefore, two-step method was easier to achieve torque control of the anterior teeth during space closure.

  12. The changing shapes of active volcanoes: History, evolution, and future challenges for volcano geodesy (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Newman, Andrew V.


    At the very heart of volcanology lies the search for the 'plumbing systems' that form the inner workings of Earth’s active volcanoes. By their very nature, however, the magmatic reservoirs and conduits that underlie these active volcanic systems are elusive; mostly they are observable only through circumstantial evidence, using indirect, and often ambiguous, surficial measurements. Of course, we can infer much about these systems from geologic investigation of materials brought to the surface by eruptions and of the exposed roots of ancient volcanoes. But how can we study the magmatic processes that are occurring beneath Earth’s active volcanoes? What are the geometry, scale, physical, and chemical characteristics of magma reservoirs? Can we infer the dynamics of magma transport? Can we use this information to better forecast the future behavior of volcanoes? These questions comprise some of the most fundamental, recurring themes of modern research in volcanology. The field of volcano geodesy is uniquely situated to provide critical observational constraints on these problems. For the past decade, armed with a new array of technological innovations, equipped with powerful computers, and prepared with new analytical tools, volcano geodesists have been poised to make significant advances in our fundamental understanding of the behavior of active volcanic systems. The purpose of this volume is to highlight some of these recent advances, particularly in the collection and interpretation of geodetic data from actively deforming volcanoes. The 18 papers that follow report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide

  13. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  14. Variable Step Closed Loop Power Control with Space Diversity for Low Elevation Angle High Altitude Platforms Communication Channel [Langkah Variabel Kontrol Daya Loop Tertutup dengan Keragaman Ruang untuk Sudut Elevasi Rendah pada Kanal Komunikasi HAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Iskandar


    Full Text Available This paper proposes variable step closed loop power control algorithm combined with space diversity to improve the performance of High Altitude Platforms (HAPs communication at low elevation angle using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA. In this contribution, we first develop HAPs channel model which is derived from experimental measurement. From our experiment, we found HAPs channel characteristic can be modeled as a Ricean distribution because the presence of line of sight path. Different elevation angle resulting different K factor value.  This value is then used in Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR based closed loop power control evaluation. The variable step algorithm is simulated under various elevation angles with different speed of mobile user. The performance is presented in terms of user elevation angle, user speed, step size and space diversity order. We found that the performance of variable step closed-loop power control less effective at low elevation angle. However our simulation shows that space diversity is able to improve the performance of closed loop power control for HAPs channel at low elevation angle.*****Kajian ini mengusulkan suatu algoritma kontrol daya langkah variabel loop tertutup dikombinasikan dengan keragaman ruang untuk meningkatkan kinerja komunikasi High Altitude Platforms(HAPs pada sudut elevasi rendah menggunakan Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA. Kami berkontribusi untuk mengembangkan model kanal HAPs yang berasal dari pengukuran eksperimental sebelumnya. Dari percobaan tersebut, kami menemukan karakteristik kanal HAPs yang dapat dimodelkan sebagai distribusi Ricean karena kehadiran jalur tanpa penghalang. Eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan sudut elevasi menghasilkan perbedaan nilai factor K. Nilai ini kemudian digunakan dalam Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR berbasiskan evaluasi kontrol daya loop tertutup. Algoritma langkah variabel disimulasikan dibawah sudut elevasi yang berbeda dengan kecepatan

  15. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.


    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  16. Of volcanoes, saints, trash, and frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    , at the same time as political elections and economic hardship. During one year of ethnographic fieldwork volcanoes, saints, trash and frogs were among the nonhuman entities referred to in conversations and engaged with when responding to the changes that trouble the world and everyday life of Arequipans...

  17. Carbonate assimilation at Merapi volcano, Java Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadwick, J.P; Troll, V.R; Ginibre,, C.


    Recent basaltic andesite lavas from Merapi volcano contain abundant, complexly zoned, plagioclase phenocrysts, analysed here for their petrographic textures, major element composition and Sr isotope composition. Anorthite (An) content in individual crystals can vary by as much as 55 mol% (An40^95...

  18. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano. (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.


    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  19. The reawakening of Alaska's Augustine volcano (United States)

    Power, John A.; Nye, Christopher J.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Wessels, Rick L.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Dehn, Jon; Wallace, Kristi L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Doukas, Michael P.


    Augustine volcano, in south central Alaska, ended a 20-year period of repose on 11 January 2006 with 13 explosive eruptions in 20 days. Explosive activity shifted to a quieter effusion of lava in early February, forming a new summit lava dome and two short, blocky lava flows by late March (Figure 1).

  20. Probing magma reservoirs to improve volcano forecasts (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hurwitz, Shaul


    When it comes to forecasting eruptions, volcano observatories rely mostly on real-time signals from earthquakes, ground deformation, and gas discharge, combined with probabilistic assessments based on past behavior [Sparks and Cashman, 2017]. There is comparatively less reliance on geophysical and petrological understanding of subsurface magma reservoirs.

  1. Muons reveal the interior of volcanoes

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi


    The MU-RAY project has the very challenging aim of providing a “muon X-ray” of the Vesuvius volcano (Italy) using a detector that records the muons hitting it after traversing the rock structures of the volcano. This technique was used for the first time in 1971 by the Nobel Prize-winner Louis Alvarez, who was searching for unknown burial chambers in the Chephren pyramid.   The location of the muon detector on the slopes of the Vesuvius volcano. Like X-ray scans of the human body, muon radiography allows researchers to obtain an image of the internal structures of the upper levels of volcanoes. Although such an image cannot help to predict ‘when’ an eruption might occur, it can, if combined with other observations, help to foresee ‘how’ it could develop and serves as a powerful tool for the study of geological structures. Muons come from the interaction of cosmic rays with the Earth's atmosphere. They are able to traverse layers of ro...

  2. Soft Connected Spaces and Soft Paracompact Spaces


    Fucai Lin


    Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft closed mapping, soft open mappings, soft connected spaces and soft paracompact spaces. We also redefine the concept of soft points such that it is reasonable in soft topological spaces. Mo...

  3. Graph topologies on closed multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Maio


    Full Text Available In this paper we study function space topologies on closed multifunctions, i.e. closed relations on X x Y using various hypertopologies. The hypertopologies are in essence, graph topologies i.e topologies on functions considered as graphs which are subsets of X x Y . We also study several topologies, including one that is derived from the Attouch-Wets filter on the range. We state embedding theorems which enable us to generalize and prove some recent results in the literature with the use of known results in the hyperspace of the range space and in the function space topologies of ordinary functions.

  4. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama (United States)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.


    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  5. Time-dependent model for volume changes in pressure sources at Asama volcano, central Japan due to vertical deformations detected by precise leveling during 1902 2005 (United States)

    Murase, Masayuki; Ono, Koji; Ito, Takeo; Miyajima, Rikio; Mori, Hitoshi; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Oshima, Hiromitu; Yoshida, Yuka; Terada, Akihiko; Koyama, Eturo; Takeda, Toyotarou; Watanabe, Hidefumi; Kimata, Fumiaki; Fujii, Naoyuki


    A time-dependent model for volume changes in pressure sources at Asama volcano is developed from precise leveling data collected since 1902. The optimal source model is determined by comparing five different models (a model with three types of spherical sources, single dike, and dike with a spherical source) during three periods: 1935 to 1939, 1939 to 1950/1953, and 1990 to November 2004. The optimal parameters for each model are estimated by employing a genetic algorithm (GA). The model with two spherical sources was selected as the optimal model. In this model, one of the sources was estimated to be located at a depth of approximately 6 km beneath Kurofu volcano; the other source was estimated to be located close to Maekake volcano at a depth of approximately 2 km. The volume changes in the two spherical sources are calculated using the Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC) for the period from 1902 to 2005. During the period from 1902 to 1943, a large inflation was estimated in a source at a depth of approximately 6 km beneath Kurofu volcano, which is an older volcano at the base of Asama. After 1943, a rapid deflation continued until 1967. This rapid deflation changed to a marginal inflation that continued from 1967 until 2005. The temporal change in the pressure source beneath Kurofu volcano exhibits a strong positive correlation with the eruption frequency. The leveling data does not suggest a significant volume change in the source beneath Kurofu volcano during the quiet period between 1962 and 2005. During the 20th century, magma appears to have been episodically supplied beneath Asama volcano. In particular, the inflation of the source beneath Kurofu volcano, and probably the magma supply, reached a peak from 1930 to 1940.

  6. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy) (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano


    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  7. Electrical Resistivity Structure and Helium Isotopes around Naruko Volcano, Northeastern Japan and Its Implication for the Distribution of Crustal Magma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Asamori


    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electrical resistivity structure beneath Naruko volcano was determined using magnetotelluric soundings. The resulting model shows that a prominent conductor exists through the middle crust to the uppermost mantle beneath the volcano. The location of the conductor agrees closely with a seismic low-velocity zone. Low-frequency microearthquakes occur near the conductor around the Moho depth. The cutoff depth of crustal earthquakes is coincident with the upper boundary of the conductor, implying that the conductor has a temperature appreciably higher than 400∘C. Furthermore, new helium isotope data from hot springs around the volcano were obtained. The spatial distribution of the observed 3He/4He ratios reveals the extent of mantle-derived materials beneath Naruko volcano. Consequently, it is apparent that the conductor determined beneath the volcano reflects the presence of high-temperature mantle-derived materials such as magmas and/or related fluids derived from active magmatism in the northeastern Japan subduction zone.

  8. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  9. Crustal movements due to Iceland's shrinking ice caps mimic magma inflow signal at Katla volcano. (United States)

    Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Hooper, Andrew; Ófeigsson, Benedikt Gunnar


    Many volcanic systems around the world are located beneath, or in close proximity to, ice caps. Mass change of these ice caps causes surface movements, which are typically neglected when interpreting surface deformation measurements around these volcanoes. These movements can however be significant, and may closely resemble movements due to magma accumulation. Here we show such an example, from Katla volcano, Iceland. Horizontal movements observed by GPS on the flank of Katla have led to the inference of significant inflow of magma into a chamber beneath the caldera, starting in 2000, and continuing over several years. We use satellite radar interferometry and GPS data to show that between 2001 and 2010, the horizontal movements seen on the flank can be explained by the response to the long term shrinking of ice caps, and that erratic movements seen at stations within the caldera are also not likely to signify magma inflow. It is important that interpretations of geodetic measurements at volcanoes in glaciated areas consider the effect of ice mass change, and previous studies should be carefully reevaluated.

  10. Common processes at unique volcanoes - a volcanological conundrum (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet


    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  11. Using infrared spectroscopy and satellite data to accurately monitor remote volcanoes and map their eruptive products (United States)

    Ramsey, M. S.


    The ability to detect the onset of new activity at a remote volcano commonly relies on high temporal resolution thermal infrared (TIR) satellite-based observations. These observations from sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS are being used in innovative ways to produce trends of activity, which are critical for hazard response planning and scientific modeling. Such data are excellent for detection of new thermal features, volcanic plumes, and tracking changes over the hour time scale, for example. For some remote volcanoes, the lack of ground-based monitoring typically means that these sensors provide the first and only confirmation of renewed activity. However, what is lacking is the context of the higher spatial scale, which provides the volcanologist with meter-scale information on specific temperatures and changes in the composition and texture of the eruptive products. For the past eleven years, the joint US-Japanese ASTER instrument has been acquiring image-based data of volcanic eruptions around the world, including in the remote northern Pacific region. There have been more ASTER observations of Kamchatka volcanoes than any other location on the globe due mainly to an operational program put into place in 2004. Automated hot spot alarms from AVHRR data trigger ASTER acquisitions using the instrument's "rapid response" mode. Specifically for Kamchatka, this program has resulted in more than 700 additional ASTER images of the most thermally-active volcanoes (e.g., Shiveluch, Kliuchevskoi, Karymsky, Bezymianny). The scientific results from this program at these volcanoes will be highlighted. These results were strengthened by several field seasons used to map new products, collect samples for laboratory-based spectroscopy, and acquire TIR camera data. The fusion of ground, laboratory and space-based spectroscopy provided the most accurate interpretation of the eruptions and laid the ground work for future VSWIR/TIR sensors such as HyspIRI, which are a critically

  12. Internet-accessible, near-real-time volcano monitoring data for geoscience education: the Volcanoes Exploration Project—Pu`u `O`o (United States)

    Poland, M. P.; Teasdale, R.; Kraft, K.


    Internet-accessible real- and near-real-time Earth science datasets are an important resource for geoscience education, but relatively few comprehensive datasets are available, and background information to aid interpretation is often lacking. In response to this need, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu‘u ‘O‘o (VEPP). The VEPP Web site provides access, in near-real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. On the VEPP Web site, a time series query tool provides a means of interacting with continuous geophysical data. In addition, results from episodic kinematic GPS campaigns and lava flow field maps are posted as data are collected, and archived Webcam images from Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater are available as a tool for examining visual changes in volcanic activity over time. A variety of background information on volcano surveillance and the history of the 1983-present Pu‘u ‘O‘o-Kupaianaha eruption puts the available monitoring data in context. The primary goal of the VEPP Web site is to take advantage of high visibility monitoring data that are seldom suitably well-organized to constitute an established educational resource. In doing so, the VEPP project provides a geoscience education resource that demonstrates the dynamic nature of volcanoes and promotes excitement about the process of scientific discovery through hands-on learning. To support use of the VEPP Web site, a week-long workshop was held at Kilauea Volcano in July 2010, which included 25 participants from the United States and Canada. The participants represented a diverse cross-section of higher learning, from community colleges to research universities, and included faculty who teach both large introductory non-major classes

  13. Comparison of authigenic carbonates formation at mud volcanoes and pockmarks in the Portuguese Margin vs. at the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano in the Marianas forearc (United States)

    Magalhaes, V. H.; Freitas, M.; Azevedo, M. R.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Salgueiro, E.; Abrantes, F. F. G.


    On the Portuguese passive continental margin, active and past seepage processes form mud volcanoes and pockmarks at the seafloor. Often associated with these structures are extensive methane-derived authigenic carbonates that form from deep-sourced methane-rich fluids that ascend from deep to the upper sedimentary column and often discharge at the seafloor. These carbonates form within the sediments and are either dominated by dolomite and high-Mg calcites, when formed under a restricted seawater circulation environment, anoxic and low sulphate conditions; or by aragonite and calcite when formed close to or at the seafloor in a high sulphate system. The δ13C values (-56.2‰ VPDB) found on the carbonate-cemented material clearly indicates methane as the major carbon source. On the Yinazao serpentinite mud volcano at an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin, sediment samples from IODP Sites U1491 and U1492 (Exp. 366) contain authigenic minerals such as aragonite, calcite, brucite, gypsum among others. Authigenic aragonite occurs predominantly within the top meters of the cores where both oxidation and seawater circulation in the sedimentary column are higher. In this system, initial results indicate that the major carbon source is most probably not methane but seawater related. This work discusses and compares the major carbon sources in both systems: sedimentary mud volcanoes and pockmarks of a passive margin vs. a serpentinite mud volcano of an active, non-accretionary, convergent margin. We acknowledge the support from the PES project - Pockmarks and fluid seepage in the Estremadura Spur: implications for regional geology, biology, and petroleum systems (PTDC/GEOFIQ/5162/2014) financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).

  14. Drilling a Volcano: Scientific Experiment at Alban Hills, Italy (United States)

    Mariucci, M.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.


    Only a few deep boreholes have been drilled for scientific purposes on active volcanoes in the whole world. Indeed, data collected from deep wells are fundamental to better model geophysical processes. Within the Italian research project INGV-DPC-V3.1 (funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department), we planned to drill a 400m hole with the main goal to define the orientation and magnitude of present stress field in the shallow crust in the Alban Hills. The Alban Hills are considered a quiescent volcanic district, belonging to the Quaternary volcanic belt of the Tyrrhenian coast. They are located in a densely populated area close to Rome, then an eruption would be a real risk, also considering the type of their past activity. Alban Hills have been fully studied by means of surface or very shallow observations and indirect methods: now we are going to start the first scientific program to investigate them directly at depth. We will perform some hydrofracturing tests at different depth in the drilling located in a key area, to compute, for the first time beneath a volcano, the absolute values of stress principal axes and reconstruct the stress path along depth. Analysis on core samples will allow to better understand the geomechanical characters of volcanic rocks and their underlying sedimentary basement. Coupling these studies with structural, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations will constrain the recent volcano-tectonic processes. The comparison of new data with the available stratigraphic logs will give insights on the occurrence of tectonic movements. Analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility could provide information on the Middle Pleistocene strain to be compared with present-day data. These results will be integrated with new geodetic and seismological data obtained by other research units and will be used for physical and numerical modeling to understand the behavior of the whole volcanic complex. This experiment represent a

  15. Ambient-noise tomography of Katla volcano, south Iceland (United States)

    Jeddi, Zeinab; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Tryggvason, Ari


    A shear-wave velocity model of subglacial Katla volcano, southern Iceland, has been developed using ambient seismic noise tomography based on data from a temporary network operating between May 2011 and August 2013 and permanent stations around the volcano. Phase-velocity dispersion curves were obtained using cross-correlations of vertical components of 136 station pairs and non-linearly inverted for phase-velocity maps between 1.7 and 7.5 s. Local dispersion curves were inverted for shear-velocity variation with depth using a grid search imposing a fixed ice layer at the top. The resulting one-dimensional (1-D) velocity models were combined to obtain a pseudo three-dimensional (3-D) model with estimated lateral resolution of 8 km and depth resolution varying from close to 1 km near the surface to about 8 km at 10 km depth. Shear wave velocities are generally higher within the Katla central volcano than in its surroundings. The most striking feature of the model is a high-velocity anomaly beneath the caldera at > 6 km depth interpreted to be due to cumulates resulting from differentiation of shallower magma intrusions and remelting of subsiding upper crust. No shallow low-velocity anomaly is resolved beneath the central caldera, but a low-velocity region is found at 2-4 km depth beneath the western half of the caldera. VP/VS ratios, estimated from average velocity-depth profiles from surface-wave data and higher frequency P-wave data, are anomalously high (> 1.9) compared to average Icelandic crust, particularly in the top 2-3 km. This is argued not to be an artifact due to lateral refraction or topography. Instead, this anomaly could be explained as an artifact caused by velocity dispersion due to attenuation and a difference in frequency content, and possibly to a degree by the compositional difference between the transalkalic Fe-Ti basalts of Katla and average tholeiitic Icelandic crust.

  16. Deciphering Okmok Volcano's restless years (2002-2005) (United States)

    Reyes, Celso Guillermo

    Okmok Volcano is an active island-arc shield volcano located in the central Aleutian islands of Alaska. It is defined by a 10-km-diameter caldera that formed in two cataclysmic eruptions, the most recent being ˜2050 years ago. Subsequent eruptions created several cinder cones within the caldera. The youngest of these, Cone A, was the active vent from 1815 through its 1997 eruption. On July 12 2008 Okmok erupted from new vents located northwest of Cone D. Between 2001 and 2004, geodetic measurements showed caldera inflation. These studies suggested that new magma might be entering the system. In 2002, a newly installed seismic network recorded quasi-periodic ("banded") seismic tremor signals occurring at the rate of two or more episodes per hour. This tremor was a near-continuous signal from the day the seismic network was installed. Although the volcano was not erupting, it was clearly in a state of unrest. This unrest garnered considerable attention because the volcano had erupted just six years prior. The seismic tremor potentially held insight as to whether the unrest was a remnant of the 1997 eruption, or whether it signaled a possible rejuvenation of activity and the potential for eruption. To determine the root cause and implications of this remarkable seismic tremor sequence, I created a catalog of over ˜17,000 tremor events recorded between 2003 and mid-2005. Tremor patterns evolved on the scale of days, but remained the dominant seismic signal. In order to facilitate the analysis of several years of data I created a MATLAB toolbox, known as "The Waveform Suite". This toolbox made it feasible for me to work with several years of digital data and forego my introductory analyses that were based on paper "helicorder" records. I first attempted to locate the tremor using the relative amplitudes of the seismograms to determine where the tremor was being created. Candidate tremor locations were constrained to a few locations along a corridor between Cone A and

  17. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.


    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  18. Volcano and Ship Tracks Indicate Excessive Aerosol-Induced Cloud Water Increases in a Climate Model (United States)

    Toll, Velle; Christensen, Matthew; Gassó, Santiago; Bellouin, Nicolas


    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the most uncertain mechanism of anthropogenic radiative forcing of Earth's climate, and aerosol-induced cloud water changes are particularly poorly constrained in climate models. By combining satellite retrievals of volcano and ship tracks in stratocumulus clouds, we compile a unique observational data set and confirm that liquid water path (LWP) responses to aerosols are bidirectional, and on average the increases in LWP are closely compensated by the decreases. Moreover, the meteorological parameters controlling the LWP responses are strikingly similar between the volcano and ship tracks. In stark contrast to observations, there are substantial unidirectional increases in LWP in the Hadley Centre climate model, because the model accounts only for the decreased precipitation efficiency and not for the enhanced entrainment drying. If the LWP increases in the model were compensated by the decreases as the observations suggest, its indirect aerosol radiative forcing in stratocumulus regions would decrease by 45%.

  19. Episodic inflation events at Akutan Volcano, Alaska, during 2005-2017 (United States)

    Ji, Kang Hyeun; Yun, Sang-Ho; Rim, Hyoungrea


    Detection of weak volcano deformation helps constrain characteristics of eruption cycles. We have developed a signal detection technique, called the Targeted Projection Operator (TPO), to monitor surface deformation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. We have applied the TPO to GPS data collected at Akutan Volcano from June 2005 to March 2017 and detected four inflation events that occurred in 2008, 2011, 2014, and 2016 with inflation rates of about 8-22 mm/yr above the background trend at a near-source site AV13. Numerical modeling suggests that the events should be driven by closely located sources or a single source in a shallow magma chamber at a depth of about 4 km. The inflation events suggest that magma has episodically accumulated in a shallow magma chamber.

  20. Inflation and Collapse of the Wai'anae Volcano (Oahu,Hawaii, USA):Insights from Magnetic Fabric Studies of Dikes (United States)

    Lau, J. K. S.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Moreira, M. A. D. A.


    The Waianae Volcano is the older of two shield volcanoes that make up the island of Oahu. Previous age determinations suggest that the subaerial portion of the edifice erupted between approximately 3.7 and 2.7 Ma. The eroded Waianae Volcano had a well-developed caldera centered near the back of its two most prominent valleys and two major rift zones: a prominent north-west rift zone, well-defined by a complex of sub-parallel dikes trending approximately N52W, and a more diffuse south rift zone trending between S20W to due South. In order to investigate the volcanic evolution, the plumbing and the triggering mechanisms of the catastrophic mass wasting that had occurred in the volcano, we have undertaken an AMS study of 7 dikes from the volcano. The width of the dikes ranged between 0.5 to 4 m. Low-field susceptibility versus temperature (k-T) and SIRM experiments were able to identify magnetite at 575 0C and at about 250-300 0C, corresponding to titanomagnetite.. Magnetic fabric studies of the dikes along a NW-SE section across the present southwestern part of the Waianae volcano have been conducted. The flow direction was studied using the imbrication angle between the dike walls and the magnetic foliation. The flow direction has been obtained in the 7 studied dikes. For the majority of the cases, the maximum axis, K1, appears to be perpendicular to the flow direction, and in some cases, with a permutation with respect to the intermediate axis, K2, or even with respect to the minimum axis, K3. In addition, in one of the sites studied, the minimum axis, K3, is very close to the flow direction. In all cases, the magma flowed along a direction with a moderate plunge. For six of the dikes, the interpreted flow was from the internal part of the volcano towards the volcano border, and corresponds probably to the inflation phase of the volcano. In two cases (dikes located on the northwestern side of the volcano), the flow is slightly downwards, possibly related to the

  1. Spatio-temporal evolution of volcano seismicity: A laboratory study (United States)

    Benson, Philip M.; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Meredith, Philip G.; Young, R. Paul


    We report a laboratory and microstructural study of a suite of deformation experiments in which basalt from Mount Etna volcano is deformed and fractured at an effective confining pressure representative of conditions under a volcanic edifice (40 MPa). Particular attention was paid to the formation of a fracture and damage zone with which to stimulate coupled hydro-mechanical interactions that create the various types of seismicity recorded on volcanic edifices, and which usually precede eruption. Location of AE events through time shows the formation of a fault plane during which waveforms exhibit the typical high frequency characteristics of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. We found that these VT earthquakes were particularly pronounced when generated using dry samples, compared to samples saturated with a pore fluid (water). VT events generated during deformation of water saturated sample are characterised by a distinctive high frequency onset and a longer, low frequency coda exhibiting properties often seen in the field as hybrid events. We present evidence that hybrid events are, in fact, the common type of volcanic seismic event with either VT or low frequency (LF) events representing end members, and whose proportion depend on pore fluid being present in the rock type being deformed, as well as how close the rock is to failure. We find a notable trend of reducing instances of hybrid events leading up to the failure stage in our experiments, suggesting that during this stage, the pore fluid present in the rock moves sufficiently quickly to provide a resonance, seen as a LF coda. Our data supports recent modeling and field studies that postulate that hybrid events generated in volcanic areas are likely to be generated through the interaction of hydrothermal fluids moving through a combination of pre-existing microcrack networks and larger faults, such as those we observe in forensic (post-test) examination.

