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Sample records for closely related herbicides

  1. A composite transcriptional signature differentiates responses towards closely related herbicides in Arabidopsis thaliana and brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix ATH1 arrays was used to identify discriminating responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to five herbicides, which contain active ingredients targeting two different branches of amino acid biosynthesis. One herbicide co...

  2. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  3. Blind inlets: Conservation practices to reduce herbicide losses from closed depressional areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are designed to benefit agricultural production and may inadvertently affect water quality if environmental stewardship programs are not implemented. Closed depressional areas (potholes) are typical in the US Midwest and are usually drained with tile risers, however sediment and contamina...

  4. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  5. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, John D.; Chen Xuedong; Johnson, Catherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  6. Severe adverse effects related to dermal exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, T P; Madsen, P V; Ebbehøj, N E

    2013-01-01

    This is a case of severe chemical burns following prolonged accidental exposure to a glyphosate-surfactant herbicide. The patient developed local swelling, bullae and exuding wounds. Neurological impairment followed affecting finger flexion and sensation with reduced nerve conduction. Imaging rev...

  7. Closed-Loop Surface Related Multiple Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, in order to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  8. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  9. Influence of Soils, Riparian Zones, and Hydrology on Nutrients, Herbicides, and Biological Relations in Midwestern Agricultural Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical, biological, and habitat conditions were characterized in 70 streams in the upper Mississippi River basin during August 1997, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study was designed to evaluate algal and macroinvertebrate responses to high agricultural intensity in relation to nonpoint sources of nutrients and herbicides, characteristics of basin soils, wooded-riparian vegetation, and hydrology. Concentrations and forms of nutrients, herbicides and their metabolites, and seston constituents varied significantly with regional differences in soil properties, ground and surface water relations, density of riparian trees, and precedent rainfall-runoff conditions. Dissolved nitrate concentrations were relatively low in streams with high algal productivity; however, nitrate concentrations increased with basin water yield, which was associated with the regional distribution of rainfall during the month prior to the study. Stream productivity and respiration were positively correlated with seston (phytoplankton) chlorophyll concentrations, which were significantly larger in streams in areas with poorly drained soils and low riparian-tree density. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus were low in streams where periphyton biomass was high. Periphyton biomass was relatively larger in streams with clear water and low abundance of macroinvertebrates that consume algae. Periphyton biomass decreased rapidly with modest increases in the abundance of scrapers such as snails and certain mayfly taxa. Differences in dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, stream velocity, and precedent hydrologic conditions explained much of the variance in macroinvertebrate community structure. The overall number of macroinvertebrate species and number of mayfly, caddisfly, and stonefly (EPT) taxa that are sensitive to organic enrichment were largest in streams with moderate periphyton biomass, in areas with moderately-well drained soils

  10. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; operation and management of a trust department; international banking; foreign exchange transactions... specialized lending provisions; marketing operations, including research, market development and advertising... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank management...

  11. Sorption behaviour of herbicides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Wiendl, F.M.; Ruegg, E.F.; Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo

    1988-01-01

    Environmental contamination by herbicides is related with the sorption phenomenon of these compounds in the soils. The behaviour of paraquat, 2,4-D and diuron was studied in soils with different physico-chemical properties, through the Freundlich adsorption and desorption isotherms, using 14 C-radiolabeled herbicides. Results of the range of the adsorption-desorption of each herbicide was related mainly with the chemical characteristics of these compounds. (author) [pt

  12. 29 CFR 541.703 - Directly and closely related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transit, is performing exempt work. If the employee also spends part of the day taking telephone orders... employee's exempt work cannot be performed properly. Work “directly and closely related” to the performance... related to exempt work: (1) Keeping time, production or sales records for subordinates is work directly...

  13. Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are fou...

  14. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  15. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  16. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive advantage over firms competing with other holding company affiliates. To reduce the possibility... Board's amendment of § 225.4(a), which adds courier services to the list of closely related activities... generally in the provision of transportation services. During the course of the Board's proceedings...

  17. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  18. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  19. A study on compatibilities on transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relatives by using autoradiography of 32P labeled pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linli; Qiang Sheng; Song Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of gene flow through observation of the sexual compatibilities of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relative by using isotope tracer to label pollen grains, the experiments on radioactivity, tracer mode, autoradiography film and time were conducted. Better procedure was to label pollen grains of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice by culturing the rice in a 1.48 x 10 7 Bq/L 32 P nutrient liquid, to pollinate the labelled pollen grains on the stigmas of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis), Oryza officinalis and weedy rice (Oryza sativa) respectively, and then 3 hour later, to fix these pistils on a piece of glass plate and cover the film of Luck 400 on it for autoradiography. The autoradiographs show that the tube of the transgenic rice's pollens cannot penetrate the stigma of barnyard grass and arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so that the possibility of gene flow between them is the lowest; the tube of the labelled pollens can penetrate the stigma of O officinalis and enter the style but can not arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so the possibility of gene flow between them is relatively low; and the pollen tube can arrive at the embryo sacs of the weedy rice, so that the possibility of gene flow is relatively high from transgenic herbicide-resistant rice to weedy rice. (authors)

  20. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...... after spraying at BBCH 25 and 42 days after sowing, nine sensor systems scanned a spring barley and an oilseed rape field experiment sown at different densities and sprayed with increasing field rates of glyphosate and tribenuron-methyl. The objective was to compare ED50s for crops and weeds derived...... by the different sensors in relation to crop density and herbicides. Although sensors were not directly developed to detect herbicide symptoms, they all detected changes in canopy colours or height and crop density. Generally ED50s showed the same pattern in response to crop density within herbicide...

  1. Potential Use of Tracer Methods, Especially Autoradiography, in the Study of the Relation of Herbicides to Soil Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbard, E. [Grassland Research Institute, Hurley, Maidenhead, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1966-05-15

    Several tracer methods, designed originally for the study of general soil processes, are described. Their possible adaptation to investigations of the interaction of herbicides with soil biology (especially the soil microflora) is discussed. Rapid disposal of the herbicide-treated vegetation before replanting (minimal tillage) is essential. In comparing the efficiency of herbicidal destruction of vegetation with conventional ploughing, and also when evaluating the effect of various herbicides on the rate of decay of the treated crops, a method is required to measure the rate of the microbial decomposition of the plant residues. A technique based on autoradiography is described which makes possible the study of the progressive decay of herbage grasses and rye uniformly labelled with carbon-14, placed on the surface of soil and incubated for various periods of time. Photoelectric measurements of the density of images of autoradiographs prepared before the start of the experiment and at intervals during incubation show a statistically significant decrease in density with time of incubation. This progressive loss of carbon is an estimate of the rate of decomposition of the residues. The utilization of breakdown products of herbicides by micro-organisms has been demonstrated in pure culture using labelled herbicides but not directly in the soil. A method based on the stripping film technique demonstrates the incorporation of carbon-14 atoms into the cell material of fungi which decomposed {sup 14}C-labelled plant residues mixed with soil. This technique could be adapted to study the uptake of labelled atoms after the microbial decomposition of radioactive herbicides in the soil. Herbicides inhibit and under,certain conditions may also stimulate the growth of micro-organisms in the soil. The evolution of CO{sub 2} is frequently used as an index of microbial activity. It is, however, also a function of the carbon content of the soil. Soils not treated with herbicides will

  2. Eucalyptus ESTs corresponding to the protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase enzyme related to the synthesis of heme, chlorophyll, and to the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Domingues Velini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at locating Eucalyptus ESTs corresponding to the PROTOX or PPO enzyme (Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase, E.C. 1.3.3.4 directly related to resistance to herbicides that promote oxidative stress, changing the functionality of this enzyme. PROTOX, which is the site of action of diphenyl-ether (oxyfluorfen, lactofen, fomesafen, oxadiazole (oxadiazon and oxadiargyl, and aryl triazolinone (sulfentrazone and carfentrazone herbicides, acts on the synthesis route of porphyrins which is associated with the production of chlorophyll a, catalases, and peroxidases. One cluster and one single read were located, with e-values better than e-70, associated to PROTOX. The alignment results between amino acid sequences indicated that this enzyme is adequately represented in the ESTs database of the FORESTs project.

  3. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  4. Selection of relatively exact reference genes for gene expression studies in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) under herbicide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingchao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Cuilan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chaoxian

    2017-04-21

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide. The results show that for different developmental stages and organs (control), eukaryotic initiation factor 4 A (eIF-4) is the most stable reference gene. Chloroplast acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the most stable reference gene under glyphosate stress. Under glufosinate stress, eIF-4 is the best reference gene. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) is the most stable reference gene under quizalofop-p-ethyl stress. The gene eIF-4 is the recommended reference gene for goosegrass under the stress of all three herbicides. Moreover, pairwise analysis showed that seven reference genes were sufficient to normalize the gene expression data under three herbicides treatment. This study provides a list of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization in goosegrass, which will facilitate resistance mechanism studies in this weed species.

  5. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H M

    2012-01-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)

  6. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2012-09-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  7. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  8. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  9. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  10. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  11. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  12. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Adato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM. Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain.

  13. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    the electronic nose potentially responded to, volatile metabolites were collected, by diffusive sampling overnight onto tubes containing Tenax TA, between the 7th and 8th day of Incubation.Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the results indicated that mail alcohols...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  14. Effects of herbicides on non-target plants: How do effects in standard plant tests relate to effects in natural habitats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Beate; Bruus, Marianne; Kjær, Christian

    areas where risk assessment seems to be insufficient. The most extensive conclusion is that seed production is a more sensible end-point for risk assessment of herbicides than the currently used end-point biomass. Crop species, in general, were not less sensitive to herbicides than non-target species......The report presents the results on effects of herbicides on plants found in natural habitats within the agricultural land. Furthermore, it evaluates whether the current risk assessment of herbicides represents an adequate safeguard for protection of these species and habitats. We found several....... Finally, we found that interactions between species are important for their responses to herbicides....

  15. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identi...

  16. Centimetre-scale vertical variability of phenoxy acid herbicide mineralization potential in aquifer sediment relates to the abundance of tfdA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Bælum, Jacob; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2012-01-01

    sampled just below the groundwater table. Mineralization of 2,4-D and MCPA was fastest in sediment samples taken close to the groundwater table, whereas only minor mineralization of MCPP was seen. Considerable variability was exhibited at increasing aquifer depth, more so with 2,4-D than with MCPA...... are known to be involved in the metabolism of phenoxy acid herbicides. tfdA class III gene copy number was approximately 100-fold greater in samples able to mineralize MCPA than in samples able to mineralize 2,4-D, suggesting that tfdA class III gene plays a greater role in the metabolism of MCPA than of 2......Centimetre-scale vertical distribution of mineralization potential was determined for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) by 96-well microplate radiorespirometric analysis in aquifer sediment...

  17. Two roles of thylakoid lipids in modifying the activity of herbicides which inhibit photosystem II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupatt, C.C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Thylakoid lipids may modify the activity of herbicides which inhibit electron transport at the Q/sub B/ protein of photosystem II in two ways: (1) lipids can act as a hydrophobic barrier to a binding site localized close to the loculus of the membrane, and (2) changes in lipid composition can reduce the ability of inhibitors to block electron transport, possibly due to a change in the conformation of the Q/sub B/ protein. The herbicide binding site was localized close to the locular side of the thylakoid membrane by determining the activity of a number of substituted phenylurea and s-triazine herbicides in inverted and non-inverted thylakoids. Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis showed that inversion of thylakoids reduced the requirement of molecular lipophilicity deemed necessary for phenylurea activity in non-inverted membranes, whereas s-triazines exhibited no differences in the lipophilicity requirement in thylakoid membranes of either orientation. The binding affinity of 14 C-diuron was reduced in bicarbonate-depleted thylakoids relative to reconstituted or control membranes, as is the case with atrazine binding. These observations support a model of the herbicide binding site containing both common and herbicide family specific binding domains. Thylakoids isolated either from detached lambs quarters (Chenopodium album L.) leaves, treated with SAN 6706, or from soybean (Glycine max L.), with norflurazon or pyrazon applied preemergence, exhibited decreased susceptibility to atrazine. The ability of lipid-modifying treatments to decrease the atrazine susceptibility of field-grown soybeans was also investigated

  18. Effect of systemic herbicides on N2-fixing and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soils of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amal Chandra; Debnath, Anjan

    2006-11-01

    A field experiment has been conducted with four systemic herbicides viz., butachlor [N-(butoxymethyl)-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-acetanilide], fluchloralin [N-(2-chloroethyl)-(2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-trifluoromethyl) aniline], oxadiazon [5-terbutyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopro poxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-one] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene] at their recommended field rates (2.0, 1.5, 0.4 and 0.12kga.i.ha(-1), respectively) to investigate their effects on growth and activities of aerobic non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in relation to availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rhizosphere soils as well as yield of the rice crop (Oryza sativa L cv. IR-36). Application of herbicides, in general, highly stimulated the population and activities of the target microorganisms, which resulted in a greater amount of atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization in the rhizosphere soils of the test crop. The greater microbial activities subsequently augmented the mineralization and availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil solution, which in turn increased the yield of the crop. Among the herbicides, oxyfluorfen was most stimulative followed by fluchloralin and oxadiazon in augmenting the microbial activities in soil. Butachlor also accentuated the mineralization and availability of nitrogen due to higher incitement of non-symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria in paddy soil. The grain and straw yields of the crop were also significantly increased due to the application of oxyfluorfen (20.2% and 21%) followed by fluchloralin (13.1% and 15.4%) and butachlor (9.1% and 10.2%), respectively.

  19. Assessing the extent and effects of herbicide drift into Danish hedgerows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus; Andersen, H. V.; Strandberg, M. T.

    Very low dosages of herbicides are known to cause effects on bird cherry (Prunus avium) and hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna). It is not yet known whether other hedgerow trees and shrubs are equally sensitive to herbicide drift, to which extent spray drift into hedges and other habitats close to fiel...... were assessed. Metsulfuron methyl effects on Sambucus nigra (elder) and Sorbus intermedia were studied in separate experiments and will include second year effects. Methods and preliminary results are presented and discussed in relation to pesticide regulation....

  20. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability.

  1. Elucidation of Operon Structures across Closely Related Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components. PMID:24959722

  2. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arnold Bruns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L. hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI and dry matter accumulation (DMA were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesis. Crop growth rates (CRGs and relative growth rates (RGRs were calculated. Plots were later harvested, yield and yield component data collected, and kernel samples analyzed for aflatoxin and fumonisin. Leaf area index, DMA, CRG, and RGR were not different among the herbicide treated plots and from those that were cultivated. Curves for LAI and DMA were similar to those previously reported. Aflatoxin and fumonisin were relatively low in all plots. Herbicide application or the lack thereof had no negative impact on the incidence of kernel contamination by these two mycotoxins. Herbicides, especially glyphosate on resistant hybrids, have no negative effects on corn yields or kernel quality in corn produced in a humid subtropical environment.

  3. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; D?lye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non...

  4. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  5. Photosensitized herbicidal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweig, A; Nachtigall, G W [American Cyanamid Co., Stamford, Conn.

    1975-12-01

    The herbicidal action produced by the colorless hydrocarbon fluoranthene sprayed on the leaves of growing plants did not occur when uv radiation was removed from the light to which the plants are exposed. If the uv component of the light under which the plants were grown was augmented, the herbicidal effect of fluoranthene was increased. The mechanism of this photodynamic action is discussed.

  6. Experiments for habitation-related technologies in closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary habitation experiments, including facility implementation tests, investigation of work load and psychological and physiological effect of human subjects, environmental monitoring tests, and integrated implementation tests were performed in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Results showed insufficient ability of CO 2 separator, issues of overtime work of subjects and inadequate communication between subjects and supporting staff outside the modules. Countermeasures for these issues were developed. Results show that habitation experiments from fiscal year 2005 on the CEEF were judged to be feasible. (author)

  7. Phytotoxicity of Four Photosystem II Herbicides to Tropical Seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J.; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zostera muelleri and Halodule uninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ′), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows

  8. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Collier, Catherine J; Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII) herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50) over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m '), indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm ) corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect seagrass meadows of

  9. Phytotoxicity of four photosystem II herbicides to tropical seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR are contaminated with agricultural pesticides, including the photosystem II (PSII herbicides which are the most frequently detected at the highest concentrations. Designed to control weeds, these herbicides are equally potent towards non-target marine species, and the close proximity of seagrass meadows to flood plumes has raised concerns that seagrasses may be the species most threatened by herbicides from runoff. While previous work has identified effects of PSII herbicides on the photophysiology, growth and mortality in seagrass, there is little comparative quantitative toxicity data for seagrass. Here we applied standard ecotoxicology protocols to quantify the concentrations of four priority PSII herbicides that inhibit photochemistry by 10, 20 and 50% (IC10, IC20 and IC50 over 72 h in two common seagrass species from the GBR lagoon. The photosystems of seagrasses Zosteramuelleri and Haloduleuninervis were shown to be generally more sensitive to the PSII herbicides Diuron, Atrazine, Hexazinone and Tebuthiuron than corals and tropical microalgae. The herbicides caused rapid inhibition of effective quantum yield (∆F/F m ', indicating reduced photosynthesis and maximum effective yields (Fv/Fm corresponding to chronic damage to PSII. The PSII herbicide concentrations which affected photosynthesis have been exceeded in the GBR lagoon and all of the herbicides inhibited photosynthesis at concentrations lower than current marine park guidelines. There is a strong likelihood that the impacts of light limitation from flood plumes and reduced photosynthesis from PSII herbicides exported in the same waters would combine to affect seagrass productivity. Given that PSII herbicides have been demonstrated to affect seagrass at environmental concentrations, we suggest that revision of environmental guidelines and further efforts to reduce PSII herbicide concentrations in floodwaters may both help protect

  10. Closed orbit related problems: Correction, feedback, and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Orbit correction - moving the orbit to a desired orbit, orbit stability - keeping the orbit on the desired orbit using feedback to filter out unwanted noise, and orbit analysis - to learn more about the model of the machine, are strongly interrelated. They are the three facets of the same problem. The better one knows the model of the machine, the better the predictions that can be made on the behavior of the machine (inverse modeling) and the more accurately one can control the machine. On the other hand, one of the tools to learn more about the machine (modeling) is to study and analyze the orbit response to open-quotes kicks.close quotes

  11. Closing in on chemical bonds by opening up relativity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia K

    2008-03-01

    This paper develops a connection between the phenomenology of chemical bonding and the theory of relativity. Empirical correlations between electron numbers in atoms and chemical bond stabilities in molecules are first reviewed and extended. Quantitative chemical bond strengths are then related to ionization potentials in elements. Striking patterns in ionization potentials are revealed when the data are viewed in an element-independent way, where element-specific details are removed via an appropriate scaling law. The scale factor involved is not explained by quantum mechanics; it is revealed only when one goes back further, to the development of Einstein's special relativity theory.

  12. [Jealousy in close relationships: personal, relational and situational variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtaş, H Andaç; Dönmez, Ali

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effects of personal, situational, and relational variables (such as age, gender, gender role orientation, duration of relationship, relational satisfaction, and physical attractiveness of the partner) on jealousy are investigated. A sample of 454 individuals currently involved in dating or marital relationships (48 % married, 52 % unmarried) completed the Romantic Jealousy Questionnaire, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Stepwise regression analyses and 2 (gender) x2 (gender role orientation) x2 (relational type) ANOVA's were submitted for analyzing the data. Analysis indicated that unmarried people reported higher levels of jealousy than married people (F1-446 = 5.029). Married women reported less jealousy than unmarried women and married women reported more jealousy than married men. Age, relational satisfaction level, expectation level about the duration of the relationship, and physical attractiveness of the partner were unique predictors of the reported level of jealousy (R2 = 0.12; adjusted R2 = 0.11; P physical, emotional, and cognitive responses to jealousy compared to men. Women used more constructive (F1-446 = 6.27) and less destructive strategies than men (F1-446 = 6.27). Unmarried people used more destructive strategies than married people (F1-446 = 3.84). Age, self-esteem, and the duration of the relationship were unique predictors of coping strategies. The present study revealed that jealousy was a multidimensional variable. In particular, relational type, self-esteem, age, relational satisfaction, and sex are highly correlated with jealousy.

  13. Annual Herbicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  14. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  15. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  16. Burnout and engagement: Identical twins or just close relatives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toon W. Taris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has frequently cast doubts on the theoretical and empirical distinction between the concepts of work engagement and burnout. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data from 1535 Dutch police officers, the current study examined (a the associations among the two core dimensions of burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism and work engagement (vigor and dedication; and (b the concurrent and discriminant validity of these dimensions by relating these four dimensions to various important job demands and job resources. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the distinction between burnout and engagement is elusive. Moreover, although the indicators of burnout and those of engagement differed in terms of their job-related correlates, these patterns of associations only partly supported previous theorizing on the antecedents of burnout and engagement. We conclude that burnout and engagement are to a large degree overlapping concepts and that their conceptual and empirical differences should not be overestimated.

  17. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  18. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  19. Quantum quenches in the Luttinger model and its close relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalilla, M. A.; Chung, Ming-Chiang

    2016-06-01

    A number of results on quantum quenches in the Luttinger and related models are surveyed with emphasis on post-quench correlations. For the Luttinger model and initial gaussian states, we discuss both sudden and smooth quenches of the interaction and the emergence of a steady state described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble. Comparisons between analytics and numerics, and the question of universality or lack thereof are also discussed. The relevance of the theoretical results to current and future experiments in the fields of ultracold atomic gases and mesoscopic systems of electrons is also briefly touched upon. Wherever possible, our approach is pedagogical and self-contained. This work is dedicated to the memory of our colleague Alejandro Muramatsu.

  20. Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

    2014-02-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.

  1. Ethical Challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...

  2. Predicting herbicidal plant mortality with mobile photosynthesis meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempenaar, C.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Snel, J.F.H.; Smutny, V.; Zhang, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Herbicide dose optimisation, i.e. maximising weed control and crop yield with herbicide dose, is an important part of integrated weed management strategies. However, the adoption of optimised dose technology and variable rate application has been limited because of the relatively long period between

  3. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... with cell division. Chronic and sublethal effects have been studied for some herbicides, but fewer data are available for these effects than for acute effects. The sublethal effects of herbicides that have been studied include reproduction, stress, olfaction, and behavior. Although some of these responses......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  4. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  5. Herbicide options for hardwood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew W. Ezell; A. Brady Self

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbicides in hardwood management presents special problems in that many of the most effective herbicides are either designed to control hardwoods or the product is not labeled for such applications. Numerous studies involving herbicide application in hardwoods have been completed at Mississippi State University. This paper is a compilation of results from...

  6. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis diet supplements on disease resistance and immune-related gene expression in Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Reda, Rasha M; Awad, Ashraf

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluated the immunotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) at sub-lethal concentrations and the potential ameliorative influence of Spirulina platensis (SP) over a sub-chronic exposure period on Cyprinus carpio L., also known as common carp. Common carp was sampled after a 40-days exposure to ATZ (428 μg/L) and SP (1%), individually or in combination to assess the non-specific immune response, changes in mRNA expression of immune-related genes [lysozyme (LYZ), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and complement component 3 (C3)] in the spleen, and inflammatory cytokines (interleukins IL-1ß and IL-10) in the head kidney using real-time PCR. Additionally, disease resistance to Aeromonas sobria was evaluated. The results revealed that ATZ exposure caused a significant decline in most of the hematological variables, lymphocyte viability, and lysozyme and bactericidal activity. Moreover, ATZ increased the susceptibility to disease, reflected by a significantly lower post-challenge survival rate of the carp. ATZ may induce dysregulated expression of immune-related genes leading to downregulation of mRNA levels of IgM and LYZ in the spleen. However, expression of C3 remained unaffected. Of the cytokine-related genes examined, IL-1B was up-regulated in the head kidney. In contrast, the expression of IL-10 gene was down-regulated in the ATZ-exposed group. The SP supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in most indices; however, these values did not match with that of the controls. These results may conclude that ATZ affects both innate and adaptive immune responses through the negative transcriptional effect on genes involved in immunity and also due to the inflammation of the immune organs. In addition, dietary supplements with SP could be useful for modulation of the immunity in response to ATZ exposure, thereby presenting a promising feed additive for carps in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-04

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity.

  8. Rationale for Selection of Pesticides, Herbicides, and Related Compounds from the Hanford SST/DST Waste Considered for Analysis in Support of the Regulatory DQO (Privatization)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Daling, P.; Meier, K.

    1999-01-01

    Regulated pesticides, herbicides, miticides, and fungicides were evaluated for their potential past and current use at the Hanford Site. The starting list of these compounds is based on regulatory analyte input lists discussed in the Regulatory DQO. Twelve pesticide, herbicide, miticide, and fungicide compounds are identified for analysis in the Hanford SST and DST waste in support of the Regulatory DQO. The compounds considered for additional analyses are non-detected, considered stable in the tank waste matrix, and of higher toxicity/carcinogenicity

  9. selective herbicide glyphosate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... concentrations of the test chemical at 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L, respectively. The percentage growth rate ... production, processing, storage, transport or marketing of ... Herbicides commonly known as weed-killers are.

  10. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  11. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  12. Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on soil and its components. III. Influence of clay acidity, humic acid coating and herbicide structure on acetanilide herbicide adsorption on homoionic clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-ping; Fang, Zhuo; Liu, Hui-jun; Yang, Wei-chun

    2002-04-01

    Adsorption of chloroacetanilide herbicides on homoionic montmorillonite, soil humic acid, and their mixtures was studied by coupling batch equilibration and FT-IR analysis. Adsorption isotherms of acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor and propachlor on Ca(2+)-, Mg(2+)-, Al(3+)- and Fe(3+)-saturated clays were well described by the Freundlich equation. Regardless of the type of exchange cations, Kf decreased in the order of metolachlor > acetolachlor > alachlor > propachlor on the same clay. FT-IR spectra showed that the carbonyl group of the herbicide molecule was involved in binding, probably via H-bond with water molecules in the clay interlayer. The type and position of substitutions around the carbonyl group may have affected the electronegativity of oxygen, thus influencing the relative adsorption of these herbicides. For the same herbicide, adsorption on clay increased in the order of Mg2+ < Ca2+ < Al3+ < or = Fe3+ which coincided with the increasing acidity of homoionic clays. Acidity of cations may have affected the protonation of water, and thus the strength of H-bond between the clay water and herbicide. Complexation of clay and humic acid resulted in less adsorption than that expected from independent adsorption by the individual constituents. The effect varied with herbicides, but the greatest decrease in adsorption occurred at a 60:40 clay-to-humic acid ratio for all the herbicides. Causes for the decreased adsorption need to be characterized to better understand adsorption mechanisms and predict adsorption from soil compositions.