  2. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil


    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  3. Decaying lava extrusion rate at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador measured using high-resolution satellite radar (United States)

    Arnold, D. W. D.; Biggs, J.; Anderson, Kyle R.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Wadge, G.; Ebmeier, S. K.; Naranjo, M. F.; Mothes, P.


    Lava extrusion at erupting volcanoes causes rapid changes in topography and morphology on the order of tens or even hundreds of meters. Satellite radar provides a method for measuring changes in topographic height over a given time period to an accuracy of meters, either by measuring the width of radar shadow cast by steep sided features, or by measuring the difference in radar phase between two sensors separated in space. We measure height changes, and hence estimate extruded lava volume flux, at El Reventador, Ecuador, between 2011 and 2016, using data from the RADARSAT-2 and TanDEM-X satellite missions. We find that 39 new lava flows were extruded between 9 February 2012 and 24 August 2016, with a cumulative volume of 44.8M m3 dense rock equivalent and a gradually decreasing eruption rate. The average dense rock rate of lava extrusion during this time is 0.31 ± 0.02 m3 s−1, which is similar to the long-term average from 1972 to 2016. Apart from a volumetrically small dyke opening event between 9 March and 10 June 2012, lava extrusion at El Reventador is not accompanied by any significant magmatic ground deformation. We use a simple physics-based model to estimate that the volume of the magma reservoir under El Reventador is greater than 3 km3. Our lava extrusion data can be equally well fit by models representing a closed reservoir depressurising during the eruption with no magma recharge, or an open reservoir with a time-constant magma recharge rate of up to 0.35 ± 0.01 m3 s−1.

  4. Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks (United States)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.


    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground

  5. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia (United States)

    Sudradjat, A.


    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  6. Bubble mobility in mud and magmatic volcanoes (United States)

    Tran, Aaron; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael


    The rheology of particle-laden fluids with a yield stress, such as mud or crystal-rich magmas, controls the mobility of bubbles, both the size needed to overcome the yield stress and their rise speed. We experimentally measured the velocities of bubbles and rigid spheres in mud sampled from the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes adjacent to the Salton Sea, Southern California. Combined with previous measurements in the polymer gel Carbopol, we obtained an empirical model for the drag coefficient and bounded the conditions under which bubbles overcome the yield stress. Yield stresses typical of mud and basaltic magmas with sub-mm particles can immobilize millimeter to centimeter sized bubbles. At Stromboli volcano, Italy, a vertical yield stress gradient in the shallow conduit may immobilize bubbles with diameter ≲ 1 cm and hinder slug coalescence.

  7. Decision Analysis Tools for Volcano Observatories (United States)

    Hincks, T. H.; Aspinall, W.; Woo, G.


    Staff at volcano observatories are predominantly engaged in scientific activities related to volcano monitoring and instrumentation, data acquisition and analysis. Accordingly, the academic education and professional training of observatory staff tend to focus on these scientific functions. From time to time, however, staff may be called upon to provide decision support to government officials responsible for civil protection. Recognizing that Earth scientists may have limited technical familiarity with formal decision analysis methods, specialist software tools that assist decision support in a crisis should be welcome. A review is given of two software tools that have been under development recently. The first is for probabilistic risk assessment of human and economic loss from volcanic eruptions, and is of practical use in short and medium-term risk-informed planning of exclusion zones, post-disaster response, etc. A multiple branch event-tree architecture for the software, together with a formalism for ascribing probabilities to branches, have been developed within the context of the European Community EXPLORIS project. The second software tool utilizes the principles of the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) for evidence-based assessment of volcanic state and probabilistic threat evaluation. This is of practical application in short-term volcano hazard forecasting and real-time crisis management, including the difficult challenge of deciding when an eruption is over. An open-source BBN library is the software foundation for this tool, which is capable of combining synoptically different strands of observational data from diverse monitoring sources. A conceptual vision is presented of the practical deployment of these decision analysis tools in a future volcano observatory environment. Summary retrospective analyses are given of previous volcanic crises to illustrate the hazard and risk insights gained from use of these tools.

  8. Electrical structure of Newberry Volcano, Oregon (United States)

    Fitterman, D.V.; Stanley, W.D.; Bisdorf, R.J.


    From the interpretation of magnetotelluric, transient electromagnetic, and Schlumberger resistivity soundings, the electrical structure of Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is found to consist of four units. From the surface downward, the geoelectrical units are 1) very resistive, young, unaltered volcanic rock, (2) a conductive layer of older volcanic material composed of altered tuffs, 3) a thick resistive layer thought to be in part intrusive rocks, and 4) a lower-crustal conductor. This model is similar to the regional geoelectrical structure found throughout the Cascade Range. Inside the caldera, the conductive second layer corresponds to the steep temperature gradient and alteration minerals observed in the USGS Newberry 2 test-hole. Drill hole information on the south and north flanks of the volcano (test holes GEO N-1 and GEO N-3, respectively) indicates that outside the caldera the conductor is due to alteration minerals (primarily smectite) and not high-temperature pore fluids. On the flanks of Newberry the conductor is generally deeper than inside the caldera, and it deepens with distance from the summit. A notable exception to this pattern is seen just west of the caldera rim, where the conductive zone is shallower than at other flank locations. The volcano sits atop a rise in the resistive layer, interpreted to be due to intrusive rocks. -from Authors

  9. Geothermal Exploration of Newberry Volcano, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waibel, Albert F. [Columbia Geoscience, Pasco, WA (United States); Frone, Zachary S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Blackwell, David D. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)


    Davenport Newberry (Davenport) has completed 8 years of exploration for geothermal energy on Newberry Volcano in central Oregon. Two deep exploration test wells were drilled by Davenport on the west flank of the volcano, one intersected a hydrothermal system; the other intersected isolated fractures with no hydrothermal interconnection. Both holes have bottom-hole temperatures near or above 315°C (600°F). Subsequent to deep test drilling an expanded exploration and evaluation program was initiated. These efforts have included reprocessing existing data, executing multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical programs, deep exploration test well drilling and shallow well drilling. The efforts over the last three years have been made possible through a DOE Innovative Exploration Technology (IET) Grant 109, designed to facilitate innovative geothermal exploration techniques. The combined results of the last 8 years have led to a better understanding of the history and complexity of Newberry Volcano and improved the design and interpretation of geophysical exploration techniques with regard to blind geothermal resources in volcanic terrain.

  10. Soil fertility characteristics as affected by close spacing of conilon coffee plants Características da fertilidade do solo influenciadas pelo plantio adensado de café conilon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Guarçoni M.


    Full Text Available In arabica coffee crops grown at high altitudes with lower temperatures, soil fertility can be improved by condensed spacing. However, at low lands with warmer temperatures in which conilon coffee is grown, the effect of close spacing on the soil characteristics may change. Aiming to determine the effect of coffee-trees close planting grown with or without NPK fertilization on the soil fertility characteristics, soil samples were collected (0-20 and 20-40 cm depth within four different conilon crop spacings (2,222; 3,333; 4,000; and 5,000 plants/ha. It was determined pH, H+Al, effective CEC (t, pH 7.0 CEC (T, base saturation (v, aluminum saturation (m values and organic matter (OM, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Al3+ contents. The analytical results were compared by Student t test and regression analysis. Conilon coffee-trees with close planting only changed soil fertility characteristics when coffee plants received annual NPK fertilization. Close planting substantially increased P and K contents and the T value in the upper soil layer and P and K contents and T, t and H+Al values in the lower soil layer.O plantio adensado melhora a fertilidade do solo em lavouras de café arábica, cultura típica de regiões altas e de temperaturas amenas. O café conilon é cultivado em regiões baixas e quentes, o que pode modificar os efeitos do adensamento sobre a fertilidade do solo. Visando determinar a influência do adensamento de plantio do café conilon, com ou sem adubação, nas características da fertilidade do solo, foram coletadas amostras de solo (0-20 e 20-40 cm de profundidade em quatro densidades de plantio (2.222; 3.333; 4.000 e 5.000 plantas/ha. Foram determinados os valores de pH, H+Al, CTC efetiva (t, CTC pH 7,0 (T, saturação por bases (V e saturação por alumínio (m e os teores de matéria orgânica (MO, P, K, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Al3+. Os resultados analíticos foram comparados pelo teste t de Student e por análise de regressão. O adensamento de

  11. Petrogenesis of a voluminous Quaternary adakitic volcano: the case of Baru volcano (United States)

    Hidalgo, Paulo J.; Rooney, Tyrone O.


    The origin of adakite magmas remains controversial because initially the term adakite had petrogenetic significance implying an origin by direct melting of the eclogitized subducting oceanic crust. Many models have been produced for their origin, and until now there has not been a straightforward method to discriminate between these models in a given adakite suite. Here, we use detailed chronological and geochemical studies of selected adakitic edifices that allows for the determination of the magmatic output rate parameter (Qe), which has been correlated with the rates of magma generation deep within subduction zones. By providing temporal and eruption rate estimates, we provide constraints on the possible petrogenetic processes involved in the generation of adakite-like signatures. Adakite magmas derived from the melting of the subducting slab should be volumetrically insignificant when compared to the adakite-like magmas produced by typical arc magma generation processes. In this study, we use this observation and the extraordinary stratigraphic exposure from Miocene to present in an adakitic volcano in Panama and to study the temporal and chemical variation in erupted magmas to estimate rates of magma generation. Detailed chemical and geochronological analyses of Baru volcano indicate that the volcanic edifice was constructed in its entirety during the Quaternary and magmas display adakite-like features such as steep rare earth elements patterns, pronounced depletions in the heavy rare earth elements, low Y, high Sr, and high Sr/Y. The magmatic output rates (Qe) that we have calculated show that compared to other typical adakitic volcanoes, most of the volcanic edifice of Baru volcano was constructed extremely rapidly (Baru volcano is more representative of a typical arc volcano than a small-volume melt of the subducting oceanic crust. The technique we outline may have broader application in determining the petrogenetic conditions of other adakite suites.

  12. Efficient inversion of volcano deformation based on finite element models : An application to Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Charco, María; González, Pablo J.; Galán del Sastre, Pedro


    The Kilauea volcano (Hawaii, USA) is one of the most active volcanoes world-wide and therefore one of the better monitored volcanoes around the world. Its complex system provides a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of magma transport and supply. Geodetic techniques, as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are being extensively used to monitor ground deformation at volcanic areas. The quantitative interpretation of such surface ground deformation measurements using geodetic data requires both, physical modelling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the magmatic source parameters. Here, we use synthetic aperture radar data from Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission to image volcano deformation sources during the inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in April-May 2015. We propose a Finite Element Model (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in a mechanically heterogeneous domain. The key aspect of the methodology lies in applying the reciprocity relationship of the Green functions between the station and the source for efficient numerical inversions. The search for the best-fitting magmatic (point) source(s) is generally conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. However, our approach allows to reduce the total number of Green functions to the number of the observation points by using the, above mentioned, reciprocity relationship. This new methodology is able to accurately represent magmatic processes using physical models capable of simulating volcano deformation in non-uniform material properties distribution domains, which eventually will lead to better description of the status of the volcano.

  13. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A. G.; White, W. A.; Guevara, E. H.; Smyth, R. C.; Raney, J. A.; Gibeaut, J. C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins.

  14. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela (United States)

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.


    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation in the United States, 2008 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Diefenbach, Angela K.; Ewert, John W.; Ramsey, David W.; Cervelli, Peter F.; Schilling, Steven P.


    The United States is one of the most volcanically active countries in the world. According to the global volcanism database of the Smithsonian Institution, the United States (including its Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands) is home to about 170 volcanoes that are in an eruptive phase, have erupted in historical time, or have not erupted recently but are young enough (eruptions within the past 10,000 years) to be capable of reawakening. From 1980 through 2008, 30 of these volcanoes erupted, several repeatedly. Volcano monitoring in the United States is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program, which operates a system of five volcano observatories-Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO). The observatories issue public alerts about conditions and hazards at U.S. volcanoes in support of the USGS mandate under P.L. 93-288 (Stafford Act) to provide timely warnings of potential volcanic disasters to the affected populace and civil authorities. To make efficient use of the Nation's scientific resources, the volcano observatories operate in partnership with universities and other governmental agencies through various formal agreements. The Consortium of U.S. Volcano Observatories (CUSVO) was established in 2001 to promote scientific cooperation among the Federal, academic, and State agencies involved in observatory operations. Other groups also contribute to volcano monitoring by sponsoring long-term installation of geophysical instruments at some volcanoes for specific research projects. This report describes a database of information about permanently installed ground-based instruments used by the U.S. volcano observatories to monitor volcanic activity (unrest and eruptions). The purposes of this Volcano-Monitoring Instrumentation Database (VMID) are to (1) document the Nation's existing

  16. Data assimilation strategies for volcano geodesy (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.


    Ground deformation observed using near-real time geodetic methods, such as InSAR and GPS, can provide critical information about the evolution of a magma chamber prior to volcanic eruption. Rapid advancement in numerical modeling capabilities has resulted in a number of finite element models targeted at better understanding the connection between surface uplift associated with magma chamber pressurization and the potential for volcanic eruption. Robust model-data fusion techniques are necessary to take full advantage of the numerical models and the volcano monitoring observations currently available. In this study, we develop a 3D data assimilation framework using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach in order to combine geodetic observations of surface deformation with geodynamic models to investigate volcanic unrest. The EnKF sequential assimilation method utilizes disparate data sets as they become available to update geodynamic models of magma reservoir evolution. While the EnKF has been widely applied in hydrologic and climate modeling, the adaptation for volcano monitoring is in its initial stages. As such, our investigation focuses on conducting a series of sensitivity tests to optimize the EnKF for volcano applications and on developing specific strategies for assimilation of geodetic data. Our numerical experiments illustrate that the EnKF is able to adapt well to the spatial limitations posed by GPS data and the temporal limitations of InSAR, and that specific strategies can be adopted to enhance EnKF performance to improve model forecasts. Specifically, our numerical experiments indicate that: (1) incorporating additional iterations of the EnKF analysis step is more efficient than increasing the number of ensemble members; (2) the accuracy of the EnKF results are not affected by initial parameter assumptions; (3) GPS observations near the center of uplift improve the quality of model forecasts; (4) occasionally shifting continuous GPS stations to

  17. Antisana volcano : a representative andesitic volcano of the eastern cordillera of Ecuador : petrography, chemistry, tephra and glacial stratigraphy


    Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Samaniego, Pablo; Militzer, A.; Beate, B.; Ramon, P.; Robin, Claude


    Antisana volcano is representative of many active andesitic strato-volcanoes of Pleistocene age in Ecuador's Eastern Cordillera. This study represents the first modern geological and volcanological investigation of Antisana since the late 1890's; it also summarizes the present geochemical understanding of its genesis. The volcano's development includes the formation and destruction of two older edifices (Antisana I and II) during some 400 + ka. Antisana II suffered a sector collapse about 15,...

  18. Real Closed Rings and Real Closed * Rings


    Capco, Jose


    Here we try to distinguish and compare different notions of real closedness mainly one developed by N. Schwartz in his Habilitationschrift and the other developed by A. Sankaranand K. Varadarajan which we shall call real closed *. We stick to the definition of real closed rings as defined and characterized N. Schwartz and we try to determine and characterize real closed rings that are real closed *. The main result is that real closed rings have unique real closure * and that real closure of ...

  19. Weakly Iπg-Closed Sets


    Ravi, O.


    called weakly Iπg-open sets in ideal topological spaces is introduced and the notion of weakly Iπg-closed sets in ideal topologicalspaces is studied. The relationships of weakly Iπg-closed sets andvarious properties of weakly Iπg-closed sets are investigated



    Rajasekaran, Ilangovan; Nethaji, Ochanan


    Abstaract−In this paper, we introduce nano ∧g-closed sets in nano topological spaces. Some properties of nano ∧g-closed sets and nano ∧g-open sets are weaker forms of nano closed sets and nano open sets

  1. The story of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -- A remarkable first 100 years of tracking eruptions and earthquakes (United States)

    Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Tilling, Robert I.


    part of the USGS, the Nation’s premier Earth science agency. It currently operates under the direction of the USGS Volcano Science Center, which now supports five volcano observatories covering six U.S. areas—Hawaiʻi (HVO), Alaska and the Northern Mariana Islands (Alaska Volcano Observatory), Washington and Oregon (Cascades Volcano Observatory), California (California Volcano Observatory), and the Yellowstone region (Yellowstone Volcano Observatory). Although the National Park Service (NPS) managed HVO for only 12 years, HVO has enjoyed a close working relationship with Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (named Hawaii National Park until 1961) since the park’s founding in 1916. Today, as in past years, the USGS and NPS work together to ensure the safety and education of park visitors. We are grateful to all park employees, particularly Superintendent Cindy Orlando and Chief Ranger Talmadge Magno and their predecessors, for their continuing support of HVO’s mission. HVO also works closely with the Hawaiʻi County Civil Defense. During volcanic and earthquake crises, we have appreciated the support of civil defense staff, especially that of Harry Kim and Quince Mento, who administered the agency during highly stressful episodes of Kīlauea's ongoing eruption. Our work in remote areas on Hawaiʻi’s active volcanoes is possible only with the able assistance of Hawaiʻi County and private pilots who have safely flown HVO staff to eruption sites through the decades. A special mahalo goes to David Okita, who has been HVO’s principal helicopter pilot for more than two decades. Many commercial and Civil Air Patrol pilots have also assisted HVO by reporting their observations during various eruptive events. Hawaiʻi’s news media—print, television, radio, and online sources—do an excellent job of distributing volcano and earthquake information to the public. Their assistance is invaluable to HVO, especially during times of crisis. HVO’s efforts to provide

  2. A CO 2-rich gas trigger of explosive paroxysms at Stromboli basaltic volcano, Italy (United States)

    Allard, Patrick


    In addition to rhythmic slug-driven Strombolian activity, Stromboli volcano occasionally produces discrete explosive paroxysms (2 per year on average for the most frequent ones) that constitute a major hazard and whose origin remains poorly elucidated. Partial extrusion of the volatile-rich feeding basalt as aphyric pumice during these events has led to consider their triggering by the fast ascent of primitive magma blobs from possibly great depth. Here I examine and discuss the alternative hypothesis that most of the paroxysms could be triggered and driven by the fast upraise of CO 2-rich gas pockets generated by bubble foam growth and collapse in the sub-volcano plumbing system. Data for the SO 2 and CO 2 crater plume emissions are used to show that Stromboli's feeding magma may originally contain as much as 2 wt.% of carbon dioxide and early coexists with an abundant CO 2-rich gas phase with high CO 2/SO 2 molar ratio (≥ 60 at 10 km depth below the vents, compared to ˜ 7 in time-averaged crater emissions). Pressure-related modelling indicates that the time-averaged crater gas composition and output are well accounted for by closed system decompression of the basalt-gas mixture until the volcano-crust interface (˜ 3 km depth), followed by open degassing and crystallization in the volcano conduits. However, both the low viscosity and high vesicularity of the basaltic magma permit bubble segregation and bubble foam growth at deep sill-like feeder discontinuities and at shallower physical boundaries (such as the volcano-crust interface) where the gas-rich aphyric basalt interacts with the unerupted crystal-rich and viscous magma drained back from the volcano conduits. Gas pressure build-up and bubble foam collapse at these boundaries will intermittently trigger the sudden upraise of CO 2-rich gas blobs that constitute the main driving force of the paroxysms. Deeper-sourced gas blobs, driving the most powerful explosions, will be the richest in CO 2 and have

  3. Deep and shallow slow seismicity within the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes (United States)

    Shapiro, N.; Frank, W.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Gusev, A. A.; Gordeev, E.


    We present observations of long-period (LP) seismic events occurring within a large volcanic system: the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes located on Kamchatka peninsular (Russia). We study two years of continuous seismic records by 12 seismic stations and detect the LP events based on the template-matched search. The results of this analysis reveal two distinct groups of LP sources: events that occurred just below the edifices of the active volcanoes, and events at depths of 30 km in the vicinity of a deep magmatic reservoir. The time histories of these deep and shallow LP sources are clearly correlated, both with each other and with volcanic eruptions, which suggests that they reflect the transfer of pressure within the volcanic plumbing system. We note similarities between the observed time histories of these volcanic LP events and those of previously reported tectonic low-frequency earthquakes, which confirms that fluid pressure is one of the key parameters that control the occurrence of LP seismicity. We then apply a statistical analysis recently developed for studying tectonic low-frequency earthquakes and consider the different shallow and deep catalogs of LP sources as point processes, and deduce the level of their time clustering from the shape of their autocorrelation function. We find a particularly elevated level of clustering for the LP events originating from the Tolbachik volcano that reactivated after 40 years of quiescence. We interpret this clustering as a result of the collective behavior of fractures activated during the opening of the previously closed volcanic plumbing system.

  4. Sensitivity to lunar cycles prior to the 2007 eruption of Ruapehu volcano. (United States)

    Girona, Társilo; Huber, Christian; Caudron, Corentin


    A long-standing question in Earth Science is the extent to which seismic and volcanic activity can be regulated by tidal stresses, a repeatable and predictable external excitation induced by the Moon-Sun gravitational force. Fortnightly tides, a ~14-day amplitude modulation of the daily tidal stresses that is associated to lunar cycles, have been suggested to affect volcano dynamics. However, previous studies found contradictory results and remain mostly inconclusive. Here we study how fortnightly tides have affected Ruapehu volcano (New Zealand) from 2004 to 2016 by analysing the rolling correlation between lunar cycles and seismic amplitude recorded close to the crater. The long-term (~1-year) correlation is found to increase significantly (up to confidence level of 5-sigma) during the ~3 months preceding the 2007 phreatic eruption of Ruapehu, thus revealing that the volcano is sensitive to fortnightly tides when it is prone to explode. We show through a mechanistic model that the real-time monitoring of seismic sensitivity to lunar cycles may help to detect the clogging of active volcanic vents, and thus to better forecast phreatic volcanic eruptions.

  5. Volcano art at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park—A science perspective (United States)

    Gaddis, Ben; Kauahikaua, James P.


    Long before landscape photography became common, artists sketched and painted scenes of faraway places for the masses. Throughout the 19th century, scientific expeditions to Hawaiʻi routinely employed artists to depict images for the people back home who had funded the exploration and for those with an interest in the newly discovered lands. In Hawaiʻi, artists portrayed the broad variety of people, plant and animal life, and landscapes, but a feature of singular interest was the volcanoes. Painters of early Hawaiian volcano landscapes created art that formed a cohesive body of work known as the “Volcano School” (Forbes, 1992). Jules Tavernier, Charles Furneaux, and D. Howard Hitchcock were probably the best known artists of this school, and their paintings can be found in galleries around the world. Their dramatic paintings were recognized as fine art but were also strong advertisements for tourists to visit Hawaiʻi. Many of these masterpieces are preserved in the Museum and Archive Collection of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, and in this report we have taken the opportunity to match the artwork with the approximate date and volcanological context of the scene.

  6. Evolution of deep crustal magma structures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV) intraplate volcano in northeast Asia (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Tkalcic, H.; Baag, S. Y.


    Heterogeneous features of magmatic structures beneath intraplate volcanoes are attributed to interactions between the ascending magma and lithospheric structures. Here, we investigate the evolution of crustal magmatic stuructures beneath Mount Baekdu volcano (MBV), which is one of the largest continental intraplate volcanoes in northeast Asia. The result of our seismic imaging shows that the deeper Moho depth ( 40 km) and relatively higher shear wave velocities (>3.8 km/s) at middle-to-lower crustal depths beneath the volcano. In addition, the pattern at the bottom of our model shows that the lithosphere beneath the MBV is shallower (interpret the observations as a compositional double layering of mafic underplating and a overlying cooled felsic structure due to fractional crystallization of asthenosphere origin magma. To achieve enhanced vertical and horizontal model coverage, we apply two approaches in this work, including (1) a grid-search based phase velocity measurement using real-coherency of ambient noise data and (2) a transdimensional Bayesian joint inversion using multiple ambient noise dispersion data.