  13. Close relatives find meaning to cope with cancer diagnosis and treatment of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyh, Janelle M; Levine, Ellen G; Clay, Karine

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care has recently become a priority in the health care field and is implemented at the time of diagnosis rather than days or weeks before the child's death. Social constructivism theory in which humans generate meaning from their experiences was utilized as a general framework to determine the impact of pediatric palliative care on close relatives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a substantive theory that explains how close relatives such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles of a child with cancer experience palliative care. The participants of the study included close relatives of children in palliative care. Semistructured interviews and journaling were used to collect data. Initial, focused, and axial coding procedures were used to manage the data and a content analysis of the textual data was performed. Findings from the data suggested a process of finding meaning which helps close relatives to let go of what they cannot control while holding on to what they can control. Social change implications of this study may include improving health care programming for close relatives utilizing supportive-expressive measures. This programming may promote mental health of the close relatives who will learn to deal with their adjustment difficulties and improve their coping skills.

  14. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  15. Getting More Ecologically Relevant Information from Laboratory Tests: Recovery of Lemna minor After Exposure to Herbicides and Their Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Varja; Tunić, Tanja; Gajić, Pero; Marjan, Patricija; Savić, Danko; Tenji, Dina; Teodorović, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Recovery after exposure to herbicides-atrazine, isoproturon, and trifluralin-their binary and ternary mixtures, was studied under laboratory conditions using a slightly adapted standard protocol for Lemna minor. The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare empirical to predicted toxicity of selected herbicide mixtures; (2) to assess L. minor recovery potential after exposure to selected individual herbicides and their mixtures; and (3) to suggest an appropriate recovery potential assessment approach and endpoint in a modified laboratory growth inhibition test. The deviation of empirical from predicted toxicity was highest in binary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides. The concentration addition model slightly underestimated mixture effects, indicating potential synergistic interactions between photosynthetic inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon) and a cell mitosis inhibitor (trifluralin). Recovery after exposure to the binary mixture of atrazine and isoproturon was fast and concentration-independent: no significant differences between relative growth rates (RGRs) in any of the mixtures (IC10 Mix , 25 Mix , and 50 Mix ) versus control level were recorded in the last interval of the recovery phase. The recovery of the plants exposed to binary and ternary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides was strictly concentration-dependent. Only plants exposed to IC10 Mix , regardless of the herbicides, recovered RGRs close to control level in the last interval of the recovery phase. The inhibition of the RGRs in the last interval of the recovery phase compared with the control level is a proposed endpoint that could inform on reversibility of the effects and indicate possible mixture effects on plant population recovery potential.

  16. Convex optimisation approach to constrained fuel optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Massari, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes an interesting and powerful approach to the constrained fuel-optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion. The proposed approach is well suited for problems under linear dynamic equations, therefore perfectly fitting to the case of spacecraft flying in close relative motion. If the solution of the optimisation is approximated as a polynomial with respect to the time variable, then the problem can be approached with a technique developed in the control engineering community, known as "Sum Of Squares" (SOS), and the constraints can be reduced to bounds on the polynomials. Such a technique allows rewriting polynomial bounding problems in the form of convex optimisation problems, at the cost of a certain amount of conservatism. The principles of the techniques are explained and some application related to spacecraft flying in close relative motion are shown.

  17. An orthologous transcriptional signature differentiates responses towards closely related chemicals in Arabidopsis thaliana and brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicides are structurally diverse chemicals that inhibit plant-specific targets, however their off-target and potentially differentiating side-effects are less well defined. In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix AtH1 arrays was used to identify dis...

  18. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  19. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  20. Studies on maize inbred lines susceptibility to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Lidija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of results obtained during long- term studies on the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides. Under the agroecological conditions of Zemun Polje the response (reaction of maize inbred lines to herbicides of different classes was investigated. Biological tests were performed and some agronomic, morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were determined when the response of maize inbred lines to herbicides was estimated. The use of active ingredients of herbicides from triazine, acetanilide, thiocarbamate to new chemical groups (sulfonylurea etc., have been resulted in changes in weed suppression and susceptibility of inbred lines. Obtained results show that effects of herbicides on susceptible maize genotypes can be different: they can slowdown the growth and development and affect the plant height; they can also affect the stages of the tassel and ear development and at the end they can reduced grain yield of the tested inbreds. Numerous studies confirmed the existence of differences in susceptibility level of maize genotypes in relation to herbicides. According to gained results the recommendations for growers are made on the possibility of the application of new herbicides in the hybrid seed production.

  1. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José F.; Gauthier, Gregory M.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Gallo, Juan E.; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Marty, Amber J.; Carmen, John C.; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated...

  2. Brain death: close relatives' use of imagery as a descriptor of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Ingvar; Haljamäe, Hengo; Ohlén, Joakim; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the use of imagery to describe the experience of confronting brain death in a close relative. The brain death of a loved one has been described as an extremely difficult experience for close relatives, evoking feelings of anger, emotional pain, disbelief, guilt and suffering. It can also be difficult for relatives to distinguish brain death from the state of coma and thus difficult to apprehend information about the diagnosis. Narrative theory and a hermeneutic phenomenological method guided the interpretation of 17 narratives from close relatives of brain dead patients. All narratives were scrutinized for experiences of brain death. Data were primarily collected in 1999. The primary analysis related to close relatives' experience of brain death in a loved one. A secondary analysis of the imagery they used to describe their experience was carried out in 2003. Six categories of imagery used to describe the experience of confronting a diagnosis of brain death in a loved one emerged: chaotic unreality; inner collapse; sense of forlornness; clinging to the hope of survival; reconciliation with the reality of death; receiving care which gives comfort. Participants also identified two pairs of dimensions to describe their feelings about the relationship between their brain dead relative's body and personhood: presence-absence and divisibility-indivisibility. Being confronted with brain death meant entering into the anteroom of death, facing a loved one who is 'living-dead', and experiencing a chaotic drama of suffering. It is very important for members of the intensive care unit team to recognize, face and respond to these relatives' chaotic experiences, which cause them to need affirmation, comfort and caring. Relatives' use of imagery could be the starting point for a caring conversation about their experiences, either in conversations at the time of the death or when relatives are contacted in a later follow-up.

  3. Close monitoring as a contextual stimulator : How need for structure affects the relation between close monitoring and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric F.; Slijkhuis, Marjette; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we argue and demonstrate that employees' Personal Need for Structure (PNS) moderates the negative effects of close monitoring on job satisfaction, intrinsic work motivation, and innovative job performance (as rated by their supervisors). In a field study (N=295), we found that

  4. Using accelerated life testing procedures to compare the relative sensitivity of rainbow trout and the federally listed threatened bull trout to three commonly used rangeland herbicides (picloram, 2,4-D, and clopyralid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James F; Allert, Ann; Sappington, Linda S; Nelson, Karen J; Valle, Janet

    2008-03-01

    We conducted 96-h static acute toxicity studies to evaluate the relative sensitivity of juveniles of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard cold-water surrogate rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) to three rangeland herbicides commonly used for controlling invasive weeds in the northwestern United States. Relative species sensitivity was compared using three procedures: standard acute toxicity testing, fractional estimates of lethal concentrations, and accelerated life testing chronic estimation procedures. The acutely lethal concentrations (ALC) resulting in 50% mortality at 96 h (96-h ALC50s) were determined using linear regression and indicated that the three herbicides were toxic in the order of picloram acid > 2,4-D acid > clopyralid acid. The 96-h ALC50 values for rainbow trout were as follows: picloram, 41 mg/L; 2.4-D, 707 mg/L; and clopyralid, 700 mg/L. The 96-h ALC50 values for bull trout were as follows: picloram, 24 mg/L; 2.4-D, 398 mg/L; and clopyralid, 802 mg/L. Fractional estimates of safe concentrations, based on 5% of the 96-h ALC50, were conservative (overestimated toxicity) of regression-derived 96-h ALC5 values by an order of magnitude. Accelerated life testing procedures were used to estimate chronic lethal concentrations (CLC) resulting in 1% mortality at 30 d (30-d CLC1) for the three herbicides: picloram (1 mg/L rainbow trout, 5 mg/L bull trout), 2,4-D (56 mg/L rainbow trout, 84 mg/L bull trout), and clopyralid (477 mg/L rainbow trout; 552 mg/L bull trout). Collectively, the results indicated that the standard surrogate rainbow trout is similar in sensitivity to bull trout. Accelerated life testing procedures provided cost-effective, statistically defensible methods for estimating safe chronic concentrations (30-d CLC1s) of herbicides from acute toxicity data because they use statistical models based on the entire mortality:concentration:time data matrix.

  5. Differences in mating strategies in two closely related small ermine moth species (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of polyandry in a species is linked to other life history traits such as egg maturation, life span, and male ejaculate size and quality. The study of differences in mating strategies between closely related species can provide a better understanding of the evolution of these strategies

  6. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The

  7. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  8. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since

  9. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  10. A simple method to design non-collision relative orbits for close spacecraft formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, JunFeng; Jiang, FangHua; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2018-05-01

    A set of linearized relative motion equations of spacecraft flying on unperturbed elliptical orbits are specialized for particular cases, where the leader orbit is circular or equatorial. Based on these extended equations, we are able to analyze the relative motion regulation between a pair of spacecraft flying on arbitrary unperturbed orbits with the same semi-major axis in close formation. Given the initial orbital elements of the leader, this paper presents a simple way to design initial relative orbital elements of close spacecraft with the same semi-major axis, thus preventing collision under non-perturbed conditions. Considering the mean influence of J 2 perturbation, namely secular J 2 perturbation, we derive the mean derivatives of orbital element differences, and then expand them to first order. Thus the first order expansion of orbital element differences can be added to the relative motion equations for further analysis. For a pair of spacecraft that will never collide under non-perturbed situations, we present a simple method to determine whether a collision will occur when J 2 perturbation is considered. Examples are given to prove the validity of the extended relative motion equations and to illustrate how the methods presented can be used. The simple method for designing initial relative orbital elements proposed here could be helpful to the preliminary design of the relative orbital elements between spacecraft in a close formation, when collision avoidance is necessary.

  11. Herbicides in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Haq, A.; Maqbool, U.

    1997-01-01

    Herbicide effectiveness on the most pernicious weeds including cyperus rotundus may be limited because spray droplets are not well retained or because penetration and/or translocation is restricted. As a result, chemical pollute the environment and is hazardous to the human health. Monitoring studies ad undertaken to check that the flate and environmental effects of herbicides under field condition are consistent with prediction. Studies on /sup 14/-glyphosate in Cyperus rotundus using radiotracer methods indicated that out of five formulations studies formulation No.3 was the best from penetration point of view of the chemical whereas formulation No. 4 with the high dose showed effective retention and uniform translocation of the chemical after five days of the treatment. Cuticular penetration and translocation of glyphosate in the formulations with or without surfactants have also been studied in C. rotundus. It is also concluded that synperonic surfactants, diesel oil or glycerol did not influence the translocation of glyphosate within the weed. The translocation mainly occurred down swards and accumulated in the plant parts located below the treated zone. (author)

  12. A comparison of the herbicide tolerances of rare and common plants in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J Franklin; Graham, Ian M; Mortensen, David A

    2014-03-01

    Declining plant biodiversity in agroecosystems has often been attributed to escalating use of chemical herbicides, but other changes in farming systems, including the clearing of seminatural habitat fragments, confound the influence of herbicides. The present study introduces a new approach to evaluate the impacts of herbicide pollution on plant communities at landscape or regional scales. If herbicides are in fact a key factor shaping agricultural plant diversity, one would expect to see the signal of past herbicide impacts in the current plant community composition of an intensively farmed region, with common, successful species more tolerant to widely used herbicides than rare or declining species. Data from an extensive field survey of plant diversity in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, USA, were compared with herbicide bioassay experiments in a greenhouse to test the hypothesis that common species possess higher herbicide tolerances than rare species. Five congeneric pairs of rare and common species were treated with 3 commonly used herbicide modes of action in bioassay experiments, and few significant differences were found in the tolerances of rare species relative to common species. These preliminary results suggest that other factors beyond herbicide exposure may be more important in shaping the distribution and abundance of plant species diversity across an agricultural landscape. © 2014 SETAC.

  13. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate...... groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...... species. FMRFamide, MLD/pedal peptide, allatotropin, RNamide, excitatory peptide, and FVRIamide showed a broad localization within the brain, while calcitonin, SIFamide, vasotocin, RGWamide, DLamide, FLamide, FVamide, MIP, and serotonin were present in fewer cells in demarcated regions. The different...

  15. A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku

    2004-01-01

    We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)

  16. Herbicides: A new threat to the Great Barrier Reef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Stephen E.; Brodie, Jon E.; Bainbridge, Zoe T.; Rohde, Ken W.; Davis, Aaron M.; Masters, Bronwyn L.; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change. - Herbicide residues have been detected in Great Barrier Reef catchment waterways and river water plumes which may affect marine ecosystems.

  17. Relational Mobility Explains Between- and Within-Culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The current research proposes a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to others than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure toward close friends may be explained by the construct of "relational mobility" - the general degree to which individuals in the society have the opportunities to form new and terminate old relationships. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural di...

  18. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no tr...

  19. [Phylogenetic analysis of closely related Leuconostoc citreum species based on partial housekeeping genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Dan, Tong; Sun, Tiansong

    2013-07-04

    Using the 16S rRNA, dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, we identified the phylogenetic relationship among closely related Leuconostoc citreum species. Seven Leu. citreum strains originally isolated from sourdough were characterized by PCR methods to amplify the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, which were determined to assess the suitability as phylogenetic markers. Then, we estimated the genetic distance and constructed the phylogenetic trees including 16S rRNA and above mentioned three housekeeping genes combining with published corresponding sequences. By comparing the phylogenetic trees, the topology of three housekeeping genes trees were consistent with that of 16S rRNA gene. The homology of closely related Leu. citreum species among dnaA, murC, pyrG and 16S rRNA gene sequences were different, ranged from75.5% to 97.2%, 50.2% to 99.7%, 65.0% to 99.8% and 98.5% 100%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of three housekeeping genes sequences were highly consistent with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence, while the genetic distance of these housekeeping genes were extremely high than 16S rRNA gene. Consequently, the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene are suitable for classification and identification closely related Leu. citreum species.

  20. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van der Geest, Harm G.; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Lamoree, Marja H.; de Voogt, W. Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. Dick

    2015-08-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and coastal waters are the most productive ecosystems with high primary production by microalgae. The toxic pressure of specific phytotoxic chemicals now poses a major threat to these ecosystems. In a previous study, six herbicides (atrazine, diuron, irgarol, isoproturon, terbutryn and terbutylazine) were identified as the main contaminants affecting photosynthesis in marine microalgae. The purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic pressure of these herbicides in the Dutch estuarine and coastal waters in relation to the effective photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII) in microalgae. Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of these herbicides were analyzed based on monitoring data. Additionally, a field study was carried out in which chemical analysis of water was performed and also a toxicity assessment using the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry assay that measures ΦPSII. The toxic pressure on ΦPSII in microalgae has decreased with 55-82% from 2003 to 2012, with the Western Scheldt estuary showing the highest toxic pressure. By combining toxicity data from the PAM assay with chemical analysis of herbicide concentrations, we have identified diuron and terbutylazine as the main contributors to the toxic pressure on microalgae. Although direct effects are not expected, the toxic pressure is close to the 10% effect level in the PAM assay. A compliance check with the current environmental legislation of the European Union revealed that the quality standards are not sufficient to protect marine microalgae.

  1. Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina Nadezhda K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  2. Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, C; Olstedt, M; Gunnarsson, J S; Le Lan, H; Tran Thi Minh, H; Van den Brink, P J; Hellström, M; Tedengren, M

    2018-05-01

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 °C) and at 3 °C elevated water temperatures (31 °C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts. All corals from the MPA started to bleach in the laboratory before they were exposed to the treatments, indicating that they were very sensitive, as opposed to the corals collected from the more polluted site, which were more tolerant and showed no bleaching response to temperature increase or herbicide alone. However, the combined exposure to the stressors resulted in significant loss of color, proportional to loss in chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae. The difference in sensitivity of the corals collected from the polluted site versus the MPA site could be explained by different symbiont types: the resilient type C3u and the stress-sensitive types C21 and C23, respectively. The additive effect of elevated temperatures and herbicides adds further weight to the notion that the bleaching of coral reefs is accelerated in the presence of multiple stressors. These results suggest that the corals in Nha Trang bay have adapted to the ongoing pollution to become more tolerant to anthropogenic stressors, and that multiple stressors hamper this resilience. The loss of color and decrease of chlorophyll a suggest that bleaching is related to concentration of chloro-pigments. The colorimetric method could be further fine-tuned and used as a precise, non

  3. Natural compounds as next-generation herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides with new modes of action (MOAs) are badly needed due to the rapidly evolving resistance to commercial herbicides, but a new MOA has not been introduced in over 20 years. The greatest pest management challenge for organic agriculture is the lack of effective natural product herbicides. The structural diversity and evolved biological activity of natural phytotoxins offer opportunities for the development of both directly used natural compounds and synthetic herbicides with new target sites based on the structures of natural phytotoxins. Natural phytotoxins are also a source for the discovery of new herbicide target sites that can serve as the focus of traditional herbicide discovery efforts. There are many examples of strong natural phytotoxins with MOAs other than those used by commercial herbicides, which indicates that there are molecular targets of herbicides that can be added to the current repertoire of commercial herbicide MOAs. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Relational mobility explains between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William

    2010-10-01

    In the current research, we tested a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to other people than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends may be explained by the construct of relational mobility, the general degree to which individuals in a society have opportunities to form new relationships and terminate old ones. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural differences (Japan vs. United States) in self-disclosure to a close friend were mediated by individuals' perceptions of relational mobility. In Study 2, two separate measures of relational mobility predicted self-disclosure within a single culture (Japan), and this relationship was mediated by the motivation to engage in self-disclosure to strengthen personal relationships. We conclude that societies and social contexts higher in relational mobility (in which relationships can be formed and dissolved relatively easily) produce stronger incentives for self-disclosure as a social-commitment device.

  5. Artificial light at night affects sleep behaviour differently in two closely related songbird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiachen; Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is an increasing and worldwide problem. There is growing concern that because of the disruption of natural light cycles, ALAN may pose serious risks for wildlife. While ALAN has been shown to affect many aspects of animal behaviour and physiology, few studies have experimentally studied whether individuals of different species in the wild respond differently to ALAN. Here, we investigated the effect of ALAN on sleep behaviour in two closely related songbird species inhabiting the same study area and roosting/breeding in similar nest boxes. We experimentally exposed free-living great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to artificial light inside their nest boxes and observed changes in their sleep behaviour compared to the previous night when the nest boxes were dark. In line with previous studies, sleep behaviour of both species did not differ under dark conditions. ALAN disrupted sleep in both great and blue tits. However, compared to blue tits, great tits showed more pronounced effects and more aspects of sleep were affected. Light exposed great tits entered the nest boxes and fell asleep later, woke up and exited the nest boxes earlier, and the total sleep amount and sleep percentage were reduced. By contrast, these changes in sleep behaviour were not found in light exposed blue tits. Our field experiment, using exactly the same light manipulation in both species, provides direct evidence that two closely related species respond differently to ALAN, while their sleep behaviour under dark conditions was similar. Our research suggests that findings for one species cannot necessarily be generalised to other species, even closely-related species. Furthermore, species-specific effects could have implications for community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  7. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jaime E; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  8. Using GLEAMS to Select Environmental Windows for Herbicide Application in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Smith; J.L. Michael; W.G. Koisel; D.G. Nealy

    1994-01-01

    Observed herbicide runoff and groundwater data from a pine-release herbicide application study near Gainesville, Florida were used to validate the GLEAMS model hydrology and pesticide component for forest application. The study revealed that model simulations agreed relatively well with the field data for the one-year study. Following validation, a modified version of...

  9. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species. Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues. In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade. Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode. Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  11. PSP: rapid identification of orthologous coding genes under positive selection across multiple closely related prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Ou, Hong-Yu; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-27

    With genomic sequences of many closely related bacterial strains made available by deep sequencing, it is now possible to investigate trends in prokaryotic microevolution. Positive selection is a sub-process of microevolution, in which a particular mutation is favored, causing the allele frequency to continuously shift in one direction. Wide scanning of prokaryotic genomes has shown that positive selection at the molecular level is much more frequent than expected. Genes with significant positive selection may play key roles in bacterial adaption to different environmental pressures. However, selection pressure analyses are computationally intensive and awkward to configure. Here we describe an open access web server, which is designated as PSP (Positive Selection analysis for Prokaryotic genomes) for performing evolutionary analysis on orthologous coding genes, specially designed for rapid comparison of dozens of closely related prokaryotic genomes. Remarkably, PSP facilitates functional exploration at the multiple levels by assignments and enrichments of KO, GO or COG terms. To illustrate this user-friendly tool, we analyzed Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus genomes and found that several genes, which play key roles in human infection and antibiotic resistance, show significant evidence of positive selection. PSP is freely available to all users without any login requirement at: http://db-mml.sjtu.edu.cn/PSP/. PSP ultimately allows researchers to do genome-scale analysis for evolutionary selection across multiple prokaryotic genomes rapidly and easily, and identify the genes undergoing positive selection, which may play key roles in the interactions of host-pathogen and/or environmental adaptation.

  12. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  13. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  14. Language Adaptation for Extending Post-Editing Estimates for Closely Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open-source toolkit for predicting human post-editing efforts for closely related languages. At the moment, training resources for the Quality Estimation task are available for very few language directions and domains. Available resources can be expanded on the assumption that MT errors and the amount of post-editing required to correct them are comparable across related languages, even if the feature frequencies differ. In this paper we report a toolkit for achieving language adaptation, which is based on learning new feature representation using transfer learning methods. In particular, we report performance of a method based on Self-Taught Learning which adapts the English-Spanish pair to produce Quality Estimation models for translation from English into Portuguese, Italian and other Romance languages using the publicly available Autodesk dataset.

  15. A Murine Herpesvirus Closely Related to Ubiquitous Human Herpesviruses Causes T-Cell Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-05-01

    The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology, because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4 + T cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By next-generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174-kb genome sequence containing 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, than to another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. IMPORTANCE Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  16. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castresana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification

  17. The Role of Documentation Quality in Anesthesia-Related Closed Claims: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Bryan A; Geisz-Everson, Marjorie; Boust, Rebecca R

    2016-09-01

    Clinical documentation is a critical tool in supporting care provided to patients. Sound documentation provides a picture of clinical events that can be used to improve patient care. However, many other uses for clinical documentation are equally important. Such documentation informs clinical decision support tools, creates a legal record of patient care, assists in financial reimbursement of services, and serves as a repository for secondary data analysis. Conversely, poor documentation can impair patient safety and increase malpractice risk exposure by reflecting poor or inaccurate information that ultimately may guide patient care decisions.Through an examination of anesthesia-related closed claims, a descriptive qualitative study emerged, which explored the antecedents and consequences of documentation quality in the claims reviewed. A secondary data analysis utilized a database generated by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation closed claim review team. Four major themes emerged from the analysis. Themes 1, 2, and 4 primarily describe how poor documentation quality can have negative consequences for clinicians. The third theme primarily describes how poor documentation quality that can negatively affect patient safety.

  18. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fracchiolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  19. Natural compounds with herbicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Montemurro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research about phytotoxic activity of natural compounds could lead both to find new herbicidal active ingredients and to plan environmental friendly weed control strategies. Particularly, living organisms could be a source of compounds that are impossible, for their complexity, to synthesize artificially. More over, they could have alternative sites of action respect to the known chemical herbicides and, due to their origin, they should be more environmental safe. Many living organism, such as bacteria, fungi, insects, lichens and plants, are able to produce bioactive compounds. They generally are secondary metabolites or simply waste molecules. In this paper we make a review about these compounds, highlighting potential and constraints.

  20. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T......). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  1. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  2. The giant zooxanthellae-bearing ciliate Maristentor dinoferus (Heterotrichea) is closely related to folliculinidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wei; Simpson, Alastair G B; Fu, Chengjie; Lobban, Christopher S

    2005-01-01

    The small subunit rDNA sequence of Maristentor dinoferus (Lobban, Schefter, Simpson, Pochon, Pawlowski, and Foissner, 2002) was determined and compared with sequences from other Heterotrichea and Karyorelictea. Maristentor resembles Stentor in basic morphology and had been provisionally assigned to Stentoridae. However, our phylogenetic analyses show that Maristentor is more closely related to Folliculinidae. Our results support the creation of a separate family for Maristentor, Maristentoridae n. fam., and also confirm the phylogenetic grouping of Folliculindae, Stentoridae, Blepharismidae, and Maristentoridae, which we informally call 'stentorids'. Maristentor, rather than Stentor itself, appears to be most significant in understanding the origins of folliculinids from their aloricate ancestors. Our analyses suggest continued uncertainty in the exact placement of the root of heterotrichs with this phylogenetic marker.

  3. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme T J Nicol

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2, and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1 are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  4. Inverted duplication including Endothelin 3 closely related to dermal hyperpigmentation in Silkie chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming TIAN,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Rui HAO,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype in chickens is controlled by the dominant fibromelanosis allele. One of the ten unique characteristics of Silkie chickens is the fibromelanosis phenotype, which is pigmentation in the dermal layer of the skin and connective tissue. In this study, we found a mutation of fibromelanosis, a genomic rearrangement that included an inverted duplication of endothelin3 (EDN3, is responsible. We show that, as a stimulator of melanoblast proliferation, EDN3 expression was increased in silkie embryos and in both skin and muscle throughout adulthood. EDN3 expression led to an increase in expression of the downstream genes EDNRB2 and TYRP2, and was closely relate with the hyperpigmentation phenotype. We examined eight different Chinese chicken breeds showing hyperpigmentation and conclude that this structural genetic variant exists in all fibromelanosis chicken breeds.