  7. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  8. Volcano monitoring with an infrared camera: first insights from Villarrica Volcano (United States)

    Rosas Sotomayor, Florencia; Amigo Ramos, Alvaro; Velasquez Vargas, Gabriela; Medina, Roxana; Thomas, Helen; Prata, Fred; Geoffroy, Carolina


    This contribution focuses on the first trials of the, almost 24/7 monitoring of Villarrica volcano with an infrared camera. Results must be compared with other SO2 remote sensing instruments such as DOAS and UV-camera, for the ''day'' measurements. Infrared remote sensing of volcanic emissions is a fast and safe method to obtain gas abundances in volcanic plumes, in particular when the access to the vent is difficult, during volcanic crisis and at night time. In recent years, a ground-based infrared camera (Nicair) has been developed by Nicarnica Aviation, which quantifies SO2 and ash on volcanic plumes, based on the infrared radiance at specific wavelengths through the application of filters. Three Nicair1 (first model) have been acquired by the Geological Survey of Chile in order to study degassing of active volcanoes. Several trials with the instruments have been performed in northern Chilean volcanoes, and have proven that the intervals of retrieved SO2 concentration and fluxes are as expected. Measurements were also performed at Villarrica volcano, and a location to install a ''fixed'' camera, at 8km from the crater, was discovered here. It is a coffee house with electrical power, wifi network, polite and committed owners and a full view of the volcano summit. The first measurements are being made and processed in order to have full day and week of SO2 emissions, analyze data transfer and storage, improve the remote control of the instrument and notebook in case of breakdown, web-cam/GoPro support, and the goal of the project: which is to implement a fixed station to monitor and study the Villarrica volcano with a Nicair1 integrating and comparing these results with other remote sensing instruments. This works also looks upon the strengthen of bonds with the community by developing teaching material and giving talks to communicate volcanic hazards and other geoscience topics to the people who live "just around the corner" from one of the most active volcanoes

  9. Stability analysis of Western flank of Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) using numerical modelling (United States)

    Bru, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Fernandez-Merodo, Jose A.; Fernandez, Jose


    La Palma volcanic island is one of the youngest of the Canary archipelago, being a composite volcano formed by three overlapping volcanic centers. There are clear onshore and offshore evidences of past giant landslides that have occurred during its evolution. Currently, the active Cumbre Vieja volcano is in an early development state (Carracedo et al., 2001). The study of flank instability processes aim to assess, among other hazards, catastrophic collapse and potential tsunami generation. Early studies of the potential instability of Cumbre Vieja volcano western flank have focused on the use of sparse geodetic networks (Moss et al. 1999), surface geological mapping techniques (Day et al. 1999) and offshore bathymetry (Urgeles et al. 1999). Recently, a dense GNSS network and satellite radar interferometry results indicate ground motion consistent with deep-seated creeping processes (Prieto et al. 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2010). In this work, we present a geomechanical advanced numerical model that captures the ongoing deformation processes at Cumbre Vieja. We choose the Finite Elements Method (FEM) which is based in continuum mechanics and is the most used for geotechnical applications. FEM has the ability of using arbitrary geometry, heterogeneities, irregular boundaries and different constitutive models representative of the geotechnical units involved. Our main contribution is the introduction of an inverse approach to constrain the geomechanical parameters using satellite radar interferometry displacements. This is the first application of such approach on a large volcano flank study. We suggest that the use of surface displacements and inverse methods to rigorously constrain the geomechanical model parameter space is a powerful tool to understand volcano flank instability. A particular important result of the studied case is the estimation of displaced rock volume, which is a parameter of critical importance for simulations of Cumbre Vieja tsunamigenic hazard

  10. Pleistocene cohesive debris flows at Nevado de Toluca Volcano, central Mexico (United States)

    Capra, L.; Macías, J. L.


    During the Pleistocene, intense hydrothermal alteration promoted a flank failure of the southern portion of Nevado de Toluca volcano. This event produced a debris avalanche that transformed into a cohesive debris flow (Pilcaya deposit) owing to water saturation and weakness of the altered pre-avalanche rocks. The Pilcaya debris flow traveled along a narrow tectonic depression up to a distance of 40 km and then spread over a flat plain reaching up to 55 km from the volcano summit. This transition zone corresponds with a sudden break in slope from 5 to 0.5° that caused a rapid reduction in velocity and thickening of the flow that consequently reduced its competence to transport large particles. The resulting deposit thickens from 15 to 40 m, and contains boulders up to 15 m in diameter that form hummocky morphology close to the transitional zone. Sometime after the emplacement of the Pilcaya debris flow, heavy rains and superficial drainage contributed to remobilize the upper portions of the deposit causing two secondary lahars. These debris flows called El Mogote, traveled up to 75 km from the volcano. The edifice collapse generated lahars with a total volume of 2.8 km3 that devastated an approximate area of 250 km2. The area versus volume plot for both deposits shows that the magnitude of the event is comparable to other cohesive debris flows such as the Teteltzingo lahar (Pico de Orizaba, Mexico) and the Osceola mudflow (Mount Rainier, Wa). The Pilcaya debris flow represents additional evidence of debris flow transformed from a flank failure, a potentially devastating phenomenon that could threaten distant areas from the volcano previously considered without risk.

  11. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud. (United States)

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe


    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermoluminescence age determination of Mt. Fuji lava dome, Takahara volcano, North Kanto, Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Isao


    Mt. Fuji lava dome thought to be formed by recent action of Takahara volcano, is reported to be due to eruption at the Holocene epoch age on 1,000 or 6,500 years ago. However, on either of them the lava dome did not directly conduct its age measurement, and its age is obtained indirectly from eruption age of tephra estimated to be same age. Recently, precision thermo-luminescence (TL) method is improved and upgraded, by using which formulation of the Mayu-yama in the Unzen volcano was cleared to be about 4,000 years ago which corresponded to be very young. In this paper, by using the TL method for lava dome racks, it was attempted to remove uncertainty forming an indirect age estimation shown as previously. As a result, adopted samples showed 6.5 to 7.4 ka in age value, which showed a good agreement under considering of error. This result was older than 1,000 and some years, and was younger than 20,000 to 25,000 years, which showed a good agreement with 6,500 years ago, obtained by combining closed layer order survey and 14-C age. It is thought to be an important contribution in future forecasting of volcano eruption that the last period action of the Takahara volcano must be at the Holocene epoch age. And, as limited to a quartz containing sample, this can be said to show priority of TL method for a method to directly obtain age of younger dome rock than 10,000 years. (G.K.)

  13. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  15. Using Google Earth to Study the Basic Characteristics of Volcanoes (United States)

    Schipper, Stacia; Mattox, Stephen


    Landforms, natural hazards, and the change in the Earth over time are common material in state and national standards. Volcanoes exemplify these standards and readily capture the interest and imagination of students. With a minimum of training, students can recognize erupted materials and types of volcanoes; in turn, students can relate these…

  16. Volcano ecology: Disturbance characteristics and assembly of biological communities (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions are powerful expressions of Earth’s geophysical forces which have shaped and influenced ecological systems since the earliest days of life. The study of the interactions of volcanoes and ecosystems, termed volcano ecology, focuses on the ecological responses of organisms and biolo...

  17. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The gulf of Cadiz is one of the most interesting areas to study mud volcanoes and structures related to cold fluid seeps since their discovery in 1999. In this study, we present results from gravity cores collected from Ginsburg and Meknes mud volcanoes and from circular structure located in the gulf of. Cadiz (North Atlantic ...

  18. Global data collection and the surveillance of active volcanoes (United States)

    Ward, P.L.


    Data relay systems on existing earth-orbiting satellites provide an inexpensive way to collect environmental data from numerous remote sites around the world. This technology could be used effectively for fundamental monitoring of most of the world's active volcanoes. Such global monitoring would focus attention on the most dangerous volcanoes that are likely to significantly impact the geosphere and the biosphere. ?? 1990.

  19. Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974): evidence of a tertiary fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes-Andre, Jose


    Values for mode and dispersion calculated from SFT were analyzed using the SFT (Sequential Fragmentation/Transport) model to Fuego Volcano eruption (Guatemala, 1974). Analysis results have showed that the ideas initially proposed for Irazu, can be applied to Fuego Volcano. Experimental evidence was found corroborating the existence of tertiary fragmentations. (author) [es

  20. Ensemble methods for Etna volcano warning system (United States)

    Scandura, Danila; Cannavò, Flavio; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Montalto, Placido


    The large amount of signals used for volcanic monitoring allow detecting volcano criticalities with unprecedented reliability. At the same time, the use of different monitoring networks makes essential the development of a system that synthesizes into a single information the overall state of the volcano. In this context, the ensemble learning techniques can play a useful role accepting different nature inputs and synthesizing the information in a single output. In broad terms, these techniques use many weak learning algorithms to achieve the best predictive performance compared to any obtained from classical learning algorithms. By averaging the results of each weak learner, the ensemble algorithms reduce the risk of using a single non-discriminative weak learning algorithm and allows for a more accurate classification. Here we used the ensemble techniques to classify three different states of Etna volcano: 1) Quiet; 2) Strombolian activity; 3) Lava fountain. We carried out several simulations using a large data set spanning the 2011-2015 time interval, including the records of most part of monitored geophysical parameters and the corresponding volcanic state. Simulations were performed subdividing the available data into training and test sets. We checked the ability of the proposed method to recognize automatically the lava fountain episodes. To this purpose, we tested different ensemble techniques changing associated parameters and weak learners. The found system was able to identify the lava fountain episode with a reliability over 70% and to detect the beginning of lava fountain episode in the totality of the test cases. Results suggest that the proposed system can be seen as a promising tool for civil protection purposes.

  1. Volcanic Lightning in Eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano (United States)

    Edens, Harald; Thomas, Ronald; Behnke, Sonja; McNutt, Stephen; Smith, Cassandra; Farrell, Alexandra; Van Eaton, Alexa; Cimarelli, Corrado; Cigala, Valeria; Eack, Ken; Aulich, Graydon; Michel, Christopher; Miki, Daisuke; Iguchi, Masato


    In May 2015 a field program was undertaken to study volcanic lightning at the Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan. One of the main goals of the study was to gain a better understanding of small electrical discharges in volcanic eruptions, expanding on our earlier studies of volcanic lightning at Augustine and Redoubt volcanoes in Alaska, USA, and Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland. In typical volcanic eruptions, electrical activity occurs at the onset of an eruption as a near-continual production of VHF emissions at or near to the volcanic vent. These emissions can occur at rates of up to tens of thousands of emissions per second, and are referred to as continuous RF. As the ash cloud expands, small-scale lightning flashes of several hundred meters length begin to occur while the continuous RF ceases. Later on during the eruption larger-scale lightning flashes may occur within the ash cloud that are reminiscent of regular atmospheric lightning. Whereas volcanic lightning flashes are readily observed and reasonably well understood, the nature and morphology of the events producing continuous RF are unknown. During the 2015 field program we deployed a comprehensive set of instrumentation, including a 10-station 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that operated in 10 μs high time resolution mode, slow and fast ΔE antennas, a VHF flat-plate antenna operating in the 20-80 MHz band, log-RF waveforms within the 60-66 MHz band, an infra-red video camera, a high-sensitivity Watec video camera, two high-speed video cameras, and still cameras. We give an overview of the Sakurajima field program and present preliminary results using correlated LMA, waveforms, photographs and video recordings of volcanic lightning at Sakurajima volcano.

  2. Copahue volcano and its regional magmatic setting (United States)

    Varekamp, J C; Zareski, J E; Camfield, L M; Todd, Erin


    Copahue volcano (Province of Neuquen, Argentina) has produced lavas and strombolian deposits over several 100,000s of years, building a rounded volcano with a 3 km elevation. The products are mainly basaltic andesites, with the 2000–2012 eruptive products the most mafic. The geochemistry of Copahue products is compared with those of the main Andes arc (Llaima, Callaqui, Tolhuaca), the older Caviahue volcano directly east of Copahue, and the back arc volcanics of the Loncopue graben. The Caviahue rocks resemble the main Andes arc suite, whereas the Copahue rocks are characterized by lower Fe and Ti contents and higher incompatible element concentrations. The rocks have negative Nb-Ta anomalies, modest enrichments in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotope ratios and slightly depleted Nd isotope ratios. The combined trace element and isotopic data indicate that Copahue magmas formed in a relatively dry mantle environment, with melting of a subducted sediment residue. The back arc basalts show a wide variation in isotopic composition, have similar water contents as the Copahue magmas and show evidence for a subducted sedimentary component in their source regions. The low 206Pb/204Pb of some backarc lava flows suggests the presence of a second endmember with an EM1 flavor in its source. The overall magma genesis is explained within the context of a subducted slab with sediment that gradually looses water, water-mobile elements, and then switches to sediment melt extracts deeper down in the subduction zone. With the change in element extraction mechanism with depth comes a depletion and fractionation of the subducted complex that is reflected in the isotope and trace element signatures of the products from the main arc to Copahue to the back arc basalts.

  3. Spatial extent of a hydrothermal system at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, determined from array analyses of shallow long-period seismicity 1. Method (United States)

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.


    We present a probabilistic method to locate the source of seismic events using seismic antennas. The method is based on a comparison of the event azimuths and slownesses derived from frequency-slowness analyses of array data, with a slowness vector model. Several slowness vector models are considered including both homogeneous and horizontally layered half-spaces and also a more complex medium representing the actual topography and three-dimensional velocity structure of the region under study. In this latter model the slowness vector is obtained from frequency-slowness analyses of synthetic signals. These signals are generated using the finite difference method and include the effects of topography and velocity structure to reproduce as closely as possible the behavior of the observed wave fields. A comparison of these results with those obtained with a homogeneous half-space demonstrates the importance of structural and topographic effects, which, if ignored, lead to a bias in the source location. We use synthetic seismograms to test the accuracy and stability of the method and to investigate the effect of our choice of probability distributions. We conclude that this location method can provide the source position of shallow events within a complex volcanic structure such as Kilauea Volcano with an error of ??200 m. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.


    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  5. Volcano deformation and subdaily GPS products (United States)

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    Volcanic unrest is often accompanied by hours to months of deformation of the ground that is measurable with high-precision GPS. Although GPS receivers are capable of near continuous operation, positions are generally estimated for daily intervals, which I use to infer characteristics of a volcano’s plumbing system. However, GPS based volcano geodesy will not be useful in early warning scenarios unless positions are estimated at high rates and in real time. Visualization and analysis of dynamic and static deformation during the 2011 Tohokuoki earthquake in Japan motivates the application of high-rate GPS from a GPS seismology perspective. I give examples of dynamic seismic signals and their evolution to the final static offset in 30 s and 1 s intervals, which demonstrates the enhancement of subtle rupture dynamics through increased temporal resolution. This stresses the importance of processing data at recording intervals to minimize signal loss. Deformation during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, suggested net deflation by 0.05 km³ in three distinct phases. Mid-crustal aseismic precursory inflation began in May 2008 and was detected by a single continuous GPS station about 28 km NE of Redoubt. Deflation during the explosive and effusive phases was sourced from a vertical ellipsoidal reservoir at about 7-11.5 km. From this I infer a model for the temporal evolution of a complex plumbing system of at least 2 sources during the eruption. Using subdaily GPS positioning solutions I demonstrate that plumes can be detected and localized by utilizing information on phase residuals. The GPS network at Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, records network wide subsidence at rapid rates between 8 and 12 mm/yr from 2005-2010. I hypothesize this to be caused by continuous deflation of a ˜30 km deep sill under Kluchevskoy Volcano. Interestingly, 1-2 explosive events per year cause little to no deformation at any site other than the summit site closest to the vent. I

  6. The deep structure of Axial Volcano (United States)

    West, Michael Edwin

    The subsurface structure of Axial Volcano, near the intersection of the Juan de Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain in the northeast Pacific, is imaged from an active source seismic experiment. At a depth of 2.25 to 3.5 km beneath Axial lies an 8 km x 12 km region of very low seismic velocities that can only be explained by the presence of magma. In the center of this magma storage chamber at 2--3.5 km below sea floor, the crust is at least 10--20% melt. At depths of 4--5 km there is evidence of additional low concentrations of magma (a few percent) over a larger area. In total, 5--11 km3 of magma are stored in the mid-crust beneath Axial. This is more melt than has been positively identified under any basaltic volcano on Earth. It is also far more than the 0.1--0.2 km3 emplaced during the 1998 eruption. The implied residence time in the magma reservoir of a few hundred to a few thousand years agrees with geochemical trends which suggest prolonged storage and mixing of magmas. The large volume of melt bolsters previous observations that Axial provides much of the material to create crust along its 50 km rift zones. A high velocity ring-shaped feature sits above the magma chamber just outside the caldera walls. This feature is believed to be the result of repeated dike injections from the magma body to the surface during the construction of the volcanic edifice. A rapid change in crustal thickness from 8 to 11 km within 15 km of the caldera implies focused delivery of melt from the mantle. The high flux of magma suggests that melting occurs deeper in the mantle than along the nearby ridge. Melt supply to the volcano is not connected to any plumbing system associated with the adjacent segments of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. This suggests that, despite Axial's proximity to the ridge, the Cobb hot spot currently drives the supply of melt to the volcano.

  7. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.


    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  8. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein


    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  9. Observations of Pc3-4 Pulsations in the Cusp Region using Four Closely-spaced Cusp- Latitude Search-coil Magnetometers, All-sky Imagers, and the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (United States)

    Lu, F.; Engebretson, M.; Lessard, M.; Kim, H.; Moen, J.; Lorentzen, D.


    A two-dimensional, closely-spaced four-station array of search-coil magnetometers was set up on the Svalbard archipelago in September, 2006, at geomagnetic latitudes ranging from 74° to 76° N. These stations can take advantage of the many other observational instruments on Svalbard, including optical instruments and the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar. We report here on observations of Pc3-4 pulsations at these sites, which are commonly thought to originate in the solar wind's ion foreshock upstream from Earth's bow shock and have long been known to be especially intense in near-cusp regions. The path or paths by which these waves travel from upstream to the near-cusp ionosphere is, however, still controversial. Data obtained during northern winter 2006-2007, when the cusp footpoint was in darkness, have shown that the Pc3-4 wave amplitude was typically but not always larger at the lower latitude station, just equatorward of the nominal cusp latitude. Further study of these data, including analysis of relative phase of the waves and comparison with optical and radar data will help determine whether the region of wave transmission to low altitudes is via the cusp, boundary layer, or slightly deeper in the magnetosphere.

  10. Effect of CdCl{sub 2} annealing treatment on structural and optoelectronic properties of close spaced sublimation CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells vs deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalatu, N., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Hiie, J.; Mikli, V.; Krunks, M.; Valdna, V.; Maticiuc, N.; Raadik, T. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Caraman, M. [Physics Department, Moldova State University, A. Mateevici str. 60, Chisinau MD 2009, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)


    CdTe/CdS thin films were deposited by close-spaced vacuum sublimation at substrate temperatures 250-500 °C. The effect of substrate temperature in conjunction with CdCl{sub 2} heat treatment on the properties of CdTe/CdS thin films and devices is reported. X-ray diffraction measurements of structural properties of the films were carried out to study their phase composition and texture. Surface morphology, grain size and growth mechanism of the films were determined by the scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence measurements allowed us to establish the correlation between the point and extended defect structure on the one hand and the growth conditions on the other. The CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated at high substrate temperature, exhibited improved electrical characteristics compared to cells fabricated at low substrate temperature, yielding a high efficiency. - Highlights: • Dependence of CdTe/CdS solar cell properties on substrate temperature of CSS CdTe. • Increase of substrate temperature leads to formation of large densely packed grains. • Decrease in substrate temperature leads to formation of columnar grains. • CdCl{sub 2} treatment unifies the CdTe/CdS structure regardless of substrate temperature. • Increase in substrate temperature enhanced efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  11. Highly uniform AlAs/GaAs, InGa(Al)P/GaAs and InGaAs(P)/InP structures grown in a three 2″ wafer close-spaced vertical rotating disk reactor (United States)

    Vanhollebeke, K.; Considine, L.; Moerman, I.; Demeester, P.; Thrush, E. J.; Crawley, J. A.


    Previously we have reported the MOVPE growth of uniform AlGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs(P)/InP structures grown in a three 2″ wafer close-spaced vertical disk reactor at reduced pressure (76 Torr) [X. Zhang, I. Moerman, C. Sys, P. Demeester, J.A. Crawley, E.J. Thrush, J. Crystal Growth 170 (1997) 83-87]. Extending this work we now report photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray (DXRD) results for growth at 700 Torr including the In(Al)GaP materials system. For AlAs/GaAs layers we have achieved a total thickness variation within ±2% for the three wafers over a radial distance of 48 mm in both the x and y directions and a standard deviation ( σ n) of 0.69% measured by DXRD. In the InGaAs system we have achieved a standard deviation of 0.869 nm in the PL wavelength over all three wafers excluding the outer 2 mm. The best composition uniformity we have obtained in the InGaAsP system yields a standard deviation of 1.8 nm in PL wavelength over a 48 mm radial distance. For InGaP we have obtained an indium composition variation within the wafer of 0.203%.

  12. IMF dependence of the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn's ionosphere, and its relation to the UV auroral oval observed by the Hubble Space Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya


    Full Text Available We study the dependence of Saturn's magnetospheric magnetic field structure on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, together with the corresponding variations of the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. Specifically we investigate the interval from 8 to 30 January 2004, when UV images of Saturn's southern aurora were obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST, and simultaneous interplanetary measurements were provided by the Cassini spacecraft located near the ecliptic ~0.2 AU upstream of Saturn and ~0.5 AU off the planet-Sun line towards dawn. Using the paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere, we calculate the magnetospheric magnetic field structure for several values of the IMF vector representative of interplanetary compression regions. Variations in the magnetic structure lead to different shapes and areas of the open field line region in the ionosphere. Comparison with the HST auroral images shows that the area of the computed open flux region is generally comparable to that enclosed by the auroral oval, and sometimes agrees in detail with its poleward boundary, though more typically being displaced by a few degrees in the tailward direction.

  13. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.


    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  14. Insight into the subducted Indian slab and origin of the Tengchong volcano in SE Tibet from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Pan; Wang, Liangshu; Xu, Mingjie; Mi, Ning; Li, Hua; Yu, Dayong; Yuan, Xiaohui


    The subduction of the Indian Plate beneath SE Tibet and its related volcanism in Tengchong are important geologic processes that accompany the evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. However, it is still not clear whether the subduction and volcanism are confined to the upper mantle or if they extend deep into the mantle transition zone (MTZ). Here, we imaged MTZ structures by using receiver function methods with the waveforms recorded by more than 300 temporary stations in SE Tibet. The results show significant depressions of both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities and a thickened MTZ (260-280 km) beneath SE Tibet. The depression of the 660-km discontinuity (by 10-30 km) and the thickened MTZ correlate well with high P-wave velocity anomalies in the MTZ, indicating the presence of a subducted Indian slab within the MTZ. Significant depression of the 410-km discontinuity (by 10-20 km) beneath the Tengchong volcano indicates that the volcano originates from the MTZ and is closely related to the subducted Indian slab. Our results confirm the deep subduction of the Indian plate and the deep origin of the Tengchong volcano. However, it remains unknown whether a slab gap exists and contributes to the Tengchong volcano.

  15. Highest volcanoes on terrestrial planets and dwarf-planets adorn the deepest depressions of their respective bodies (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.


    Four highest volcanoes of the inner solar system tower above four largest and deepest hemispheric depressions of the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Vesta. Of course, this is not a mere coincidence; behind of this fundamental fact stays an equally fundamental planetary regulation. The wave planetology based on elliptical keplerian orbits of cosmic bodies evoking their wave warping shows that the fundamental wave 1 inevitably produces hemispheric tectonic dichotomy. One hemisphere rises, the opposite falls. The uprising half increases its planetary radius and space and thus is intensively cut by numerous faults and rifts. The antipodean subsiding half decreases its radius and space and thus is intensively compacted and affected by folds and faults. Forming extra material finds its way out in form of volcanic ridges and volcanoes. The strongest compaction caused by the wave 1 subsidence produces most voluminous eruptions. That is why the relation exists between the largest and deepest hemispheric basins and the highest basic volcanoes having mantle roots [1-4]. On the Earth's Pacific Ocean floor stay the Hawaiian volcanoes; on the lunar Procellarum Ocean occurs Crater Copernicus (erroneously taken as an impact feature); Martian Vastitas Borealis is adorned with Olympus Mons; Vestan Reasilvia Basin (obviously tectonic not impact feature) has the central mountain -the highest volcanic peak in the Solar system (Fig. 1-4). A regular row of increasing heights of these largest volcanoes extends in the outward direction. A study of the dwarf-planet Ceres only begins(DAWN project). Already the first distant images of this globe about 950 km in diameter have shown that it is, as was predicted [5], tectonically two-faced or dichotomous body (Fig. 5, 6). It seems that on its relatively even subsided hemisphere there are some elevated locations often bright white in color (Fig. 6). They could represent prominent "edifices" covered with frozen ices -degassing traces [6].

  16. Generalized locally-$\\tau_g\\star$-closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhavani


    Full Text Available In this paper, we define and study a new class of generally locally closed sets called $\\I$-locally-$\\tau_g^\\star$-closed sets in ideal topological spaces. We also discuss various characterizations of $\\I$-locally-$\\tau_g^\\star$-closed sets in terms of $g$-closed sets and $\\I_g$-closed sets.

  17. Generalized locally-$\\tau_g\\star$-closed sets


    K. Bhavani


    In this paper, we define and study a new class of generally locally closed sets called $\\I$-locally-$\\tau_g^\\star$-closed sets in ideal topological spaces. We also discuss various characterizations of $\\I$-locally-$\\tau_g^\\star$-closed sets in terms of $g$-closed sets and $\\I_g$-closed sets.

  18. Chemical compositions of lavas from Myoko volcano group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenaka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Takeyoshi; Hayatsu, Kenji.