  5. Non-commercial surrogacy among close relatives in Vietnam: policy and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2018-04-19

    Altruistic surrogacy among close relatives has been legal in Vietnam since the beginning of 2015. Following the revision of the Marriage and Family Law, there have been dozens of cases of surrogacy, and instances of successful pregnancy and childbirth have also been reported. Although surrogacy was completely prohibited in 2003, numerous local brokers offered commercial surrogacy services. Today, surrogacy is permitted under very limited conditions, and commercial surrogacy is prohibited. However, brokers continue to offer illegal commercial surrogacy services, and some even present its incidence may be increasing. In terms of women's roles, Vietnamese society places the highest value on motherhood, and childless couples are stigmatized. Thus, the demand for surrogates is high in Vietnam, rendering it difficult for family members to meet the needs of all those seeking these services. This article considers the consequences and implications of the new surrogacy policy in Vietnam based on field research.

  6. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  7. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants, inveretebrates, and fish to herbicides; and emerging areas of science regarding the potential for endocrine-disrupting effects of herbicides on aquatic vertebrates. Much of the focus of this paper is on atrazine due to the extensive database which exists regarding its fate and effects. 

  8. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  9. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  10. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  11. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José F; Gauthier, Gregory M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Gallo, Juan E; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D; Marty, Amber J; Carmen, John C; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret; Saif, Sakina; Whiston, Emily A; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Goldman, William E; Mardis, Elaine R; Taylor, John W; McEwen, Juan G; Clay, Oliver K; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution

  12. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  13. A herbicide structure-activity analysis of the antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 against Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Maxime G; Leroux, Julie; Tresch, Stefan; Newton, Trevor; Stubbs, Keith A; Mylne, Joshua S

    2018-07-01

    To fight herbicide-resistant weeds, new herbicides are needed; particularly ones with new modes of action. Building on the revelation that many antimalarial drugs are herbicidal, here we focus on the Medicines for Malaria Venture antimalarial lead compound MMV007978 that has herbicidal activity against the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Twenty-two variations of the lead compound thiophenyl motif revealed that change was tolerated provided ring size and charge were retained. MMV007978 was active against select monocot and dicot weeds, and physiological profiling indicated that its mode of action is related to germination and cell division. Of interest is the fact that the compound has a profile that is currently not found among known herbicides. We demonstrate that the antimalarial compound MMV007978 is also herbicidal and that exploiting lead compounds that are often understudied could lead to the identification of interesting herbicidal scaffolds. Further structural investigation of MMV007978 could provide improved herbicidal chemistries with a potential new mode of action. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Economics of site-specific and variable-dose herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Kudsk, Per; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    2017-01-01

    Site-specific application of pesticides has so far focused mainly on herbicides. The purpose of precision farming technologies in relation to herbicide use is to reduce herbicide cost and environmental impact from spraying, but at the same time to achieve acceptable weed control. Another purpose...... is to increase the spraying capacity, to reduce the number of sprayer refills, and finally to minimize time spent on weed monitoring. In this chapter the relevance and profitability of four precision herbicide application technologies, two weed detection technologies and a low dose decision support system (DSS......) is analysed. With a low dose herbicide, cost can be reduced by 20–50%. It requires, however, proper monitoring of weeds, which can be a time-consuming task that again requires that the farmer is able to identify the dominant weed species. The current development of high-speed camera and software systems can...

  16. Differential regulation of two closely related integrative and conjugative elements from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carraro Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two closely related ICEs, ICESt1 and ICESt3, have been identified in the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus. While their conjugation and recombination modules are almost identical (95% nucleotide identity and their regulation modules related, previous work has demonstrated that transconjugants carrying ICESt3 were generated at rate exceeding by a 1000 factor that of ICESt1. Results The functional regulation of ICESt1 and ICESt3 transcription, excision and replication were investigated under different conditions (exponential growth or stationary phase, DNA damage by exposition to mitomycin C. Analysis revealed an identical transcriptional organization of their recombination and conjugation modules (long unique transcript whereas the transcriptional organization of their regulation modules were found to be different (two operons in ICESt1 but only one in ICESt3 and to depend on the conditions (promoter specific of stationary phase in ICESt3. For both elements, stationary phase and DNA damage lead to the rise of transcript levels of the conjugation-recombination and regulation modules. Whatever the growth culture conditions, excision of ICESt1 was found to be lower than that of ICESt3, which is consistent with weaker transfer frequencies. Furthermore, for both elements, excision increases in stationary phase (8.9-fold for ICESt1 and 1.31-fold for ICESt3 and is strongly enhanced by DNA damage (38-fold for ICESt1 and 18-fold for ICESt3. Although ICEs are generally not described as replicative elements, the copy number of ICESt3 exhibited a sharp increase (9.6-fold after mitomycin C exposure of its harboring strain CNRZ385. This result was not observed when ICESt3 was introduced in a strain deriving ICESt1 host strain CNRZ368, deleted for this element. This finding suggests an impact of the host cell on ICE behavior. Conclusions All together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of regulation shared by ICESt1

  17. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  18. Phenology, growth, and fecundity as determinants of distribution in closely related nonnative taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States

  19. Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus (Salicaceae) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuhui; Wang, Zhaoshan; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Junhui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Tembrock, Luke R; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-10-01

    Historical tectonism and climate oscillations can isolate and contract the geographical distributions of many plant species, and they are even known to trigger species divergence and ultimately speciation. Here, we estimated the nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus species, Populus tremuloides, P. tremula and P. davidiana, distributed in North America and Eurasia. We analysed the sequence variation in six single-copy nuclear loci and three chloroplast (cpDNA) fragments in 497 individuals sampled from 33 populations of these three species across their geographic distributions. These three Populus species harboured relatively high levels of nucleotide diversity and showed high levels of nucleotide differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. tremuloides diverged earlier than the other two species. The cpDNA haplotype network result clearly illustrated the dispersal route from North America to eastern Asia and then into Europe. Molecular dating results confirmed that the divergence of these three species coincided with the sundering of the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene and a rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Vicariance-driven successful allopatric speciation resulting from historical tectonism and climate oscillations most likely played roles in the formation of the disjunct distributions and divergence of these three Populus species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  1. Cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility than to laboratory-based mobility parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannouli, Eleftheria; Bock, Otmar; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to

  2. USE OF COMPETITIVE DNA HYBRIDIZATION TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENCES IN THE GENOMES OF TWO CLOSELY RELATED FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, comparisons of closely related bacterial species and individual isolates by whole-genome sequencing approaches remains prohibitively expens...

  3. Using SNPs with varying specificity to quantify hybridization between closely related but genetically distinct moth populations in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive insect species can potentially hybridize with closely related native populations to produce new phenotypes with deleterious economic and environmental consequences. Monitoring such events is often problematic because populations that can interbreed are typically sufficiently similar that it...

  4. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  5. A closed-loop hybrid physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samahy, Emad; Mahfouf, Mahdi; Linkens, Derek A

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this research study is to derive a comprehensive physiological model relating to subjects under physical stress conditions. The model should describe the behaviour of the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, thermoregulation and brain activity in response to physical workload. An experimental testing rig was built which consists of recumbent high performance bicycle for inducing the physical load and a data acquisition system comprising monitors and PCs. The signals acquired and used within this study are the blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, body temperature, and EEG signals. The proposed model is based on a grey-box based modelling approach which was used because of the sufficient level of details it provides. Cardiovascular and EEG Data relating to 16 healthy subject volunteers (data from 12 subjects were used for training/validation and the data from 4 subjects were used for model testing) were collected using the Finapres and the ProComp+ monitors. For model validation, residual analysis via the computing of the confidence intervals as well as related histograms was performed. Closed-loop simulations for different subjects showed that the model can provide reliable predictions for heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, respiration, and the EEG signals. These findings were also reinforced by the residual analyses data obtained, which suggested that the residuals were within the 90% confidence bands and that the corresponding histograms were of a normal distribution. A higher intelligent level was added to the model, based on neural networks, to extend the capabilities of the model to predict over a wide range of subjects dynamics. The elicited physiological model describing the effect of physiological stress on several physiological variables can be used to predict performance breakdown of operators in critical environments. Such a model architecture lends itself naturally to exploitation via feedback control in a 'reverse

  6. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  7. Attention to affective pictures in closed head injury: event-related brain potentials and cardiac responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Reinvang, Ivar; Svebak, Sven; Nielsen, Christopher S; Sundet, Kjetil

    2005-02-01

    We examined whether closed head injury patients show altered patterns of selective attention to stimulus categories that naturally evoke differential responses in healthy people. Self-reported rating and electrophysiological (event-related potentials [ERPs], heart rate [HR]) responses to affective pictures were studied in patients with mild head injury (n = 20; CT/MRI negative), in patients with predominantly frontal brain lesions (n = 12; CT/MRI confirmed), and in healthy controls (n = 20). Affective valence similarly modulated HR and ERP responses in all groups, but group differences occurred that were independent of picture valence. The attenuation of P3-slow wave amplitudes in the mild head injury group indicates a reduction in the engagement of attentional resources to the task. In contrast, the general enhancement of ERP amplitudes at occipital sites in the group with primarily frontal brain injury may reflect disinhibition of input at sensory receptive areas, possibly due to a deficit in top-down modulation performed by anterior control systems.

  8. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Lunn, John E.; Feil, Regina; Wang, Yufei; Zhao, Jingjing; Tao, Hongxia; Zhao, Zhengyang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple. PMID:28069587

  10. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times.

  12. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  13. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  14. Point Cloud Based Relative Pose Estimation of a Satellite in Close Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative pose of satellites is essential in space rendezvous operations and on-orbit servicing missions. The key problems are the adoption of suitable sensor on board of a chaser and efficient techniques for pose estimation. This paper aims to estimate the pose of a target satellite in close range on the basis of its known model by using point cloud data generated by a flash LIDAR sensor. A novel model based pose estimation method is proposed; it includes a fast and reliable pose initial acquisition method based on global optimal searching by processing the dense point cloud data directly, and a pose tracking method based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm. Also, a simulation system is presented in this paper in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and generate simulated sensor point cloud data. It also provides truth pose of the test target so that the pose estimation error can be quantified. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and achievable pose accuracy, numerical simulation experiments are performed; results demonstrate algorithm capability of operating with point cloud directly and large pose variations. Also, a field testing experiment is conducted and results show that the proposed method is effective.

  15. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFilée

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales. Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for 5 groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements, whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  16. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no trend of genome expansion or general tendency of genome contraction. Instead, GV genomes accumulated genomic mutations over the time with gene gains compensating the different losses. In addition, each lineage displays specific patterns of genome evolution. Mimiviridae (megaviruses and mimiviruses) and Chlorella Phycodnaviruses evolved mainly by duplications and losses of genes belonging to large paralogous families (including movements of diverse mobiles genetic elements), whereas Micromonas and Ostreococcus Phycodnaviruses derive most of their genetic novelties thought lateral gene transfers. Taken together, these data support an accordion-like model of evolution in which GV genomes have undergone successive steps of gene gain and gene loss, accrediting the hypothesis that genome gigantism appears early, before the diversification of the different GV lineages.

  17. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  18. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparisons of Herbicide Treated and Cultivated Herbicide-Resistant Corn

    OpenAIRE

    H. Arnold Bruns; Hamed K. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Four glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids, a glufosinate-ammonium resistant hybrid, and a conventional atrazine resistant hybrid gown at Stoneville, MS in 2005, 2006, and 2007 with furrow irrigation were treated with their respective herbicides and their growth, yield, and mycotoxin incidence were compared with untreated cultivated plots. Leaf area index (LAI) and dry matter accumulation (DMA) were collected on a weekly basis beginning at growth stage V3 and terminating at anthesi...

  20. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  1. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  2. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  3. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  4. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  5. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

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    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    storage and that changes in glycolysis are closely related to changes in sugarbeet root respiration.

  6. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0-11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance.

  7. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  8. Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiyun; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Xiaohua; Gao, Shixiang

    2009-01-01

    The physiological effects of 4 herbicides (butachlor, quinclorac, bensulfuron-methyl and atrazine) on 3 submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii) were tested in laboratory. The variables of the relative growth rate and the photosynthetic pigment content showed that all of the tested herbicides affected the growth of the plants obviously, even at the lowest concentration (0.0001 mg/L). Except for the C. demersum treated with quinclorac at 0.005 and 0.01 mg/L, the relative growth rates of the plants were inhibited significantly (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) contents was carried out with both the t-test and one-way ANOVA to determine the difference between the treatment and control. The results showed that Chl-a contents of the plants in all treatment groups were affected by herbicides significantly, except for the C. demersum treated with bensulfuron-methyl at 0.0005 mg/L. The decrease in Chl-a content was positively correlated to the dosage of the herbicides in most treatment groups. It was suggested that herbicides in water bodies might potentially affect the growth of aquatic macrophytes. Since the Chl-a content of submerged macrophytes responded to the stress of herbicides sensitively and directly, it could be used as a biomaker in environmental monitoring or in the ecological risk assessment of herbicide contamination.

  9. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...... National Patient Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse data and all analyses were adjusted for age, gender, social class, cohabitation, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Worries/demands from and conflicts with children were associated with IHD hospitalization in an exposure-dependent manner...

  10. Delivery of calibration workshops covering herbicide application equipment : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Proper herbicide sprayer set-up and calibration are critical to the success of the Oklahoma Department of Transportation (ODOT) herbicide program. Sprayer system set-up and calibration training is provided in annual continuing education herbicide wor...

  11. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Detailed Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  12. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Herbicides - Simple Conceptual Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the herbicides module, when to list herbicides as a candidate cause, ways to measure herbicides, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for herbicides, herbicides module references and literature reviews.

  13. Are herbicide-resistant crops the answer to controlling Cuscuta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler-Hassar, Talia; Shaner, Dale L; Nissen, Scott; Westra, Phill; Rubin, Baruch

    2009-07-01

    Herbicide-resistant crop technology could provide new management strategies for the control of parasitic plants. Three herbicide-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) genotypes were used to examine the response of attached Cuscuta campestris Yuncker to glyphosate, imazamox and glufosinate. Cuscata campestris was allowed to establish on all oilseed rape genotypes before herbicides were applied. Unattached seedlings of C. campestris, C. subinclusa Durand & Hilg. and C. gronovii Willd. were resistant to imazamox and glyphosate and sensitive to glufosinate, indicating that resistance initially discovered in C. campestris is universal to all Cuscuta species. Glufosinate applied to C. campestris attached to glufosinate-resistant oilseed rape had little impact on the parasite, while imazamox completely inhibited C. campestris growth on the imidazolinone-resistant host. The growth of C. campestris on glyphosate-resistant host was initially inhibited by glyphosate, but the parasite recovered and resumed growth within 3-4 weeks. The ability of C. campestris to recover was related to the quality of interaction between the host and parasite and to the resistance mechanism of the host. The parasite was less likely to recover when it had low compatibility with the host, indicating that parasite-resistant crops coupled with herbicide resistance could be highly effective in controlling Cuscuta. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckie, Hugh J

    2011-09-01

    This review focuses on proactive and reactive management of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. Glyphosate resistance in weeds has evolved under recurrent glyphosate usage, with little or no diversity in weed management practices. The main herbicide strategy for proactively or reactively managing GR weeds is to supplement glyphosate with herbicides of alternative modes of action and with soil-residual activity. These herbicides can be applied in sequences or mixtures. Proactive or reactive GR weed management can be aided by crop cultivars with alternative single or stacked herbicide-resistance traits, which will become increasingly available to growers in the future. Many growers with GR weeds continue to use glyphosate because of its economical broad-spectrum weed control. Government farm policies, pesticide regulatory policies and industry actions should encourage growers to adopt a more proactive approach to GR weed management by providing the best information and training on management practices, information on the benefits of proactive management and voluntary incentives, as appropriate. Results from recent surveys in the United States indicate that such a change in grower attitudes may be occurring because of enhanced awareness of the benefits of proactive management and the relative cost of the reactive management of GR weeds. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Complaints related to mandibular function impairment after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, E. T.; Bos, R. R. M.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    This study analysed the relationship between complaints and mandibular function after closed treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle in a prospective study. In a I-year follow-up, complaints were assessed during physical examination and function was assessed using the mandibular function

  16. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  17. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  18. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  19. FLAMMABILITY OF HERBICIDE-TREATED GUAVA FOLIAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guava leaves treated with herbicide were found to be less flammable than untreated green leaves or dead leaves . Differences in flammability were...determined by small-scale laboratory fires, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The herbicide-treated leaves had a higher ash

  20. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  1. SELECTIVITY OF DIFFERENT HERBICIDES TO COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aires Sizenando Filho2

    2013-12-01

    1.5 = recommended rate + half the recommended rate. At the end of the experiment it was found that: the cowpea showed phytotoxicity to use herbicide among 14 and 21 AAD; the herbicides diuron and metolachlor showed a rate "middle" in control weed, while the pendimethalin wasn't efficient for those function.

  2. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  3. Imazapyr (herbicide) seed dressing increases yield, suppresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from damage. In 1998/99 season, a trial was initiated at Chitedze Research Station under artificial infection, to evaluate the effects of seed dressing with imazapyr (an acetolactate synthase {ALS} inhibiting herbicide) using three seed treatment methods (coating, priming or drenching) and three herbicide rates (15, 30 and 45 ...

  4. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  5. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-11-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  6. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...... potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  7. Environmental toxicology: Degradation of herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, F.T.; Monaco, T.J.; Bjelk, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the advances that have been made for the quantitative analysis of radiotracers in thin-layer chromatography through the development of computer controlled imaging proportional counters (IPC). IPC has been developed to give high sensitivity digital data from an entire TLC separation in one measurement. The imaging capability provides a 100 percent improvement over mechanical scanners. Sensitivity is 100 DPM or less with 14 C and higher energy isotopes. Investigations of herbicide metabolism in plant cell suspension cultures are presented with procedures for the use of this technique

  8. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  9. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  10. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  11. Composition of the essential oils from underground parts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and several closely related taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Rein; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hendriks, Henk; Scheffer, Johannes J. C.

    1997-01-01

    The volatile constituents from roots and rhizomes of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. and of several closely related Valeriana taxa were investigated by GC and GCMS (EI and NICI) analysis. Seeds were obtained from different botanical gardens in Europe, and the plants investigated were grown in an

  12. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  13. Eyes-Closed Single-Limb Balance is Not Related to Hypermobility Status in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Tiffany A; Harmon-Matthews, Lindsay E; Davis-Coen, J Hope; Willigenburg, Nienke W; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-06-15

    Hypermobility may be associated with decreased lower extremity proprioception, which in turn may increase injury risk. The prevalence of hypermobility in dancers varies across studies, but joint hypermobility appears to be more common in dancers than in the general population. The purpose of this study was to determine how hypermobility affects eyes-closed single-limb balance as an indirect measure of proprioception in dancers. The secondary aim was to compare hypermobility and balance across dancer affiliation groups. Data were collected from 45 professional dancers, 11 collegiate modern dancers, 227 student dancers, and 15 pre-professional dancers during routine dance screens. Dancer hypermobility status was assessed via an eight-point Beighton-Horan Laxity test. Single-limb balance time, in seconds, was assessed in parallel position with the eyes closed. Hypermobile (HM) and non-hypermobile (NHM) dancers showed very similar balance times (HM median: 36.5 seconds; NHM median: 33.0 seconds; p = 0.982). Hypermobility was not significantly different between dancer affiliation groups (p = 0.154): 47% in ballet academy students, 27% in collegiate modern dancers, 62% in pre-professional dancers, and 36% in professional dancers. The student, pre-professional, and professional ballet dancers all demonstrated longer balance times than the collegiate modern dancers; however, this difference was only significant between the professional ballet dancers and collegiate modern dancers (p = 0.026). Dancers demonstrated a higher prevalence of hypermobility than what has been reported for the general population. Joint hypermobility did not affect eyes-closed single-limb balance time. Future studies are needed to determine if joint hypermobility affects more sensitive measures of proprioception and risk of injury.

  14. Comparative sensitivity of Selenastrum capricornutum and Lemna minor to sixteen herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, J.F.; Ruessler, D.S.; Haverland, P.S.; Carlson, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic plant toxicity tests are frequently conducted in environmental risk assessments to determine the potential impacts of contaminants on primary producers. An examination of published plant toxicity data demonstrates that wide differences in sensitivity can occur across phylogenetic groups of plants. Yet relatively few studies have been conducted with the specific intent to compare the relative sensitivity of various aquatic plant species to contaminants. We compared the relative sensitivity of the algae Selenestrum capricornutum and the floating vascular plant Lemna minor to 16 herbicides (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, cyanazine, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, triallate, EPTC, trifluralin, diquat, paraquat, dicamba, bromoxynil, and 2,4-D). The herbicides studied represented nine chemical classes and several modes of action and were chosen to represent major current uses in the United States. Both plant species were generally sensitive to the triazines (atrazine, metribuzin, simazine, and cyanazine), sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron), pyridines (diquat and paraquat), dinitroaniline (trifluralin), and acetanilide (alachlor and metolachlor) herbicides. Neither plant species was uniformly more sensitive than the other across the broad range of herbicides tested. Lemna was more sensitive to the sulfonureas (metsulfuron and chlorsulfuron) and the pyridines (diquat and parequat) than Selenastrum. However Selenastrum was more sensitive than Lemna to one of two thiocarbamates (triallate) and one of the triazines (cyanazine). Neither species was sensitive to selective broadleaf herbicides including bromoxynil, EPTC, dicamba, or 2,4-D. Results were not always predictable in spite of obvious differences in herbicide modes of action and plant phylogeny. Major departures in sensitivity of Selenastrum occurred between chemicals within individual classes of the triazine, acetanilide, and thiocarbamate herbicides. Results indicate that neither

  15. Anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms in spouses and close relatives of burn survivors: When the supporter needs to be supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Suzie; Gourlay, Catherine; Desjardins, Alexandra; Bodson-Clermont, Paule; Boucher, Marie-Ève

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit. At admission, 77% of spouses and 56% of close relatives of burn patients reported anxiety, depression or PTSD-related symptoms in the clinical range. While spouses had higher scores than close relatives on symptom measures, significant differences were only established for anxiety symptoms (p<.02). A significant effect was found for gender, with women reporting more anxiety (p=.01) and depression (p=.02) symptoms than men. Results also showed a main effect for time, with anxiety (p<.0001), depression (p<.0001) and PTSD-related (p<.0001) symptoms being higher at admission than at discharge. Variables associated with the index patient, such as total body surface area burned, length of stay, number of ventilated days, facial burns, or level of care at admission, were not associated with outcome measures. Spouses and close relatives of burn survivors showed high levels of psychological distress in the first few days following admission, and more than a quarter still reported symptoms in the clinical range at discharge. Our analysis points to the need to offer psychological support and guidance to family members so that they can in turn provide effective support to the burn survivor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  17. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  19. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed A

    2014-06-02

    in tomato closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating the virus is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease. The symptoms that developed in tomato seedlings closely resembled those observed in field infected tomato plants, indicating that ToLCSDV is the causal agent of the leaf curl disease in Gezira. 2014 Al-Saleh et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  1. Endogenous lentivirus in Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a close relative of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, Tomáš; Fábryová, Helena; Pačes, Jan; Elleder, Daniel

    2014-10-04

    A significant fraction of mammalian genomes is composed of endogenous retroviral (ERV) sequences that are formed by germline infiltration of various retroviruses. In contrast to other retroviral genera, lentiviruses only rarely form ERV copies. We performed a computational search aimed at identification of novel endogenous lentiviruses in vertebrate genomes. Using the in silico strategy, we have screened 104 publicly available vertebrate genomes for the presence of endogenous lentivirus sequences. In addition to the previously described cases, the search revealed the presence of endogenous lentivirus in the genome of Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus). At least three complete copies of this virus, denoted ELVgv, were detected in the colugo genome, and approximately one hundred solo LTR sequences. The assembled consensus sequence of ELVgv had typical lentivirus genome organization including three predicted accessory genes. Phylogenetic analysis placed this virus as a distinct subgroup within the lentivirus genus. The time of insertion into the dermopteran lineage was estimated to be more than thirteen million years ago. We report the discovery of the first endogenous lentivirus in the mammalian order Dermoptera, which is a taxon close to the Primates. Lentiviruses have infiltrated the mammalian germline several times across millions of years. The colugo virus described here represents possibly the oldest documented endogenization event and its discovery can lead to new insights into lentivirus evolution. This is also the first report of an endogenous lentivirus in an Asian mammal, indicating a long-term presence of this retrovirus family in Asian continent.

  2. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  3. Embarrassment When Illness Strikes A Close Relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443

  4. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jugovic,Jure; Koren,Toni

    2014-01-01

    Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775), M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850) and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe) was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is als...

  5. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  6. Effects of turbidity on the neural structures of two closely related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neural structures of the sister species Pseudobarbus afer and P. asper were compared. P. afer, a redfin minnow which inhabits clear, perennial mountain streams, was found to have larger neural structures related to vision than P. asper, which inhabits turbid, intermittent streams of the Gamtoos River system, ...

  7. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  8. Closed-loop surface-related multiple elimination and its application to simultaneous data reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Angarita, G.A.; Verschuur, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) is one of the most commonly used methods for suppressing surface multiples. However, to obtain an accurate surface multiple estimation, dense source and receiver sampling is required. The traditional approach to this problem is performing data

  9. Veluticeps fasciculata sp. nov. (Gloeophyllaceae, Basidiomycota), a close relative to V. berkeleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Yang; Karen K. Nakasone; Shuang-Hui. He

    2016-01-01

    A new brown-rot fungal species, Veluticeps fasciculata, is described from southern China. It is characterized by perennial effused basidiocarps with smooth or tuberculose hymenophore, nodose-septate generative hyphae, fasciculate cystidia (as hyphal pegs in hymenophore) and relatively small basidiospores. It occurs on wood of Cunninghamia...

  10. Estrus Traits Derived from Activity Measurements are Heritable and Closely Related to Conventional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed Ismael Sayed; Kargo, Morten; Fogh, Anders

    This study was aimed at assessing the genetic parameters for fertility-related traits, comparing the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) to physical activity traits, especially days from calving to first high activity, DFHA. Data from commercial Holstein herds included insemination ...

  11. New criteria for selecting the origin of DNA replication in Wolbachia and closely related bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Sapountzis, Panagiotis

    2007-01-01

    , the origin of DNA replication (ori) regions were identified in silico for Wolbachia strains and eleven other related bacteria belonging to Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia genera. These features include DnaA-, CtrA- and IHF-binding sites as well as the flanking genes in C. crescentus. The Wolbachia ori...

  12. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  13. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  14. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  15. Linking fluorescence induction curve and biomass in herbicide screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin G; Teicher, Harald B; Streibig, Jens C

    2003-12-01

    A suite of dose-response bioassays with white mustard (Sinapis alba L) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) in the greenhouse and with three herbicides was used to analyse how the fluorescence induction curves (Kautsky curves) were affected by the herbicides. Bentazone, a photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor, completely blocked the normal fluorescence decay after the P-step. In contrast, fluorescence decay was still obvious for flurochloridone, a PDS inhibitor, and glyphosate, an EPSP inhibitor, which indicated that PSII inhibition was incomplete. From the numerous parameters that can be derived from OJIP-steps of the Kautsky curve the relative changes at the J-step [Fvj = (Fm - Fj)/Fm] was selected to be a common response parameter for the herbicides and yielded consistent dose-response relationships. Four hours after treatment, the response Fvj on the doses of bentazone and flurochloridone could be measured. For glyphosate, the changes of the Kautsky curve could similarly be detected 4 h after treatment in sugar beet, but only after 24 hs in S alba. The best prediction of biomass in relation to Fvj was found for bentazone. The experiments were conducted between May and August 2002 and showed that the ambient temperature and solar radiation in the greenhouse could affect dose-response relationships. If the Kautsky curve parameters should be used to predict the outcome of herbicide screening experiments in the greenhouse, where ambient radiation and temperature can only partly be controlled, it is imperative that the chosen fluorescence parameters can be used to predict accurately the resulting biomass used in classical bioassays.

  16. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne eCostes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs quiescence and to floral induction vs vegetative development.

  17. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development.

  18. The evolution of different maternal investment strategies in two closely related desert vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Agha, Mickey; Loughran, Caleb; Tennant, Laura A.; Sinervo, Barry

    2017-01-01

    We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G. agassizii, a strategy more consistent with the within-generation hypothesis arising out of bet-hedging theory or a constraint in egg investment due to resource availability, and contrary to theories of density dependence, which posit that increasing hatchling competition from later season clutches should drive selection for larger eggs. We provide empirical evidence that one species, G. agassizii, employs a bet-hedging strategy that is a combination of two different bet-hedging hypotheses. Additionally, we found some evidence for G. morafkai employing a conservative bet-hedging strategy. (e.g., lack of intra- and interclutch variation in egg size relative to body size). Our novel adaptive hypothesis suggests the possibility that natural selection favors smaller offspring in late-season clutches because they experience a more benign environment or less energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., winter) than early clutch progeny, that emerge under harsher and more energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., summer). We also discuss alternative hypotheses of sexually antagonistic selection, which arise from the trade-offs of son versus daughter production that might have different optima depending on clutch order and variation in temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) among clutches. Resolution of these hypotheses will require long-term data on fitness of sons versus daughters as a function of

  19. Ethical considerations when conducting joint interviews with close relatives or family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voltelen, Barbara; Konradsen, Hanne; Østergaard, Birte

    2018-01-01

    simultaneously in the healthcare setting. AIM: To collect and share knowledge related to ethical considerations conducting joint interviews. DESIGN AND METHODS: A literature review inspired by the integrative review method was performed. Data were retrieved through a structured search in PubMed, CINAHL......; Conduction joint interviews and Reporting on joint interviews Findings: Participants should be offered the best terms for a constructive, on-going relationship after the joint interview has ended. This obligates the researcher to ensure a safe environment during the joint interview and create a delicate...

  20. Work plan for determining the occurrence of glyphosate, its transformation product AMPA, other herbicide compounds, and antibiotics in midwestern United States streams, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in herbicide use in the Midwestern United States have been substantial over the last 5 years. Most significant is a tripling in the use of glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]glycin). Over this same time period (1997­2001), atrazine use increased by 20 percent and acetochlor use increased by 10 percent, while cyanazine use decreased by 99 percent, alachlor use decreased by 70 percent, and metolachlor use decreased by 55 percent. Previous studies have documented that herbicide flushes occur in midwestern streams during runoff events for several weeks to several months following application, and that herbicide concentrations in midwestern streams during flushing events are related to rates of herbicide use.

  1. A comparison of two closely-related approaches to aerodynamic design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, G. R.; Frank, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Two related methods for aerodynamic design optimization are compared. The methods, called the implicit gradient approach and the variational (or optimal control) approach, both attempt to obtain gradients necessary for numerical optimization at a cost significantly less than that of the usual black-box approach that employs finite difference gradients. While the two methods are seemingly quite different, they are shown to differ (essentially) in that the order of discretizing the continuous problem, and of applying calculus, is interchanged. Under certain circumstances, the two methods turn out to be identical. We explore the relationship between these methods by applying them to a model problem for duct flow that has many features in common with transonic flow over an airfoil. We find that the gradients computed by the variational method can sometimes be sufficiently inaccurate to cause the optimization to fail.

  2. A pospiviroid from symptomless portulaca plants closely related to iresine viroid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Hooftman, M; Meekes, E T M; Flores, R; Serra, P

    2015-07-02

    In symptomless plants of portulaca a potential new pospiviroid was characterized. Analysis by both double and return PAGE showed the presence of a circular RNA. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a genome of 351 nt with properties characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid and with highest sequence identity (circa 80%) with iresine viroid 1 (IrVd-1). The circular RNA from portulaca was shown to replicate independently in its original host, thus showing that it is indeed a viroid. Based on its molecular characteristics, it should be considered a new species. However, since no biological differences have yet been found with its closest relative IrVd-1, the viroid from portulaca does not fulfil all criteria for species demarcation of the ICTV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-07-05

    Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. IMPORTANCE Multicellular systems like bacterial biofilms and swarms rely on cooperative behaviors that could be undermined by exploitative invaders. Discriminating kin from nonkin is one way to help guard against such exploitation but has thus far been examined only intraspecifically, so the phylogenetic range of this important trait is unknown. We tested whether Bacillus subtilis treats other species as nonkin by testing a single strain against a

  4. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Lyons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat.

  5. Lokiarchaea are close relatives of Euryarchaeota, not bridging the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The eocyte hypothesis, in which Eukarya emerged from within Archaea, has been boosted by the description of a new candidate archaeal phylum, “Lokiarchaeota”, from metagenomic data. Eukarya branch within Lokiarchaeota in a tree reconstructed from the concatenation of 36 universal proteins. However, individual phylogenies revealed that lokiarchaeal proteins sequences have different evolutionary histories. The individual markers phylogenies revealed at least two subsets of proteins, either supporting the Woese or the Eocyte tree of life. Strikingly, removal of a single protein, the elongation factor EF2, is sufficient to break the Eukaryotes-Lokiarchaea affiliation. Our analysis suggests that the three lokiarchaeal EF2 proteins have a chimeric organization that could be due to contamination and/or homologous recombination with patches of eukaryotic sequences. A robust phylogenetic analysis of RNA polymerases with a new dataset indicates that Lokiarchaeota and related phyla of the Asgard superphylum are sister group to Euryarchaeota, not to Eukarya, and supports the monophyly of Archaea with their rooting in the branch leading to Thaumarchaeota. PMID:28604769

  6. Cathodic microbial community adaptation to the removal of chlorinated herbicide in soil microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Xiaojing; Sun, Yang; Zhao, Xiaodong; Li, Yongtao

    2018-04-05

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) that uses a solid electrode as the inexhaustible electron acceptor is an innovative remediation technology that simultaneously generates bioelectricity. Chlorinated pollutants are better metabolized by reductive dechlorination in proximity to the cathode. Here, the removal efficiency of the herbicide metolachlor (ML) increased by 262 and 176% in soil MFCs that were spiked with 10 (C10) and 20 mg/kg (C20) of ML, respectively, relative to the non-electrode controls. The bioelectricity output of the C10 and C20 increased by over two- and eightfold, respectively, compared to that of the non-ML control, with maximum current densities of 49.6 ± 2.5 (C10) and 78.9 ± 0.6 mA/m 2 (C20). Based on correlations between ML concentrations and species abundances in the MFCs, it was inferred that Azohydromonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Pontibacter sp. play a major role in ML removal around the cathode, with peak removal efficiencies of 56 ± 1% (C10) and 58 ± 1% (C20). Moreover, Clostridium sp., Geobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Romboutsia sp., and Terrisporobacter sp. may be electricigens or closely related microbes due to the significant positive correlation between the bioelectricity generation levels and their abundances around the anode. This study suggests that a directional adaptation of the microbial community has taken place to increase both the removal of chlorinated herbicides around the cathode and the generation of bioelectricity around the anode in bioelectrochemical remediation systems.

  7. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  9. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  10. New antagonists of LHRH. II. Inhibition and potentiation of LHRH by closely related analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Csernus, V J; Janaky, T; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Schally, A V

    1988-12-01

    Modifications of the previously described LHRH antagonists, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and the corresponding D-Hci6 analogue, have been made to alter the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal acetyl-tripeptide portion. Substitution of D-Trp3 with the less hydrophobic D-Pal(3) had only marginal effects on the antagonistic activities and receptor binding potencies of the D-Cit/D-Hci6 analogues, but it appeared to further improve the toxicity lowering effect of D-Cit/D-Hci6 substitution. Antagonists containing D-Pal(3)3 and D-Cit/D-Hci6 residues, i.e. [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-75) and [Ac-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Hci6, D-Ala10]LHRH (SB-88), were completely free of the toxic effects, such as cyanosis and respiratory depression leading to death, which have been observed in rats with the D-Trp3, D-Arg6 antagonist and related antagonists. Replacement of the N-acetyl group with the hydrophilic carbamoyl group caused a slight decrease in antagonistic activities, particularly in vitro. Introduction of urethane type acyl group such as methoxycarbonyl (Moc) or t-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) led to analogues that showed LHRH-potentiating effect. The increase in potency induced by these analogues, e.g. [Moc-D-Nal(2)1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Trp3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH and [Boc-D-Phe1, D-Phe(4Cl)2, D-Pal(3)3, D-Cit6, D-Ala10]LHRH, was 170-260% and persisted for more than 2 h when studied in a superfused rat pituitary system.

  11. Potential organic herbicides for squash production: Pelargonic acid herbicides AXXE (registered trademark) and Scythe (registered trademark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide season- long weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and y...

  12. Genetically Modified Herbicide-Tolerant Crops, Weeds, and Herbicides: Overview and Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been and continue to be a subject of controversy despite their rapid adoption by farmers where approved. For the last two decades, an important matter of debate has been their impact on pesticide use, particularly for herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops. Some claim that these crops bring about a decrease in herbicide use, while others claim the opposite. In fact, since 1996, most cultivated GMOs have been GMHT crops, which involve the use of an associated herbicide, generally glyphosate. In their very first years of adoption, HT crops often led to some decrease in herbicide use. However, the repetition of glyphosate-tolerant crops and of glyphosate only applications in the same fields without sufficient alternation and herbicide diversity has contributed to the appearance of glyphosate-resistant weeds. These weeds have resulted in a rise in the use of glyphosate and other herbicides. This article explores this situation and the impacts of herbicide-resistant weeds, using an interdisciplinary approach and drawing on recent data. The paper analyzes the spread of GMHT crops worldwide and their consequences on herbicide use in the USA in particular. It then addresses the global development of glyphosate-resistant weeds and their impact, particularly focusing on the USA. Finally, the last section explores how industry, farmers, and weed scientists are coping with the spread of resistant weeds. The concluding comments deal more widely with trends in GM crops.

  13. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  14. Exploiting fine-scale genetic and physiological variation of closely related microbes to reveal unknown enzyme functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Ahmet H; Plutz, Matthew J; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Schweder, Thomas; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Polz, Martin F; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rao, Christopher V

    2017-08-04

    Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity; varying numbers of enzymes, due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer, among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knock-out strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes. Inspired by this natural fine-scale microbial diversity, we show here that it can be used to develop hypotheses guiding biochemical experiments for establishing the role of these enzymes in nature. In this work, we investigated alginate degradation among closely related strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus One strain, V. splendidus 13B01, exhibited high extracellular alginate lyase activity compared with other V. splendidus strains. To identify the enzymes responsible for this high extracellular activity, we compared V. splendidus 13B01 with the previously characterized V. splendidus 12B01, which has low extracellular activity and lacks two alginate lyase genes present in V. splendidus 13B01. Using a combination of genomics, proteomics, biochemical, and functional screening, we identified a polysaccharide lyase family 7 enzyme that is unique to V. splendidus 13B01, secreted, and responsible for the rapid digestion of extracellular alginate. These results demonstrate the value of querying the enzymatic repertoires of closely related microbes to rapidly pinpoint key proteins with beneficial functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Herbicide resistance and biodiversity: agronomic and environmental aspects of genetically modified herbicide-resistant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Gesine; Eckerstorfer, Michael; Rastelli, Valentina; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Restrepo-Vassalli, Sara; Ruohonen-Lehto, Marja; Saucy, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest; Mertens, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns. (ii) The adoption of herbicide-resistant crops has reduced crop rotation and favoured weed management that is solely based on the use of herbicides. (iii) Continuous herbicide resistance cropping and the intensive use of glyphosate over the last 20 years have led to the appearance of at least 34 glyphosate-resistant weed species worldwide. Although recommended for many years, farmers did not counter resistance development in weeds by integrated weed management, but continued to rely on herbicides as sole measure. Despite occurrence of widespread resistance in weeds to other herbicides, industry rather develops transgenic crops with additional herbicide resistance genes. (iv) Agricultural management based on broad-spectrum herbicides as in herbicide-resistant crops further decreases diversity and abundance of wild plants and impacts arthropod fauna and other farmland animals. Taken together, adverse impacts of herbicide-resistant crops on biodiversity, when widely adopted, should be expected and are indeed very hard

  16. Mutations and/or close relatives? Six case work examples where 49 autosomal SNPs were used as supplementary markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    ID multiplex assay. The six cases included two duos, two trios and two cases, where the alleged father was not available for testing and one or two of his close relatives were tested instead. The SNP investigation was more informative than the STR investigation in all six cases. In two cases, the alleged...... father would have been falsely included based on the STR results, while the SNP results showed that the alleged father was not the true parent. These case work examples underline the importance of performing supplementary investigations in selected cases and demonstrate the usefulness of the SNPfor...

  17. Ademe et Vous. Research Newsletter No. 13, December 2015. Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, Anne; Guignard, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    This Research letter is the last in a series of three letters dedicated to climate change, produced in the run up to COP21. It covers the research carried out and the results obtained, with the support of ADEME, in terms of air quality and climate change. Content: - Air quality and climate change: two closely-related issues; - Significant Results: Implementing solutions to improve air quality in a wider context of climate change; - Meeting...: Vincent-Henri Peuch and Nathalie Poisson: 'Air and climate quality - developing joint solutions: a necessity'

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Bereavement: Early Psychological Sequelae of Losing a Close Relative Due to Terminal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T. E.; Elklit, A.; Karstoft, K. I.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a consequence of bereavement from terminal illness. Therefore, knowledge on the traumatizing effects of bereavement and risk factors for traumatization from bereavement is rather sparse. This study investigated prevalence...... and predictors of PTSD in a group of people who had recently lost a close relative due to incurable cancer. The participants were 132 persons who were assessed with the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the Trauma Symptom Checklist, and the Crisis Support Scale. One month after the loss, 29.5% of the subjects had...

  19. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  20. Seasonal herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff and sediments of an olive orchard under conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Maria Jesus; de Luna, Elena; Gómez, José Alfonso; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Several pollution episodes in surface and groundwaters with pesticides have occurred in areas where olive crops are established. For that reason, it is necessary to know the evolution of some pesticides in olive trees plantation depending on their seasonal application. This is especially important when conventional tillage is used. A monitoring of two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen)in the first cm of soil and, in runoff and sediment yield was carried out after several rainfall events. The rainfall occurred during the study was higher in winter than in spring giving rise more runoff in winter. However, no differences in sediment yields were observed between spring and winter. Terbuthylazine depletion from soil is associated to the first important rainfall events in both seasons (41 mm in spring and 30 mm in winter). At the end of the experiment, no terbuthylazine soil residues were recovered in winter whereas 15% of terbuthylazine applied remained in spring. Oxyfluorfen showed a character more persistent than terbuthylazine remaining 48% of the applied at the end of the experiment due to its low water solubility. Higher percentage from the applied of terbuthylazine was recovered in runoff in winter (0.55%) than in spring (0.17%). Nevertheless, no differences in terbuthylazine sediments yields between both seasons were observed. That is in agreement with the values of runoff and sediment yields accumulated in tanks in both seasons. Due to the low water solubility of oxyfluorfen very low amount of this herbicide was recovered in runoff. Whereas, in sediment yields the 39.5% of the total applied was recovered. These data show that the dissipation of terbuthylazine from soil is closely related with leaching processes and in less extent with runoff. However, oxyfluorfen dissipation is more affected by runoff processes since this herbicide is co-transported in sediment yields. Keywords: olive crop, pesticide, runoff, sediments, surface water, groundwater

  1. Reconstruction of molecular phylogeny of closely related Amorphophallus species of India using plastid DNA marker and fingerprinting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholave, Avinash R; Pawar, Kiran D; Yadav, Shrirang R; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2017-01-01

    Plastid DNA markers sequencing and DNA fingerprinting approaches were used and compared for resolving molecular phylogeny of closely related, previously unexplored Amorphophallus species of India. The utility of individual plastid markers namely rbcL , matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD , their combined dataset and two fingerprinting techniques viz. RAPD and ISSR were tested for their efficacy to resolves Amorphophallus species into three sections specific clades namely Rhaphiophallus , Conophallus and Amorphophallus . In the present study, sequences of these four plastid DNA regions as well as RAPD and ISSR profiles of 16 Amorphophallus species together with six varieties of two species were generated and analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference based construction of phylogenetic trees indicated that among the four plastid DNA regions tested individually and their combined dataset, rbcL was found best suited for resolving closely related Amorphophallus species into section specific clades. When analyzed individually, rbcL exhibited better discrimination ability than matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD and combination of all four tested plastid markers. Among two fingerprinting techniques used, the resolution of Amorphophallus species using RAPD was better than ISSR and combination of RAPD +ISSR and in congruence with resolution based on rbcL .

  2. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  3. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  5. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  6. Soil microbial communities and glyphosate decay in soils with different herbicide application history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, Keren Hernández; Aparicio, Virginia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Castellote, Martín; Figuerola, Eva L; Costa, José Luis; Erijman, Leonardo

    2018-04-11

    This study evaluates the glyphosate dissipation under field conditions in three types of soil, and aims to determine the importance of the following factors in the environmental persistence of herbicide: i) soil bacterial communities, ii) soil physicochemical properties, iii) previous exposure to the herbicide. A soil without previous record of GP application (P0) and two agricultural soils, with 5 and >10years of GP exposure (A5 and A10) were subjected to the application of glyphosate at doses of 3mg·kg -1 . The concentration of GP and AMPA was determined over time and the dynamics of soil bacterial communities was evaluated using 16S ARN ribosomal gene amplicon-sequencing. The GP exposure history affected the rate but not the extent of GP biodegradation. The herbicide was degraded rapidly, but P0 soil showed a dissipation rate significantly lower than soils with agricultural history. In P0 soil, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes was observed in response to herbicide application. More generally, all soils displayed shifts in bacterial community structure, which nevertheless could not be clearly associated to glyphosate dissipation, suggesting the presence of redundant bacteria populations of potential degraders. Yet the application of the herbicide prompted a partial disruption of the bacterial association network of unexposed soil. On the other hand, higher values of linear (Kd) and nonlinear (Kf) sorption coefficient in P0 point to the relevance of cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay and organic matter to the capacity of soil to adsorb the herbicide, suggesting that bioavailability was a key factor for the persistence of GP and AMPA. These results contribute to understand the relationship between bacterial taxa exposed to the herbicide, and the importance of soil properties as predictors of the possible rate of degradation and persistence of glyphosate in soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duhoux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their

  8. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; Délye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR) in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass) to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their associated ALS

  9. The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M

    2012-10-01

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant crops, primarily glyphosate-resistant soybean, corn, cotton and canola, have helped to revolutionize weed management and have become an important tool in crop production practices. Glyphosate-resistant crops have enabled the implementation of weed management practices that have improved yield and profitability while better protecting the environment. Growers have recognized their benefits and have made glyphosate-resistant crops the most rapidly adopted technology in the history of agriculture. Weed management systems with glyphosate-resistant crops have often relied on glyphosate alone, have been easy to use and have been effective, economical and more environmentally friendly than the systems they have replaced. Glyphosate has worked extremely well in controlling weeds in glyphosate-resistant crops for more than a decade, but some key weeds have evolved resistance, and using glyphosate alone has proved unsustainable. Now, growers need to renew their weed management practices and use glyphosate with other cultural, mechanical and herbicide options in integrated systems. New multiple-herbicide-resistant crops with resistance to glyphosate and other herbicides will expand the utility of existing herbicide technologies and will be an important component of future weed management systems that help to sustain the current benefits of high-efficiency and high-production agriculture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. studies on transition metal complexes of herbicidal compounds. ii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    derivative of 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, atrazine (ATZ) --- a well known herbicide has ... development while the other is the metal ion associated degradation or deactivation of the herbicides .... Colour M.p./decomp.

  11. Herbicide-resistant crops: utilities and limitations for herbicide-resistant weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jerry M; Owen, Micheal D K

    2011-06-08

    Since 1996, genetically modified herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, have transformed the tactics that corn, soybean, and cotton growers use to manage weeds. The use of GR crops continues to grow, but weeds are adapting to the common practice of using only glyphosate to control weeds. Growers using only a single mode of action to manage weeds need to change to a more diverse array of herbicidal, mechanical, and cultural practices to maintain the effectiveness of glyphosate. Unfortunately, the introduction of GR crops and the high initial efficacy of glyphosate often lead to a decline in the use of other herbicide options and less investment by industry to discover new herbicide active ingredients. With some exceptions, most growers can still manage their weed problems with currently available selective and HR crop-enabled herbicides. However, current crop management systems are in jeopardy given the pace at which weed populations are evolving glyphosate resistance. New HR crop technologies will expand the utility of currently available herbicides and enable new interim solutions for growers to manage HR weeds, but will not replace the long-term need to diversify weed management tactics and discover herbicides with new modes of action. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of anticipated weed management options and the best management practices that growers need to implement in HR crops to maximize the long-term benefits of current technologies and reduce weed shifts to difficult-to-control and HR weeds.

  12. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  13. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Käppeli, Rina; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Freedrich, Susanne; Weber, Thomas C; Kirundi, Jorum; Suar, Mrutyunjay; McCoy, Kathy D; von Mering, Christian; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance) is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON), mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM) were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21)). 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21) and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR) strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence), more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into the gut

  14. Specificity of herbivore-induced hormonal signaling and defensive traits in five closely related milkweeds (Asclepias spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Patrick, Eamonn T; Knight, Anna C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recognition that phytohormonal signaling mediates induced responses to herbivory, we still have little understanding of how such signaling varies among closely related species and may generate herbivore-specific induced responses. We studied closely related milkweeds (Asclepias) to link: 1) plant damage by two specialist chewing herbivores (milkweed leaf beetles Labidomera clivicolis and monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus); 2) production of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA); 3) induction of defensive cardenolides and latex; and 4) impacts on Danaus caterpillars. We first show that A. syriaca exhibits induced resistance following monarch herbivory (i.e., reduced monarch growth on previously damaged plants), while the defensively dissimilar A. tuberosa does not. We next worked with a broader group of five Asclepias, including these two species, that are highly divergent in defensive traits yet from the same clade. Three of the five species showed herbivore-induced changes in cardenolides, while induced latex was found in four species. Among the phytohormones, JA and ABA showed specific responses (although they generally increased) to insect species and among the plant species. In contrast, SA responses were consistent among plant and herbivore species, showing a decline following herbivore attack. Jasmonic acid showed a positive quantitative relationship only with latex, and this was strongest in plants damaged by D. plexippus. Although phytohormones showed qualitative tradeoffs (i.e., treatments that enhanced JA reduced SA), the few significant individual plant-level correlations among hormones were positive, and these were strongest between JA and ABA in monarch damaged plants. We conclude that: 1) latex exudation is positively associated with endogenous JA levels, even among low-latex species; 2) correlations among milkweed hormones are generally positive, although herbivore damage induces a

  15. Discovery of new herbicide modes of action with natural phytotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 20 modes of action (MOAs) are utilized by commercial herbicides, and almost 30 years have passed since the last new MOA was introduced. Rapidly increasing evolution of resistance to herbicides with these MOAs has greatly increased the need for herbicides with new MOAs. Combinatorial chemistry ...

  16. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  17. Different strategies of osmoadaptation in the closely related marine myxobacteria Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri Moghaddam, Jamshid; Boehringer, Nils; Burdziak, Amal; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Galinski, Erwin A; Schäberle, Till F

    2016-02-03

    Only a few myxobacteria are known to date which are classified as marine due to their salt-dependency. In this study, the salt tolerance mechanism of these bacteria was investigated. Therefore, a growth medium was designed, in which the mutated Escherichia coli strain BKA13 served as sole food source for the predatory, heterotrophic myxobacteria. This enabled measurement of the osmolytes without any background and revealed that the closely related strains Enhygromyxa salina SWB007 and Plesiocystis pacifica SIR-1 developed different strategies to handle salt stress. P. pacifica SIR-1, which was grown between 1-4 % NaCl, relies solely on the accumulation of amino acids, while E. salina SWB007, which was grown between 0.5-3 % NaCl, employs, beside betaine, hydroxyectoine as the major compatible solute. In accordance with this analysis, only in the latter strain a gene locus was identified which codes for genes corresponding to the biosynthesis of betaine, ectoine, and hydroxyectoine.