    In the volcanic rocks produced in island arc and continental margin arc, the phenomena of magma mixing is observed considerably generally. The research on these phenomena has been carried out also in Japan, and the periodically refilled magma chamber model has been proposed. In this report, the results of the photon activation analysis for the volcanic rock samples of Myoko volcano, for which the magma chamber model that the supply of basalt magma is periodically received was proposed, and of which the age of eruption and the stratigraphy are clearly known, are shown, and the above model is examined together with the published data of fluorescent X-ray analysis and others. The history of activities and the rate of magma extrusion of Myoko volcano group are described. The modal compositions of the volcanic rock samples of Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, for which photon activation analysis was carried out, are shown and discussed. The results of the analysis of the chemical composition of 39 volcanic rock samples from Myoko, Kurohime and Iizuna volcanos are shown. The primary magma in Myoko volcano group, the crystallization differentiation depth and moisture content of magma in Myoko and Kurohime volcanos, the presumption of Felsic and Mafic end-members in R type andesite in Myoko volcano group, and the change of magma composition with lapse of time are described. (K.I.)

  19. Multidisciplinary research for the safe fruition of an active geosite: the Salse di Nirano mud volcanoes (Northern Apennines, Italy) (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Albarello, Dario; Cipriani, Anna; Cantucci, Barbara; Castaldini, Doriano; Conventi, Marzia; Dadomo, Andrea; De Nardo, Maria Teresa; Macini, Paolo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Mesini, Ezio; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea; Quartieri, Simona; Ricci, Tullio; Santagata, Tommaso; Sciarra, Alessandra; Vezzalini, Giovanna


    Mud volcanoes are emissions of cold mud due to the ascent to the surface of salty and muddy waters mixed with gaseous (methane) and, in minor part, fluid hydrocarbons (petroleum veils) along faults and fractures. In the Northern Apennines mud volcanoes are closely linked to the active tectonic compression associated with thrusts of regional importance. They are mostly cone-shaped and show variable geometry and size, ranging from one to few metres, and are located in 19 sites in the northwestern part of the Apennines. Particularly noteworthy is the Nirano mud volcano field, located in the Fiorano Modenese district, which, with a surface area of approximately 75,000 m2, is one of the best developed and largest mud volcano field of the entire Italian territory and among the largest in Europe; it is thus protected as natural reserve (Salse di Nirano) since 1982. The Nirano mud volcanoes are found at the bottom of an elliptical depression, interpreted as a collapse-like structure (caldera) that may have developed in response to the deflation of a shallow mud chamber triggered by several ejections and evacuation of fluid sediments. There are several individual or multiple cones within the field of the mud volcanoes of Nirano, with a rather discontinuous activity; apparatuses become dormant or even extinct whereas new vents can appear in other spots. In the research here presented about 50 vents have been mapped and few of them appeared in May 2016. The mud volcanoes of the region have been known since a long time and have always aroused great interest due to their outstanding scenic value, and, in the past the mud volcano emissions have been used in many ways. Beside their cultural value, the mud volcanoes of the study area represent a tourist attractiveness as testified by the increasing number of visitors (e.g. about 70,000 visitors in 2015 in the Salse di Nirano Natural Reserve). Numerous initiatives, targeted at various potential users, have been developed in the

  20. Deep Space Habitat Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  1. Fostering Science Club: Creating a Welcoming Extra-Curricular Science Inquiry Space for ALL Learners that Seeks to Close the Science Experience Gap in a Predominantly Minority Urban Community (United States)

    Mayfield, K. K.


    BackgroundTo minority adolescents in urban centers science inquiry seems like an engagement completed by others with specialized skills (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012). When scientists teach science classes those spaces and pedagogy are underwritten by the science teachers' beliefs about how science happens (Southerland, Gess-Newsome & Johnston, 2002). Further, scientific inquiry is often presented as the realm of upperclass whiteness (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012; Mayfield, 2014). When science educators talk about the achievement gaps between raced and classed learners, accompanying that gap is also a gap in science experience. My high school students in a postindustrial school district: attend a school under state takeover (the lowest 5/5 rating (MA Executive Office of Education, 2017)); have a student body that is 70% Latinx; and 96% of whom receive Free and Reduced Lunch (a Federal marker of a family below the poverty line). Annual Yearly Progress is a goal set by state and federal governments for school populations by race, ability, and language. In 2016, the site has failed to make its goals for special education, black, hispanic, white, and English as a Second Language populations. As a high poverty district there is a paucity of extracurricular science experiences. This lack of science extensions make closing standardized test gaps difficult. Geoscience Skills & FindingsThis after school program does not replicate deficit narratives that keep certain bodies of students away from science inquiry (Mayfield, 2015; Ogbu, 1987). Instead, Science Club uses an array of student-centered science (physics, math, arts, chemistry, biology) projects to help students see themselves as citizen scientists who lead explorations of their world. We meet 1.5 hours a week in a 30 week school year. Science club helps students feel like powerful and capable science inquirers with 80% girls in attendance, and uses science experiments to cultivate essential inquiry skills like: Observation

  2. Inflation in a closed universe (United States)

    Ratra, Bharat


    To derive a power spectrum for energy density inhomogeneities in a closed universe, we study a spatially-closed inflation-modified hot big bang model whose evolutionary history is divided into three epochs: an early slowly-rolling scalar field inflation epoch and the usual radiation and nonrelativistic matter epochs. (For our purposes it is not necessary to consider a final dark energy dominated epoch.) We derive general solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations in each epoch. The constants of integration in the inflation epoch solutions are determined from de Sitter invariant quantum-mechanical initial conditions in the Lorentzian section of the inflating closed de Sitter space derived from Hawking's prescription that the quantum state of the universe only include field configurations that are regular on the Euclidean (de Sitter) sphere section. The constants of integration in the radiation and matter epoch solutions are determined from joining conditions derived by requiring that the linear perturbation equations remain nonsingular at the transitions between epochs. The matter epoch power spectrum of gauge-invariant energy density inhomogeneities is not a power law, and depends on spatial wave number in the way expected for a generalization to the closed model of the standard flat-space scale-invariant power spectrum. The power spectrum we derive appears to differ from a number of other closed inflation model power spectra derived assuming different (presumably non de Sitter invariant) initial conditions.

  3. SAR interferometry applications on active volcanoes. State of the art and perspectives for volcano monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, G.; Coltelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Catania (Italy)


    In this paper the application of the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (INSAR) on volcanology is analysed. Since it is not a real novelty among the different applications of INSAR in Earth Observation activities, at the beginning of this paper it is analysed the state of the art of the researches in this field. During the discussion, the point of view of volcanologists is favoured because it is considered that the first applications were often badly aimed. Consequently, the initial INSAR performances in volcanology were overrated with respect to the real capabilities of this technique. This fact lead to discover some unexpected limitations in INSAR usage in volcano monitoring, but, at the same time, spurred on scientists to overcome these drawbacks. The results achieved recently allow to better apply SAR to volcanology; in the paper a possible operative work-plan aimed at introducing INSAR in the volcano monitoring system is presented.

  4. 3D geophysical insights into the Ciomadu volcano (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Zlagnean, Luminita


    RATIONALE Located at the south easternmost end of the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic chain of East Carpathians, the Ciomadu volcano (last erupted approx 30 ka ago) seems to represent the latest volcanic manifestation within the Carpatho-Pannonian region. Based on the interpretation of some large-scale electromagnetic and seismological surveys, the hypothesis of the in depth (8 -15 km) existence of a magma reservoir raises the volcanic hazard in the region. The close neighbourhood of the Vrancea active geodynamic zone, where intermediate-depth seismicity occurs within full intra-continental environment makes the study of the Ciomadu volcano of higher interest. METHOD During the time numerous geological investigations have been conducted in the area, but except for the previously mentioned large-scale electromagnetic and seismological approaches geophysical tools have been less employed. Relatively recent, within the frame of the INSTEC project, funded through a CNCS-UEFISCDI (Romanian Science Foundation) grant, the area has been subject to an integrated gravity and geomagnetic survey accompanied by outcrops sampling and lab determinations on rock physics. Field data have been highly processed and models of their sources have been constructed through 3D inversion techniques. RESULTS Overall, the potential fields have revealed a large gravity low covering the whole volcano area associating a residual geomagnetic anomaly with local effects mainly bordering the gravity anomaly. 3D inversion of the gravity data provided an intriguing image on the mass distribution within the volcanic structure, with underground densities much bellow the figures provided by the lab determinations on rock samples collected at the surface. The geometry of the revealed gravity source clearly suggests an andesitic/dacitic intrusion acceding to the surface along a deep fault that seems to belong to the alpine overthrust system of East Carpathians. Attempts to interpret the low value densities

  5. Rhyolitic volcano-ice interactions in Iceland (United States)

    McGarvie, Dave


    Iceland contains an abundance and diversity of rhyolitic edifices produced during volcano-ice interactions (glaciovolcanism) that is unmatched by any other volcanic province, with an estimated 350 km 3 erupted during the past 0.8 Ma from at least fifteen volcanic systems. This review summarises research undertaken during the past decade and provides a new summary of the distribution of rhyolitic glaciovolcanic rocks erupted during the past 0.8 Ma. Descriptions of effusion-dominated edifices focus on the two best-studied edifices — the c.0.6 km 3 and 570 m high Prestahnúkur edifice and the smaller-volume (walls. A particular feature of Prestahnúkur is its sheet-like lava bodies which are interpreted as sills that intruded the ice-edifice interface. Rhyolitic tuyas are products of sustained eruptions into thick ice, and form distinctive steep-sided edifices with flat or broad dome-like tops. They are 300-700 m high with volumes up to 2 km 3 (though 0.5-1.0 km 3 is more typical). Initial vigorous phreatomagmatic eruptions within well-drained ice vaults build steep-sided piles of tephra confined by ice walls. Gradual upwards increases in inflated clasts point to the decreasing involvement of meltwater and the increasing ability of the magma to vesiculate. As the eruption progresses and terminates, non-explosive degassing produces lava caps up to 300 m thick. Öræfajökull is a stratovolcano illustrating complex volcano-ice interactions generated when rhyolitic lavas erupt onto steeper slopes and encounter ice of variable thickness and properties (e.g. fracturing). Eruptive units record dramatic ice thickness fluctuations of up to 500 m in valley glaciers between eruptions, which emphasises that useful palaeoenvironmental information can be gleaned from detailed studies of volcano-ice interactions. Considerable value is added when palaeoenvironmental information is combined with Ar-Ar dating. For example Ar-Ar dating of two rhyolitic tuyas at Torfajökull reveal

  6. Large-N in Volcano Settings: Volcanosri (United States)

    Lees, J. M.; Song, W.; Xing, G.; Vick, S.; Phillips, D.


    We seek a paradigm shift in the approach we take on volcano monitoring where the compromise from high fidelity to large numbers of sensors is used to increase coverage and resolution. Accessibility, danger and the risk of equipment loss requires that we develop systems that are independent and inexpensive. Furthermore, rather than simply record data on hard disk for later analysis we desire a system that will work autonomously, capitalizing on wireless technology and in field network analysis. To this end we are currently producing a low cost seismic array which will incorporate, at the very basic level, seismological tools for first cut analysis of a volcano in crises mode. At the advanced end we expect to perform tomographic inversions in the network in near real time. Geophone (4 Hz) sensors connected to a low cost recording system will be installed on an active volcano where triggering earthquake location and velocity analysis will take place independent of human interaction. Stations are designed to be inexpensive and possibly disposable. In one of the first implementations the seismic nodes consist of an Arduino Due processor board with an attached Seismic Shield. The Arduino Due processor board contains an Atmel SAM3X8E ARM Cortex-M3 CPU. This 32 bit 84 MHz processor can filter and perform coarse seismic event detection on a 1600 sample signal in fewer than 200 milliseconds. The Seismic Shield contains a GPS module, 900 MHz high power mesh network radio, SD card, seismic amplifier, and 24 bit ADC. External sensors can be attached to either this 24-bit ADC or to the internal multichannel 12 bit ADC contained on the Arduino Due processor board. This allows the node to support attachment of multiple sensors. By utilizing a high-speed 32 bit processor complex signal processing tasks can be performed simultaneously on multiple sensors. Using a 10 W solar panel, second system being developed can run autonomously and collect data on 3 channels at 100Hz for 6 months

  7. Monitoring Thermal Activity of Eastern Anatolian Volcanoes Using MODIS Images (United States)

    Diker, Caner; Ulusoy, Inan


    MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument is used for imaging atmosphere, land and ocean with 36 bands. Both AQUA and TERRA platforms acquire 2 images daily (daytime and nighttime). Low temperature anomalies on volcanoes comprise important clues. Low temperature anomalies on Holocene volcanoes of Eastern Anatolia were investigated for these clues using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) images. A total of 16800 daily LST images dated between 2001 and 2012 have been processed using a code written in IDL (Interactive Data Language). Factors like shadow, ice/snow and clouds that are affecting the reflectance data are masked. The mask is derived from MODIS reflectance data state image. Various LST images are calculated: Two nested region of interest (ROI) windows (square/rectangular) have been selected on the images. First is the bigger window, which covers the whole area of the volcano (Total volcano area). Second one is a smaller window which circumference the summit (crater and/or caldera) of the volcano (Summit cone) where thermal output is generally higher when compared to the flanks. Two data sets have been calculated using the ROI's for each volcano. The first set contains daytime and nighttime raw data without any correction. The second set contains topographically corrected images; daytime images are corrected using Cosine and Minnaert methods and nighttime images are corrected using three step normalization method. Calculated surface temperatures (Tmax, Tmin, Tmean) are plotted annually. On Nemrut Volcano as an example, maximum and minimum temperatures are between 26.31oC and -44.87oC on nighttime data for twelve years period. Temperature difference between total volcano area ROI and summit cone ROI are calculated (ΔT). High ΔT indicates that there is an increase of temperature at the summit cone when compared to the total volcano area. STA/LTA (Short Term Average/Long Term Average) filter was applied to maximum temperature and

  8. A tactical, permanent telemetered volcano monitoring station design (United States)

    Lockhart, A. B.; LaFevers, M.; Couchman, M. R.


    The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) designs, constructs and installs telemetered volcano-monitoring stations for use in developing countries, at a wide range of latitudes and elevations, weather and environmental conditions. The stations typically house seismometers, GPS and webcams, singly or in combination. They are frequently installed quickly during a volcanic crisis, but are expected to function over the long term as permanent stations. The primary design goal is for a simple, highly portable station that can be installed in less than a day, but not require maintenance until the natural end of battery life, usually 2-5 years. The station consists of a pair of aluminum boxes (43x46x71cm, approx.) placed on the ground facing each other, 2-3m apart, forming the lower part of a metal framework made of 2" pipe to mount solar panels and antennae. Vertical sections of 2" pipe, 3-4m long, are clamped to each end of both the boxes, the lower ends buried into cement-filled holes. This makes 4 masts on a rectangular footprint of 1m X 3-4m. Two horizontal crosspieces of 2" pipe 3-4m long are clamped across the masts. Solar panels are laid across the crosspieces, mounted with 2" angle aluminum extending from the high crosspiece to the low one. Relative height of the crosspieces controls the angle of the solar panels. The crosspieces can be lengthened to increase mounting space for additional solar panels. Inside the aluminum boxes, the radios and electronics are housed in plastic boxes. All external cables are protected by flexible aluminum conduit. Important elements of the design include: -Redundant dual solar power supplies of expandable capacity for loads from 1W to 10W or more. -Robust lightning protection afforded by grounded metal footlockers and framework, and a built-in common grounding point. -Strongly resistant to ice loads. -Waterproof, insect-proof plastic boxes for radios and electronics. -Aluminum boxes are easily fabricated, fit within

  9. Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) for volcano monitoring in two dimensions: Opportunities and challenges. Case study Piton de la Fournaise volcano (United States)

    Samsonov, Sergey V.; Feng, Wanpeng; Peltier, Aline; Geirsson, Halldor; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Tiampo, Kristy F.


    Space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides an opportunity for monitoring ground deformation at active volcanoes with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Modern SAR satellites acquire very large volumes of data that no longer can be effectively and efficiently processed and interpreted manually. The development of novel automatic processing methodologies is warranted in order to fully utilize big data. The Multidimensional Small Baseline Subset (MSBAS) methodology is an example of the semi-automatic processing system for computing temporally dense two-dimensional, horizontal east-west and vertical time series of ground deformation from ascending and descending SAR imagery acquired by various satellites. Here MSBAS is used for mapping ground deformation at the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, France) during the February 2012-April 2016 period from RADARSAT-2 data. Five volcanic eruptions occurred during the June 2014-October 2015 period, producing over 60cm of horizontal and over 30cm of vertical ground deformation, well-resolved in the MSBAS-derived time series. Validation of DInSAR results by comparison with GNSS observations and modeling of the two last and largest eruptions was performed. Validation showed good overall agreement between DInSAR and GNSS observations while revealing the benefits and limitations of both techniques. Modeling of fault and dike geometries attempted to explain the dis-proportionally large eastward motion of the eastern flank of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano that occurred during these eruptions. We demonstrated that the simple elastic model consisting of two dikes and a sliding surface can account for the observed ground deformation.

  10. Dynamic triggering of volcano drumbeat-like seismicity at the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Horng


    Periodical seismicity during eruptions has been observed at several volcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens and Soufrière Hills. Movement of magma is often considered one of the most important factors in its generation. Without any magma movement, drumbeat-like (or heartbeat-like) periodical seismicity was detected twice beneath one of the strongest fumarole sites (Dayoukeng) among the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan in 2015. Both incidences of drumbeat-like seismicity were respectively started after felt earthquakes in Taiwan, and then persisted for 1-2 d afterward with repetition intervals of ∼18 min between any two adjacent events. The phenomena suggest both drumbeat-like (heartbeat-like) seismicity sequences were likely triggered by dynamic waves generated by the two felt earthquakes. Thus, rather than any involvement of magma, a simplified pumping system within a degassing conduit is proposed to explain the generation of drumbeat-like seismicity. The collapsed rocks within the conduit act as a piston, which was repeatedly lifted up by ascending gas from a deeper reservoir and dropped down when the ascending gas was escaping later. These phenomena show that the degassing process is still very strong in the Tatun volcano group in Taiwan, even though it has been dormant for about several thousand years.

  11. Antarctic volcanoes: A remote but significant hazard (United States)

    Geyer, Adelina; Martí, Alex; Folch, Arnau; Giralt, Santiago


    Ash emitted during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over massive areas of the globe, posing a threat to both human health and infrastructures, such as the air traffic. Some of the last eruptions occurred during this decade (e.g. 14/04/2010 - Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland; 24/05/2011-Grímsvötn, Iceland; 05/06/2011-Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile) have strongly affected the air traffic in different areas of the world, leading to economic losses of billions of euros. From the tens of volcanoes located in Antarctica, at least nine are known to be active and five of them have reported volcanic activity in historical times. However, until now, no attention has been paid to the possible social, economical and environmental consequences of an eruption that would occur on high southern latitudes, perhaps because it is considered that its impacts would be minor or local, and mainly restricted to the practically inhabited Antarctic continent. We show here, as a case study and using climate models, how volcanic ash emitted during a regular eruption of one of the most active volcanoes in Antarctica, Deception Island (South Shetland Islands), could reach the African continent as well as Australia and South America. The volcanic cloud could strongly affect the air traffic not only in the region and at high southern latitudes, but also the flights connecting Africa, South America and Oceania. Results obtained are crucial to understand the patterns of volcanic ash distribution at high southern latitudes with obvious implications for tephrostratigraphical and chronological studies that provide valuable isochrones with which to synchronize palaeoclimate records. This research was partially funded by the MINECO grants VOLCLIMA (CGL2015-72629-EXP)and POSVOLDEC(CTM2016-79617-P)(AEI/FEDER, UE), the Ramón y Cajal research program (RYC-2012-11024) and the NEMOH European project (REA grant 34 agreement n° 289976).

  12. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration - Phase I Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, William L. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Petty, Susan [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Cladouhos, Trenton T. [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Iovenitti, Joe [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Nofziger, Laura [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Callahan, Owen [AltaRock Energy, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Perry, Douglas S. [Davenport Newberry Holdings LLC, Stamford, CT (United States); Stern, Paul L. [PLS Environmental, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)


    Phase I of the Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration included permitting, community outreach, seismic hazards analysis, initial microseismic array deployment and calibration, final MSA design, site characterization, and stimulation planning. The multi-disciplinary Phase I site characterization supports stimulation planning and regulatory permitting, as well as addressing public concerns including water usage and induced seismicity. A review of the project's water usage plan by an independent hydrology consultant found no expected impacts to local stakeholders, and recommended additional monitoring procedures. The IEA Protocol for Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems was applied to assess site conditions, properly inform stakeholders, and develop a comprehensive mitigation plan. Analysis of precision LiDAR elevation maps has concluded that there is no evidence of recent faulting near the target well. A borehole televiewer image log of the well bore revealed over three hundred fractures and predicted stress orientations. No natural, background seismicity has been identified in a review of historic data, or in more than seven months of seismic data recorded on an array of seven seismometers operating around the target well. A seismic hazards and induced seismicity risk assessment by an independent consultant concluded that the Demonstration would contribute no additional risk to residents of the nearest town of La Pine, Oregon. In Phase II of the demonstration, an existing deep hot well, NWG 55-29, will be stimulated using hydroshearing techniques to create an EGS reservoir. The Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration is allowing geothermal industry and academic experts to develop, validate and enhance geoscience and engineering techniques, and other procedures essential to the expansion of EGS throughout the country. Successful development will demonstrate to the American public that EGS can play a significant role

  13. Embedded multiparametric system for volcano monitoring (United States)

    Moure, David; Torres, Pedro A.; Meletlidis, Stavros; Lopez, Carmen; José Blanco, María


    A low cost and low power consumption multiparametric system designed for volcano monitoring is presented. Once tested with various sensors, at present it is installed in two locations in Tenerife, Canary Islands, acquiring and transmitting data in real time. The system is based on a commercial board (Raspberry Pi®, RPi®) that uses an embedded ARMTM processor with a Debian (Wheezy-Raspbian) Linux Operating System. This configuration permits different standard communication systems between devices as USB and ETHERNET, and also communication with integrated circuits is possible. The whole system includes this platform and self-developed hardware and software. Analog signals are acquired at an expansion board with an ADC converter with three 16 bits channels. This board, which is powered directly from the RPi®, provides timing to the sampling data using a Real Time Clock (RTC). Two serial protocols (I2C and SPI) are responsible for communications. Due to the influence of atmospheric phenomena on the volcano monitoring data, the system is complemented by a self-developed meteorological station based on ArduinoCC and low cost commercial sensors (atmospheric pressure, humidity and rainfall). It is powered with the RPi® and it uses a serial protocol for communications. Self-developed software run under Linux OS and handles configuration, signal acquisition, data storage (USB storage or SD card) and data transmission (FTP, web server). Remote configuration, data plotting and downloading is available through a web interface tool. Nowadays, the system is used for gravimetric and oceanic tides data acquisition in Tenerife and soon it will be applied for clinometric data.

  14. Nabro and Mallahle Volcanoes, Eritrea and Ethiopia, SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief (United States)


    The area known as the Afar Triangle is located at the northern end of the East Africa Rift, where it approaches the southeastern end of the Red Sea and the southwestern end of the Gulf of Aden. The East African Rift, the Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden are all zones where Earth's crust is pulling apart in a process known as crustal spreading. Their three-way meeting is known as a triple junction, and their spreading creates a triangular topographic depression for which the area was named.Not surprisingly, the topographic effects of crustal spreading are more dramatic in the Afar Triangle than anywhere else upon Earth's landmasses. The spreading is primarily evident as patterns of numerous tension cracks. But some of these cracks provide conduits for magma to rise to the surface to form volcanoes.Shown here are a few of the volcanoes of the Afar Triangle. The larger two are Nabro Volcano (upper right, in Eritrea) and Mallahle Volcano (lower left, in Ethiopia). Nabro Volcano shows clear evidence of multiple episodes of activity that resulted in a crater in a crater in a crater. Many volcanoes in this area are active, including one nearby that last erupted in 1990.This image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model. A shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. The shade image was then combined with a color coding of topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, orange, and red, up to purple at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth

  15. Virunga Volcanoes Supersite: a collaborative initiative to improve Geohazards Assessment and Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in a highly populated region (United States)

    Balagizi, Charles M.; Mahinda, Celestin K.; Yalire, Mathieu M.; Ciraba, Honoré M.; Mavonga, Georges T.


    Reduction in the region. Furthermore, the large amount of expected scientific results will provide new insights on the understanding of the continental rift process, thus promoting the advance of scientific research. The supersites initiative promotes broad international scientific collaboration and open access to a variety of space- and ground-based data, and hence improves geophysical scientific research and Geohazards assessment in support of Disaster Risk Reduction. Presently, the Goma Volcano Observatory collects ground-based seismic, geochemical (SO2, CO2, Rn, temperature) and ground-deformation (GPS, EDM and Extensometry) data, which, together with remote and additional ground-based data that could be collected through the supersites network; may improve Geohazards assessment and monitoring in the Virunga region.

  16. Evaluation of Earthquake-Induced Effects on Neighbouring Faults and Volcanoes: Application to the 2016 Pedernales Earthquake (United States)

    Bejar, M.; Alvarez Gomez, J. A.; Staller, A.; Luna, M. P.; Perez Lopez, R.; Monserrat, O.; Chunga, K.; Herrera, G.; Jordá, L.; Lima, A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.