  18. Leave for illness/accident or in the event of illness of a close relative - New medical certificate templates

    CERN Multimedia

    HR department

    2016-01-01

    Medical certificate templates are now available in the Admin e-guide (follow the “Forms and templates” link):    Medical certificate for illness/accident Medical certificate for a medical examination or treatment Medical certificate in the event of illness of a close relative These templates are provided for the convenience of members of the personnel and their use is recommended but not compulsory. Other forms of medical certificates issued by a medical doctor may also be submitted, provided they contain the same items of information as those given in the templates. More information on the applicable rules and on the way leave is managed at CERN can be found in the Admin e-guide web pages. Human Resources department HR.leave@cern.ch

  19. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  20. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Surface plasmon resonance application for herbicide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Vladimir I.; Shirshov, Yuri M.; Piletskaya, Elena V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    1998-01-01

    The optoelectronic biosensor, based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for detection of photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides in aqueous solutions is presented. The pesticide capability to replace plastoquinone from its complex with D1 protein is used for the detection. This replacement reaction results in the changes of the optical characteristics of protein layer, immobilized on the gold surface. Monitoring of these changes with SPR-technique permit to determine 0.1 - 5.0 mkg/ml herbicide in solution within one hour.

  2. Herbicide Orange Site Characterization Study, Eglin AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    F THIS PAGE Availabilit o this r is sp f o.n" the reverse of fo cove* . - .’.r. 717 CSAT CO ES ’SU JEC TE MS Coninu onrevrseif ece~ar an idntiy b...of Hardstand 7 and Surface Water Drainages ......... 4 3 Hardstand 7 Herbicide Oran&e Storage Locations .............. 5 4 Concentrations (in ppb) of...insoluble in water . The formula contained an approximate 50/50 mixture of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,-D) and 2,4,5

  3. Effect of herbicide and soil amendment on growth and photosynthetic responses in olive crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Cox, Lucía; Cornejo, Juan; Figueroa, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)- = 1,1-dimethylurea] and simazine (6-chloro-N(2), N(4)-diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) are soil-applied herbicides used in olive crops. The objective of this study is to investigate the combined effect of these herbicides and the amendment of soil with an organic waste (OW) from the olive oil production industry on the growth and photosynthetic apparatus of adult olive trees and to compare the results with those obtained by Redondo-Gómez et al. for two-year-old trees. For this purpose, growth rate, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in 38-year-old olive trees, after one and two months of soil herbicide treatment and/or OW amendment. Soil co-application of OW and herbicide increases the quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) and the assimilation of CO(2) in olive trees, which led to a higher relative growth rate of the branches and leaves in length. Herbicide treatment reduced the photosynthetic efficiency in olive trees after two months of soil application, while this reduction is evident from week one in younger trees.

  4. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  5. Finger taps and constipation are closely related to symptoms of overactive bladder in male patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Sakoda, Saburo; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio

    2014-01-01

    To assess which motor and non-motor symptoms are closely related to overactive bladder severity in male patients with Parkinson's disease. A total of 160 male patients (mean age 71.4 ± 8.2 years) diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were included in the present study at Osaka University and affiliated hospitals. The severity of Parkinson's disease was classified as stage 3, 4 or 5 based on the Hoehn and Yahr staging system. Disease duration was 8.9 ± 5.1 years. Age, seven items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor section part III and three non-motor symptoms were assessed by multivariate analysis for their impact on the overactive bladder symptom score, a specific questionnaire for overactive bladder. Overactive bladder symptom score was significantly higher in the group with severe motor symptoms related to finger taps and gait than in the group with mild motor symptoms related to these two factors. Furthermore, overactive bladder symptom score of patients with erectile dysfunction and constipation was significantly higher than that in patients without these symptoms. Multivariate analysis identified only finger taps and constipation as factors independently associated with overactive bladder symptom score. Although a study on a larger scale is required to further assess the association of Parkinson's disease symptoms with overactive bladder symptom score, information on finger taps and severity of constipation should be obtained when assessing urological patients with Parkinson's disease. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  7. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  8. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  9. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Martínez Gaspar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche.

  10. An analysis of psychotropic drug sales. Increasing sales of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are closely related to number of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Gøtzsche, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has increased dramatically. To compare the sales of benzodiazepines and SSRIs within the primary care sector in Denmark and relate changes in usage to number of indications and products on the market. We used data from various sources to establish the sales curves of psychotropic drugs in the period 1970 to 2007, based on the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification system and Defined Daily Doses. Fluctuations in sales of psychotropic drugs that cannot be explained by disease prevalence were caused by changes in sales of the benzodiazepines and SSRIs. We found a decline in the sales of benzodiazepines after a peak in 1986, likely due to the recognition that they cause dependence. From a low level in 1992, we found that the sales of SSRIs increased almost linearly by a factor of 18, up to 44 DDD per 1000 inhabitants, which was closely related to the number of products on the market that increased by a factor of 16. Sales of antidepressant drugs are mainly determined by market availability of products indicating that marketing pressures are playing an important role. Thus the current level of use of SSRIs may not be evidence-based, which is supported by studies showing that the effect of SSRIs has been overestimated.

  11. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Masala, Carla; Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter) and to sugars (phagostimulatory). Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a) each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b) the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c) sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  13. Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Frishkoff, Luke O; Mendenhall, Chase D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends. We analyzed a 5-year data set (5,011 captures) from 18 sites in a countryside landscape in southern Costa Rica using statistical models that account and correct for imperfect detection of species across sites, spatial autocorrelation, and consideration of spatial scale. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity decreased with deforestation, and assemblages became more phylogenetically clustered. Species' responses to deforestation were strongly phylogenetically correlated. Body mass and absolute wing loading explained a substantial portion of species variation in species' habitat preferences, likely related to these traits' influence on maneuverability in cluttered forest environments. Our findings highlight the role that evolutionary history plays in determining which species will survive human impacts and the need to consider diversity metrics, evolutionary history, and traits together when making predictions about species persistence for conservation or ecosystem functioning.

  14. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sollai

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter and to sugars (phagostimulatory. Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  15. Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amid, C.; Olstedt, M.; Gunnarsson, J.S.; Lan, Le H.; Tran Thi Minh, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Hellström, M.; Tedengren, M.

    2017-01-01

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the

  16. Design and control of precision drop-on-demand herbicide application in agricultural robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Urdal, Frode; Utstumo, Trygve; Vatne, Jan Kåre; Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Ådnøy; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s final, accepted and refereed manuscript to the article. Drop-on-demand weed control is a field of research within Precision Agriculture, where the herbicide application is controlled down to individual droplets. This paper focuses on the fluid dynamics and electronics design of the droplet dispensing. The droplets are formed through an array of nozzles, controlled by two-way solenoid valves. A much used control circuit for opening and closing a soleno...

  17. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  18. A Rapid and Simple Bioassay Method for Herbicide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Qing Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been used in bioassay detection of a variety of toxic compounds such as pesticides and toxic metals, but mainly using liquid culture systems. In this study, an algal lawn--agar system for semi-quantitative bioassay of herbicidal activities has been developed. Sixteen different herbicides belonging to 11 different categories were applied to paper disks and placed on green alga lawns in Petri dishes. Presence of herbicide activities was indicated by clearing zones around the paper disks on the lawn 2-3 days after application. The different groups of herbicides induced clearing zones of variable size that depended on the amount, mode of action, and chemical properties of the herbicides applied to the paper disks. This simple, paper-disk-algal system may be used to detect the presence of herbicides in water samples and act as a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative screening for assessing herbicide contamination.

  19. Effect of herbicides on microbiological properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms decompose herbicides and they may serve as bioindicators of soil changes following herbicide application. Certain microbial species may be used as bioherbicides. This study has shown that Azotobacter is most sensitive to herbicide application; it is, therefore, a reliable indicator of the biological value of soil. The numbers of this group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria decrease considerably in the period of 7-14 days after herbicide application. Simultaneously, the numbers of Actinomycetes and less so of fungi increase, indicating that these microorganisms use herbicides as sources of biogenous elements. Rate of herbicidal decomposition depends on the properties of the preparation applied herbicide dose as well as on the physical and chemical soil properties, soil moisture and temperature, ground cover, agrotechnical measures applied and the resident microbial population.

  20. Glycerine associated molecules with herbicide for controlling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ciganinha”, belongs to the family Bignoniaceae. The only way to control this plant species in crop fields is by the application of herbicides on the stump or directly on the stem. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of glycerine in controlling A.

  1. Herbicides as weed control agents: state of the art: I. Weed control research and safener technology: the path to modern agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehmer, Hansjoerg; Laber, Bernd; Rosinger, Chris; Schulz, Arno

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of modern industrial herbicides is to control weeds. The species of weeds that plague crops today are a consequence of the historical past, being related to the history of the evolution of crops and farming practices. Chemical weed control began over a century ago with inorganic compounds and transitioned to the age of organic herbicides. Targeted herbicide research has created a steady stream of successful products. However, safeners have proven to be more difficult to find. Once found, the mode of action of the safener must be determined, partly to help in the discovery of further compounds within the same class. However, mounting regulatory and economic pressure has changed the industry completely, making it harder to find a successful herbicide. Herbicide resistance has also become a major problem, increasing the difficulty of controlling weeds. As a result, the development of new molecules has become a rare event today. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  3. Managed aquifer recharge as environmental tool risk mitigation linked to the presence of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Roma, Antonella; Nieto Yàbar, Daniel; Pepi, Salvatore; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2017-04-01

    The pollution due to some herbicides which was used in flood plains and karst areas of various regions in the world is causing major problems in supplying drinking water from surface water bodies and aquifers. Pesticides and herbicides are widely used in agriculture, vineyards, industry and public hygiene. They are spread on soil surface, in air, into deep soil causing problems in surface water bodies and aquifers. In Italy the interest of presence of pesticides in water resources began around 1980 after episodes of drinking water contamination due to some herbicides and atrazine (ATR). After years away from the ban on the use of atrazine (use prohibition in the 90's), its degradation products are still present in groundwater of large areas of the plains of Nord Italy (Bottoni et al.,2013). Intensive use of triazines has become harmful for the local population that live in the Veneto-Friuli plain where the high gravels permeability of alluvial fans allowed to the widespread diffusion of triazines and related metabolites. The main mechanism of atrazine action in soil is microbial degradation, the kinetics of these products is closely connected with the availability of nitrates in the soil. The half-life of atrazine is 30-180 days but its disintegration is blocked by nitrates presence (Jones et al 1982). ATR is trapped in cohesive levels as peat and silty clay soils and periodically released by the interaction water sediment. Artificial recharge in areas with highly permeable aquifers allows to realize qualitative and quantitative regeneration because water low in nitrates and Dissolved Oxygen can promote the biological and chemical disintegration of pesticides such as atrazine and its metabolites. A case study is represented by the Friuli plain, near the Tagliamento river. Based on the WARBO project data that has applied artificial recharge in Mereto di Tomba test site where the dissolved nitrate content of water in some cases exceed the 50 mg/L limit according to

  4. Comparative study of acetylcholinesterase and glutathione S-transferase activities of closely related cave and surface Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda: Crustacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jemec

    Full Text Available The freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus has recently been developed as an emerging invertebrate cave model for studying evolutionary and developmental biology. Mostly morphological and genetic differences between cave and surface A. aquaticus populations have been described up to now, while scarce data are available on other aspects, including physiology. The purpose of this study was to advance our understanding of the physiological differences between cave A. aquaticus and its surface-dwelling counterparts. We sampled two surface populations from the surface section of the sinking Pivka River (central Slovenia, Europe, i.e. locality Pivka Polje, and locality Planina Polje, and one cave population from the subterranean section of the sinking Pivka River, i.e. locality Planina Cave. Animals were sampled in spring, summer and autumn. We measured the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glutathione S-transferase (GST in individuals snap-frozen in the field immediately after collection. Acetylcholinesterase is likely related to animals' locomotor activity, while GST activity is related to the metabolic activity of an organism. Our study shows significantly lower AChE and GST activities in the cave population in comparison to both surface A. aquaticus populations. This confirms the assumption that cave A. aquaticus have lower locomotor and metabolic activity than surface A. aquaticus in their respective natural environments. In surface A. aquaticus populations, seasonal fluctuations in GST activity were observed, while these were less pronounced in individuals from the more stable cave environment. On the other hand, AChE activity was generally season-independent in all populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind conducted in A. aquaticus. Our results show that among closely related cave and surface A. aquaticus populations also physiological differences are present besides the morphological and genetic

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species

  6. The experience of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke--six months after discharge from a rehabilitation clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Britt; Sundin, Karin

    2010-03-01

    Being a close relative brings with it a large number of consequences, with the life situation changing over time. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke 6 months after being discharged from a medical rehabilitation clinic. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine middle-aged close relatives and analysed using a content analysis with a latent approach. The analysis revealed that being close to someone who had suffered a stroke 6 months after discharge meant; a struggling for control and a renewal of family life in the shadow of suffering and hope. The middle-aged close relatives began to perceive the changed reality. They were struggling to take on something new, become reconciled and find a balance in their family life. Their ability to work, relief from caring concerns and having support and togetherness with others seemed to be essential for the close relatives in their efforts to manage their life situation and maintain their well-being. Having reached the 'halfway point' in their lives and still with half of their life in front of them created worries. They felt dejected about their changed relationships and roles, experience a sense of loss of shared child responsibilities, a negative impact on their marital relationships and sexual satisfaction. They felt trapped in a caring role and they worried about how to endure in the future. The middle-aged close relatives' experiences were of being alone and neglected, in an arduous and complex life situation filled with loss and grief. The findings highlights that health professionals need to see and listen to the close relatives' experiences of transition in order to provide appropriate support adjusted to their varying needs during a time of renewal.

  7. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  8. The closely related CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs and lymphoid-resident CD8+ DCs differ in their inflammatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Jiao

    Full Text Available Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1β and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.

  9. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  11. Using SSR-HRM to Identify Closely Related Species in Herbal Medicine Products: A Case Study on Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  12. ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Ratnere, Igor; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dubchak, Inna

    2009-07-23

    The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.

  13. Age-related changes and sex differences in postural control adaptability in children during periodic floor oscillation with eyes closed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Kiyota, Takeo; Mammadova, Aida; Yaguchi, Chie

    2011-01-01

    We investigated age-related changes and sex differences in adaptability of anticipatory postural control in children. Subjects comprised 449 children (4-12 years old) and 109 young adults (18-29 years old). Subjects stood with eyes closed on a force-platform fixed to a floor oscillator. We conducted five trials of 1-minute oscillation (0.5 Hz frequency, 2.5 cm amplitude) in the anteroposterior direction. Postural steadiness was quantified as the mean speed of the center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction (CoPy). In young adults, CoPy speed decreased rapidly until the third trial for both sexes. Adaptability was evaluated by changes in steadiness. The adaptability of children was categorized as "good," "moderate," and "poor," compared with a standard variation of the mean CoPy speed regression line between the first and fifth trials in young adults. Results were as follows: (1) anticipatory postural control adaptability starts to develop from age 6 in boys and 5 in girls, and greatly improves at age 7-8 in boys and 6 in girls; (2) the adaptability of children at age 11-12 (74% of boys and 63% of girls were categorized as "good") has not yet reached the same level as for young adults; (3) the adaptability at age 11-12 for girls is temporarily disturbed due to early puberty.

  14. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals.

  15. Genomic resources for gene discovery, functional genome annotation, and evolutionary studies of maize and its close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shi, Xue; Liu, Lin; Li, Haiyan; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Kudrna, David A; Xiong, Wentao; Wang, Hao; Dai, Zhaozhao; Zheng, Yonglian; Lai, Jinsheng; Jin, Weiwei; Messing, Joachim; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wing, Rod A; Luo, Meizhong

    2013-11-01

    Maize is one of the most important food crops and a key model for genetics and developmental biology. A genetically anchored and high-quality draft genome sequence of maize inbred B73 has been obtained to serve as a reference sequence. To facilitate evolutionary studies in maize and its close relatives, much like the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) (www.OMAP.org) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) resource did for the rice community, we constructed BAC libraries for maize inbred lines Zheng58, Chang7-2, and Mo17 and maize wild relatives Zea mays ssp. parviglumis and Tripsacum dactyloides. Furthermore, to extend functional genomic studies to maize and sorghum, we also constructed binary BAC (BIBAC) libraries for the maize inbred B73 and the sorghum landrace Nengsi-1. The BAC/BIBAC vectors facilitate transfer of large intact DNA inserts from BAC clones to the BIBAC vector and functional complementation of large DNA fragments. These seven Zea Map Alignment Project (ZMAP) BAC/BIBAC libraries have average insert sizes ranging from 92 to 148 kb, organellar DNA from 0.17 to 2.3%, empty vector rates between 0.35 and 5.56%, and genome equivalents of 4.7- to 8.4-fold. The usefulness of the Parviglumis and Tripsacum BAC libraries was demonstrated by mapping clones to the reference genome. Novel genes and alleles present in these ZMAP libraries can now be used for functional complementation studies and positional or homology-based cloning of genes for translational genomics.

  16. Using compound-specific isotope analysis to assess the degradation of chloroacetanilide herbicides in lab-scale wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, O F; Maillard, E; Vuilleumier, S; Nijenhuis, I; Richnow, H H; Imfeld, G

    2014-03-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a promising tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants including pesticides. In this study, a novel CSIA method was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of widely used chloroacetanilide herbicides. The developed method was applied in combination with herbicide concentration and hydrochemical analyses to investigate in situ biodegradation of metolachlor, acetochlor and alachlor during their transport in lab-scale wetlands. Two distinct redox zones were identified in the wetlands. Oxic conditions prevailed close to the inlet of the four wetlands (oxygen concentration of 212±24μM), and anoxic conditions (oxygen concentrations of 28±41μM) prevailed towards the outlet, where dissipation of herbicides mainly occurred. Removal of acetochlor and alachlor from inlet to outlet of wetlands was 56% and 51%, whereas metolachlor was more persistent (23% of load dissipation). CSIA of chloroacetanilides at the inlet and outlet of the wetlands revealed carbon isotope fractionation of alachlor (εbulk=-2.0±0.3‰) and acetochlor (εbulk=-3.4±0.5‰), indicating that biodegradation contributes to the dissipation of both herbicides. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to evaluate the transport and degradation of chloroacetanilide herbicides in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Double mutation in eleusine indica alpha-tubulin increases the resistance of transgenic maize calli to dinitroaniline and phosphorothioamidate herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-06-01

    The repeated use of dinitroaniline herbicides on the cotton and soybean fields of the southern United States has resulted in the appearance of resistant biotypes of one of the world's worst weeds, Eleusine indica. Two biotypes have been characterized, a highly resistant (R) biotype and an intermediate resistant (I) biotype. In both cases the resistance has been attributed to a mutation in alpha-tubulin, a component of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer that is the major constituent of microtubules. We show here that the I-biotype mutation, like the R-biotype mutation shown in earlier work, can confer dinitroaniline resistance on transgenic maize calli. The level of resistance obtained is the same as that for E. indica I- or R-biotype seedlings. The combined I- and R-biotype mutations increase the herbicide tolerance of transgenic maize calli by a value close to the summation of the maximum herbicide tolerances of calli harbouring the single mutations. These data, taken together with the position of the two different mutations within the atomic structure of the alpha/beta tubulin dimer, imply that each mutation is likely to exert its effect by a different mechanism. These mechanisms may involve increasing the stability of microtubules against the depolymerizing effects of the herbicide or changing the conformation of the alpha/beta dimer so that herbicide binding is less effective, or a combination of both possibilities.

  18. Assessment of herbicides and organochlorine pesticides contamination in agricultural soils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hong; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2008-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis of 3 herbicides and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils has been developed, using ultrasonic solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recoveries ranged from 81% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D) lower than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.03 to 1.06 microg x kg(-1) dry weight for different pesticides studied. The proposed method has been applied to investigate the 11 pesticide residues in agricultural soils collected from Liaoning Province, northeast of China. 3 OCPs and 3 herbicides were identified. Acetochlor, atrazine, butachtor were measured in the relatively high level with values ranging from 0.53 to 203.18 microg x kg(-1), 0.14 to 21.20 microg x kg(-1), pesticides in this study was compared with the date of other countries reported and the corresponding limiting values used in Netherland, USA, Canada, Vietnam and Thailand. Among the herbicide residues, there was a significant relativity between soil utilizing types and their residue concentration. It seems that the monitoring action for soil contamination caused by commonly-used herbicides should be enhanced according to soil utilizing types, especially acetochlor in maize field.

  19. Response of Transplanted Aman Rice Varieties to Herbicides in Strip-Tilled Non-Puddled Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Zahan1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensitivity of crop cultivars may vary to commonly used herbicides resulting in potential yield loss and reduce farm profit. Transplanting of rice seedlings in strip-tilled non-puddled field is a new practice for which herbicide tolerant varieties need to select. Therefore, a study was executed at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2013 to evaluate the response of some popular transplanted aman rice varieties to different herbicides at their recommended rate and to select most tolerant aman rice variety or varieties for strip-tilled non-puddled transplanting. METHODOLOGY: Twelve aman rice varieties (BR11, BRRI dhan33, BRRI dhan39, BRRI dhan44, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52, BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, BRRI hybrid dhan-4 and BINA dhan7 were examined in the study against six herbicides (2 pre-emergence: pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and butachlor; 1 early post-emergence: orthosulfamuron and 3 late post-emergence: acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl, butachlor + propanil and 2,4-D amine along with one untreated manually weed-free control. KEY FINDINGS: The study revealed that aman rice varieties responded differentially to different herbicides. All rice varieties performed better in pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated plots relative to the other herbicide treated plots and even than the control plots. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl increased grain yield of all aman rice varieties by 0.6-32.6% over control and butachlor + propanil provided increased grain yield in all rice varieties by 2.0-25.5% except BRRI hybrid dhan-4. The study also disclosed that BRRI dhan57 and BRRI hybrid dhan-4 gone through the yield loss by application of 2,4-D amine and BRRI dhan56 by application of butachlor and orthosulfamuron. Moreover, acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl produced shorter plants and caused yield loss by 7.8-27.1% in all aman rice varieties compared to the control and BRRI dhan39 was the most susceptible

  20. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    -metolachlor foram eficientes para todas as espécies até 30 DAA, em ambas as doses, demonstrando atividade residual consistente para o solo estudado.Herbicides applied at pre-emergence normally present residual activity in the soil, controlling the first weed germinations, and preventing initial weed competition. The aim of this study was to determine the period of residual activity provided by sufficient herbicide rates for 95% (C95 control of the species Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis, and to assess the recommended rates of these herbicides. The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions in soils of sandy clay loam texture (20% clay and 1.9 of organic matter, with rates of alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 and trifluralin 600 being applied at 30, 20, 10 and 0 days before weed sowing. Weed control was evaluated after herbicide permanence in soil for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after application (DAA. The residual activity of alachlor and prometryne at a rate C95 was not sufficient for the efficient control (>80% of the species for up to 30 DAA. For alachlor, the use of the recommended rate did not provide considerable increase in residual activity, except for A. viridis. The recommended rate of prometryn promoted efficient control of the species for up to 30 DAA, except for A. hybridus. The recommended rate of oxyfluorfen provided an efficient control of A. hybridus and A. spinosus up to 30 DAA. These species had not been effectively controlled by the rate C95. Trifluralin 450 promoted efficient residual control for up to 30 DAA only compared with A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 was effective in controlling A. hybridus and A. viridis up to 30 DAA and 29 and 28 DAA for A. lividus and A. spinosus, respectively. Clomazone did not promote efficient control of the species for 30 DAA, except for A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin and S-metolachlor were effective in controlling the species for up

  1. A study on some welfare-related parameters of hDAF transgenic pigs when compared with their conventional close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Stancampiano, L; Govoni, N; Zannoni, A; Nannoni, E; Forni, M; Bacci, M L

    2014-05-01

    Pigs are increasingly used in medical research as transgenic laboratory animals; however, little knowledge is presently available concerning their welfare assessment. The aim of the present study was to investigate some welfare-related parameters of transgenic pigs intended for xenotrasplantation (human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF)) when compared with their conventional (i.e. not transgenic) close relatives (full sibs and half sibs). A total of 14 Large White female transgenic pigs and 10 female non-transgenic (conventional) pigs from four litters were used. All pigs were from the same conventional boar, donor of the semen treated for sperm-mediated gene transfer. During the experiment, BW ranged from 50 to about 80 kg and pigs were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Animals were subjected to a set of behavioural tests: a human approach test (HAT), a novel object test (NOT) and an open-door test (ODT). Food preferences were tested through the offer of different foods (banana, apple, carrot, cracker and lemon). During a 4-day period, pigs were diurnally videotaped to study the prevalence of the different behaviours and social interactions (aggressive and non-aggressive interactions). At the end of the trial, cortisol level had been assessed on bristles. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed between hDAF transgenic and conventional pigs with respect to growth traits, reactivity towards unexpected situations (HAT, NOT, ODT), food preferences, main behavioural traits, social interactions and hair cortisol.

  2. The changes in various hydroxyproline fractions in aortic tissue of rabbits are closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhomida AS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most important function of collagen and elastin is to induce several mechanical parameters which are known to play a dominant role in governing mechanical properties of the blood vessels. The aortic tissue of rabbit is one of the important sources of collagen and elastin. The effects of high fat diet (HFD on the hydroxyproline (Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits have not been documented before. The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in Hyp fractions in serum and aortic tissues of rabbits and collagen content in the aortic tissues of rabbits during the progression of atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic model used in this study was the New Zealand white rabbit (male; 12 weeks old. Twenty five rabbits were individually caged, and divided into control group (NOR; n = 10 and HFD group (CHO; n = 15. The control group was fed (100 g/day of normal (NOR diet for a period of 15 weeks. The HFD group was fed normal diet supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day for the same period of time. Results We found that the TC, LDLC, and TG (mg/dl were significantly (p Conclusions These results suggest that percentage decrease in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissue of HFD rabbits are closely related to percentage decrease of collagen content in aortic tissues of HFD rabbits. These results also suggest that it may be possible to use the changes in various Hyp fractions in aortic tissues of rabbits as an important risk factor during the progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. Annickia affinis and A. chlorantha (Enantia chlorantha)--A review of two closely related medicinal plants from tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; Van Vuuren, S F; Moteetee, A N

    2015-12-24

    Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  5. Degradation of formaldehyde at high concentrations by phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Alireza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the phenol-adapted Ralstonia eutropha to utilize formaldehyde (FD) as the sole source of carbon and energy was studied. Adaptation to FD was accomplished by substituting FD for glucose in a stepwise manner. The bacterium in the liquid test culture could tolerate concentrations of FD up to 900 mg L(-1). Degradation of FD was complete in 528 h at 30°C with shaking at 150 rpm (r = 1.67 mg L(-1) h(-1)), q = 0.035 g(FD) g(cell) (-1) h(-1). Substrate inhibition kinetics (Haldane and Luong equations) are used to describe the experimental data. At non-inhibitory concentrations of FD, the Monod equation was used. According to the Luong model, the values of the maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), half-saturation coefficient (k(S)), the maximum allowable formaldehyde concentration (S(m)), and the shape factor (n) were 0.117 h(-1), 47.6 mg L(-1), 900 mg L(-1), and 2.2, respectively. The growth response of the test bacterium to consecutive FD feedings was examined, and the FD-adapted R. eutropha cells were able to degrade 1000 mg L(-1) FD in 150 h through 4 cycles of FD feeds. During FD degradation, formic acid metabolite was formed. Assimilation of FD, methanol, formic acid, and oxalate by the test bacterium was accompanied by the formation of a pink pigment. The carotenoid nature of the cellular pigment has been confirmed and the test bacterium appeared to be closely related to pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFM). The extent of harm to soil exposed to biotreated wastewaters containing FD may be moderated due to the association between methylotrophic/oxalotrophic bacteria and plants.

  6. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  7. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  8. Closely-related Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu stricto) strains exhibit similar fitness in single infections and asymmetric competition in multiple infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Brown, Julia; Tufts, Danielle M; Huang, Ching-I; Kampen, Helge; Bent, Stephen J; Fish, Durland; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A

    2017-02-06

    Wild hosts are commonly co-infected with complex, genetically diverse, pathogen communities. Competition is expected between genetically or ecologically similar pathogen strains which may influence patterns of coexistence. However, there is little data on how specific strains of these diverse pathogen species interact within the host and how this impacts pathogen persistence in nature. Ticks are the most common disease vector in temperate regions with Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, being the most common vector-borne pathogen in North America. Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogen of high public health concern and there is significant variation in infection phenotype between strains, which influences predictions of pathogen dynamics and spread. In a laboratory experiment, we investigated whether two closely-related strains of B. burgdorferi (sensu stricto) showed similar transmission phenotypes, how the transmission of these strains changed when a host was infected with one strain, re-infected with the same strain, or co-infected with two strains. Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick, nymphs were used to sequentially infect laboratory-bred Peromyscus leucopus, white-footed mice, with one strain only, homologous infection with the same stain, or heterologous infection with both strains. We used the results of this laboratory experiment to simulate long-term persistence and maintenance of each strain in a simple simulation model. Strain LG734 was more competitive than BL206, showing no difference in transmission between the heterologous infection groups and single-infection controls, while strain BL206 transmission was significantly reduced when strain LG734 infected first. The results of the model show that this asymmetry in competition could lead to extinction of strain BL206 unless there was a tick-to-host transmission advantage to this less competitive strain. This asymmetric competitive interaction suggests that strain identity and

  9. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-02

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices.

  10. Bio stimulation for the Enhanced Degradation of Herbicides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanissery, R.G; Sims, G.K

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of herbicide-contaminated soils has been a dire environmental concern since the advent of industrial era. Although microorganisms are excellent degraders of herbicide compounds in the soil, some reparation may need to be brought about, in order to stimulate them to degrade the herbicide at a faster rate in a confined time frame. Bio stimulation through the appropriate utilization of organic amendments and nutrients can accelerate the degradation of herbicides in the soil. However, effective use of bio stimulants requires thorough comprehension of the global redox cycle during the microbial degradation of the herbicide molecules in the soil. In this paper, we present the prospects of using bio stimulation as a powerful remediation strategy for the rapid cleanup of herbicide-polluted soils.

  11. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Martínezgarcía, Gema; van der Geest, Harm G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-04-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol(®)1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrochemical degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nam; Drogui, Patrick; Doan, Tuan Linh; Le, Thanh Son; Nguyen, Hoai Chau

    2017-12-01

    The presence of herbicide is a concern for both human and ecological health. Glyphosate is occasionally detected as water contaminants in agriculture areas where the herbicide is used extensively. The removal of glyphosate in synthetic solution using advanced oxidation process is a possible approach for remediation of contaminated waters. The ability of electrochemical oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of glyphosate herbicide was investigated using Ti/PbO 2 anode. The current intensity, treatment time, initial concentration and pH of solution are the influent parameters on the degradation efficiency. An experimental design methodology was applied to determine the optimal condition (in terms of cost/effectiveness) based on response surface methodology. Glyphosate concentration (C 0  = 16.9 mg L -1 ) decreased up to 0.6 mg L -1 when the optimal conditions were imposed (current intensity of 4.77 A and treatment time of 173 min). The removal efficiencies of glyphosate and total organic carbon were 95 ± 16% and 90.31%, respectively. This work demonstrates that electrochemical oxidation is a promising process for degradation and mineralization of glyphosate.

  13. Occurrence of dichloroacetamide herbicide safeners and co-applied herbicides in midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Emily; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2018-01-01

    Dichloroacetamide safeners (e.g., AD-67, benoxacor, dichlormid, and furilazole) are co-applied with chloroacetanilide herbicides to protect crops from herbicide toxicity. While such safeners have been used since the early 1970s, there are minimal data about safener usage, occurrence in streams, or potential ecological effects. This study focused on one of these research gaps, occurrence in streams. Seven Midwestern U.S. streams (five in Iowa and two in Illinois), with extensive row-crop agriculture, were sampled at varying frequencies from spring 2016 through summer 2017. All four safeners were detected at least once; furilazole was the most frequently detected (31%), followed by benoxacor (29%), dichlormid (15%), and AD-67 (2%). The maximum concentrations ranged from 42 to 190 ng/L. Stream detections and concentrations of safeners appear to be driven by a combination of timing of application (spring following herbicide application) and precipitation events. Detected concentrations were below known toxicity levels for aquatic organisms.

  14. Relation between premorbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and close interpersonal trauma in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Ulrik Helt; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Simonsen, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Trauma Survey at their 5 years follow-up interview. RESULTS: Half of the patients reported that they had experienced interpersonal trauma and one-third reported having experienced close interpersonal trauma before the age of 18. Women reported more sexual abuse, physical attacks and emotional...... different types of trauma, in particular close interpersonal traumas experienced before the age of 18, premorbid factors and baseline clinical characteristics in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients. METHODS: A total of 191 patients from the 'TIPS' cohort completed assessment with the Brief Betrayal...... and physical maltreatment than men. There were significant associations between early interpersonal trauma and premorbid adjustment and duration of untreated psychosis, but no significant associations with length of education, comorbid substance use or baseline clinical symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: Close...

  15. Uses of thaxtomin and thaxtomin compositions as herbicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivunen, Marja; Marrone, Pamela

    2016-12-27

    There is a need for a selective, low-risk herbicide that can be used to control weeds in cereal cultures and turf. The present invention discloses that a bacterial secondary metabolite, thaxtomin and optionally another herbicide is an effective herbicide on broadleaved, sedge and grass weeds. Thaxtomin A and structurally similar compounds can be used as natural herbicides to control the germination and growth of weeds in cereal, turf grass, Timothy grass and pasture grass cultures with no phytotoxicity to these crops. As a natural, non-toxic compound, thaxtomin can be used as a safe alternative for weed control in both conventional and organic farming and gardening systems.

  16. Herbicide injury induces DNA methylome alterations in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjune Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture. The herbicide injury resulted in 9,205 differentially methylated regions (DMRs across the genome. In total, 5,914 of these DMRs were induced in a dose-dependent manner, wherein the methylation levels were positively correlated to the severity of the herbicide injury, suggesting that plants can modulate the magnitude of methylation changes based on the severity of the stress. Of the 3,680 genes associated with glyphosate-induced DMRs, only 7% were also implicated in methylation changes following biotic or salinity stress. These results demonstrate that plants respond to herbicide stress through changes in methylation patterns that are, in general, dose-sensitive and, at least partially, stress-specific.

  17. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Kevin C.; Marks, M. David; Weeks, Donald P.

    1987-01-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665371

  18. A Dinitroaniline-Resistant Mutant of Eleusine indica Exhibits Cross-Resistance and Supersensitivity to Antimicrotubule Herbicides and Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, K C; Marks, M D; Weeks, D P

    1987-04-01

    A dinitroaniline-resistant (R) biotype of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner. (goosegrass) is demonstrated to be cross-resistant to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, and supersensitive to two other classes of compounds which disrupt mitosis. These characteristics of the R biotype were discovered in a comparative test of the effects of 24 different antimitotic compounds on the R biotype and susceptible (S) wild-type Eleusine. The compounds tested could be classified into three groups based upon their effects on mitosis in root tips of the susceptible (S) biotype. Class I compounds induced effects like the well known mitotic disrupter colchicine: absence of cortical and spindle microtubules, mitosis arrested at prometaphase, and the formation of polymorphic nuclei after arrested mitosis. The R biotype was resistant to treatment with some class I inhibitors (all dinitroaniline herbicides and amiprophosmethyl) but not all (e.g. colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and pronamide). Roots of the R biotype, when treated with either dinitroaniline herbicides or amiprophosmethyl, exhibited no or only small increases in the mitotic index nor were the spindle and cortical microtubules affected. Compounds of class II (carbamate herbicides and griseofulvin) cause misorientation of microtubules which results in multinucleated cells. Compounds of class III (caffeine and structually related alkaloids) cause imcomplete cell walls to form at telophase. Each of these last two classes of compounds affected the R biotype more than the S biotype (supersensitivity). The cross-resistance and high levels of resistance of the R biotype of Eleusine to the dinitroaniline herbicides and the structurally distinct herbicide, amiprophosmethyl, indicate that a mechanism of resistance based upon metabolic modification, translocation, or compartmentation of the herbicides is probably not operative.

  19. Actor-Observer Bias in Close Relationships: The Role of Self-Knowledge and Self-Related Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied attributional biases in close relationships. Found that partner attributions prevail at the abstract level of adjectives, whereas self-attributions resided at the concrete level of action verbs. Findings underscore language's importance in attributional biases and reveal how people talk in less abstract terms about the self than about…

  20. Weed control in distress – can all weeds still be controlled with herbicides in future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobny, Hans G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction and availability of highly active and selective herbicides in all important field crops, in the last decades, enabled the simplification and money saving in crop rotations and agronomic measures. This resulted in respective specialized and adapted weed populations, and consequently an increasing selection of resistant populations. Since the introduction of the ALS-inhibitors (starting 1985 and the 4-HPPD-inhibitors (2001, no new MoA-Classes were registered, and there are none in the registration process. Several established herbicides were not registered or re-registered in the EU, or were severely restricted in their application. The cost and the risk to develop and register a new selective herbicide in the EU are hardly justified, in relation to their market potential. The only solution on problem fields, with resistant populations, is to change the agronomic practices, like crop rotation, soil tillage, seeding time, etc., as a precautionary principle also on still „normal“ fields. The different advising institutions have to integrate these aspects into their recommendations, besides the proper herbicide management.

  1. [Determination of biphenyl ether herbicides in water using HPLC with cloud-point extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng-Yan; Li, Yuan-Qian; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Ouyang, Hua-Xue; Zheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    To determine residues of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in water using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with cloud-point extraction. The residues of eight biphenyl ether herbicides (including bentazone, fomesafen, acifluorfen, aclonifen, bifenox, fluoroglycofenethy, nitrofen, oxyfluorfen) in water samples were extracted with cloud-point extraction of Triton X-114. The analytes were separated and determined using reverse phase HPLC with ultraviolet detector at 300 nm. Optimized conditions for the pretreatment of water samples and the parameters of chromatographic separation applied. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration and the peak area of the analytes in the range of 0.05-2.00 mg/L (r = 0.9991-0.9998). Except bentazone, the spiked recoveries of the biphenyl ether herbicides in the water samples ranged from 80.1% to 100.9%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.70% to 6.40%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.10 microg/L to 0.50 microg/L. The proposed method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can meet the requirements of determination of multiple biphenyl ether herbicides simultaneously in natural waters.

  2. Metabolism of nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides by dioxin-degrading bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Young Soo; Lee, Young Ju; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2008-10-08

    Nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides, including chlomethoxyfen, nitrofen, and oxyfluorfen are potent herbicides. Some metabolites and parent compounds are considered as possible mutagens and endocrine disruptors. Both properties pose serious hygienic and environmental risks. Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a well-known degrader of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers. However, no detailed research of its metabolic activity has been performed against pesticides with a diphenyl ether scaffold. In this study, we report S. wittichii RW1 as a very potent diphenyl ether herbicide-metabolizing bacterium with broad substrate specificity. The structures of metabolites were determined by instrumental analysis and synthetic standards. Most pesticides were rapidly removed from the culture medium in the order of nitrofen > oxyfluorfen > chlomethoxyfen. In general, herbicides were degraded through the initial reduction and N-acetylation of nitro groups, followed by ether bond cleavage. Relatively low concentrations of phenolic and catecholic metabolites throughout the study suggested that these metabolites were rapidly metabolized and incorporated into primary metabolism. These results indicate that strain RW1 has very versatile metabolic activities over a wide range of environmental contaminants.

  3. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene]. Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of 14 C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] for two years provided the best control of nutsedge

  4. Advanced oxidation of commercial herbicides mixture: experimental design and phytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Coll, Andrea; Lescano, Maia; Zalazar, Cristina

    2017-05-05

    In this work, the suitability of the UV/H 2 O 2 process for commercial herbicides mixture degradation was studied. Glyphosate, the herbicide most widely used in the world, was mixed with other herbicides that have residual activity as 2,4-D and atrazine. Modeling of the process response related to specific operating conditions like initial pH and initial H 2 O 2 to total organic carbon molar ratio was assessed by the response surface methodology (RSM). Results have shown that second-order polynomial regression model could well describe and predict the system behavior within the tested experimental region. It also correctly explained the variability in the experimental data. Experimental values were in good agreement with the modeled ones confirming the significance of the model and highlighting the success of RSM for UV/H 2 O 2 process modeling. Phytotoxicity evolution throughout the photolytic degradation process was checked through germination tests indicating that the phytotoxicity of the herbicides mixture was significantly reduced after the treatment. The end point for the treatment at the operating conditions for maximum TOC conversion was also identified.

  5. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L. ) control with herbicides: the role of tuberization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.

    1985-01-01

    Trials were carried out under greenhouse, growth chamber, laboratory, outdoor pot, and field conditions to characterize stages of yellow nutsedge tuberization and to investigate the influence of herbicides. The effects of herbicides on tuberization and phytotoxicity at several growth stages, as well as on sprouting, growth characteristics, and survival of new tubers were determined. Tuberization was a continuous process, but was modulated by plant age and environmental conditions. The growth stage that included the time of first tuber initiation was the best for applying glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluromethyl)benzene). Plant-age and length of period after spraying influenced glyphosate and oxyfluorfen absorption and translocation. Addition of unlabelled oxyfluorfen as a tank mixture can glyphosate increased absorption of /sup 14/C-glyphosate to 27% after 1 day and 46% after 8 days and increased translocation into other plant parts. Timing of postemergence herbicide applications relative to tuberization is crucial for overall control of yellow nutsedge. When soil applied herbicides were compared in the field, consecutive applications of dichlobenil (2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) for two years provided the best control of nutsedge.

  6. DNA analysis of herbarium Specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides reveals herbicide resistance pre-dated herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe; Deulvot, Chrystel; Chauvel, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) alleles carrying one point mutation that confers resistance to herbicides have been identified in arable grass weed populations where resistance has evolved under the selective pressure of herbicides. In an effort to determine whether herbicide resistance evolves from newly arisen mutations or from standing genetic variation in weed populations, we used herbarium specimens of the grass weed Alopecurus myosuroides to seek mutant ACCase alleles carrying an isoleucine-to-leucine substitution at codon 1781 that endows herbicide resistance. These specimens had been collected between 1788 and 1975, i.e., prior to the commercial release of herbicides inhibiting ACCase. Among the 734 specimens investigated, 685 yielded DNA suitable for PCR. Genotyping the ACCase locus using the derived Cleaved Amplified Polymorphic Sequence (dCAPS) technique identified one heterozygous mutant specimen that had been collected in 1888. Occurrence of a mutant codon encoding a leucine residue at codon 1781 at the heterozygous state was confirmed in this specimen by sequencing, clearly demonstrating that resistance to herbicides can pre-date herbicides in weeds. We conclude that point mutations endowing resistance to herbicides without having associated deleterious pleiotropic effects can be present in weed populations as part of their standing genetic variation, in frequencies higher than the mutation frequency, thereby facilitating their subsequent selection by herbicide applications.

  7. Inheritance and molecular characterization of broad range tolerance to herbicides targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Carlos A; Bulos, Mariano

    2012-02-01

    Ahasl1 is a multilallelic locus where all the induced and natural mutations for herbicide tolerance were described thus far in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The allele Ahasl1-1 confers moderate tolerance to imidazolinone (IMI), Ahasl1-2, and Ahasl1-3 provides high levels of tolerance solely to sulfonylurea (SU) and IMI, respectively. An Argentinean wild sunflower population showing plants with high level of tolerance to either an IMI and a SU herbicide was discovered and used to develop an inbred line designated RW-B. The objectives of this work were to determine the relative level and pattern of cross-tolerance to different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides, the mode of inheritance, and the molecular basis of herbicide tolerance in this line. Slight or no symptoms observed after application of different herbicides indicated that RW-B possesses a completely new pattern of tolerance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides in sunflower. Biomass response to increasing doses of metsulfuron or imazapyr demonstrated a higher level of tolerance in RW-B with respect to Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1 and Ahasl1-2/Ahasl1-2 lines. On the basis of genetic analyses and cosegregation test, it was concluded that tolerance to imazapyr in the original population is inherited as a single, partially dominant nuclear gene and that this gene is controlling the tolerance to four different AHAS-inhibiting herbicides. Pseudo-allelism test permitted us to conclude that the tolerant allele present in RW-B is an allelic variant of Ahasl1-1 and was designated as Ahasl1-4. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the Ahasl1-4 allele sequence of RW-B has a leucine codon (TTG) at position 574 (relative to the Arabidopsis thaliana AHAS sequence), whereas the enzyme from susceptible lines has a tryptophan residue (TGG) at this position. The utilization of this new allele in the framework of weed control and crop rotation is discussed.

  8. Raw or incubated olive-mill wastes and its biotransformed products as agricultural soil amendments-effect on sorption-desorption of triazine herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Almendros, Gonzalo; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-02-07

    Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.

  9. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  10. Climate change impacts on risks of groundwater pollution by herbicides: a regional scale assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Karin; Moeys, Julien; Lindström, Bodil; Kreuger, Jenny; Lewan, Elisabet; Jarvis, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater contributes nearly half of the Swedish drinking water supply, which therefore needs to be protected both under present and future climate conditions. Pesticides are sometimes found in Swedish groundwater in concentrations exceeding the EU-drinking water limit and thus constitute a threat. The aim of this study was to assess the present and future risks of groundwater pollution at the regional scale by currently approved herbicides. We identified representative combinations of major crop types and their specific herbicide usage (product, dose and application timing) based on long-term monitoring data from two agricultural catchments in the South-West of Sweden. All these combinations were simulated with the regional version of the pesticide fate model MACRO (called MACRO-SE) for the periods 1970-1999 and 2070-2099 for a major crop production region in South West Sweden. To represent the uncertainty in future climate data, we applied a five-member ensemble based on different climate model projections downscaled with the RCA3-model (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute). In addition to the direct impacts of changes in the climate, the risks of herbicide leaching in the future will also be affected by likely changes in weed pressure and land use and management practices (e.g. changes in crop rotations and application timings). To assess the relative importance of such factors we performed a preliminary sensitivity analysis which provided us with a hierarchical structure for constructing future herbicide use scenarios for the regional scale model runs. The regional scale analysis gave average concentrations of herbicides leaching to groundwater for a large number of combinations of soils, crops and compounds. The results showed that future scenarios for herbicide use (more autumn-sown crops, more frequent multiple applications on one crop, and a shift from grassland to arable crops such as maize) imply significantly greater risks of herbicide

  11. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Cronie, R.J.A.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    North Atlantic coastal waters harbour two closely related sympatric sponges belonging to the genus Halichondria, viz. H. panicea and H. bowerbanki. From the study of their littoral and sublittoral microdistribution and ecology in the Oosterschelde area (= Eastern Scheldt, S.W. part of The

  12. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadel changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Munckhof, van den P.J.J.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute exposure to iron can be lethal to fish, but long-term sublethal impacts of iron require further study. Here we investigated whether the spatial and temporal distribution (1967–2004) of two closely related species of stickleback matched the spatial distribution of iron concentrations in the

  13. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  14. A pathway closely related to the (D)-tagatose pathway of gram-negative enterobacteria identified in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  16. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. [Identification and analysis of Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species of the same genus by using ITS2 DNA barcode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Rong-kun; Bi, Zhen-fei; Bai, Rui-xue; Ren, Yao-yao; Tan, Rui; Song, Liang-ke; Li, Di-qiang; Mao, Can-quan

    2015-04-01

    The study is aimed to ensure the quality and safety of medicinal plants by using ITS2 DNA barcode technology to identify Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species. The DNA of 13 herb samples including C. boweri and M. horridula from Lhasa of Tibet was extracted, ITS PCR were amplified and sequenced. Both assembled and web downloaded 71 ITS2 sequences were removed of 5. 8S and 28S. Multiple sequence alignment was completed and the intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances were calculated by MEGA 5.0, while the neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed. We also predicted the ITS2 secondary structure of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species. The results showed that ITS2 as DNA barcode was able to identify C. boweri, M. horridula as well as well as their close related species effectively. The established based on ITS2 barcode method provides the regular and safe detection technology for identification of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species, adulterants and counterfeits, in order to ensure their quality control, safe medication, reasonable development and utilization.

  18. Distinctive Features of Oral Cancer in Changhua County: High Incidence, Buccal Mucosa Preponderance, and a Close Relation to Betel Quid Chewing Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Chun Su

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the high incidence and buccal mucosa preponderance of oral cancer in Changhua may have an exceptionally close relation with patients' betel quid chewing habit, and other unknown etiologic factors may also be present locally. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3:225-233

  19. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...

  20. In vitro screening of selected herbicides on rhizosphere mycoflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro screening of five selected herbicides at different concentrations on rhizosphere mycoflora from yellow pepper (capsicum annum L var. Nsukka yellow) seedlings at Nsukka were investigated. The herbicides employed for this study were Paraquat, Glyphosate, Primextra, Atrazine and Linuron. The isolated rhizosphere ...

  1. Effects of acetochlor (herbicide) on the survival and avoidance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... These results suggested that acetochlor residues had negligible effects on P. birmanica and L. terrestris. Michalkova and Pekar (2009) and Yardim and Edwards (1998) also reported negligible effects of herbicide (glyphosate) on Pardosa agrestis. Although, we also observed negligible effects of herbicide.

  2. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  3. Plant Community Diversity After Herbicide Control of Spotted Knapweed

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1992-01-01

    Herbicides were applied to four west-central Montana sites with light to moderate spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) infestations. Althought knapweed suppression was high, 2 years after the spraying the communities were not converted to grass monocultures. No large declines in plant diversity were caused by the herbicides, and small depressions were probably transitory. By the third year, diversity had increased.

  4. economics of herbicide weed management in wheat in ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Effective use of herbicides for the control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was not a reality in Ethiopia, until in recent years. This study aimed at evaluating different post-emergence herbicides against annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in wheat for selection and incorporation into an ...

  5. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic rice system, the most promising irrigation water saving rice production technology, is highly impeded by severe weed pressure. Weed control through the use of same herbicide causes development of herbicide resistant weed biotypes and serious problem in weed management. This study was aimed at finding out ...

  7. Herbicide-resistant crop biotechnology: potential and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide-resistant crops are an important agricultural biotechnology that can enable farmers to effectively control weeds without harming their crops. Glyphosate-resistant (i.e. Roundup Ready) crops have been the most commercially successful varieties of herbicide-resistant crops and have been plan...

  8. Effect of four herbicides on microbial population, soil organic matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of four herbicides (atrazine, primeextra, paraquat and glyphosate) on soil microbial population, soil organic matter and dehydrogenase activity was assessed over a period of six weeks. Soil samples from cassava farms were treated with herbicides at company recommended rates. Soil dehydrogenase activity was ...

  9. Integrated Effect of Seeding Rate, Herbicide Dosage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield reductions of 26 to 63% across four bread wheat cultivars at 90 weed seedlings m-2 in. Ethiopia. Before herbicides were widely available, farmers employed cultural measures to manage weed population. Wild oat management systems have evolved to the point that producers rely on herbicides to the virtual exclusion ...

  10. ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS BY LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetanilide herbicides are frequently applied in the U.S. on crops (corn, soybeans, popcorn, etc.) to control broadleaf and annual weeds. The acetanilide and acetamide herbicides currently registered for use in the U.S. are alachlor, acetochlor, metolachlor, propachlor, flufen...

  11. Evaluation of generic and branded herbicides : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As with other generic brand products in the marketplace, generic herbicides often have a lower initial product cost than : their brand-name counterparts. While the purchase price of herbicides is important to TxDOT, it is essential to look at : more ...