    It has long been recognized that earthquakes change the stress in the upper crust around the fault rupture and can influence the short-term behaviour of neighbouring faults and volcanoes. Rapid estimates of these stress changes can provide the authorities managing the post-disaster situation with a useful tool to identify and monitor potential threads and to update the estimates of seismic and volcanic hazard in a region. Space geodesy is now routinely used following an earthquake to image the displacement of the ground and estimate the rupture geometry and the distribution of slip. Using the obtained source model, it is possible to evaluate the remaining moment deficit and to infer the stress changes on nearby faults and volcanoes produced by the earthquake, which can be used to identify which faults and volcanoes are brought closer to failure or activation. Although these procedures are commonly used today, the transference of these results to the authorities managing the post-disaster situation is not straightforward and thus its usefulness is reduced in practice. Here we propose a methodology to evaluate the potential influence of an earthquake on nearby faults and volcanoes and create easy-to-understand maps for decision-making support after an earthquake. We apply this methodology to the Mw 7.8, 2016 Ecuador earthquake. Using Sentinel-1 SAR and continuous GPS data, we measure the coseismic ground deformation and estimate the distribution of slip. Then we use this model to evaluate the moment deficit on the subduction interface and changes of stress on the surrounding faults and volcanoes. The results are compared with the seismic and volcanic events that have occurred after the earthquake. We discuss potential and limits of the methodology and the lessons learnt from discussion with local authorities.

  17. Principal component analysis vs. self-organizing maps combined with hierarchical clustering for pattern recognition in volcano seismic spectra (United States)

    Unglert, K.; Radić, V.; Jellinek, A. M.


    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity related to changes in volcanic activity are commonly identified manually in spectrograms. However, long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require tools to facilitate automated and rapid processing. Techniques such as self-organizing maps (SOM) and principal component analysis (PCA) can help to quickly and automatically identify important patterns related to impending eruptions. For the first time, we evaluate the performance of SOM and PCA on synthetic volcano seismic spectra constructed from observations during two well-studied eruptions at Klauea Volcano, Hawai'i, that include features observed in many volcanic settings. In particular, our objective is to test which of the techniques can best retrieve a set of three spectral patterns that we used to compose a synthetic spectrogram. We find that, without a priori knowledge of the given set of patterns, neither SOM nor PCA can directly recover the spectra. We thus test hierarchical clustering, a commonly used method, to investigate whether clustering in the space of the principal components and on the SOM, respectively, can retrieve the known patterns. Our clustering method applied to the SOM fails to detect the correct number and shape of the known input spectra. In contrast, clustering of the data reconstructed by the first three PCA modes reproduces these patterns and their occurrence in time more consistently. This result suggests that PCA in combination with hierarchical clustering is a powerful practical tool for automated identification of characteristic patterns in volcano seismic spectra. Our results indicate that, in contrast to PCA, common clustering algorithms may not be ideal to group patterns on the SOM and that it is crucial to evaluate the performance of these tools on a control dataset prior to their application to real data.

  18. Summarizing the incidence of adverse events using volcano plots and time intervals. (United States)

    Zink, Richard C; Wolfinger, Russell D; Mann, Geoffrey


    Adverse event incidence analyses are a critical component for describing the safety profile of any new intervention. The results typically are presented in lengthy summary tables. For therapeutic areas where patients have frequent adverse events, analysis and interpretation are made more difficult by the sheer number and variety of events that occur. Understanding the risk in these instances becomes even more crucial. We describe a space-saving graphical summary that overcomes the limitations of traditional presentations of adverse events and improves interpretability of the safety profile. We present incidence analyses of adverse events graphically using volcano plots to highlight treatment differences. Data from a clinical trial of patients experiencing an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are used for illustration. Adjustments for multiplicity are illustrated. Color is used to indicate the treatment with higher incidence; bubble size represents the total number of events that occur in the treatment arms combined. Adjustments for multiple comparisons are displayed in a manner to indicate clearly those events for which the difference between treatment arms is statistically significant. Furthermore, adverse events can be displayed by time intervals, with multiple volcano plots or animation to appreciate changes in adverse event risk over time. Such presentations can emphasize early differences across treatments that may resolve later or highlight events for which treatment differences may become more substantial with longer follow-up. Treatment arms are compared in a pairwise fashion. Volcano plots are space-saving tools that emphasize important differences between the adverse event profiles of two treatment arms. They can incorporate multiplicity adjustments in a manner that is straightforward to interpret and, by using time intervals, can illustrate how adverse event risk changes over the course of a clinical trial.

  19. Feature selection of seismic waveforms for long period event detection at Cotopaxi Volcano (United States)

    Lara-Cueva, R. A.; Benítez, D. S.; Carrera, E. V.; Ruiz, M.; Rojo-Álvarez, J. L.


    Volcano Early Warning Systems (VEWS) have become a research topic in order to preserve human lives and material losses. In this setting, event detection criteria based on classification using machine learning techniques have proven useful, and a number of systems have been proposed in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive and principled study has been conducted to compare the influence of the many different sets of possible features that have been used as input spaces in previous works. We present an automatic recognition system of volcano seismicity, by considering feature extraction, event classification, and subsequent event detection, in order to reduce the processing time as a first step towards a high reliability automatic detection system in real-time. We compiled and extracted a comprehensive set of temporal, moving average, spectral, and scale-domain features, for separating long period seismic events from background noise. We benchmarked two usual kinds of feature selection techniques, namely, filter (mutual information and statistical dependence) and embedded (cross-validation and pruning), each of them by using suitable and appropriate classification algorithms such as k Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) and Decision Trees (DT). We applied this approach to the seismicity presented at Cotopaxi Volcano in Ecuador during 2009 and 2010. The best results were obtained by using a 15 s segmentation window, feature matrix in the frequency domain, and DT classifier, yielding 99% of detection accuracy and sensitivity. Selected features and their interpretation were consistent among different input spaces, in simple terms of amplitude and spectral content. Our study provides the framework for an event detection system with high accuracy and reduced computational requirements.

  20. Evidence for explosive volcanic density currents on certain Martian volcanoes (United States)

    Reimers, C. E.; Komar, P. D.


    The morphologies of certain of the smaller Martian volcanoes are discussed as possible results of explosive volcanic density currents. An examination of newly-photographed flank and caldera features of the Martian volcanoes Ceraunius Tholus, Uranius Tholus, Uranius Patera and Hecates Tholus, including steep slope angles, Krakatoa-type caldera morphologies, erosional features (radial channels and anastamosing gullies) and constructional features (blanketed flanks and possible lava deltas) reveals their similarity to terrestrial cones and composite volcanoes such as Barcena Volcano. Crater age data from the surface of Martian domes and shields indicates that such explosive activity occurred more frequently early in Martian geologic history, consistent with the view that the volcanic density currents were base surges rather than nuees ardentes, with the melting of permafrost supplying the water required in base surge generation.

  1. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument : Acoustical Monitoring 2010 (United States)


    During the summer of 2010 (July - August), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument (SUCR) at a site deployed for approximately 30 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help pa...

  2. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event (United States)

    Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  3. Examining the interior of Llaima Volcano with receiver functions (United States)

    Bishop, J. W.; Lees, J. M.; Biryol, C. B.; Mikesell, T. D.; Franco, L.


    Llaima Volcano in Chile is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in the southern Andes, with over 50 eruptions since the 1600s. After years of persistent degassing, Llaima most recently erupted in a series of violent Strombolian eruptions in 2007-2009. This period had few precursory signals, which highlights the need to obtain accurate magma storage information. While petrologic advancements have been made in understanding magma degassing and crystallization trends, a comprehensive seismic study has yet to be completed. Here, we present results of a receiver function survey utilizing a dense seismic array surrounding Llaima volcano. Application of H-κ stacking and common conversion point stacking techniques reveals a new Moho estimate and two structural anomalies beneath Llaima Volcano. We interpret a low velocity zone between 8 and 13 km depth as a newly imaged magma body.

  4. Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano provides unusual example of venting (United States)

    Vogt, P. R.; Cherkashev, G.; Ginsburg, G.; Ivanov, G.; Milkov, A.; Crane, K.; Sundvor, A.; Pimenov, N.; Egorov, A.

    A seafloor mud volcano north of Norway is presenting researchers with an uncommon example of venting and is raising important questions. Seafloor aqueous vents, gas vents, mud volcanoes, and mud diapirs are found in a variety of geological settings. However, scientists did not expect to discover venting at the northern site, now known as the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV). It is considered especially unusual because of its Arctitc Location (72°N), its development largely within glacial marine sediments, and its lack of association either with salt tectonics or with plate subduction. Further, the volcano is posing questions for investigators about the relationship of methane generation and mud volcanism to thick, rapidly deposited sediments; sediment failure; and gas hydrates (GH).

  5. Minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhamini M. P. Nayar


    Full Text Available A sequential space (X,T is called minimal sequential if no sequential topology on X is strictly weaker than T. This paper begins the study of minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces. Characterizations of minimal sequential Hausdorff spaces are obtained using filter bases, sequences, and functions satisfying certain graph conditions. Relationships between this class of spaces and other classes of spaces, for example, minimal Hausdorff spaces, countably compact spaces, H-closed spaces, SQ-closed spaces, and subspaces of minimal sequential spaces, are investigated. While the property of being sequential is not (in general preserved by products, some information is provided on the question of when the product of minimal sequential spaces is minimal sequential.

  6. Temporary seismic networks on active volcanoes of Kamchatka (Russia) (United States)

    Jakovlev, Andrey; Koulakov, Ivan; Abkadyrov, Ilyas; Shapiro, Nikolay; Kuznetsov, Pavel; Deev, Evgeny; Gordeev, Evgeny; Chebrov, Viktor


    We present details of four field campaigns carried out on different volcanoes of Kamchatka in 2012-2015. Each campaign was performed in three main steps: (i) installation of the temporary network of seismic stations; (ii) autonomous continuous registration of three component seismic signal; (III) taking off the network and downloading the registered data. During the first campaign started in September 2012, 11 temporary stations were installed over the Avacha group of volcanoes located 30 km north to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in addition to the seven permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey (KBGS). Unfortunately, with this temporary network we faced with two obstacles. The first problem was the small amount of local earthquakes, which were detected during operation time. The second problem was an unexpected stop of several stations only 40 days after deployment. Nevertheless, after taking off the network in August 2013, the collected data appeared to be suitable for analysis using ambient noise. The second campaign was conducted in period from August 2013 to August 2014. In framework of the campaign, 21 temporary stations were installed over Gorely volcano, located 70 km south to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. Just in time of the network deployment, Gorely Volcano became very seismically active - every day occurred more than 100 events. Therefore, we obtain very good dataset with information about thousands of local events, which could be used for any type of seismological analysis. The third campaign started in August 2014. Within this campaign, we have installed 19 temporary seismic stations over Tolbachik volcano, located on the south side of the Klyuchevskoy volcano group. In the same time on Tolbachik volcano were installed four temporary stations and several permanent stations operated by the KBGS. All stations were taking off in July 2015. As result, we have collected a large dataset, which is now under preliminary analysis

  7. Volcano-hydrothermal energy research at white Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allis, R.G.


    This paper presents the White Island (New Zealand) volcano-hydrothermal research project by the N.Z. DSIR and the Geological Survey of Japan, which is investigating the coupling between magmatic and geothermal systems. The first phase of this investigation is a geophysical survey of the crater floor of the andesite volcano, White Island during 1991/1992, to be followed by drilling from the crater floor into the hydrothermal system. (TEC). 4 figs., 8 refs

  8. The shallow magma pathway geometry at Mt. Etna volcano


    Patanè, D.; Di Grazia, G.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.; Boschi, E.


    A fundamental goal of volcano seismology is to understand the dynamics of active magmatic systems in order to assess eruptive behavior and the associated hazard. Imaging of magma conduits, quantification of magma transport and investigation of long-period seismic sources, together with their temporal variations, are crucial for the comprehension of eruption-triggering mechanisms. At Mt. Etna volcano, several intense episodes of tremor activity were recorded during 2007, in association wit...

  9. 14C Dating for the Younger Unzen Volcano, Japan (United States)

    Xu, S.; Xu, S.; Hoshizumi, H.; Ochiai, Y.; Aoki, H.; Uto, K.


    Unzen volcano is situated in a volcanotectonic depression, ~70 km west of the volcanic front of SW Japan. The volcanic products of Unzen volcano cover a wide area with many lava domes, thick lava flows, and pyroclastic deposits of andesite to dacite composition. The composite volcanic edifice can be subdivided into Older and Younger Unzen volcanoes. The Older Unzen volcano (500-200 ka) is thought to be a complex volcanic edifice originally centered near the present Younger Unzen volcano, but it has been displaced by several faults and deeply eroded. The Younger Unzen volcano (soil organic carbon of bulk sample underlying the volcanic eruption products. The 14C dating of the bulk soil organic matter is a polemic subject, mainly due to the complexity of the soil formation and to the variable contamination from several sources. The reliabilty of most 14C dates for buried soils in this study was supported by lack of significant age deviations in double organic extracts of soil (humin and humic acid fractions), agreement of dating results obtained for different materials (buried soil and charcoal), and normal sequence in soil-pyroclastic/lava sections. The 14C results based on surface and USDP borehole materials clarified the initial eruption ages of the Younger Unzen volcano, i.e., Myokendake: 35 ka; Fugendake: 25 ka; and Mayuyama: 4.5 ka BP. In particular, the Fugendake volcano is characterized by the repeated eruptions occurred at 24, 20, 19, 14, 11, 10, 9, 7, 4, 1.6 ka BP and recently AD 1300, 1663, 1792 and 1991 ~95.

  10. Three-dimensional shallow velocity structure beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines (United States)

    You, Shuei-Huei; Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Gung, Yuancheng; Lin, Cheng-Horng


    Based on its numerous historical explosive eruptions and high potential hazards to nearby population of millions, Taal Volcano is one of the most dangerous "Decade Volcanoes" in the world. To provide better investigation on local seismicity and seismic structure beneath Taal Volcano, we deployed a temporary seismic network consisting of eight stations from March 2008 to March 2010. In the preliminary data processing stage, three periods showing linear time-drifting of internal clock were clearly identified from noise-derived empirical Green's functions. The time-drifting errors were corrected prior to further data analyses. By using VELEST, 2274 local earthquakes were manually picked and located. Two major earthquake groups are noticed, with one lying beneath the western shore of Taal Lake showing a linear feature, and the other spreading around the eastern flank of Taal Volcano Island at shallower depths. We performed seismic tomography to image the 3D structure beneath Taal Volcano using the LOTOS algorithm. Some interesting features are revealed from the tomographic results, including a solidified magma conduit below the northwestern corner of Taal Volcano Island, indicated by high Vp, Vs, and low Vp/Vs ratio, and a large potential hydrothermal reservoir beneath the center of Taal Volcano Island, suggested by low Vs and high Vp/Vs ratio. Furthermore, combining earthquake distributions and tomographic images, we suggest potential existence of a hydrothermal reservoir beneath the southwestern corner of Taal Lake, and a fluid conduit extending to the northwest. These seismic features have never been proposed in previous studies, implying that new hydrothermal activity might be formed in places away from the historical craters on Taal Volcano Island.

  11. Geochemical signatures of tephras from Quaternary Antarctic Peninsula volcanoes


    Kraus,Stefan; Kurbatov,Andrei; Yates,Martin


    In the northern Antarctic Peninsula area, at least 12 Late Plelstocene-Holocene volcanic centers could be potential sources of tephra layers in the region. We present unique geochemical fingerprints for ten of these volcanoes using major, trace, rare earth element, and isotope data from 95 samples of tephra and other eruption products. The volcanoes have predominantly basaltic and basaltic andesitic compositions. The Nb/Y ratio proves useful to distinguish between volcanic centers located on ...

  12. New approach of ideal topological generalized closed sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnapazham Santhini


    Full Text Available In this paper,we introduce and investigate the notions of Iˆω -closed sets andI ˆω -continuous functions,maximal Iˆω -closed sets and maximal Iˆω -continuous functionsin ideal topological spaces.We also introduce a new class of spaces calledMTˆω -spaces.

  13. Volcanic Successions of the Jebal Remah Volcano, Northeast Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Jebal Remah volcano is one of huge but very poorly known tephra cones exposed on the basalt province of Harra El-Jabban. Detailed investigations indicate that this volcano is topographically distinct and structurally well-developed. It consists of voluminous air-fall scoria, arranged in three distinct horizons; namely lower black lapilli horizon, middle banded yellow horizon and upper brown blocky horizon. Each horizon consists of friable, loose and well bedded ejecta. Agglutination and lithification are limited to the upper horizon. A comparison among the volcanic successions of three horizons show different volcanic features that nevertheless retain a comparable overall character from one horizon to another. In spite of some similarity in the type of ejecta, actually these differ in total thickness, number of beds and internal stratification. This dissimilarity within volcanic successions of the volcano support the overall increase in fluidity, temperature and decrease in volatile content of the magma with the time. Thus, volcano shows a complete range of thermal facies. The studied volcano appears to have resulted from one prolonged eruptive phase. Its volcanic activity consisted of a series of discrete explosion intervals, separated by quiet periods. Field criteria indicate that the volcano is of strombolian type of volcanicity and resulted in a magmatic fragmentation mode.

  14. Recent Seismicity in the Ceboruco Volcano, Western Mexico (United States)

    Nunez, D.; Chávez-Méndez, M. I.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Sandoval, J. M.; Rodriguez-Ayala, N. A.; Trejo-Gomez, E.


    The Ceboruco volcano is the largest (2280 m.a.s.l) of several volcanoes along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift zone in Nayarit state (Mexico). During the last 1000 years, this volcano had effusive-explosive episodes with eight eruptions providing an average of one eruption each 125 years. Since the last eruption occurred in 1870, 147 years ago, a new eruption likelihood is really high and dangerous due to nearby population centers, important roads and lifelines that traverse the volcano's slopes. This hazards indicates the importance of monitoring the seismicity associated with the Ceboruco volcano whose ongoing activity is evidenced by fumaroles and earthquakes. During 2003 and 2008, this region was registered by just one Lennartz Marslite seismograph featuring a Lennartz Le3D sensor (1 Hz) [Rodríguez Uribe et al. (2013)] where they observed that seismicity rates and stresses appear to be increasing indicating higher levels of activity within the volcano. Until July 2017, a semi-permanent network with three Taurus (Nanometrics) and one Q330 Quanterra (Kinemetrics) digitizers with Lennartz 3Dlite sensors of 1 Hz natural frequency was registering in the area. In this study, we present the most recent seismicity obtained by the semi-permanent network and a temporary network of 21 Obsidians 4X and 8X (Kinemetrics) covering an area of 16 km x 16 km with one station every 2.5-3 km recording from November 2016 to July 2017.

  15. Volcano interactions and coupling: insights from Japan and the Galapagos (United States)

    Brothelande, E.; Amelung, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Zhang, Y.


    For the purposes of eruption forecast, it is relevant to characterize if and how adjacent volcanoes interact. More and more cases of interactions are suspected, but little is still known about the mechanisms at stake and the consequences of a deforming or an erupting neighboring edifice. In this study, we use geodetic data (GPS and INSAR) to characterize the mutual effects of deformation/eruption of adjacent volcanoes in two different contexts. We study the case of Aira caldera (Kyushu island, southern Japan), associated to the permanently erupting Sakurajima volcano on its border. The caldera exhibits a steady inflation pattern, which changes during the eruption of Shinmoedake (Kirishima volcanoes), located 25 kms apart. Similarly, on Isabela Island (Galapagos), Sierra Negra exhibits a steady inflation pattern during 2008 that appears to be affected by the activity of Cerro Azul, the neighbor volcano located 30 kms apart. We first characterize the change in the deformation pattern in both cases. In order to understand how pressure changes in a magmatic source under a volcanic edifice may influence deformation patterns observed on neighboring volcanoes, we then investigate two possible mechanisms using finite element modeling: stress transfer between superficial magmatic sources, and connection of plumbing systems through a deeper reservoir. We finally explore the consequences of these short-distance volcanic interactions in terms of deformation interpretation, and eruption delaying or triggering.

  16. Geomorphometric comparative analysis of Latin-American volcanoes (United States)

    Camiz, Sergio; Poscolieri, Maurizio; Roverato, Matteo


    The geomorphometric classifications of three groups of volcanoes situated in the Andes Cordillera, Central America, and Mexico are performed and compared. Input data are eight local topographic gradients (i.e. elevation differences) obtained by processing each volcano raster ASTER-GDEM data. The pixels of each volcano DEM have been classified into 17 classes through a K-means clustering procedure following principal component analysis of the gradients. The spatial distribution of the classes, representing homogeneous terrain units, is shown on thematic colour maps, where colours are assigned according to mean slope and aspect class values. The interpretation of the geomorphometric classification of the volcanoes is based on the statistics of both gradients and morphometric parameters (slope, aspect and elevation). The latter were used for a comparison of the volcanoes, performed through classes' slope/aspect scatterplots and multidimensional methods. In this paper, we apply the mentioned methodology on 21 volcanoes, randomly chosen from Mexico to Patagonia, to show how it may contribute to detect geomorphological similarities and differences among them. As such, both its descriptive and graphical abilities may be a useful complement to future volcanological studies.

  17. Morphological changes at Colima volcano caused the 2015 Hurricane Patricia investigated by repeated drone surveys and time lapse cameras (United States)

    Walter, Thomas R.; Navarro, Carlos; Arambula, Raul; Salzer, Jackie; Reyes, Gabriel


    Colima is one of the most active volcanoes in Latin America, with frequent dome building eruptions and pyroclastic flow hazards. In July 2015 Colima had a new climax of eruptive activity, profoundly changing the summit morphology and redistributing volcanic ashes to the lower volcano apron. These unconsolidated ashes are prone to be mobilized by rainfall events, and therefore required close monitoring. A major hurricane then had landfall in western Mexico in October 2015, accumulating c. 450 mm of rainfall at a meteorological station at Nevado de Colima (3461 m) and immense lahar and ash deposit mobilization from Colima Volcano. Hurricane Patricia was the largest ever recorded category 5 storm, directly crossing the state of Colima. Due to the successful scientific advice and civil protection no human losses were directly associated to this lahar hazards. We have conducted drone overflight in profound valleys that directed the pyroclastic flows and lahars two days before and three days after the hurricane. Over 8,000 close range aerial photographs could be recorded, along with GPS locations of ground stations. Images were processed using the structure from motion methodology, and digital elevation models compared. Erosion locally exceeded 10 m vertically and caused significant landscape change. Mass mobilization unloaded the young pyroclastic deposits and led to significant underground heat loss and water boiling in the affected areas. We also firstly report the use of camera array set-ups along the same valley to monitor lahar deposition and erosion from different perspectives. Combining these photos using photogrammetric techniques allow time series of digital elevation change studies at the deepening erosional ravines, with large potential for future geomorphic monitoring. This study shows that photo monitoring is very useful for studying the link of volcano landscape evolution and hydrometerological extremes and for rapid assessment of indirect volcanic hazards.

  18. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.


    Study of the petrology of Hawaiian volcanoes, in particular the historically active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, has long been of worldwide scientific interest. When Dr. Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., established the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) in 1912, detailed observations on basaltic activity at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes increased dramatically. The period from 1912 to 1958 saw a gradual increase in the collection and analysis of samples from the historical eruptions of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa and development of the concepts needed to evaluate them. In a classic 1955 paper, Howard Powers introduced the concepts of magnesia variation diagrams, to display basaltic compositions, and olivine-control lines, to distinguish between possibly comagmatic and clearly distinct basaltic lineages. In particular, he and others recognized that Kīlauea and Mauna Loa basalts must have different sources.

  19. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  20. Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Hayman, Patrick


    Felsic maar-diatreme volcanoes host major ore deposits but have been largely ignored in the volcanology literature, especially for the diatreme portion of the system. Here, we use two Mexican tuff rings as analogs for the maar ejecta ring, new observations from one diatreme, and the economic geology literature on four other mineralized felsic maar-diatremes to produce an integrated picture of this type of volcano. The ejecta rings are up to 50 m+ thick and extend laterally up to ˜1.5 km from the crater edge. In two Mexican examples, the lower part of the ejecta ring is dominated by pyroclastic surge deposits with abundant lithic clasts (up to 80% at Hoya de Estrada). These deposits display low-angle cross-bedding, dune bedforms, undulating beds, channels, bomb sags, and accretionary lapilli and are interpreted as phreatomagmatic. Rhyolitic juvenile clasts at Tepexitl have only 0-25% vesicles in this portion of the ring. The upper parts of the ejecta ring sequences in the Mexican examples have a different character: lithic clasts can be less abundant, the grain size is typically coarser, and the juvenile clasts can be different in character (with some more vesicular fragments). Fragmentation was probably shallower at this stage. The post-eruptive maar crater infill is known at Wau and consists of reworked pyroclastic deposits as well as lacustrine and other sediments. Underneath are bedded upper diatreme deposits, interpreted as pyroclastic surge and fall deposits. The upper diatreme and post-eruptive crater deposits have dips larger than 30° at Wau, with approximately centroclinal attitudes. At still lower structural levels, the diatreme pyroclastic infill is largely unbedded; Montana Tunnels and Kelian are good examples of this. At Cerro de Pasco, the pyroclastic infill seems bedded despite about 500 m of post-eruptive erosion relative to the pre-eruptive surface. The contact between the country rocks and the diatreme is sometimes characterized by country rock

  1. Generalized Pre α-Closed Sets in Topology


    Patil, Praveen Hanamantrao; Patil, Prakashgouda Guranagouda


    In this paper, a new class of sets called generalized pre α-closed sets are introduced and studied in topological spaces, which are properly placed between the class of pre closed and the class of generalized star pre closed (g*p-closed) sets.

  2. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst


    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be increased on Mars because the lower atmospheric pressure favors more rapid exsolution of dissolved gases from the magma, which also favors a wider dispersion of ejected particles. Therefore, care must be taken when applying terrestrial morphometric relationships to the interpretation of hypothesized volcanic features on Mars and other terrestrial bodies. As on Earth, small-scale volcanoes on Mars display diverse shapes and hence provide insight into diverse volcanic processes responsible for such variations. Those diverse processes may point to various mechanisms of magma ascent and eruption styles in dependency on magma properties (e.g., amount of volatiles) and the paleo

  3. Magma Dynamics in Dome-Building Volcanoes (United States)

    Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.; Hornby, A. J.; Schaefer, L. N.; Oommen, T.; Di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.


    The frequent and, as yet, unpredictable transition from effusive to explosive volcanic behaviour is common to active composite volcanoes, yet our understanding of the processes which control this evolution is poor. The rheology of magma, dictated by its composition, porosity and crystal content, is integral to eruption behaviour and during ascent magma behaves in an increasingly rock-like manner. This behaviour, on short timescales in the upper conduit, provides exceptionally dynamic conditions that favour strain localisation and failure. Seismicity released by this process can be mimicked by damage accumulation that releases acoustic signals on the laboratory scale, showing that the failure of magma is intrinsically strain-rate dependent. This character aids the development of shear zones in the conduit, which commonly fracture seismogenically, producing fault surfaces that control the last hundreds of meters of ascent by frictional slip. High-velocity rotary shear (HVR) experiments demonstrate that at ambient temperatures, gouge behaves according to Byerlee's rule at low slip velocities. At rock-rock interfaces, mechanical work induces comminution of asperities and heating which, if sufficient, may induce melting and formation of pseudotachylyte. The viscosity of the melt, so generated, controls the subsequent lubrication or resistance to slip along the fault plane thanks to non-Newtonian suspension rheology. The bulk composition, mineralogy and glass content of the magma all influence frictional behaviour, which supersedes buoyancy as the controlling factor in magma ascent. In the conduit of dome-building volcanoes, the fracture and slip processes are further complicated: slip-rate along the conduit margin fluctuates. The shear-thinning frictional melt yields a tendency for extremely unstable slip thanks to its pivotal position with regard to the glass transition. This thermo-kinetic transition bestows the viscoelastic melt with the ability to either flow or

  4. Volcano surveillance by ACR silver fox (United States)

    Patterson, M.C.L.; Mulligair, A.; Douglas, J.; Robinson, J.; Pallister, J.S.


    Recent growth in the business of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) both in the US and abroad has improved their overall capability, resulting in a reduction in cost, greater reliability and adoption into areas where they had previously not been considered. Uses in coastal and border patrol, forestry and agriculture have recently been evaluated in an effort to expand the observed area and reduce surveillance and reconnaissance costs for information gathering. The scientific community has both contributed and benefited greatly in this development. A larger suite of light-weight miniaturized sensors now exists for a range of applications which in turn has led to an increase in the gathering of information from these autonomous vehicles. In October 2004 the first eruption of Mount St Helens since 1986 caused tremendous interest amoUg people worldwide. Volcanologists at the U.S. Geological Survey rapidly ramped up the level of monitoring using a variety of ground-based sensors deployed in the crater and on the flanks of the volcano using manned helicopters. In order to develop additional unmanned sensing methods that can be used in potentially hazardous and low visibility conditions, a UAV experiment was conducted during the ongoing eruption early in November. The Silver Fox UAV was flown over and inside the crater to perform routine observation and data gathering, thereby demonstrating a technology that could reduce physical risk to scientists and other field operatives. It was demonstrated that UAVs can be flown autonomously at an active volcano and can deliver real time data to a remote location. Although still relatively limited in extent, these initial flights provided information on volcanic activity and thermal conditions within the crater and at the new (2004) lava dome. The flights demonstrated that readily available visual and infrared video sensors mounted in a small and relatively low-cost aerial platform can provide useful data on volcanic phenomena. This was

  5. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.


    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  6. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.


    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  7. Geochemical Trends are a Window on the Processes that Generate Volcano Fields (United States)

    Smith, I. E.; McGee, L.; Brenna, M.


    A first order determinant of the nature of a magmatic system is magma flux rate. Small scale basaltic volcanic systems are characterized by low rates of magma production and dispersed plumbing leading to their expression at the surface as fields of small ‘monogenetic’ volcanoes. Because of the very small magma volumes and rapid ascent rates involved there is little interaction with conduit surroundings and this means that the chemical composition of magmas that reach the surface carry the signature of the deep seated process that formed them. Detailed sampling through the stratigraphic sequence in some monogenetic cones of the Auckland Volcanic Field in northern New Zealand and on Jeju Island in Korea has revealed systematic compositional variations that reflect fractionation process acting on magma bodies close to their source. We observe simple trends indicating unitary processes in some volcanoes while in others there are multiple trends suggesting two or more discrete magma batches, fractionation processes in a range of pressures and mixing of magmas. There is also evidence that some ‘monogenetic’ cones have produced eruptions of compositionally distinct magma in temporally discrete episodes separated by years or decades suggesting separate but linked melting events. In some volcanic sequences eruptions begin with relatively primitive compositions and in others evolved compositions precede the eruption of more primitive compositions. Clearly there exists a spectrum between a simple compositional trend in a monogenetic cone and the often chaotic geochemical patterns of large complex volcanoes. This reflects increasingly complex plumbing systems through which larger and larger magma volumes transit the lithospheric mantle and crust. Magmatic systems in which the plumbing system is re-used over significant time periods will show thermal evolution and ultimately geochemical evolution which is reflected in increasingly complicated petrographic and

  8. Relative seismic velocity variations correlate with deformation at Kīlauea volcano. (United States)

    Donaldson, Clare; Caudron, Corentin; Green, Robert G; Thelen, Weston A; White, Robert S


    Seismic noise interferometry allows the continuous and real-time measurement of relative seismic velocity through a volcanic edifice. Because seismic velocity is sensitive to the pressurization state of the system, this method is an exciting new monitoring tool at active volcanoes. Despite the potential of this tool, no studies have yet comprehensively compared velocity to other geophysical observables on a short-term time scale at a volcano over a significant length of time. We use volcanic tremor (~0.3 to 1.0 Hz) at Kīlauea as a passive source for interferometry to measure relative velocity changes with time. By cross-correlating the vertical component of day-long seismic records between ~230 station pairs, we extract coherent and temporally consistent coda wave signals with time lags of up to 120 s. Our resulting time series of relative velocity shows a remarkable correlation between relative velocity and the radial tilt record measured at Kīlauea summit, consistently correlating on a time scale of days to weeks for almost the entire study period (June 2011 to November 2015). As the summit continually deforms in deflation-inflation events, the velocity decreases and increases, respectively. Modeling of strain at Kīlauea suggests that, during inflation of the shallow magma reservoir (1 to 2 km below the surface), most of the edifice is dominated by compression-hence closing cracks and producing faster velocities-and vice versa. The excellent correlation between relative velocity and deformation in this study provides an opportunity to understand better the mechanisms causing seismic velocity changes at volcanoes, and therefore realize the potential of passive interferometry as a monitoring tool.

  9. Ionospheric detection and localization of volcano eruptions on the example of the April 2015 Calbuco events (United States)

    Shults, Ksenia; Astafyeva, Elvira; Adourian, Sévan


    Using data from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers located in southern Chile, we study the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) response to two eruptions of the Calbuco volcano that occurred on 22-23 April 2015. In both cases, the TEC response showed quasi-periodic signals with several consecutive wave trains. The averaged amplitude of the observed covolcanic TEC perturbations amounted 0.45 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) for the first eruption and 0.16 TECU for the second one. We compare amplitudes of the TEC response to volcano eruptions of different intensity from our and previously published data, and we show that both the intensity and the background ionospheric conditions define the amplitude of ionospheric covolcanic disturbances. The relative contribution, however, scales with the eruption intensity. The traveltime diagrams allowed to estimate the propagation speed of the observed covolcanic TEC perturbations as 900-1200 m/s, which is close to the acoustic (or shock acoustic) waves speed at the ionospheric height. The spectrograms are consistent with the conclusion on the acoustic nature of the observed TEC perturbations. Finally, we use the approximation of a spherical wave propagating at a constant velocity from a point source, and for the first time, we calculate the location of the volcanic source and the onset time of the volcano eruption from ionospheric measurements. We show that even from 30 s ionospheric GPS data it is possible to "localize" the eruptive source within several degrees of latitude/longitude.

  10. Alaska - Kamchatka Connection in Volcano Monitoring, Research, and Education (United States)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Gordeev, E.; Eichelberger, J. C.; Neal, C. A.


    The Aleutian-Kamchatka portion of the Pacific Rim of Fire spans ~4400 km. This segment contains more than 80 active volcanoes and averages 4-6 eruptions per year. Resulting ash clouds travel for hundreds to thousands of kilometers defying political borders. To mitigate volcano hazard to aviation and local communities, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS), in partnership with the Kamchatkan Branch of the Geophysical Survey of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KBGS), have established a collaborative program with three important components: (1) volcano monitoring with rapid information exchange, (2) cooperation in research projects at active volcanoes, and (3) a series of volcanological schools for students and young scientists. Cooperation in volcano monitoring includes dissemination of daily information on the state of volcanic activity in neighboring regions, satellite and visual data exchange, as well as sharing expertise and technologies between AVO and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), formed in 1993 under the auspices of both IVS and KBGS. Collaboration in scientific research is best illustrated by involvement of AVO, IVS, and KBGS faculty and graduate students in mutual international studies. One of the most recent examples is the NSF-funded Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE)-Kamchatka project focusing on multi-disciplinary study of Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka. This international project is one of many that have been initiated as a direct result of a bi-annual series of meetings known as Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) workshops that we organize together with colleagues from Hokkaido University, Japan. The most recent JKASP meeting was held in June 2009 in Fairbanks, Alaska and brought together more than 150 scientists and students. The key educational component of our collaborative program is the continuous series of international

  11. Energy budget of the volcano Stromboli, Italy (United States)

    Mcgetchin, T. R.; Chouet, B. A.


    The results of the analyses of movies of eruptions at Stromboli, Italy, and other available data are used to discuss the question of its energy partitioning among various energy transport mechanisms. Energy is transported to the surface from active volcanoes in at least eight modes, viz. conduction (and convection) of the heat through the surface, radiative heat transfer from the vent, acoustical radiation in blast and jet noise, seismic radiation, thermal energy of ejected particles, kinetic energy of ejected particles, thermal energy of ejected gas, and kinetic energy of ejected gas. Estimated values of energy flux from Stromboli by these eight mechanisms are tabulated. The energy budget of Stromboli in its normal mode of activity appears to be dominated by heat conduction (and convection) through the ground surface. Heat carried by eruption gases is the most important of the other energy transfer modes. Radiated heat from the open vent and heat carried by ejected lava particles also contribute to the total flux, while seismic energy accounts for about 0.5% of the total. All other modes are trivial by comparison.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to understand the characteristics of a volcano occurred in marine environment, as Weh Island where Sabang City located is still demonstrated its volcanic cone morphology either through satellite imagery or bathymetric map. Methods used were marine geology, marine geophysics and oceanography. Results show that surface volcanism (sea depth less than 50 m take place as fumaroles, solfataras, hot ground, hot spring, hot mud pool and alteration in the vicinities of seafloor and coastal area vents. Seismic records also showed acoustic turbidity in the sea water column due to gas bubblings produced by seafloor fumaroles. Geochemical analyses show that seafloor samples in the vicinities of active and non-active fumarole vent are abundances with rare earth elements (REE. These were interpreted that the fumarole bring along REE through its gases and deposited on the surrounding seafloor surface. Co-existence between active fault of Sumatra and current volcanism produce hydrothermal mineralization in fault zone as observed in Serui and Pria Laot-middle of Weh Island which both are controlled by normal faults and graben.

  13. Space doubt


    Rega, Joseph Mark


    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  14. Close Air Support versus Close Combat Attack (United States)


    consequence when discussing the two different processes of close air support and close combat attack. This section focuses on service culture. Understanding...According to a RAND study written by Carl Builder, the Air Force “could be said to worship at the altar of technology.”67 These are not what Hofstede...characteristics that are highly prized in a culture and thus serve as models for behavior,” people like Billy Mitchell, Hap Arnold, Tooey Spaatz to name a

  15. Karymsky volcano eruptive plume properties based on MISR multi-angle imagery and the volcanological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower


    Full Text Available Space-based operational instruments are in unique positions to monitor volcanic activity globally, especially in remote locations or where suborbital observing conditions are hazardous. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR provides hyper-stereo imagery, from which the altitude and microphysical properties of suspended atmospheric aerosols can be derived. These capabilities are applied to plumes emitted at Karymsky volcano from 2000 to 2017. Observed plumes from Karymsky were emitted predominantly to an altitude of 2–4 km, with occasional events exceeding 6 km. MISR plume observations were most common when volcanic surface manifestations, such as lava flows, were identified by satellite-based thermal anomaly detection. The analyzed plumes predominantly contained large (1.28 µm effective radius, strongly absorbing particles indicative of ash-rich eruptions. Differences between the retrievals for Karymsky volcano's ash-rich plumes and the sulfur-rich plumes emitted during the 2014–2015 eruption of Holuhraun (Iceland highlight the ability of MISR to distinguish particle types from such events. Observed plumes ranged from 30 to 220 km in length and were imaged at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km. Retrieved particle properties display evidence of downwind particle fallout, particle aggregation and chemical evolution. In addition, changes in plume properties retrieved from the remote-sensing observations over time are interpreted in terms of shifts in eruption dynamics within the volcano itself, corroborated to the extent possible with suborbital data. Plumes emitted at Karymsky prior to 2010 display mixed emissions of ash and sulfate particles. After 2010, all plumes contain consistent particle components, indicative of entering an ash-dominated regime. Post-2010 event timing, relative to eruption phase, was found to influence the optical properties of observed plume particles, with light absorption varying in a consistent

  16. Eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes - Past, present, and future (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Heliker, Christina; Swanson, Donald A.


    Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience, one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination since before the dawn of civilization. In modern times, volcanic phenomena have attracted intense scientific interest, because they provide the key to understanding processes that have created and shaped more than 80 percent of the Earth's surface. The active Hawaiian volcanoes have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which often can be viewed and studied with relative ease and safety. In January 1987, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), located on the rim of Kilauea Volcano, celebrated its 75th Anniversary. In honor of HVO's Diamond Jubilee, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published Professional Paper 1350 (see list of Selected Readings, page 57), a comprehensive summary of the many studies on Hawaiian volcanism by USGS and other scientists through the mid-1980s. Drawing from the wealth of data contained in that volume, the USGS also published in 1987 the original edition of this general-interest booklet, focusing on selected aspects of the eruptive history, style, and products of two of Hawai'i's active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. This revised edition of the booklet-spurred by the approaching Centennial of HVO in January 2012-summarizes new information gained since the January 1983 onset of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption, which has continued essentially nonstop through 2010 and shows no signs of letup. It also includes description of Kilauea's summit activity within Halema'uma'u Crater, which began in mid-March 2008 and continues as of this writing (late 2010). This general-interest booklet is a companion to the one on Mount St. Helens Volcano first published in 1984 and revised in 1990 (see Selected Readings). Together, these publications illustrate the contrast between the two main types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, such as those in Hawai'i, which generally

  17. Parallel System Architecture (PSA): An efficient approach for automatic recognition of volcano-seismic events (United States)

    Cortés, Guillermo; García, Luz; Álvarez, Isaac; Benítez, Carmen; de la Torre, Ángel; Ibáñez, Jesús


    Automatic recognition of volcano-seismic events is becoming one of the most demanded features in the early warning area at continuous monitoring facilities. While human-driven cataloguing is time-consuming and often an unreliable task, an appropriate machine framework allows expert technicians to focus only on result analysis and decision-making. This work presents an alternative to serial architectures used in classic recognition systems introducing a parallel implementation of the whole process: configuration, feature extraction, feature selection and classification stages are independently carried out for each type of events in order to exploit the intrinsic properties of each signal class. The system uses Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) to classify the database recorded at Deception Volcano Island (Antarctica) obtaining a baseline recognition rate of 84% with a cepstral-based waveform parameterization in the serial architecture. The parallel approach increases the results to close to 92% using mixture-based parameterization vectors or up to 91% when the vector size is reduced by 19% via the Discriminative Feature Selection (DFS) algorithm. Besides the result improvement, the parallel architecture represents a major step in terms of flexibility and reliability thanks to the class-focused analysis, providing an efficient tool for monitoring observatories which require real-time solutions.

  18. Alteration related to hydrothermal activity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (NRV), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jhon; Zuluaga, Carlos; Mojica, Jaime


    The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending one number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products. the observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of very low modal proportion of sulphates, sulphides and native sulphur in some areas could point to a low sulphidation zone. However, the proximity to the volcano and the presence of acid thermal waters and steam pose an apparent contradiction with an expected high sulphidation zone which is explained by climatic conditions, where excess water has dissolved and leached sulfides, sulphur and sulphates close to the volcano. fault zones serve as conducts for fluid transport and have acid-sulphate mineral associations produced by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam-heated environment of H 2 S released by deeper, boiling fluids or by the disproportionation of magmatic SO 2 to H 2 S and H 2 SO 4 during condensation of magmatic vapor plume at intermedia depths in magmatic hydrothermal environment in andesitic volcanic terrain characteristic of high sulphidation zones.

  19. Hydrothermal System of the Lastarria Volcano (Central Andes) Imaged by Magnetotellurics (United States)

    Diaz, D.


    Lazufre volcanic complex, located in the central Andes, is recently undergoing an episode of uplift, conforming one of the most extensive deforming volcanic systems worldwide. Recent works have focused on the subsurface of this volcanic system at different scales, using surface deformation data, seismic noise tomography and magnetotellurics. Here we image the electrical resistivity structure of the Lastarria volcano, one of the most important features in the Lazufre area, using broadband magnetotelluric data at 30 locations around the volcanic edifice. Results from 3-D modeling show a conductive zone at 6 km depth south of the Lastarria volcano interpreted as a magmatic heat source, which is connected to a shallower conductive area beneath the volcanic edifice and its close vicinity. This shallow highly conductive zone fits with geochemical analysis results of thermal fluid discharges, related to fumaroles present in this area, in terms of depth extent and possible temperatures of fluids, and presents also a good correlation with seismic tomography results. The horizontal extension of this shallow conductive zone, related to the hydrothermal system of Lastarria, suggests that it has been draining one of the lagoons in the area (Laguna Azufrera), forming a sulfur rich area which can be observed at the southern side of this lagoon. Joint modeling of the hydrothermal system using magnetotellurics and seismic data is part of the current work.

  20. Volcano Monitoring in Ecuador: Three Decades of Continuous Progress of the Instituto Geofisico - Escuela Politecnica Nacional (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Hall, M. L.; Mothes, P. A.; Ramon, P.; Hidalgo, S.; Andrade, D.; Vallejo Vargas, S.; Steele, A. L.; Anzieta, J. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Palacios, P.; Alvarado, A. P.; Enriquez, W.; Vasconez, F.; Vaca, M.; Arrais, S.; Viracucha, G.; Bernard, B.


    In 1988, the Instituto Geofisico (IG) began a permanent surveillance of Ecuadorian volcanoes, and due to activity on Guagua Pichincha, SP seismic stations and EDM control lines were then installed. Later, with the UNDRO and OAS projects, telemetered seismic monitoring was expanded to Tungurahua, Cotopaxi, Cuicocha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Cayambe, Cerro Negro, and Quilotoa volcanoes. In 1992 an agreement with the Instituto Ecuatoriano de Electrificacion strengthened the monitoring of Tungurahua and Cotopaxi volcanoes with real-time SP seismic networks and EDM lines. Thus, background activity levels became established, which was helpful because of the onset of the 1999 eruptive activity at Tungurahua and Guagua Pichincha. These eruptions had a notable impact on Baños and Quito. Unrest at Cotopaxi volcano was detected in 2001-2002, but waned. In 2002 Reventador began its eruptive period which continues to the present and is closely monitored by the IG. In 2006 permanent seismic BB stations and infrasound sensors were installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi under a cooperative program supported by JICA, which allowed us to follow Tungurahua's climatic eruptions of 2006 and subsequent eruptions up to the present. Programs supported by the Ecuadorian Secretaria Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia and the Secretaria Nacional de Planificacion resulted in further expansion of the IG's monitoring infrastructure. Thermal and video imagery, SO2 emission monitoring, geochemical analyses, continuous GPS and tiltmeters, and micro-barometric surveillance have been incorporated. Sangay, Soche, Ninahuilca, Pululahua, and Fernandina, Cerro Azul, Sierra Negra, and Alcedo in the Galapagos Islands are now monitored in real-time. During this time, international cooperation with universities (Blaise Pascal & Nice-France, U. North Carolina, New Mexico Tech, Uppsala-Sweden, Nagoya, etc.), and research centers (USGS & UNAVCO-USA, IRD-France, NIED-Japan, SGC-Colombia, VAAC, MIROVA) has introduced

  1. Unmanned Airborne System Deployment at Turrialba Volcano for Real Time Eruptive Cloud Measurements (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Fladeland, M. M.; Bland, G.; Corrales, E.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Kolyer, R.


    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of instrument packages enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes, even when the active conditions of the volcano do not allow volcanologists and emergency response personnel to get too close to the erupting crater. This has been demonstrated this year by flying a sUAS through the heavy ash driven erupting volcanic cloud of Turrialba Volcano, while conducting real time in situ measurement of gases over the crater summit. The event also achieved the collection of newly released ash samples from the erupting volcano. The interception of the Turrialba ash cloud occurred during the CARTA 2015 field campaign carried out as part of an ongoing program for remote sensing satellite calibration and validation purposes, using active volcanic plumes. These deployments are timed to support overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite on a bimonthly basis using airborne platforms such as tethered balloons, free-flying fixed wing small UAVs at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within about a 5km radius of the summit crater. The onboard instrument includes the MiniGas payload which consists of an array of single electrochemical and infrared gas detectors (SO2, H2S CO2), temperature, pressure, relative humidity and GPS sensors, all connected to an Arduino-based board, with data collected at 1Hz. Data are both stored onboard and sent by telemetry to the ground operator within a 3 km range. The UAV can also carry visible and infrared cameras as well as other payloads, such as a UAV-MS payload that is currently under development for mass spectrometer-based in situ measurements. The presentation describes the ongoing UAV- based in situ remote sensing validation program at Turrialba Volcano, the results of a fly-through the eruptive cloud, as well as future plans to continue these efforts. Work presented here was

  2. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.


    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Magma source beneath the Bezymianny volcano and its interconnection with Klyuchevskoy inferred from local earthquake seismic tomography (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Koulakov, I. Yu.; West, M.; Jakovlev, A. V.; Gordeev, E. I.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V. N.


    We present a new 3D model of P and S wave velocities and Vp/Vs ratio to 20 km depth beneath the active Klyuchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes (Kamchatka, Russia). In this study, we use travel time data from local seismicity recorded by temporary stations of the PIRE experiment from October 24 to December 15, 2009 and permanent stations operated by the Kamchatkan Branch of Geophysical Survey (KBGS). The calculations were performed using the LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009). The resolution limitations were explored using a series of synthetic tests with checkerboard patterns in the horizontal and vertical sections. At shallow depths, the resulting Vp and Vs anomalies tend to alternate on opposite sides of the lineation connecting the most active volcanic centers of the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). This prominent lineation suggests the presence of a large fault zone passing throughout the KVG, consistent with regional tectonics. We suggest that this fault zone weakens the crust creating a natural pathway for magmas to reach the upper crust. Beneath Bezymianny volcano we observe a shallow anomaly of high Vp/Vs ratio extending to 5-6 km depth. Beneath Klyuchevskoy another high Vp/Vs anomaly is observed, at deeper depths of 7 and 15 km. These findings are consistent with the regional-scale model of Koulakov et al. (2013a) and provide some explanation for how very different eruption styles can be maintained at two volcanoes in close proximity over numerous eruption cycles.

  4. Source process of very long period seismic events associated with the 1998 activity of Iwate Volcano, northeastern Japan (United States)

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Satoru; Sato, Minemori; Kobayashi, Tomokatsu; Ueki, Sadato; Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohtake, Masakazu; Sato, Haruo


    We observed very long period seismic events that are associated with the 1998 activity of Iwate Volcano, northeast Japan. The events show a dominant period of 10 s and duration of 30-60 s, often with accompanying short-period waves at the beginning and at the end of the long-period signals. By analyzing the broadband seismograms we find that the source elongates in the east-west direction for ˜4 km at a depth of 2 km beneath the western part of Iwate Volcano. Results of moment tensor inversions show a source mechanism of mutual deflation and inflation of two chambers located at the western and eastern edges of the source region. The source region coincides with the low seismic velocity zone detected by seismic tomography and is very close to the locations of pressure sources estimated from crustal deformation data. On the basis of these results we infer that the very long period seismic events are generated by transportation and movement of magmatic fluid (hot water and/or magma) in a shallow part of the volcano. We further present a simple source model of very long period seismic events based on one-dimensional flow dynamics and propose a new parameter to characterize the size of very long period event: the energy flow rate, which is obtained by dividing the seismic moment by the dominant period. The energy flow rate was estimated as 3.1×1012 J/s for the event on July 29, 1998.