  12. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjollema, Sascha B.; MartínezGarcía, Gema; Geest, Harm G. van der; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Booij, Petra; Vethaak, A. Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects of four ubiquitous herbicides (atrazine, diuron, Irgarol ® 1051 and isoproturon) and herbicide mixtures on marine microalgae. Using a Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry based bioassay we demonstrated a clear species and herbicide specific toxicity and showed that the current environmental legislation does not protect algae sufficiently against diuron and isoproturon. Although a low actual risk of herbicides in the field was demonstrated, monitoring data revealed that concentrations occasionally reach potential effect levels. Hence it cannot be excluded that herbicides contribute to observed changes in phytoplankton species composition in coastal waters, but this is likely to occur only occasionally. - Highlights: • The hazard of herbicides for microalgae is compound and species specific. • In general a low risk although occasional potential effect levels are reached. • Current legislation does not protect marine microalgae sufficiently. - The hazard of herbicides in the coastal waters is compound and species specific and although the general risk in the field is low, occasionally potential effect levels are reached

  13. Herbicidal cyanoacrylates with antimicrotubule mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, Stefan; Plath, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus

    2005-11-01

    The herbicidal mode of action of the new synthetic cyanoacrylates ethyl (2Z)-3-amino-2-cyano-4-ethylhex-2-enoate (CA1) and its isopropyl ester derivative CA2 was investigated. For initial characterization, a series of bioassays was used indicating a mode of action similar to that of mitotic disrupter herbicides such as the dinitroaniline pendimethalin. Cytochemical fluorescence studies including monoclonal antibodies against polymerized and depolymerized tubulin and a cellulose-binding domain of a bacterial cellulase conjugated to a fluorescent dye were applied to elucidate effects on cell division processes including mitosis and microtubule and cell wall formation in maize roots. When seedlings were root treated with 10 microM of CA1 or CA2, cell division activity in meristematic root tip cells decreased within 4 h. The chromosomes proceeded to a condensed state of prometaphase, but were unable to progress further in the mitotic cycle. The compounds caused a complete loss of microtubular structures, including preprophase, spindle, phragmoplast and cortical microtubules. Concomitantly, in the cytoplasm, an increase in labelling of free tubulin was observed. This suggests that the herbicides disrupt polymerization and microtubule stability, whereas tubulin synthesis or degradation appeared not to be affected. In addition, cellulose labelling in cell walls of root tip cells was not influenced. The effects of CA1 and CA2 were comparable with those caused by pendimethalin. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein4 fusion protein, labelled arrays of cortical microtubules in living epidermal cells of hypocotyls collapsed within 160 min after exposure to 10 microM CA1 or pendimethalin. Moreover, a dinitroaniline-resistant biotype of goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn) with a point mutation in alpha-tubulin showed cross-resistance against CA1 and CA2. The results strongly indicate that the cyanoacrylates are

  14. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  15. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  16. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  17. Selectivity and stability of herbicides and herbicide combinations for the grain yield of maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research was conducted during 2012 - 2014 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was cycloxydim tolerant maize hybrid Ultrafox duo (Zea mays L.. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check and 3 soil-applied herbicides – Adengo 465 SC (isoxaflutol + tiencarbazon – 440 ml/ha, Wing P (pendimethalin + dimethenamid – 4 l/ha and Lumax 538 SC (S-metolachlor + terbuthylazine + mesotrione – 4 l/ha. Factor C included no treated check and 5 foliar-applied herbicides – Stellar 210 SL (topramezon + dicamba – 1 l/ha, Principal plus (nicosulfuron + rimsulfuron + dicamba – 380 g/ha, Ventum WG (foramsulfuron + iodosulfuron – 150 g/ha, Monsun active OD (foramsulfuron + tiencarbazon – 1.5 l/ha and Laudis OD (tembotrione – 2 l/ha. In addition to these variants by conventional technology for maize growing one variant by Duo system technology is also included in the experiment. It includes soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex 480 SC (isoxaflutole – 420 g/ha and tank mixture of antigraminaceous herbicide Focus ultra (cycloxydim - 2 l/ha + antibroadleaved herbicide Kalam (tritosulfuron + dicamba – 300 g/ha. It is found that herbicide combination of soil-applied herbicide Merlin flex with tank mixture Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology leads to obtaining high grain yield. High yields of maize grain are also obtained by herbicide combinations Lumax + Principal plus, Lumax + Laudis and Wing + Principal plus. The most unstable are the non-treated check and single use of soilapplied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax. Technologically the most valuable are herbicide combination Merlin flex + Focus ultra + Kalam by Duo system technology, followed by combinations of foliar-applied herbicides Principal plus and Laudis with soil-applied herbicides Adengo, Wing and Lumax by conventional technology. Single use of herbicides has low estimate due to must to combine soil-applied with foliar

  18. Closeness and distance in the nurse-patient relation. The relevance of Edith Stein's concept of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    This paper emanates from the concept of empathy as understood by the German philosopher Edith Stein. It begins by highlighting different interpretations of empathy. According to the German philosopher Martin Buber, empathy cannot be achieved as an act of will. In contrast, the psychologist Carl Rogers believes that empathy is identical with dialogue and is the outcome of a cognitive act of active listening. The empathy concept of Edith Stein, philosopher and follower of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, goes beyond these conflicting views and offers a more complex interpretation, with relevance for both healthcare and nursing education. When studying Stein's three-level model of empathy, a field of tension between perspectives of closeness and distance becomes apparent. The paper concludes by suggesting Stein's model of empathy as a strategy to overcome the tension and meet the demands of empathy.

  19. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2003-06-01

    Infection of baboons (Papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infection of humans. The development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on HVP-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. In order to characterize the molecular biology of HVP-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the HVP-2 genome. The results of these studies have identified the presence of 26 reading frames that closely resemble HSV homologues. Furthermore, the HVP-2 genome shares a collinear arrangement with the genome of HSV. These studies further validate the development of the HVP-2 model as a surrogate system to study the biology of HSV infections.

  20. Biotransformation and biomonitoring of phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Suri, C Raman

    2011-02-01

    A Gram-positive, Micrococcus sp. strain PS-1 isolated from diuron storage site was studied for its capability of biotransformation of phenylurea herbicide diuron to a secondary metabolite, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea (DCPU) for bioconjugation and antibody development applications. The metabolite formed associated with profound changes in bacterial cell morphology demonstrated increase in the degradation kinetics of diuron in presence of small quantity of a surfactant. The synthesized metabolite identified by chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques was conjugated with carrier protein, and used as an immunogen for antibodies production. The generated antibody was highly specific, demonstrating excellent sensitivity against diuron. The antibody was used as receptor molecules in standard fluorescence immunoassay (FIA) format showing detection limit of 0.01 ng/mL in the optimum working concentration range of diuron with good signal precision (∼2%). The study presented first time the degradation pathway of herbicide by specific microorganism to synthesize hapten for bioconjugation and immunoassay development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selectivity of herbicides in crambe crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sasso Ferreira Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low productivity of crambe can be associated with many factors, among these, the competition with weeds, which reduces the yield, harvest affects and contributes to the increase in seed moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the tolerance of crambe plants cv. FMS Brilhante to herbicides applied in preplant incorporated (PPI, preemergence (PRE, and postemergence (POST. The study was installed in a green-house and the treatments consisted of the herbicide application in: pre-plant incorporated ofdiclosulam, flumetsulam, metribuzin, and trifluralin;preemergence applicationof atrazine, diclosulam, diuron, flumetsulam, metribuzim, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and trifluralin; and postemergence application ofbentazon, carfentrazone-ethyl, clefoxydim, cletodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, fomesafen, fluazifop-p-butyl, flumioxazin, halosulfuron, imazamox, imazapic, lactofen, nicosulfuron, oxadiazon, quinclorac, and setoxydim. Visual evaluations of phytotoxicity on crambe plants were realized after applications, the seedlings were counted and the height and plant dry matter were determined in the end of the evaluation period. In conditions where the studies were conducted, we can conclude that only the trifluralin application in PRE and the application of clefoxidim+fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, quinclorac, setoxydim and clefoxydim in POST showed selectivity and potential use for FMS Brilhante crambe cultivar.

  2. Research methods in weed science: herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants is a key component in the study of herbicide physiology, mode of action, selectivity, resistance mechanisms, and in the registration process. Radioactive herbicides have been in use for over half-a-century in the research and study of herbicide absorp...

  3. Synthesis, herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal evaluation of 3-(dichlorophenyl)- isocoumarins and (±)-3-(dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, Ghulam; Rama, Nasim Hasan; Fan, Zhi-Jin; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xiu-Feng

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report showing that 3-(dichlorophenyl)isocoumarins and (±)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. 3-Dichlorophenylisocoumarins were synthesized by condensation of homophthalic acid with dichlorobenzoyl chlorides. The alkaline hydrolysis of these isocoumarins afforded keto acids. Racemic 3-(Dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins were obtained by reduction of keto acids to racemic hydroxy acids, followed by cyclodehydration using acetic anhydride. The herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activities of the synthesized compounds have been evaluated. Some of the synthesized compounds show excellent herbicidal and fungicidal activities but none of the synthesized compounds presented any insecticidal effects on the test insects. The findings of this study suggest that isocoumarins and related compounds may serve as lead compounds towards the design of bioactive herbicides and fungicides. (author)

  4. Approaches to early detection of herbicide resistance in Apera spica-venti regarding intra- and inter-field situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Andrea; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; de Mol, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    at answering the questions: (1) Can the intra-field distribution of an Apera spica-venti population be used to indicate the first steps in the evolution of resistance? Is the selection of field populations based on casual observations of farmers an approach to get a reasonable overview on the resistance status...... differences in the susceptibility of samples collected within the same field. Herbicide efficacy was not plant density-dependent, but it was related to spatial plant distribution depending on the processing direction in the field. The inter-field situation survey confirmed resistance to at least one herbicide......, resistance was only confirmed in 56% of the fields in which farmers suspected resistance indicating that poor herbicide performance can be caused by other reasons as for example poor environmental conditions....

  5. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of image analysis to assess color response on plants caused by herbicide application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali; Streibig, Jens Carl; Duus, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    by herbicides. The range of color components of green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil in Hue, Saturation, and Brightness (HSB) color space were used for segmentation. The canopy color changes of barley, winter wheat, red fescue, and brome fescue caused by doses of a glyphosate and diflufenican mixture...... for the green and nongreen parts of the plants and soil were different. The relative potencies were not significantly different from one, indicating that visual and image analysis estimations were about the same. The comparison results suggest that image analysis can be used to assess color changes of plants......In herbicide-selectivity experiments, response can be measured by visual inspection, stand counts, plant mortality, and biomass. Some response types are relative to nontreated control. We developed a nondestructive method by analyzing digital color images to quantify color changes in leaves caused...

  7. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  8. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Adam D. Wilkinson; Catherine J. Collier; Florita Flores; Andrew P. Negri

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ...

  10. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Emmanuel Dayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl-(2E,4E-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid. However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 µM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 µM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 µM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to

  11. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  12. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  13. Masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in patients after partial maxillectomies with closed or open defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohamed M; Otomaru, Takafumi; Yeerken, Yesiboli; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2017-07-01

    The healing pattern after surgical resection of tumors of the oral cavity involving the maxilla may vary from one patient to another. The result may be open communication between the oral and nasal cavities (open defect) or complete oronasal separation after healing of the defect area (closed defect). The purpose of this clinical study was to compare masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) between patients with closed and open defects who had undergone a partial maxillectomy and were wearing dentomaxillary prostheses. Thirty-eight participants who had undergone a partial maxillectomy and who were wearing dentomaxillary prostheses were enrolled between September 2014 and April 2016. Participants were assigned to 2 groups according to the type of defect after healing: 19 participants had a closed defect, and 19 participants had an open defect. Masticatory function was evaluated objectively and subjectively. The objective measurement was food-mixing ability, which was assessed using color-changeable chewing gum. The subjective measurement was perceived mastication ability, rated as a masticatory score based on the patient's responses to a 35-item food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was assessed using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The GOHAI questionnaire consists of 12 items reflecting 3 hypothesized domains of the impact of oral disease: physical function, psychosocial function, and pain or discomfort. Differences in the scores obtained by the 3 measurements were compared between the 2 groups, using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (α=.05). No significant differences were seen between the 2 groups in objective mixing ability, subjective masticatory score, or GOHAI (P>.05). Regarding the GOHAI physical function domain, only the swallowing item was significantly lower (P=.025) in participants with an open defect than in participants with a closed defect. Regarding the GOHAI psychological function domain, the item related to

  14. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  15. Dinitroaniline herbicide resistance and the microtubule cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony; Hussey

    1999-03-01

    Dinitroaniline herbicides have been used for pre-emergence weed control for the past 25 years in cotton, soybean, wheat and oilseed crops. Considering their long persistence and extensive use, resistance to dinitroanilines is fairly rare. However, the most widespread dinitroaniline-resistant weeds, the highly resistant (R) and the intermediate (I) biotypes of the invasive goosegrass Eleusine indica, are now infesting more than 1000 cotton fields in the southern states of the USA. The molecular basis of this resistance has been identified, and found to be a point mutation in a major microtubule cytoskeletal protein, alpha-tubulin. These studies have served both to explain the establishment of resistance and to reveal fundamental properties of tubulin gene expression and microtubule structure.

  16. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Test d'efficacité d'un herbicide en culture d'ananas, à la station d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... this study, which has good effectiveness in the fight against weeds in pineapple crops. This related to the .... Tableau 2 : Échelle de notation d'efficacité des traitements herbicides selon l'European Weeds Research Council. (EWRC). Notation .... nouvellement parues tandis que Chloris pilosa et. Euphorbia ...

  18. Transcription factor Fos-Related Antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, B; Busch, N; Jüngel, A; Pileckyte, M; Gay, R E; Michel, B A; Schett, G; Gay, S; Distler, J; Distler, O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results-Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endo...

  19. Herbicides and nitrates in groundwater of Maryland and childhood cancers: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Nancy; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2005-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating study explores spatial patterns of childhood cancers in Maryland and investigates their potential associations with herbicides and nitrates in groundwater. The Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) provided data for bone and brain cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma, for ages 0-17, during the years 1992-1998. Cancer clusters and relative risks generated in the study indicate higher relative risk areas and potential clusters in several counties. Contingency table analysis indicates a potential association with several herbicides and nitrates. Cancer rates for the four types have a crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 (0.78-1.56) in relationship to atrazine, and an OR = 1.54 (1.14-2.07) for metolachlor. Potential association to mixtures of three compounds give an OR = 7.56 (4.16-13.73). A potential association is indicated between leukemia and nitrates, OR = 1.81 (1.35-2.42), and bone cancer with metolachlor, OR = 2.26 (0.97-5.24). These results give insight to generate a hypothesis of the potential association between exposure to these herbicides and nitrates and specific types of childhood cancer.

  20. Quantitative Fractal Evaluation of Herbicide Effects on the Water-Absorbing Capacity of Superabsorbent Polymers

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    Renkuan Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water absorption capacity of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs is important for agricultural drought resistance. However, herbicides may leach into the soil and affect water absorption by damaging the SAP three-dimensional membrane structures. We used 100-mesh sieves, electron microscopy, and fractal theory to study swelling and water absorption in SAPs in the presence of three common herbicides (atrazine, alachlor, and tribenuron-methyl at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L. In the sieve experiments it was found that 2.0 mg/L atrazine reduces the capacity by 9.64–23.3% at different swelling points; no significant diminution was observed for the other herbicides or for lower atrazine concentrations. We found that the hydrogel membrane pore distributions have fractal characteristics in both deionized water and atrazine solution. The 2.0 mg/L atrazine destroyed the water-retaining polymer membrane pores and reduced the water-absorbing mass by modifying its three-dimensional membrane structure. A linear correlation was observed between the fractal analysis and the water-absorbing mass. Multifractal analysis characterized the membrane pore distribution by using the range of singularity indexes Δα (relative distinguishing range of 16.54–23.44%, which is superior to single-fractal analysis that uses the fractal dimension D (relative distinguishing range of 2.5–4.0%.

  1. Predominance of new G9P[8] rotaviruses closely related to Turkish strains in Nizhny Novgorod (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashina, T A; Morozova, O V; Epifanova, N V; Novikova, N A

    2017-08-01

    Genotype G9P[8] rotaviruses are rare in the territory of Russia. They were found in Nizhny Novgorod only in 2011-2012 for the first time, when their proportion was 25.9%. During the next two seasons, G9P[8] strains were detected in only 1.8% of cases. Their proportion substantially increased again in 2014, and they became predominant in the city by 2016. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of gene VP7 nucleotide sequences showed that this increase was accompanied by the emergence of new strains in the population. These isolates were related to Turkish strains, but not to Russian ones detected earlier.

  2. Selectivity and stability of new herbicides and herbicide combinations for the seed yields of some field crops I. Effect at Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    G. Delchev

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. . The research was conducted during 2013 – 2015 on pellic vertisol soil type. Under investigation was Bulgarian coriander cultivar Lozen 1 (Coriandrum sativum L.). The purpose of the investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides, herbicide combinations and herbicide tank mixtures on the coriander. Factor A included the years of investigation. Factor B included no treated check, 6 soil-applied herbicides – Tendar EC, Silba SC, Sharpen 33 EC,...

  3. Intrauterine growth retardation in Iowa communities with herbicide-contaminated drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, R.; Isacson, P.; Hu, S.; Burns, T.; Hanson, J.; Lynch, C.F.; Cherryholmes, K.; Van Dorpe, P.; Hausler, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a statewide survey of 856 Iowa municipal drinking water supplies in 1986-1987 the Rathbun rural water system was found to contain elevated levels of triazine herbicides. Rates of low birth weight, prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in live singleton births during the period 1984-1990 by women living in 13 communities served by the Rathbun water system were compared to other communities of similar size in the same Iowa counties. The Rathbun communities had a greater risk of IUGR than southern Iowa communities with other surface sources of drinking water (relative risk = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that levels of the herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, and cyanazine were each significant predictors of community IUGR rates in southern Iowa after controlling for several potentially confounding factors including maternal smoking and socioeconomic variables. The association with IUGR was strongest for atrazine, but all three herbicides were intercorrelated and the independent contributions of each to IUGR risk could not be determined. We conclude that communities in southern Iowa with drinking water supplies contaminated with herbicides have elevated rates of IUGR compared to neighboring communities with different water supplies. Because of the limitations of the ecologic design of this study, including aggregate rather than individual measures of exposure and limited ability to control for confounding factors related to source of drinking water and risk of IUGR, a strong causal relationship between any specific water contaminant and risk of IUGR cannot yet be inferred. The association between the water supplied to the Rathbun communities and the increased risk of IUGR should be considered a preliminary finding that needs to be verified by more detailed epidemiologic studies.

  4. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  5. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  6. Herbicides effect on the nitrogen fertilizer assimilation by sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, V.F.; Samojlov, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    It has been established in studying the effect of herbicides on pea plants that the penetration of the preparations into the tissues of leaves and stems results in a slight increase of the rate of formation of dry substance in the leaves of the treated plants within 24 hours after treatment as compared with control, whereas in the last period of the analysis the herbicides strongly inhibit the formation of dry substance in leaves. The applied herbicide doses have resulted in drastic changes of the distribution of the plant-assimilated nitrogen between the protein and non-protein fractions in the leaves and stems of pea. When affected by the studied herbicides, the fertilizer nitrogen supply to the pea plants changes and the rate of the fertilizer nitrogen assimilation by the plants varies noticeably. The regularities of the fertilizer nitrogen inclusion in the protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds of the above-ground pea organs have been studied

  7. Biodegradation of acetanilide herbicides acetochlor and butachlor in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang-ming; Wang, Xing-jun; Zheng, He-hui

    2002-10-01

    The biodegradation of two acetanilide herbicides, acetochlor and butachlor in soil after other environmental organic matter addition were measured during 35 days laboratory incubations. The herbicides were applied to soil alone, soil-SDBS (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate) mixtures and soil-HA (humic acid) mixtures. Herbicide biodegradation kinetics were compared in the different treatment. Biodegradation products of herbicides in soil alone samples were identified by GC/MS at the end of incubation. Addition of SDBS and HA to soil decreased acetochlor biodegradation, but increased butachlor biodegradation. The biodegradation half-life of acetochlor and butachlor in soil alone, soil-SDBS mixtures and soil-HA mixtures were 4.6 d, 6.1 d and 5.4 d and 5.3 d, 4.9 d and 5.3 d respectively. The biodegradation products were hydroxyacetochlor and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline for acetochlor, and hydroxybutachlor and 2,6-diethylaniline for butachlor.

  8. Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper ... Glyphosate is a compound used as herbicide in the control and/or killing of grasses and herbaceous plants. ... Because of its toxicity to non-target organisms, there is need to decontaminate.

  9. [Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in close relations with the Edo school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, T

    2001-01-01

    Beginnings of the study of Western sciences, "Rangaku," in Kyoto and Osaka in the late 18th century are reviewed. Profiles and achievements of several active learners are briefly described; they include Koishi Genzui (Osaka-Kyoto), Tsuji Ranshitsu (Kyoto), Kimura Kenkadō (Osaka), and Hashimoto Sōkichi (Osaka). Genzui, after having successfully made good relations with Sugita Genpaku and Ohtsuki Gentaku, leading masters of the Edo school, played a role of an advocator for promoting "Rangaku" in Osaka and Kyoto. As a result, Kenkadō attained the publication of his book "Ikkaku Sankō," a monograph of the Western crude drug unicorn, with the help of Gentaku, who had translated a Dutch reference into Japanese for him. Ranshitsu and Sōkichi were taught the Dutch language by Gentaku; Sōkichi is known as the founder of "Rangaku" in Osaka.

  10. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  11. Cross-species comparison of the gut: Differential gene expression sheds light on biological differences in closely related tenebrionids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Perkin, Lindsey; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2018-04-01

    The gut is one of the primary interfaces between an insect and its environment. Understanding gene expression profiles in the insect gut can provide insight into interactions with the environment as well as identify potential control methods for pests. We compared the expression profiles of transcripts from the gut of larval stages of two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. These tenebrionids have different life cycles, varying in the duration and number of larval instars. T. castaneum has a sequenced genome and has been a model for coleopterans, and we recently obtained a draft genome for T. molitor. We assembled gut transcriptome reads from each insect to their respective genomes and filtered mapped reads to RPKM>1, yielding 11,521 and 17,871 genes in the T. castaneum and T. molitor datasets, respectively. There were identical GO terms in each dataset, and enrichment analyses also identified shared GO terms. From these datasets, we compiled an ortholog list of 6907 genes; 45% of the total assembled reads from T. castaneum were found in the top 25 orthologs, but only 27% of assembled reads were found in the top 25 T. molitor orthologs. There were 2281 genes unique to T. castaneum, and 2088 predicted genes unique to T. molitor, although improvements to the T. molitor genome will likely reduce these numbers as more orthologs are identified. We highlight a few unique genes in T. castaneum or T. molitor that may relate to distinct biological functions. A large number of putative genes expressed in the larval gut with uncharacterized functions (36 and 68% from T. castaneum and T. molitor, respectively) support the need for further research. These data are the first step in building a comprehensive understanding of the physiology of the gut in tenebrionid insects, illustrating commonalities and differences that may be related to speciation and environmental adaptation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  13. Transcription factor fos-related antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Britta; Busch, Nicole; Jüngel, Astrid; Pileckyte, Margarita; Gay, Renate E; Michel, Beat A; Schett, Georg; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Jörg; Distler, Oliver

    2009-12-08

    Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Fra-2 transgenic mice developed a severe loss of small blood vessels in the skin that was paralleled by progressive skin fibrosis at 12 weeks of age. The reduction in capillary density was preceded by a significant increase in apoptosis in endothelial cells at week 9 as detected by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, suppression of Fra-2 by small interfering RNA prevented human microvascular endothelial cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis and improved both the number of tubes and the cumulative tube lengths in the tube formation assay. In addition, cell migration in the scratch assay and vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent chemotaxis in a modified Boyden chamber assay were increased after transfection of human microvascular endothelial cells with Fra-2 small interfering RNA, whereas proliferation was not affected. Fra-2 is present in human systemic sclerosis and may contribute to the development of microvasculopathy by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis and by reducing endothelial cell migration and chemotaxis. Fra-2 transgenic mice are a promising preclinical model to study the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of the peripheral vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis.

  14. Similar local, but different systemic, metabolomics responses of closely related pine subspecies to folivory by caterpillars of the processionary moth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, A. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Sardans, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Hódar, J. A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada Spain; Garcia-Porta, J. [Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona Spain; Guenther, A. [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine CA USA; Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Oravec, M. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Urban, O. [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno Czech Republic; Peñuelas, J. [CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia Spain; Cerdanyola del Vallès, CREAF, Catalonia Spain; Leiss, K.

    2016-05-16

    Plants respond locally and systemically to herbivore attack. Most of the research conducted on plant-herbivore relationships at elemental and molecular levels have focused on nutrients or/and certain molecular compounds or specific families of defensive metabolites showing that herbivores tend to select plant individuals or species with higher nutrient concentrations and to avoid those with higher levels of phenolics and terpenes. Unfortunately, the defensive role of phenolics in conifers is still unclear. We performed stoichiometric and metabolomics, local and systemic, analyses in two subspecies of Pinus sylvestris under the herbivorous attack by the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth, an important pest in the Mediterranean Basin. Herbivorous attack was not associated with any of the elements analyzed. Both pine subspecies responded locally to folivory mainly by increasing the concentrations of various terpenes and phenolics. Systemic responses differed between subspecies and most of the metabolites presented intermediate concentrations between those of the affected parts and unattacked trees. Contrary as usually thought, foliar nutrient concentrations did not show to be a main factor of an alleged plant selection by adult female processionary moths for oviposition. Local increases in phenolics were more associated with antioxidant function for protection against oxidative damage produced by folivory. On the other hand, terpenes were directly related to defense against herbivores. Herbivory attack produced a general systemic shift in pines, including both primary and secondary metabolisms, that was, however, less intense and chemically different from the local responses. Subspecies responded similarly locally but differently to folivory at systemic level.

  15. Aedeagus morphology as a discriminant marker in two closely related Cactophilic species of Drosophila (Diptera; Drosophilidae in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Fernando F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila serido and D. antonietae are sibling species belonging to the Drosophila buzzatii cluster. Morphologically, they can only be discriminated by quantitative traits. In this paper we analyze the length and equalized average curvature of four regions of the aedeagus of D. antonietae and D. serido. Specimens of D. serido and D. antonietae were classified correctly 96.74% of the time. Based only on the variable that most contributed to the discrimination of the groups (equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus, we observed significant intraspecific morphological divergence in D. serido in relation to the D. antonietae, in agreement with other markers. The high morphological divergence in equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus shows that this region evolved faster than others, since the divergence of the two species. The importance of the present study to the understanding of the genetic basis that controls the formation of the aedeagus, in the species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster, is discussed.