  5. Ground deformation cycles in a magma-effusive stage, and sub-Plinian and Vulcanian eruptions at Kirishima volcanoes, Japan (United States)

    Takeo, M.; Maehara, Y.; Ichihara, M.; Ohminato, T.; Kamata, R.; Oikawa, J.


    The dynamics of explosive eruptions, such as Plinian, sub-Plinian, Vulcanian, and Strombolian ones, is one of the most fascinating subjects in volcano physics. During the early period of volcanic activity at the Shinmoe-dake Volcano in 2011, various kinds of activities, such as sub-Plinian eruptions, a magma effusion, and Vulcanian eruptions, occurred sequentially. A different kind of tilt motion accompanied each activity. Here we clarify the characteristics of the tilt motions and their time sequences, presenting a new explanation of the triggering mechanism of a Vulcanian eruption. The sub-Plinian and the Vulcanian eruptions at the Shinmoe-dake Volcano were preceded by inflations at shallow depths near the summit. The inflation-deflation cycles were also recorded during the magma-effusive stage, with a typical period of 1 h, synchronized with volcanic tremors or long-period events. Almost all Vulcanian eruptions were preceded by trapezoidal inflations, whose durations systematically lengthened as time progressed, and were followed by various time sequences of tilt motions, which became increasingly more complicated throughout the frequent Vulcanian eruptions. We have found clear linearity with a constant gradient of 0.45 between the logarithm of the preceding duration versus elapsed time for each substage. These observations can be consistently explained based on the assumption that a Vulcanian eruption is induced by a catastrophic rupture of the strongest closed, solid magma frame due to magma degassing overpressure, and the degassing from magma declines exponentially with time.

  6. A 3D visualization of spatial relationship between geological structure and groundwater chemical profile around Iwate volcano, Japan: based on the ARCGIS 3D Analyst (United States)

    Shibahara, A.; Ohwada, M.; Itoh, J.; Kazahaya, K.; Tsukamoto, H.; Takahashi, M.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuhara, M.; Inamura, A.; Oyama, Y.


    We established 3D geological and hydrological model around Iwate volcano to visualize 3D relationships between subsurface structure and groundwater profile. Iwate volcano is a typical polygenetic volcano located in NE Japan, and its body is composed of two stratovolcanoes which have experienced sector collapses several times. Because of this complex structure, groundwater flow around Iwate volcano is strongly restricted by subsurface construction. For example, Kazahaya and Yasuhara (1999) clarified that shallow groundwater in north and east flanks of Iwate volcano are recharged at the mountaintop, and these flow systems are restricted in north and east area because of the structure of younger volcanic body collapse. In addition, Ohwada et al. (2006) found that these shallow groundwater in north and east flanks have relatively high concentration of major chemical components and high 3He/4He ratios. In this study, we succeeded to visualize the spatial relationship between subsurface structure and chemical profile of shallow and deep groundwater system using 3D model on the GIS. In the study region, a number of geological and hydrological datasets, such as boring log data and groundwater chemical profile, were reported. All these paper data are digitized and converted to meshed data on the GIS, and plotted in the three dimensional space to visualize spatial distribution. We also inputted digital elevation model (DEM) around Iwate volcano issued by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan, and digital geological maps issued by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. All 3D models are converted into VRML format, and can be used as a versatile dataset on personal computer.

  7. Noncommutative via closed star product (United States)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.; Vitale, P.


    We consider linear star products on of Lie algebra type. First we derive the closed formula for the polydifferential representation of the corresponding Lie algebra generators. Using this representation we define the Weyl star product on the dual of the Lie algebra. Then we construct a gauge operator relating the Weyl star product with the one which is closed with respect to some trace functional, Tr ( f ⋆ g) = Tr ( f · g). We introduce the derivative operator on the algebra of the closed star product and show that the corresponding Leibniz rule holds true up to a total derivative. As a particular example we study the space R {/θ 3} with type noncommutativity and show that in this case the closed star product is the one obtained from the Duflo quantization map. As a result a Laplacian can be defined such that its commutative limit reproduces the ordinary commutative one. The deformed Leibniz rule is applied to scalar field theory to derive conservation laws and the corresponding noncommutative currents.

  8. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.


    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  9. Stratigraphy, age, and correlation of voluminous debris-avalanche events from an ancestral Egmont Volcano : implications for coastal plain construction and regional hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloway, B.V.; McComb, P.; Neall, V.; Vucetich, C.; Gibb, J.; Sherburn, S.; Stirling, M.W.


    many stratovolcanoes. Emplacement of Ngaere Formation was immediately preceded by a magmatic fall unit and is directly overlain by a closely spaced sequence of 13 fall units. In contrast, there is no evidence to indicate that an eruptive event triggered or immediately followed the Okawa debris-avalanche event, but seismically induced gravitational sliding cannot be discounted. Egmont Volcano has repetitively collapsed over its c. 127 ka history and has generated at least five voluminous landscape-forming debris-avalanche deposits. Probabilistically-based return times are calculated at c. 1967 14 C yr for volumes ≥0.15 km 3 and c. 21,000 14 C yr for volumes ≥7.5 km 3 . Despite lower return times in comparison to tephra emission, Egmont Volcano is an inherently unstable cone because it comprises interbedded lavas and unconsolidated volcaniclastic deposits with a high slope angle overlying a faulted basement of Tertiary sediments. Should eruptive activity recommence and coincide with significant upper cone dilation, then the likelihood of a gravitational cone collapse is expected to increase although critical thresholds remain to be modelled. Fortunately, the Taranaki Regional Volcanic Contingency Plan is based on pre-emptive evacuation which is intended to minimise loss of life in advance of an eruptive and/or cone collapse event occurring. (author). 75 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  10. Controls on the organization of the plumbing system of subduction volcanoes : the roles of volatiles and edifice load (United States)

    Roman, A. M.; Bergal-Kuvikas, O.; Shapiro, N.; Taisne, B.; Gordeev, E.; Jaupart, C. P.


    Geochemical data indicate that subduction zone magmas are extracted from the mantle and rises through the crust, with a wide range of volatile contents. The main controls on magma ascent, storage and location of eruptive vents are not well understood. Flow through a volcanic system depends on magma density and viscosity, which depend in turn on chemical composition and volatile content. Thus, one expects that changes of eruption sites in space and time are related to geochemical variations. To test this hypothesis, we have focussed on Klyuchevskoy volcano, Kamchatka, a very active island arc volcano which erupts lavas with a wide range of volatile contents (e.g. 3-7 H20 wt. %). The most primitive high-Mg magmas were able to erupt and build a sizable edifice in an initial phase of activity. As the edifice grew, eruption of these magmas was suppressed in the focal area and occurred in distal parts of the volcano whilst summit eruptions involved differentiated high alumina basalts. Here we propose a new model for the development of the Klyuchevskoy plumbing system which combines edifice load, far field tectonic stress and the presence of volatiles. We calculate dyke trajectories and overpressures by taking into account the exsolution of volatiles in the magma. The most striking result is the progressive deflection of dykes towards the axial area as the edifice size increases. In this model, the critical parameters are the depth of volatile exsolution and the edifice size. Volatile-rich magmas degas at depth and experience a large increase in buoyancy which may overcome edifice-induced stresses at shallow levels. However, as the volcano grows, the stress barrier migrates downwards and may eventually act to stall dykes before gas exsolution takes place. Such conditions are likely to induce the formation of a shallow central reseroir, in which further magma focussing, mixing and contamination may take place. This model accounts for the co-evolution of magma composition

  11. New high-definition thickness data obtained at tropical glaciers: preliminary results from Antisana volcano (Ecuador) using GPR prospection (United States)

    Zapata, Camilo; Andrade, Daniel; Córdova, Jorge; Maisincho, Luis; Carvajal, Juan; Calispa, Marlon; Villacís, Marcos


    The study of tropical glaciers has been a significant contribution to the understanding of glacier dynamics and climate change. Much of the data and results have been obtained by analyzing plan-view images obtained by air- and space-borne sensors, as well as depth data obtained by diverse methodologies at selected points on the glacier surface. However, the measurement of glacier thicknesses has remained an elusive task in tropical glaciers, often located in rough terrains where the application of geophysical surveys (i.e. seismic surveys) requires logistics sometimes hardly justified by the amount of obtained data. In the case of Ecuador, however, where most glaciers have developed on active volcanoes and represent sources/reservoirs of fresh water, the precise knowledge of such information is fundamental for scientific research but also in order to better assess key aspects for the society. The relatively recent but fast development of the GPR technology has helped to obtain new highdefinition thickness data at Antisana volcano that will be used to: 1) better understand the dynamics and fate of tropical glaciers; 2) better estimate the amount of fresh water stored in the glaciers; 3) better assess the hazards associated with the sudden widespread melting of glaciers during volcanic eruptions. The measurements have been obtained at glaciers 12 and 15 of Antisana volcano, with the help of a commercial GPR equipped with a 25 MHz antenna. A total of 30 transects have been obtained, covering a distance of more than 3 km, from the glacier ablation zone, located at ~ 4600 masl, up to the level of 5200 masl. The preliminary results show a positive correlation between altitude and glacier thickness, with maximum and minimum calculated values reaching up to 80 m, and down to 15 m, respectively. The experience gained at Antisana volcano will be used to prepare a more widespread GPR survey in the glaciers of Cotopaxi volcano, whose implications in terms of volcanic hazards

  12. Investigating the potential for volcano flank instability triggered by recent dike intrusions at Fogo volcano, Cape Verde (United States)

    Bagnardi, Marco; González, Pablo; Hooper, Andrew; Wright, Tim


    Gravitational flank-collapses at volcanoes are rare but catastrophic events that have rarely been witnessed by humans (e.g., Mount St. Helens in 1980). It has been proposed that gravitationally unstable volcanic flanks can be classified in two different types based on the flanks slope: volcanoes characterized by gentle slopes (Hawaiian-like) and that have very dynamic flanks exhibiting high rates of deformation and, conversely, steep-sided volcanoes (Macaronesian-like) showing minimal ground deformation. The two types of volcanoes could therefore reach the stable-state through different mechanisms and experience different mass-wasting processes. Numerous giant debris-avalanche deposits have been identified offshore the volcanoes of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Given the steep slopes of these volcanoes, the mass-wasting events may have occurred suddenly and with minimal precursory signals. Several mechanisms have been proposed as potential triggers and among these the intrusion of shallow dikes feeding fissure eruptions is one of the best candidates. In this work, we investigate this hypothesis in the light of new and revised results derived from the analysis of geodetic observations at Fogo volcano (Cape Verde). Fogo has erupted twice in the last 20 years (1995 and 2014-2015) and in both occasions the volcano erupted along fissures that seem to be fed by dykes intruding the shallow crust and the volcanic edifice. We re-process radar data from the ERS satellite to obtain state-of-the-art deformation maps spanning the 1995 eruption and revisit previously proposed models of the magmatic system. Our results indicate that both eruptions were fed by sub-vertical dikes, steeply dipping to the SE, and radiating from the Pico do Fogo volcanic cone to the SW. We also study the effect of such magmatic intrusions in terms of the stress regime that they generate and analyze whether the 1995 and 2014 intrusions could potentially destabilize the structures along which a

  13. Volcano outreach and education at GEOTOP (United States)

    Gaonach, H.


    Within research centers, there is a growing consensus about the importance of public outreach programs and the need for them to comprise a science education component. This requires the focused efforts of a wide spectrum of specialists, including scientists. At the GEOTOP center in Quebec we are seeking to bring our unique science perspective to educators and the public. GEOTOP is an interuniversity center whose research covers a many areas of geoscience and includes researchers from diverse specialities ( The main outreach effort is to publicize the center's research; a recent intiative focuses on the young public via the Vicki Volka ( web site. Volcanic activities on the Earth and in our solar system hold an extraordinary attraction for the general public. In recent years, volcanic news has frequently been disseminated through the media. But the understanding of these news items is beyond the nonspecialist so that the news itself is often reduced to the human impacts - such as the evacuation of thousands of inhabitants or the closure of an airport - to the detriment of a scientific understanding of the natural processes at work. Volcanoes provide a unique angle from which many different aspects of our world can be viewed including not only its geography, politics and culture, but also its internal dynamics as well as geodynamics elsewhere in the solar system, Through the outreach to Francophone internauts, GEOTOP has begun to improve its public relations. This includes visits to primary schools aimed at educating the young public about volcanic activities as well as bringing the results of research projects to the general public. This provides a dynamic approach to better integrating real-time volcanic news with existing educational standards as well as a scientific methodology and latest research efforts. While francophones regularly visit the web site, there is a growing demand to enlarge the site to include other

  14. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.


    Magmatic assimilation of felsic continental crust is a well-documented, relatively common phenomenon. The extent to which basaltic crust is assimilated by magmas, on the other hand, is not well known. Basaltic cannibalism, or the wholesale incorporation of basaltic crustal material into a basaltic magma, is thought to be uncommon because basalt requires more energy than higher silica rocks to melt. Basaltic materials that are unconsolidated, poorly crystalline, or palagonitized may be more easily ingested than fully crystallized massive basalt, thus allowing basaltic cannibalism to occur. Thrihnukagigur volcano, SW Iceland, offers a unique exposure of a buried cinder cone within its evacuated conduit, 100 m below the main vent. The unconsolidated tephra is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to a vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~4 Ka fissure eruption. Preliminary petrographic and laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses indicate that there are two populations of plagioclase present in the system - Population One is stubby (aspect ratio 2.1), subhedral to euhedral, and has much higher Ba/Sr ratios. Population One crystals are observed in the cinder cone, dike, and surface lavas, whereas Population Two crystals are observed only in the dike and surface lavas. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single elongate population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the stubbier population of phenocrysts. This conceptual model for basaltic cannibalism is supported by field observations of large-scale erosion upward into the tephra, which is coated by magma flow-back indicating that magma was involved in the thermal etching. While the unique exposure at Thrihnukagigur makes it an exceptional place to investigate basaltic cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely

  15. Oriented open-closed string theory revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwiebach, B.


    String theory on D-brane backgrounds is open-closed string theory. Given the relevance of this fact, we give details and elaborate upon our earlier construction of oriented open-closed string field theory. In order to incorporate explicitly closed strings, the classical sector of this theory is open strings with a homotopy associative A ∞ algebraic structure. We build a suitable Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra on moduli spaces of bordered Ricmann surfaces, the construction of which involves a few subtleties arising from the open string punctures and cyclicity conditions. All vertices coupling open and closed strings through disks are described explicitly. Subalgebras of the algebra of surfaces with boundaries are used to discuss symmetries of classical open string theory induced by the closed string sector, and to write classical open string field theory on general closed string backgrounds. We give a preliminary analysis of the ghost-dilaton theorem. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc

  16. Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea. (United States)

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf


    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56%+/-8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94%+/-2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  17. Diversity and Abundance of Aerobic and Anaerobic Methane Oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea▿ (United States)

    Lösekann, Tina; Knittel, Katrin; Nadalig, Thierry; Fuchs, Bernhard; Niemann, Helge; Boetius, Antje; Amann, Rudolf


    Submarine mud volcanoes are formed by expulsions of mud, fluids, and gases from deeply buried subsurface sources. They are highly reduced benthic habitats and often associated with intensive methane seepage. In this study, the microbial diversity and community structure in methane-rich sediments of the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV) were investigated by comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the active volcano center, which has a diameter of about 500 m, the main methane-consuming process was bacterial aerobic oxidation. In this zone, aerobic methanotrophs belonging to three bacterial clades closely affiliated with Methylobacter and Methylophaga species accounted for 56% ± 8% of total cells. In sediments below Beggiatoa mats encircling the center of the HMMV, methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-3 clade dominated the zone of anaerobic methane oxidation. ANME-3 archaea form cell aggregates mostly associated with sulfate-reducing bacteria of the Desulfobulbus (DBB) branch. These ANME-3/DBB aggregates were highly abundant and accounted for up to 94% ± 2% of total microbial biomass at 2 to 3 cm below the surface. ANME-3/DBB aggregates could be further enriched by flow cytometry to identify their phylogenetic relationships. At the outer rim of the mud volcano, the seafloor was colonized by tubeworms (Siboglinidae, formerly known as Pogonophora). Here, both aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers were found, however, in lower abundances. The level of microbial diversity at this site was higher than that at the central and Beggiatoa species-covered part of the HMMV. Analysis of methyl-coenzyme M-reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes showed a strong dominance of a novel lineage, mcrA group f, which could be assigned to ANME-3 archaea. Our results further support the hypothesis of Niemann et al. (54), that high methane availability and different fluid flow regimens at the HMMV provide distinct niches for aerobic and

  18. Tectonic geomorphology and volcano-tectonic interaction in the eastern boundary of the Southern Cascades (Hat Creek Graben region, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engielle Mae Raot-raot Paguican


    region propagates to the surface using the easiest and most efficient pathway, mostly controlled by these pre-existing extensional faults and near-surface stress fields. Continued volcano growth is less closely dependent on the regional structures, suggesting control by the development of the volcanic edifice itself.

  19. The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska: a spatter eruption at an ice- and snow-clad volcano (United States)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Haney, Matthew M.; Fee, David; Schneider, David J.; Wech, Aaron G.


    The 2013 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska began on 13 May and ended 49 days later on 1 July. The eruption was characterized by persistent lava fountaining from a vent just north of the summit, intermittent strombolian explosions, and ash, gas, and aerosol plumes that reached as high as 8 km above sea level and on several occasions extended as much as 500 km downwind of the volcano. During the first several days of the eruption, accumulations of spatter near the vent periodically collapsed to form small pyroclastic avalanches that eroded and melted snow and ice to form lahars on the lower north flank of the volcano. Continued lava fountaining led to the production of agglutinate lava flows that extended to the base of the volcano, about 3–4 km beyond the vent. The generation of fountain-fed lava flows was a dominant process during the 2013 eruption; however, episodic collapse of spatter accumulations and formation of hot spatter-rich granular avalanches was a more efficient process for melting snow and ice and initiating lahars. The lahars and ash plumes generated during the eruption did not pose any serious hazards for the area. However, numerous local airline flights were cancelled or rerouted, and trace amounts of ash fall occurred at all of the local communities surrounding the volcano, including Cold Bay, Nelson Lagoon, Sand Point, and King Cove.

  20. Tweed Extinct Volcano, Australia, Stereo Pair of SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Australia is the only continent without any current volcanic activity, but it hosts one of the world's largest extinct volcanoes, the Tweed Volcano. Rock dating methods indicate that eruptions here lasted about three million years, ending about 20 million years ago. Twenty million years of erosion has left this landform deeply eroded yet very recognizable, appearing as a caldera with a central peak. The central peak is not an old remnant landform but is instead the erosional stub of the volcanic neck (the central pipe that carried the magma upward). It is surrounded by ring dikes, which are circular sheets of magma that solidified and now form erosion-resistant ridges. The central peak is named Mount Warning. Topography plays a central role in envisioning the volcano at its climax and in deciphering the landscape evolution that has occurred since then. Low-relief uplands interspersed between deeply eroded canyons form a radial pattern that clearly defines the shape and extent of the original volcanic dome. Erosion is most extensive on the eastern side because the eroding streams drained directly to the ocean and therefore had the steepest gradients. This asymmetry of erosion has been extreme enough that the volcano has been hollowed out by the east-flowing drainage, forming an 'erosional caldera'. Calderas usually form as the result of collapse where magmas retreat within an active volcano. If collapse occurred here, erosion may have removed the evidence, but it produced a similar landform itself. Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding, and synthetic stereoscopy. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest

  1. Linking petrology and seismology at an active volcano. (United States)

    Saunders, Kate; Blundy, Jon; Dohmen, Ralf; Cashman, Kathy


    Many active volcanoes exhibit changes in seismicity, ground deformation, and gas emissions, which in some instances arise from magma movement in the crust before eruption. An enduring challenge in volcano monitoring is interpreting signs of unrest in terms of the causal subterranean magmatic processes. We examined over 300 zoned orthopyroxene crystals from the 1980-1986 eruption of Mount St. Helens that record pulsatory intrusions of new magma and volatiles into an existing larger reservoir before the eruption occurred. Diffusion chronometry applied to orthopyroxene crystal rims shows that episodes of magma intrusion correlate temporally with recorded seismicity, providing evidence that some seismic events are related to magma intrusion. These time scales are commensurate with monitoring signals at restless volcanoes, thus improving our ability to forecast volcanic eruptions by using petrology.

  2. Multiple Active Volcanoes in the Northeast Lau Basin (United States)

    Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Lupton, J. E.; Walker, S. L.; Embley, R. W.; Rubin, K. H.; Buck, N.; de Ronde, C. E.; Arculus, R. J.


    The northeast Lau Basin occupies a complex geological area between the Tafua arc front, the E-W trending Tonga Trench, and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center. These boundaries create multiple zones of extension and thus provide abundant opportunities for magma to invade the crust. The 25-km-long chain of “Mata” volcanoes lies near the center of this area, separated from both the arc front and the spreading ridge. In 2008 we discovered hydrothermal venting on the largest and most southerly of these volcanoes, W and E Mata. In 2010 we visited the 7 smaller volcanoes that form a 15-km-long arcuate sweep to the north from W and E Mata (the “North Matas”). We also revisited W and E Mata. Over each volcano we conducted CTD tows to map plumes and collect water samples. Based on the CTD results, camera tows searched for seafloor sources on three volcanoes. The N Mata volcanoes, extending from Mata Taha (1) in the south to Mata Fitu (7) in the north, lie within a prominent gap in the shallow bathymetry along the southern border of the Tonga trench. Northward from E Mata the Mata volcanoes degrade from large symmetrical cones to smaller and blocky volcanic edifices. Summit depths range from 1165 m (W Mata) to 2670 m (Mata Nima (5)). The most active volcano in the chain is the erupting W Mata, with an intense plume that extended 250 m above the summit. Hydrothermal temperature anomalies (Δθ, corrected for hydrographic masking effects) reached ˜1.7°C, with light-scattering values as high as 2-5 ΔNTU. The 2010 surveys now show that 6 of the 7 N Mata volcanoes are also hydrothermally active. Along the N Matas, Δθ and ΔNTU signals ranged from robust to weak, but distinct oxidation-reduction potential (aka Eh) anomalies confirmed active venting in each case. The most concentrated plumes were found near Mata Ua (2) and Mata Fitu (7), with Δθ and ΔNTU maxima of 0.1-0.17°C and 0.3, respectively. Despite the variability in plume strength, however, ΔNTU/Δθ ratios

  3. Gas hydrate accumulation at the Hakon Mosby Mud Volcano (United States)

    Ginsburg, G.D.; Milkov, A.V.; Soloviev, V.A.; Egorov, A.V.; Cherkashev, G.A.; Vogt, P.R.; Crane, K.; Lorenson, T.D.; Khutorskoy, M.D.


    Gas hydrate (GH) accumulation is characterized and modeled for the Hakon Mosby mud volcano, ca. 1.5 km across, located on the Norway-Barents-Svalbard margin. Pore water chemical and isotopic results based on shallow sediment cores as well as geothermal and geomorphological data suggest that the GH accumulation is of a concentric pattern controlled by and formed essentially from the ascending mud volcano fluid. The gas hydrate content of sediment peaks at 25% by volume, averaging about 1.2% throughout the accumulation. The amount of hydrate methane is estimated at ca. 108 m3 STP, which could account for about 1-10% of the gas that has escaped from the volcano since its origin.

  4. Determining the stress field in active volcanoes using focal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Massa


    Full Text Available Stress inversion of seismological datasets became an essential tool to retrieve the stress field of active tectonics and volcanic areas. In particular, in volcanic areas, it is able to put constrains on volcano-tectonics and in general in a better understanding of the volcano dynamics. During the last decades, a wide range of stress inversion techniques has been proposed, some of them specifically conceived to manage seismological datasets. A modern technique of stress inversion, the BRTM, has been applied to seismological datasets available at three different regions of active volcanism: Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (197 Fault Plane Solutions, FPSs, Campi Flegrei (217 FPSs and Long Valley Caldera (38,000 FPSs. The key role of stress inversion techniques in the analysis of the volcano dynamics has been critically discussed. A particular emphasis was devoted to performances of the BRTM applied to volcanic areas.

  5. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness (United States)

    Kerlow, Isaac


    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  6. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  7. Close-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent


    Investigations in the close-up and its meaning regarding nearness, abstraction and transparency. Face, facelike and animism are also major key-words in thsi article... . I have always been fascinated with the close-up, not as an end, but a filter of opportunities to open up for and nearness...... of transcendence, associations and memories. The close-up is not the end, it rather in my view to be regarded as a beginning of different perceptions...

  8. Closed String Amplitudes from Gauge Fixed String Field Theory


    Drukker, Nadav


    Closed string diagrams are derived from cubic open string field theory using a gauge fixed kinetic operator. The basic idea is to use a string propagator that does not generate a boundary to the world sheet. Using this propagator and the closed string vertex, the moduli space of closed string surfaces is covered, so closed string scattering amplitudes should be reproduced. This kinetic operator could be a gauge fixed form of the string field theory action around the closed string vacuum.

  9. Vents Pattern Analysis at Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy). (United States)

    Brancato, Alfonso; Tusa, Giuseppina; Coltelli, Mauro; Proietti, Cristina; Branca, Stefano


    Mount Etna is a composite stratovolcano located along the Ionian coast of eastern Sicily. It is characterized by basaltic eruptions, both effusive and explosive, occurred during a complex eruptive history over the last 500 ka. Flank eruptions occur at an interval of decades, mostly concentrated along the NE, S and W rift zones. A vent clustering at various scales is a common feature in many volcanic settings. In order to identify the clusters within the studied area, a spatial point pattern analysis is undertaken using vent positions, both known and reconstructed. It reveals both clustering and spatial regularity in the Etna region at different distances. The visual inspection of the vent spatial distribution suggests a clustering on the rift zones of Etna volcano. To confirm this evidence, a coarse analysis is performed by the application of Ξ2- and t-test simple statistics. Then, a refined analysis is performed by using the Ripley K-function (Ripley, 1976), whose estimator K(d), knowing the area of the study region and the number of vents, allow us to calculate the distance among two different location of events. The above estimator can be easier transformed by using the Besag L-function (Besag, 1977); the peaks of positive L(d)=[K(d)/π]1/2 -d values indicate clustering while troughs of negative values stand for regularity for their corresponding distances d (L(d)=0 indicates complete spatial randomness). Spatial pattern of flank vents is investigated in order to model the spatial distribution of likely eruptive vents for the next event, basically in terms of relative probabilities. For this, a Gaussian kernel technique is used, and the L(d) function is adopted to generate an optimal smoothing bandwidth based on the clustering behaviour of the Etna volcano. A total of 154 vents (among which 36 are reconstructed), related to Etna flank activity of the last 4.0 ka, is used to model future vent opening. The investigated region covers an area of 850 km2, divided

  10. Inside the volcano: The how and why of Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland (United States)

    LaFemina, Peter; Hudak, Michael; Feineman, Maureen; Geirsson, Halldor; Normandeau, Jim; Furman, Tanya


    The Thrihnukagigur volcano, located in the Brennisteinsfjöll fissure swarm on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland, offers a unique exposure of the upper magmatic plumbing system of a monogenetic volcano. The volcano formed during a dike-fed strombolian eruption ~3500 BP with flow-back leaving an evacuated conduit, elongated parallel to the regional maximum horizontal stress. At least two vents were formed above the dike, as well as several small hornitos south-southwest of the main vent. In addition to the evacuated conduit, a cave exists 120 m below the vent. The cave exposes stacked lava flows and a buried cinder cone. The unconsolidated tephra of the cone is cross-cut by a NNE-trending dike, which runs across the ceiling of this cave to the vent that produced lava and tephra during the ~3500 BP fissure eruption. We present geochemical, petrologic and geologic observations, including a high-resolution three-dimensional scan of the system that indicate the dike intersected, eroded and assimilated unconsolidated tephra from the buried cinder cone, thus excavating a region along the dike, allowing for future slumping and cave formation. Two petrographically distinct populations of plagioclase phenocrysts are present in the system: a population of smaller (maximum length 1 mm) acicular phenocrysts and a population of larger (maximum length 10 mm) tabular phenocrysts that is commonly broken and displays disequilibrium sieve textures. The acicular plagioclase crystals are present in the dike and lavas while the tabular crystals are in these units and the buried tephra. An intrusion that appears not to have interacted with the tephra has only acicular plagioclase. This suggests that a magma crystallizing a single acicular population of plagioclase intruded the cinder cone and rapidly assimilated the tephra, incorporating the tabular population of phenocrysts from the cone. Petrographic thin-sections of lavas sampled near the vent show undigested fragments of tephra from

  11. Color and temperature of the crater lakes at Kelimutu volcano through time (United States)

    Murphy, Sam; Wright, Robert; Rouwet, Dmitri


    We investigated the color and temperature of three volcanic crater lakes that co-exist at Kelimutu volcano (Indonesia) using 30 years of Landsat data. These satellite data were obtained through Google Earth Engine. Time series of surface reflectance (visible wavelengths) and brightness temperature above background (thermal infrared wavelengths) were calculated. Color was defined in the RGB (red-green-blue) and HSV (hue-saturation-value) color spaces, and we introduce a visualization concept called "hue stretch" to consistently represent hue through time. These parameters display long-term trends, seasonal cycles and short duration bursts of activity at the lakes. We demonstrate that the color of the lakes are related over a period of months to years and discovered a previously unreported but significant episode around 1997, which included large agglomerations of floating elemental sulfur. Globally speaking, these techniques could reveal trends at any of the 100 crater lakes on active volcanoes. Furthermore, they could apply to any target whose color changes through time (e.g., forests, crops, and non-volcanic water bodies). We have open-sourced the code necessary to perform these analyses.

  12. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  13. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  14. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  15. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  16. Schoolyard Volcanoes: A Unit in Volcanology and Hazards (United States)

    Lechner, H. N.; Gochis, E. E.; Brill, K. A.


    How do you teach volcanology and volcanic hazards to students when there is no volcano nearby? You bring the volcano to them! At Michigan Technological University we have developed a four-lesson-unit for middle and high school students which incorporates virtual, analogue and numerical models to increase students' interests in geosciences while simultaneously expanding the community of earth-science-literate individuals necessary for a disaster resilient society. The unit aims to build on students' prior geoscience knowledge by examining the physical properties that influence volcanic eruptions and introduces them to challenges and methods of communicating hazards and risk. Lesson one engages students in a series of hands-on investigations that explore the "3-Vs" of volcanology: Viscosity, Volatiles and Volume. The students learn about the relationship between magma composition and viscosity and the influence on eruption style, behavior and morphology of different volcanoes. Lesson two uses an analogue model of a volcano to demonstrate the forces involved in an explosive eruption and associated hazards. Students think critically about the factors that affect hazards and risk as well as the variables (such as topography) that affect the eruption and the hazard. During lesson three students use Google Earth for a virtual field trip to Pacaya volcano, Guatemala to examine changes in the landscape over time and other evidence of volcanic activity to make interpretations about the volcano. The final lesson has the students use numerical models and GIS to create hazard maps based on probabilistic lahar scenarios. Throughout the unit students are engaged in an inquiry-based exploration that covers several Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) content and practices. This four lesson unit has been field tested in two school districts and during a summer engineering program. Results from student work and post-surveys show that this strategy raises interests in and

  17. Measuring Gases Using Drones at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica (United States)

    Stix, J.; Alan, A., Jr.; Corrales, E.; D'Arcy, F.; de Moor, M. J.; Diaz, J. A.


    We are currently developing a series of drones and associated instrumentation to study Turrialba volcano in Costa Rica. This volcano has shown increasing activity during the last 20 years, and the volcano is currently in a state of heightened unrest as exemplified by recent explosive activity in May-August 2016. The eruptive activity has made the summit area inaccessible to normal gas monitoring activities, prompting development of new techniques to measure gas compositions. We have been using two drones, a DJI Spreading Wings S1000 octocopter and a Turbo Ace Matrix-i quadcopter, to airlift a series of instruments to measure volcanic gases in the plume of the volcano. These instruments comprise optical and electrochemical sensors to measure CO2, SO2, and H2S concentrations which are considered the most significant species to help forecast explosive eruptions and determine the relative proportions of magmatic and hydrothermal components in the volcanic gas. Additionally, cameras and sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and GPS location are included in the package to provide meteorological and geo-referenced information to complement the concentration data and provide a better picture of the volcano from a remote location. The integrated payloads weigh 1-2 kg, which can typically be flown by the drones in 10-20 minutes at altitudes of 2000-4000 meters. Preliminary tests at Turrialba in May 2016 have been very encouraging, and we are in the process of refining both the drones and the instrumentation packages for future flights. Our broader goals are to map gases in detail with the drones in order to make flux measurements of each species, and to apply this approach at other volcanoes.

  18. Expert Systems for Real-Time Volcano Monitoring (United States)

    Cassisi, C.; Cannavo, F.; Montalto, P.; Motta, P.; Schembra, G.; Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.


    In the last decade, the capability to monitor and quickly respond to remote detection of volcanic activity has been greatly improved through use of advanced techniques and semi-automatic software applications installed in most of the 24h control rooms devoted to volcanic surveillance. Ability to monitor volcanoes is being advanced by new technology, such as broad-band seismology, microphone networks mainly recording in the infrasonic frequency band, satellite observations of ground deformation, high quality video surveillance systems, also in infrared band, improved sensors for volcanic gas measurements, and advances in computer power and speed, leading to improvements in data transmission, data analysis and modeling techniques. One of the most critical point in the real-time monitoring chain is the evaluation of the volcano state from all the measurements. At the present, most of this task is delegated to one or more human experts in volcanology. Unfortunately, the volcano state assessment becomes harder if we observe that, due to the coupling of highly non-linear and complex volcanic dynamic processes, the measurable effects can show a rich range of different behaviors. Moreover, due to intrinsic uncertainties and possible failures in some recorded data, precise state assessment is usually not achievable. Hence, the volcano state needs to be expressed in probabilistic terms that take account of uncertainties. In the framework of the project PON SIGMA (Integrated Cloud-Sensor System for Advanced Multirisk Management) work, we have developed an expert system approach to estimate the ongoing volcano state from all the available measurements and with minimal human interaction. The approach is based on hidden markov model and deals with uncertainties and probabilities. We tested the proposed approach on data coming from the Mt. Etna (Italy) continuous monitoring networks for the period 2011-2013. Results show that this approach can be a valuable tool to aid the

  19. Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J., E-mail: [Korea Geological Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J. [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Feyzullayev, A.A.; Aliyev, C. [Geology Institute of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS), Baku, AZ 1143 (Azerbaijan); Matsuzaki, H. [MALT, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Jull, A.J.T. [NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for {sup 10}Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The {sup 10}Be concentrations and {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The {sup 10}Be and {sup 9}Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the {sup 10}Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low {sup 10}Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of {sup 40}K and U-Th-series radionuclides ({sup 234}Th, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 228}Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the {sup 10}Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

  20. 2004 Deformation of Okmok Volcano,Alaska, USA (United States)

    Fournier, T. J.; Freymueller, J. T.


    Okmok Volcano is a basaltic shield volcano with a 10km diameter caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok has had frequent effusive eruptions, the latest in 1997. In 2002 the Alaska Volcano Observatory installed a seismic network and three continuous GPS stations. Two stations are located in the caldera and one is located at the base of the volcano at Fort Glenn. Because of instrumentation problems the GPS network was not fully operational until August 2003. A fourth GPS site, located on the south flank of the volcano, came online in September 2004. The three continuous GPS instruments captured a rapid inflation event at Okmok Volcano spanning 6 months from March to August 2004. The instruments give a wonderful time-series of the episode but poor spatial coverage. Modeling the deformation is accomplished by supplementing the continuous data with campaign surveys conducted in the summers of 2002, 2003 and 2004. Displacements between the 2002 and 2003 campaigns show a large inflation event between those time periods. The continuous and campaign data suggest that deformation at Okmok is characterized by short-lived rapid inflation interspersed with periods of moderate inflation. Velocities during the 2004 event reached a maximum of 31cm/yr in the vertical direction and 15cm/yr eastward at the station OKCD, compared with the pre-inflation velocities of 4cm/yr in the vertical and 2.5cm/yr southeastward. Using a Mogi point source model both prior to and during the inflation gives a source location in the center of the caldera and a depth of about 3km. The source strength rate is three times larger during the inflation event than the period preceding it. Based on the full time series of campaign and continuous GPS data, it appears that the variation in inflation rate results from changes in the magma supply rate and not from changes in the depth of the source.

  1. MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: from objectives to results (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia


    The MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) was a FP7 3-year lasting project aimed at improving the assessment of volcanic hazards at two of the most active European volcanic areas - Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. More than 3 million people are exposed to potential hazards in the two areas, and the geographic location of the volcanoes increases the number of people extending the impact to a wider region. MED-SUV worked on the (1) optimisation and integration of the existing and new monitoring systems, (2) understanding of volcanic processes, and on the (3) relationship between the scientific and end-user communities. MED-SUV fully exploited the unique multidisciplinary long-term in-situ datasets available for these volcanoes and integrated them with Earth observations. Technological developments and implemented algorithms allowed better constraint of pre-, sin- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of the volcanic phenomena observed at the targeted volcanoes - archetypes of 'closed' and 'open' conduit systems - observed by using the long-term multidisciplinary datasets, exceptionally upgraded the understanding of a variety of geo-hazards. Proper experiments and studies were carried out to advance the understanding of the volcanoes' internal structure and processes, and to recognise signals related to impending unrest/eruptive phases. Indeed, the hazard quantitative assessment benefitted from the outcomes of these studies and from their integration with cutting edge monitoring approaches, thus leading to step-changes in hazard awareness and preparedness, and leveraging the close relationship between scientists, SMEs, and end-users. Among the MED-SUV achievements, we can list the (i) implementation of a data policy compliant with the GEO Open Data Principles for ruling the exploitation and shared use of the project outcomes; (ii) MED-SUV e-infrastructure creation as test bed for designing an interoperable infrastructure to

  2. Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poas Volcano, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Brown, G.C.; Glasscock, J.


    The recent Voyager missions to Jupiter have highlighted the role of sulphur in volcanic processes on io. Although fumarolic sulphur and SO/sub 2/ gas are almost universal in terrestrial active volcanoes, and rare instances of sulphur lava flows have been reported, sulphur in a pyroclastic form has only been described from Poas Volcano, Costa Rica. Here we amplify the original descriptions by Bennett and Raccichini and describe a recent eruption of pyroclastic sulphur scoria and ejected blocks that are characterised by miniature sulphur stalactites and stalagmites.

  3. The recent seismicity of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    D'Auria, L.; Albert, G. W.; Calvert, M. M.; Gray, A.; Vidic, C.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; García-Hernández, R.; Perez, N. M.


    Tenerife is an active volcanic island which experienced several eruptions of moderate intensity in historical times, and few explosive eruptions in the Holocene. The increasing population density and the consistent number of tourists are constantly raising the volcanic risk of the island.On 02/10/2016 a remarkable swarm of long-period events was recorded and was interpreted as the effect of a transient massive fluid discharge episode occurring within the deep hydrothermal system of Teide volcano. Actually, since Oct. 2016, the hydrothermal system of the volcano underwent a progressive pressurization, testified by the marked variation of different geochemical parameters. The most striking observation is the increase in the diffuse CO2 emission from the summit crater of Teide volcano which started increasing from a background value of about 20 tons/day and reaching a peak of 175 tons/day in Feb. 2017.The pressurization process has been accompanied by an increase in the volcano-tectonic seismicity of. Teide volcano, recorded by the Red Sísmica Canaria, managed by Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN). The network began its full operativity in Nov. 2016 and currently consists of 15 broadband seismic stations. Since Nov. 2016 the network detected more than 100 small magnitude earthquakes, located beneath Teide volcano at depths usually ranging between 5 and 15 km. On January 6th 2017 a M=2.5 earthquake was recorded in the area, being one of the strongest ever recorded since decades. Most of the events show typical features of the microseismicity of hydrothermal systems: high spatial and temporal clustering and similar waveforms of individual events which often are overlapped.We present the spatial and temporal distribution of the seismicity of Teide volcano since Nov. 2016, comparing it also with the past seismicity of the volcano. Furthermore we analyze the statistical properties of the numerous swarms recorded until now with the aid of a template

  4. Monitoring Volcanoes by Use of Air-Dropped Sensor Packages (United States)

    Kedar, Sharon; Rivellini, Tommaso; Webb, Frank; Blaes, Brent; Bracho, Caroline; Lockhart, Andrew; McGee, Ken


    Sensor packages that would be dropped from airplanes have been proposed for pre-eruption monitoring of physical conditions on the flanks of awakening volcanoes. The purpose of such monitoring is to gather data that could contribute to understanding and prediction of the evolution of volcanic systems. Each sensor package, denoted a volcano monitoring system (VMS), would include a housing with a parachute attached at its upper end and a crushable foam impact absorber at its lower end (see figure). The housing would contain survivable low-power instrumentation that would include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an inclinometer, a seismometer, a barometer, a thermometer, and CO2 and SO2 analyzers. The housing would also contain battery power, control, data-logging, and telecommunication subsystems. The proposal for the development of the VMS calls for the use of commercially available sensor, power, and telecommunication equipment, so that efforts could be focused on integrating all of the equipment into a system that could survive impact and operate thereafter for 30 days, transmitting data on the pre-eruptive state of a target volcano to a monitoring center. In a typical scenario, VMSs would be dropped at strategically chosen locations on the flanks of a volcano once the volcano had been identified as posing a hazard from any of a variety of observations that could include eyewitness reports, scientific observations from positions on the ground, synthetic-aperture-radar scans from aircraft, and/or remote sensing from aboard spacecraft. Once dropped, the VMSs would be operated as a network of in situ sensors that would transmit data to a local monitoring center. This network would provide observations as part of an integrated volcano-hazard assessment strategy that would involve both remote sensing and timely observations from the in situ sensors. A similar strategy that involves the use of portable sensors (but not dropping of sensors from aircraft) is

  5. Mappings with closed range and compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.; Umweni, I.


    The motivation for this note is the result of E.O. Thorp that a normed linear space E is finite dimensional if and only if every continuous linear map for E into any normed linear space has a closed range. Here, a class of Hausdorff topological groups is introduced; called r-compactifiable topological groups, they include compact groups, locally compact Abelian groups and locally convex linear topological spaces. It is proved that a group in this class which is separable, complete metrizable or locally compact, is necessarily compact if its image by a continuous group homomorphism is necessarily closed. It is deduced then that a Hausdorff locally convex is zero if its image by a continuous additive map is necessarily closed. (author)

  6. Straight nearness spaces | Bentley | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Straight spaces are spaces for which a continuous map defined on the space which is uniformly continuous on each set of a finite closed cover is then uniformly continuous on the whole space. Previously, straight spaces have been studied in the setting of metric spaces. In this paper, we present a study of straight spaces in ...

  7. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rontogianni


    Full Text Available The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004–2007 of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7–8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1 HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5–6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  8. Multi-parametric investigation of the volcano-hydrothermal system at Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan (United States)

    Rontogianni, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Lin, C.-H.


    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in northern Taiwan near the capital Taipei. In this study we selected and analyzed almost four years (2004-2007) of its seismic activity. The seismic network established around TVG initially consisted of eight three-component seismic stations with this number increasing to twelve by 2007. Local seismicity mainly involved high frequency (HF) earthquakes occurring as isolated events or as part of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency (LF) events were observed during the same period but more rarely. During the analysis we estimated duration magnitudes for the HF earthquakes and used a probabilistic non-linear method to accurately locate all these events. The complex frequencies of LF events were also analyzed with the Sompi method indicating fluid compositions consistent with a misty or dusty gas. We juxtaposed these results with geochemical/temperature anomalies extracted from fumarole gas and rainfall levels covering a similar period. This comparison is interpreted in the context of a model proposed earlier for the volcano-hydrothermal system of TVG where fluids and magmatic gases ascend from a magma body that lies at around 7-8 km depth. Most HF earthquakes occur as a response to stresses induced by fluid circulation within a dense network of cracks pervading the upper crust at TVG. The largest (ML ~ 3.1) HF event that occurred on 24 April 2006 at a depth of 5-6 km had source characteristics compatible with that of a tensile crack. It was followed by an enrichment in magmatic components of the fumarole gases as well as a fumarole temperature increase, and provides evidence for ascending fluids from a magma body into the shallow hydrothermal system. This detailed analysis and previous physical volcanology observations at TVG suggest that the region is volcanically active and that measures to mitigate potential hazards have to be considered by the local authorities.

  9. θ-regular spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Janković


    Full Text Available In this paper we define a topological space X to be θ-regular if every filterbase in X with a nonempty θ-adherence has a nonempty adherence. It is shown that the class of θ-regular topological spaces includes rim-compact topological spaces and that θ-regular H(i (Hausdorff topological spaces are compact (regular. The concept of θ-regularity is used to extend a closed graph theorem of Rose [1]. It is established that an r-subcontinuous closed graph function into a θ-regular topological space is continuous. Another sufficient condition for continuity of functions due to Rose [1] is also extended by introducing the concept of almost weak continuity which is weaker than both weak continuity of Levine and almost continuity of Husain. It is shown that an almost weakly continuous closed graph function into a strongly locally compact topological space is continuous.

  10. Global Volcano Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — distributions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) are computed using a two-fold process. Where applicable, the proportional contribution of subnational units are...

  11. Lahars at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua Volcanoes, Ecuador: Highlights from stratigraphy and observational records and related downstream hazards: Chapter 6 (United States)

    Mothes, Patricia A; Vallance, James W.


    Lahars are volcanic debris flows that are dubbed primary when triggered by eruptive activity or secondary when triggered by other factors such as heavy rainfall after eruptive activity has waned. Variation in time and space of the proportion of sediment to water within a lahar dictates lahar flow phase and the resultant sedimentary character of deposits. Characteristics of source material and of debris eroded and incorporated during flow downstream may strongly affect the grain-size composition of flowing lahars and their deposits. Lahars borne on the flanks of two steep-sided stratocones in Ecuador exemplify two important lahar types. Glacier-clad Cotopaxi volcano has been a producer of primary lahars that flow great distances downstream. Such primary lahars include those of both clast-rich and matrix-rich composition—some of which have flowed as far as 325 km to the Pacific Ocean. Cotopaxi's last important eruption in 1877 generated formidable syneruptive lahars comparable in size to those that buried Armero, Colombia, following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano. In contrast, ash-producing eruptive activity during the past 15 years at Tungurahua volcano has generated a continual supply of fresh volcaniclastic debris that is regularly remobilized by precipitation. Between 2000 and 2011, 886 rain-generated lahars were registered at Tungurahua. These two volcanoes pose dramatically different hazards to nearby populations. At Tungurahua, the frequency and small sizes of lahars have resulted in effective mitigation measures. At Cotopaxi 137 years have passed since the last important lahar-producing eruption, and there is now a high-risk situation for more than 100,000 people living in downstream valleys.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Ershov


    Full Text Available The Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk mud volcano is located in the southern part of the Sakhalin Island within the area of the Central Sakhalin fault, one of the largest disjunctive dislocations of the island. The volcano was monitored during field seasons in the period from 2005 to 2007, and data on flow rates, chemical and isotope compositions of gases, temperature and chemical composition of watermud mixture in the volcano’s blowouts were collected and analysed. During the observation period, seismic activity in the region under study was significantly variable in time and space. The monitoring results revealed «traces» of two earthquakes in the blowout activity of the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk mud volcano – the Gornazavodsk earthquake, that took place on 17 (18 August 2006, and the Nevelsk earthquake of 2 August 2007. Based on results of our analyses of the field data and mathematical simulation data, it is possible to conclude that an additional inflow of «deep geofluids» could not have been a major trigger of the activity of the volcano after the earthquakes. In our opinion, all the observed anomalies may result from «water – rock – gas» interactions in the top part of the mud volcano’s feeder channel. A combination of water and gas flows in the volcano’s channel and silica-alumina rocks comprises a specific geochemical system that is sensitive to external (seismic impacts. Therefore, comprehensive consideration of physical and chemical processes within fluid-dynamic systems is required for assurance of correct interpretation of empirical data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londoño B. John Makario


    Full Text Available An analysis of the seismic activity for volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT swarms zones at Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV was carried out for the interval 1985- 2002, which is the most seismic active period at NRV until now (2010. The swarm-like seismicity of NRV was frequently concentrated in very well defined clusters around the volcano. The seismic swarm zone located at the active crater was the most active during the entire time. The seismic swarm zone located to the west of the volcano suggested some relationship with the volcanic crises. It was active before and after the two eruptions occurred in November 1985 and September 1989. It is believed that this seismic activity may be used as a monitoring tool of volcanic activity. For each seismic swarm zone the Vp/Vs ratio was also calculated by grouping of earthquakes and stations. It was found that each seismic swarm zone had a distinct Vp/Vs ratio with respect to the others, except for the crater and west swarm zones, which had the same value. The average Vp/Vs ratios for the seismic swarm zones located at the active crater and to the west of the volcano are about 6-7% lower than that for the north swarm zone, and about 3% lower than that for the south swarm zone. We suggest that the reduction of the Vp/Vs ratio is due to degassing phenomena inside the central and western earthquake swarm zones, or due to the presence of microcracks inside the volcano. This supposition is in agreement with other studies of geophysics, geochemistry and drilling surveys carried out at NRV.

  14. Volcano Park Mosenberg near Bettenfeld / Eifel: A new concept of geological renaturation (United States)

    Koziol, Martin; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.


    Mining of the lava deposited in the area of the Mosenberg volcano near the village of Bettenfeld in the Eifel ended in 1993. The German mining law calls for an operating plan for a closed mine. In many cases, the mines are simply backfilled and planted. Such filling hides many interesting geological outcrops forever. Geological outcrops are windows into the earth, they tell us fascinating stories about the origin and evolution of the rocks and landscape. Mining the Mosenberg exposed volcanic chimneys filled with solid basalt, lapilli beds of different grain sizes and scoria welded into cinder