  16. Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov., a species closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Nogueira, Christiane; Simmon, Keith E; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Carlos Palomino, Juan; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard; Cardoso Leão, Sylvia

    2015-07-01

    Two isolates from water, D16Q19 and D16R27, were shown to be highly similar in their 16S rRNA, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65 and rpoB gene sequences to 'Mycobacterium franklinii' DSM 45524, described in 2011 but with the name not validly published. They are all nonpigmented rapid growers and are related phenotypically and genetically to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group. Extensive characterization by phenotypic analysis, biochemical tests, drug susceptibility testing, PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and ITS, DNA sequencing of housekeeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that 'M. franklinii' DSM 45524, D16Q19 and D16R27 belong to a single species that is separated from other members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. On the basis of these results we propose the formal recognition of Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov. Strain DSM 45524(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2149(T)) is the type strain.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  18. Changes in bacterial community after application of three different herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jéssica Aparecida Silva; Altarugio, Lucas Miguel; Andrade, Pedro Avelino; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2017-07-06

    The native soil microbiota is very important to maintain the quality of that environment, but with the intensive use of agrochemicals, changes in microbial biomass and formation of large quantities of toxic waste were observed in soil, groundwater and surface water. Thereby, the goal of this study was to evaluate if the selective pressure exerted by the presence of the herbicides atrazine, diuron and 2,4-D changes the bacterial community structure of an agricultural soil, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique. According to PERMANOVA analysis, a greater effect of the herbicide persistence time in the soil, the effect of the herbicide class and the effect of interaction between these two factors (persistence time and herbicide class) were observed. In conclusion, the results showed that the selective pressure exerted by the presence of these herbicides altered the composition of the local microbiota, being atrazine and diuron that most significantly affected the bacterial community in soil, and the herbicide 2,4-D was the one that less altered the microbial community and that bacterial community was reestablished first. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Herbicidal treatments for control of Papaver somniferum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-five commercially available herbicides were evaluated for possible use to destroy illicit opium poppy crops (Papaver somniferum). In the first stage, herbicides were sprayed on poppy plants grown in containers. The following compounds killed poppy plants: (a) herbicides with typical foliar activity--amitrole, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, glyphosate, ioxynil and paraquat; and (b) herbicides with root and foliar activity--the triazines ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, simazine and terbutryn; the substituted ureas benzthiazuron, chloroxuron, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, neburon and phenobenzuron; and the miscellaneous compounds karbutilate, methazole, oxadiazon and pyrazon. Severe but sublethal injury was caused by cycloate, EPTC, molinate, pobulate, cacodylate + MSMA, ethofumesate, perfluidone and phenmedipham. Abnormal development of vegetative or reproductive parts of the plant was induced by benefin, butralin, dinitramine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, diphenamid, napropamide, dalapon and propham. Efficient herbicides with negligible persistence in soil at the doses applied were evaluated on poppy plants in the field at various stages of growth. Small plants were severely injured by 2,4-D, killed rapidly by bromoxynil, ioxynil, paraquat (in mixture + diquat), and more slowly by glyphosate and metribuzin. The resistance to herbicides increased with the age of the poppy plant. Severe damage with partial kill of developed plants was obtained with bromoxynil, ioxynil, glyphosate, and paraquat + diquat; the last treatment produced the fastest effect.

  20. Selectivity of herbicides in Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz.

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    Scheliga, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crtz. is a cruciferous plant. As an oilseed crop camelina is mainly grown for oil production. After the 1960s, however, the cultivation has become less important. Only in recent years, interest in this culture was awakened in the search for new sources of omega 3 fatty acids, natural antioxidants and a potential crop for the production of biofuels. The use of camelina oil for different purposes within the framework of the material use of renewable raw materials is of particular interest due to the high levels of linoleic and linolenic acid. For the establishment of camelina as a crop in agricultural crop rotation systems weed control should not be disregarded despite the rather good competitive ability against weeds. Based on greenhouse experiments a field trial in 2015 with different herbicide strategies was carried out. Besides Butisan Top (metazachlor + quinmerac, Devrinol FL (napropamide and Stomp Aqua (pendimethalin and also Betasana SC (phenmedipham has been tested in various amounts and combinations. Using assessments to weed density and herbicide tolerance different herbicide strategies were compared with each other. Though, it is difficult to find a compromise between satisfactory herbicidal effect and a slight injury to the crop plant. The herbicide selection, the application rate and the combination of different herbicides have an effect on the crop. To confirm the data obtained further tests are necessary.

  1. Antioxidant activity of rice plants sprayed with herbicides

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    Marcos André Nohatto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiological defense behavior of plants subjected to herbicide application may help to identify products with higher or lower capacity to cause oxidative stress in crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of herbicides in the antioxidant activity of rice plants. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Treatments consisted of the herbicides bentazon (photosystem II inhibitor; 960 g ha-1, penoxsulam (acetolactate synthase inhibitor; 60 g ha-1, cyhalofop-butyl (acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase inhibitor; 315 g ha-1 and a control. After the herbicides application, samples of rice shoots were collected at 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after application (HAA. The components evaluated were hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Bentazon (up to 24 HAA and penoxsulam (48 and 96 HAA reduced the CAT activity. Moreover, these herbicides increased the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and SOD activity, indicating a condition of oxidative stress in rice plants. The cyhalofop-butyl herbicide did not alter the antioxidant activity, showing that it causes less stress to the crop.

  2. Mimetic Muscles in a Despotic Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Differ from Those in a Closely Related Tolerant Macaque (M. nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    Facial displays (or expressions) are a primary means of visual communication among conspecifics in many mammalian orders. Macaques are an ideal model among primates for investigating the co-evolution of facial musculature, facial displays, and social group size/behavior under the umbrella of "ecomorphology". While all macaque species share some social behaviors, dietary, and ecological parameters, they display a range of social dominance styles from despotic to tolerant. A previous study found a larger repertoire of facial displays in tolerant macaque species relative to despotic species. The present study was designed to further explore this finding by comparing the gross morphological features of mimetic muscles between the Sulawesi macaque (Macaca nigra), a tolerant species, and the rhesus macaque (M. mulatta), a despotic species. Five adult M. nigra heads were dissected and mimetic musculature was compared to those from M. mulatta. Results showed that there was general similarity in muscle presence/absence between the species as well as muscle form except for musculature around the external ear. M. mulatta had more musculature around the external ear than M. nigra. In addition, M. nigra lacked a zygomaticus minor while M. mulatta is reported to have one. These morphological differences match behavioral observations documenting a limited range of ear movements used by M. nigra during facial displays. Future studies focusing on a wider phylogenetic range of macaques with varying dominance styles may further elucidate the roles of phylogeny, ecology, and social variables in the evolution of mimetic muscles within Macaca Anat Rec, 299:1317-1324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The function of the yeast molecular chaperone Sse1 is mechanistically distinct from the closely related hsp70 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Lance; Trott, Amy; Goeckeler, Jennifer L; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Morano, Kevin A

    2004-05-21

    The Sse1/Hsp110 molecular chaperones are a poorly understood subgroup of the Hsp70 chaperone family. Hsp70 can refold denatured polypeptides via a C-terminal peptide binding domain (PBD), which is regulated by nucleotide cycling in an N-terminal ATPase domain. However, unlike Hsp70, both Sse1 and mammalian Hsp110 bind unfolded peptide substrates but cannot refold them. To test the in vivo requirement for interdomain communication, SSE1 alleles carrying amino acid substitutions in the ATPase domain were assayed for their ability to complement sse1Delta yeast. Surprisingly, all mutants predicted to abolish ATP hydrolysis (D8N, K69Q, D174N, D203N) complemented the temperature sensitivity of sse1Delta and lethality of sse1Deltasse2Delta cells, whereas mutations in predicted ATP binding residues (G205D, G233D) were non-functional. Complementation ability correlated well with ATP binding assessed in vitro. The extreme C terminus of the Hsp70 family is required for substrate targeting and heterocomplex formation with other chaperones, but mutant Sse1 proteins with a truncation of up to 44 C-terminal residues that were not included in the PBD were active. Remarkably, the two domains of Sse1, when expressed in trans, functionally complement the sse1Delta growth phenotype and interact by coimmunoprecipitation analysis. In addition, a functional PBD was required to stabilize the Sse1 ATPase domain, and stabilization also occurred in trans. These data represent the first structure-function analysis of this abundant but ill defined chaperone, and establish several novel aspects of Sse1/Hsp110 function relative to Hsp70.

  4. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others.

  5. Genetic rescue of an endangered domestic animal through outcrossing with closely related breeds: A case study of the Norwegian Lundehund.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid V Stronen

    Full Text Available Genetic rescue, outcrossing with individuals from a related population, is used to augment genetic diversity in populations threatened by severe inbreeding and extinction. The endangered Norwegian Lundehund dog underwent at least two severe bottlenecks in the 1940s and 1960s that each left only five inbred dogs, and the approximately 1500 dogs remaining world-wide today appear to descend from only two individuals. The Lundehund has a high prevalence of a gastrointestinal disease, to which all remaining dogs may be predisposed. Outcrossing is currently performed with three Nordic Spitz breeds: Norwegian Buhund, Icelandic Sheepdog, and Norrbottenspets. Examination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes based on 165K loci in 48 dogs from the four breeds revealed substantially lower genetic diversity for the Lundehund (HE 0.035 than for other breeds (HE 0.209-0.284. Analyses of genetic structure with > 15K linkage disequilibrium-pruned SNPs showed four distinct genetic clusters. Pairwise FST values between Lundehund and the candidate breeds were highest for Icelandic Sheepdog, followed by Buhund and Norrbottenspets. We assessed the presence of outlier loci among candidate breeds and examined flanking genome regions (1 megabase for genes under possible selection to identify potential adaptive differences among breeds; outliers were observed in flanking regions of genes associated with key functions including the immune system, metabolism, cognition and physical development. We suggest crossbreeding with multiple breeds as the best strategy to increase genetic diversity for the Lundehund and to reduce the incidence of health problems. For this project, the three candidate breeds were first selected based on phenotypes and then subjected to genetic investigation. Because phenotypes are often paramount for domestic breed owners, such a strategy could provide a helpful approach for genetic rescue and restoration of other domestic populations at

  6. Bacillus megaterium strains derived from water and soil exhibit differential responses to the herbicide mesotrione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzanski, Tatiane; Gravina, Fernanda; Steckling, Bruna; Olchanheski, Luiz R; Sprenger, Ricardo F; Espírito Santo, Bruno C; Galvão, Carolina W; Reche, Péricles M; Prestes, Rosilene A; Pileggi, Sônia A V; Campos, Francinete R; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Sadowsky, Michael J; Beltrame, Flávio L; Pileggi, Marcos

    2018-01-01

    The intense use of herbicides for weed control in agriculture causes selection pressure on soil microbiota and water ecosystems, possibly resulting in changes to microbial processes, such as biogeochemical cycles. These xenobiotics may increase the production of reactive oxygen species and consequently affect the survival of microorganisms, which need to develop strategies to adapt to these conditions and maintain their ecological functionality. This study analyzed the adaptive responses of bacterial isolates belonging to the same species, originating from two different environments (water and soil), and subjected to selection pressure by herbicides. The effects of herbicide Callisto and its active ingredient, mesotrione, induced different adaptation strategies on the cellular, enzymatic, and structural systems of two Bacillus megaterium isolates obtained from these environments. The lipid saturation patterns observed may have affected membrane permeability in response to this herbicide. Moreover, this may have led to different levels of responses involving superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and enzyme polymorphisms. Due to these response systems, the strain isolated from water exhibited higher growth rates than did the soil strain, in evaluations made in oligotrophic culture media, which would be more like that found in semi-pristine aquatic environments. The influence of the intracellular oxidizing environments, which changed the mode of degradation of mesotrione in our experimental model and produced different metabolites, can also be observed in soil and water at sites related to agriculture. Since the different metabolites may present different levels of toxicity, we suggest that this fact should be considered in studies on the fate of agrochemicals in different environments.

  7. Spatial variation in herbicide leaching from a marine clay soil via subsurface drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro M; Larsbo, Mats; Kreuger, Jenny K; Svanbäck, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Background Subsurface transport via tile drains can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface waters. The spatial variation in subsurface leaching of normally applied herbicides was examined together with phosphorus losses in 24 experimental plots with water sampled flow-proportionally. The study site was a flat, tile-drained area with 60% marine clay in the topsoil in southeast Sweden. The objectives were to quantify the leaching of frequently used herbicides from a tile drained cracking clay soil and to evaluate the variation in leaching within the experimental area and relate this to topsoil management practices (tillage method and structure liming). Results In summer 2009, 0.14, 0.22 and 1.62%, respectively, of simultaneously applied amounts of MCPA, fluroxypyr and clopyralid were leached by heavy rain five days after spraying. In summer 2011, on average 0.70% of applied bentazone was leached by short bursts of intensive rain 12 days after application. Peak flow concentrations for 50% of the treated area for MCPA and 33% for bentazone exceeded the Swedish no-effect guideline values for aquatic ecosystems. Approximately 0.08% of the glyphosate applied was leached in dissolved form in the winters of 2008/2009 and 2010/2011. Based on measurements of glyphosate in particulate form, total glyphosate losses were twice as high (0.16%) in the second winter. The spatial inter-plot variation was large (72–115%) for all five herbicides studied, despite small variations (25%) in water discharge. Conclusions The study shows the importance of local scale soil transport properties for herbicide leaching in cracking clay soils. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23658148

  8. Phytoplankton growth and PSII efficiency sensitivity to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agriculture has increased steadily since the mid 90's and there is now evidence of glyphosate leaching and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540 ® ) on growth and photosynthetic capacity of algae and cyanobacteria. Six algal and three cyanobacterial species/strains, of three different taxonomic groups, were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000μgl -1 ) during 48h. All species have significant growth inhibition at concentrations varying between 50 and 500μgl -1 . The photosynthetic response, after glyphosate exposure, varied among species, but a general pattern has emerged. There was an increase in the amount of photons absorbed (ABS/RC), in dissipated (DI O /RC) and trapped (TR O /RC) energy in the photosystem II reaction centers, along with a decreased of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F V /F M ) and electron transport per reaction center (ET O /RC). The EC 50 and LOEC values for growth and photosynthesis were calculated and established that growth was the most affected parameter by glyphosate-based herbicide, while parameter TR O /RC was the least affected. All species showed reduced growth at glyphosate concentrations lower than the Canadian standard for the protection of aquatic life, set at 800μgl -1 or the American aquatic life benchmark for acute toxicity in non vascular plants of 12 100μgl -1 questioning the validity of these thresholds in assessing the risks related to the presence of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in aquatic systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Arts, Gertie H P

    2018-01-01

    In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (E r C50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (E r /E y C50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175-183. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Efficient photodecomposition of herbicide imazapyr over mesoporous Ga2O3-TiO2 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adel A; Abdelfattah, Ibrahim; Faisal, M; Helal, Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    The unabated release of herbicide imazapyr into the soil and groundwater led to crop destruction and several pollution-related concerns. In this contribution, heterogeneous photocatalytic technique was employed utilizing mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites for degrading imazapyr herbicide as a model pollutant molecule. Mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites with varied Ga 2 O 3 contents (0-5wt%) were synthesized through sol-gel process. XRD and Raman spectra exhibited extremely crystalline anatase TiO 2 phase at low Ga 2 O 3 content which gradually reduced with the increase of Ga 2 O 3 content. TEM images display uniform TiO 2 particles (10±2nm) with mesoporous structure. The mesoporous TiO 2 exhibits large surface areas of 167m 2 g -1 , diminished to 108m 2 g -1 upon 5% Ga 2 O 3 incorporation, with tunable mesopore diameter in the range of 3-9nm. The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites was assessed by degrading imazapyr herbicide and comparing with commercial photocatalyst UV-100 and mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 under UV illumination. 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is considered the optimum photocatalyst, which degrades 98% of imazapyr herbicide within 180min. Also, the photodegradation rate of imazapyr using 0.1% Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposite is nearly 10 and 3-fold higher than that of mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 and UV-100, respectively. The high photonic efficiency and long-term stability of the mesoporous Ga 2 O 3 -TiO 2 nanocomposites are ascribed to its stronger oxidative capability in comparison with either mesoporous TiO 2 , Ga 2 O 3 or commercial UV-100. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Auxinic herbicides, mechanisms of action, and weed resistance: A look into recent plant science advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Auxin governs dynamic cellular processes involved at several stages of plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms employed by auxin in light of recent scientific advances, with a focus on synthetic auxins as herbicides and synthetic auxin resistance mechanisms. Two auxin receptors were reported. The plasma membrane receptor ABP1 (Auxin Binding Protein 1 alters the structure and arrangement of actin filaments and microtubules, leading to plant epinasty and reducing peroxisomes and mitochondria mobility in the cell environment. The second auxin receptor is the gene transcription pathway regulated by the SCFTir/AFB ubiquitination complex, which destroys transcription repressor proteins that interrupt Auxin Response Factor (ARF activation. As a result mRNA related with Abscisic Acid (ABA and ethylene are transcribed, producing high quantities of theses hormones. Their associated action leads to high production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS, leading to tissue and plant death. Recently, another ubiquitination pathway which is described as a new auxin signaling route is the F-box protein S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein 2A (SKP2A. It is active in cell division regulation and there is evidence that auxin herbicides can deregulate the SKP2A pathway, which leads to severe defects in plant development. In this discussion, we propose that SFCSKP2A auxin binding site alteration could be a new auxinic herbicide resistance mechanism, a concept which may contribute to the current progress in plant biology in its quest to clarify the many questions that still surround auxin herbicide mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of weed resistance.

  12. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L.; Murray, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating. PMID:27555863

  13. Assessment of the Environmental Fate of the Herbicides Flufenacet and Metazachlor with the SWAT Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohrer, Nicola; Dietrich, Antje; Kolychalow, Olga; Ulrich, Uta

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to assess the environmental fate of the commonly used herbicides flufenacet and metazachlor in the Northern German Lowlands with the ecohydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model) and to test the sensitivity of pesticide-related input parameters on the modeled transport dynamics. The river discharge of the Kielstau watershed was calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE], 0.83; = 0.84) and validated (NSE, 0.76; = 0.77) for a daily time step. The environmental fate of metazachlor (NSE, 0.68; = 0.62) and flufenacet (NSE, 0.13; = 0.51) was simulated adequately. In comparison to metazachlor, the simulated flufenacet concentration and loads show a lower model efficiency due to the weaker simulation of the stream flow. The in-stream herbicide loads were less than 0.01% of the applied amount in the observed time period and thus not in conflict with European Environmental Legislation. The sensitivity analysis showed that, besides the accurate simulation of stream flow, the parameterization of the temporal and spatial distribution of the herbicide application throughout the watershed is the key factor for appropriate modeling results, whereas the physicochemical properties of the pesticides play a minor role in the modeling process. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Hydrolytic Activation Kinetics of the Herbicide Benzobicyclon in Simulated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katryn L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2016-06-22

    Herbicide resistance is a growing concern for weeds in California rice fields. Benzobicyclon (BZB; 3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) has proven successful against resistant rice field weeds in Asia. A pro-herbicide, BZB forms the active agent, benzobicyclon hydrolysate (BH), in water; however, the transformation kinetics are not understood for aquatic systems, particularly flooded California rice fields. A quantitative experiment was performed to assess the primary mechanism and kinetics of BZB hydrolysis to BH. Complete conversion to BH was observed for all treatments. Basic conditions (pH 9) enhanced the reaction, with half-lives ranging from 5 to 28 h. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) hindered transformation, which is consistent with other base-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions. BH was relatively hydrolytically stable, with 18% maximum loss after 5 days. Results indicate BZB is an efficient pro-herbicide under aqueous conditions such as those of a California rice field, although application may be best suited for fields with recirculating tailwater systems.

  15. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide Spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Junling; Norris, Stuart L; Murray, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: (1) before chemical herbicide spray; (2) after spray but before ploughing; (3) after ploughing but before reseeding; and (4) after 1 year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida) and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favored those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After 1 year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  16. Impact of Grassland Reseeding, Herbicide spraying and Ploughing on Diversity and Abundance of Soil Arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the interactive effect of reseeding, herbicide spraying and ploughing on soil fauna communities, we conducted a grassland reseeding experiment combined with pre-reseed management to examine how with the whole reseeding process affects soil faunal composition. Sampling occasions and exact treatments were as follows: 1 before chemical herbicide spray; 2 after spray but before ploughing; 3 after ploughing but before reseeding; and 4 after one year of recovery. Our results demonstrate that, Acari and Collembola were the two soil fauna taxa with the highest abundance and accounted for around 96% of the relative total abundance among the various managements. Herbicide application tended to increase soil invertebrate abundance. Conversely, subsequent ploughing significantly reduced soil invertebrate abundance and had an obvious negative effect on soil primary and secondary decomposers, which were mainly due to the variations of Acari (especially Oribatida and Coleoptera group abundance. Moreover, reseeding also reduced the individual number of the groups mentioned above, and favoured those predators with a larger body size and individual weight. After one year recovery, Collembola abundance recovered to the pre-treatment levels, while with Arthropod and Acari groups were still fluctuating.

  17. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  18. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program: Aquatic Plant Identification and Herbicide Use Guide. Volume 2. Aquatic Plants and Susceptibility to Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Chronic >0.5 Daphnia Repeat exposure Chronic >0.2 reproduction 0 NOTE; Fluridone was not found to cause genetic mutations or cancer in tested lab...persists. REGISTERED HERBICIDES 95 REGISTERED HERBICIDES GLYPHOSATE A. Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine Formulation...RODEO (53.5% ai, isopropylamine salt of glyphosate , liquid) B. Mode of Action: Not definite. However, investigators have postulated that

  19. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  20. Weed control based on real time patchy application of herbicides using image analysis as a non-destructive estimation method for weed infestation and herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Ali

    There is an increasing concern about excessive use of herbicides for weed control in arable lands. Usually the whole field is sprayed uniformly, while the distribution of weeds often is non-uniform. Often there are spots in a field where weed pressure is very low and has no significant effect...... on crop yield. The excessive use of spraying can potentially be reduced by spraying only those parts of the field where it has economic importance. The competition relation between weeds and crop was ana-lyzed in context of real time patch spray. A non-destructive image analysis method was developed...

  1. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-02-17

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air

  2. Biodegradation of isoproturon by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. isolated from herbicide-treated wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Krishna; Pandey, Shailseh; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, J P N

    2016-12-01

    A gram-negative, rod-shaped, isoproturon (IPU) utilizing bacterium was isolated from herbicide-applied wheat fields of Tarai agro-ecosystem, Pantnagar. The phylogenetic sequence analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence revealed that the isolate could be a distinct species within the genus Pseudomonas. The isolate was a close relative of Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis (95 % similarity) and designated as K2. The bacterial isolate showed positive reaction for oxidase, catalase, and 20 carbohydrates using KB009 Part A and B HiCarbohydrate™ Kit. Degradation experiments were conducted using 200 mg l -1 initial IPU as a source of carbon at different pH and temperatures. Maximum IPU degradation by K2 was observed at pH 7.0 and 30 °C, while least degradation at 6.5 pH and 25 °C. Addition of dextrose along with IPU as an auxiliary carbon source increased IPU degradation by 4.72 %, as compared to the IPU degradation without dextrose under optimum conditions. 4-isopropylaniline was detected as a degradation by-product in the medium. The present study demonstrated the IPU metabolizing capacity of a novel bacterial isolate K2 that can be a better choice for the remediation of IPU-contaminated sites.

  3. Regularity of mitosis in different varieties of winter bread wheat under the action of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Eugenivna KOPYTCHUK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most widespread herbicides on winter wheat in Ukraine was studied by anaphase test. Treatment with herbicides reduced the germination of the seeds and disturbed the regularity of mitosis in all varieties of wheat. The range of violations of mitosis was demonstrated by the formation of chromosomal aberrations and dysfunctions of cell cytoskeleton which occurred while processing herbicides. Varietal differences between investigated wheat by sensitivity to herbicides were discovered. The most resistant to herbicides was variety Fantasya Odesskaya, and the most sensitive – Nikoniya, while the most harmful herbicide for wheat was Napalm.

  4. Soil microbial and faunal responses to herbicide tolerant maize and herbicide in two soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Bryan; Caul, Sandra; Thompson, J.

    2008-01-01

    using a tiered approach at laboratory, glasshouse and field scales. Soil for the experiment was taken from field sites where the same maize cultivars were grown to allow comparison between results under glasshouse and field conditions. The maize cultivars T25 (GM HT glufosinate-ammonium tolerant....... The main effects on all measured parameters were those of soil type and plant growth stage, with four categories of subsequent interaction: (1) there were no effects of herbicide on plant growth or soil microarthropods: (2) the maize cultivar (but not the GM HT trait) had effects on the decomposition...

  5. Herbicidal potential of ophiobolins produced by Drechslera gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Charudattan, Raghavan

    2006-03-08

    Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, was isolated in Florida from naturally infected large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); it produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified by spectroscopic methods and optical properties as ophiobolin A (1), a well-known phytotoxic sesterterpene produced by several phytopathogenic fungi of important crops and already extensively studied for its interesting biological activities. The other three minor metabolites proved to be related to ophiobolin A and were identified using the same techniques as 6-epi-ophiobolin A and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (2 and 3) and ophiobolin I (4). Assayed on punctured detached leaves of several grass and dicotyledon weeds, ophiobolin A proved to be on average more phytotoxic as compared to the other related compounds. Some structural features appear to be important for the phytoxicity, such as the hydroxy group at C-3, the stereochemistry at C-6, and the aldehyde group at C-7. Furthermore, grass weeds usually proved to be more sensitive to the phytotoxins than dicotyledons, on which ophiobolin A caused the appearance of large necrosis even at the lowest concentration assayed. This is the first report about the production of ophiobolins from D. gigantea and of the proposed use as potential natural herbicides against grass weeds.

  6. Surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of neonicotinoids and companion herbicides at edge-of-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, François; Giroux, Isabelle; Thériault, Georges; Gagnon, Patrick; Corriveau, Julie

    2017-05-01

    With their application as seed coatings, the use of neonicotinoid insecticides increased dramatically during the last decade. They are now frequently detected in aquatic ecosystems at concentrations susceptible to harm aquatic invertebrates at individual and population levels. This study intent was to document surface runoff and subsurface tile drain losses of two common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and clothianidin) compared to those of companion herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate, S-metolachlor and mesotrione) at the edge of a 22.5-ha field under a corn-soybean rotation. A total of 14 surface runoff and tile drain discharge events were sampled over two years. Events and annual unit mass losses were computed using flow-weighted concentrations and total surface runoff and tile drain flow volumes. Detection frequencies close to 100% in edge-of-field surface runoff and tile drain water samples were observed for thiamethoxam and clothianidin even though only thiamethoxam had been applied in the first year. In 2014, thiamethoxam median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were respectively 0.46 and 0.16 μg/L, while respective maximum concentrations of 2.20 and 0.44 μg/L were measured in surface runoff and tile drain samples during the first post-seeding storm event. For clothianidin, median concentrations in surface runoff and tile drain samples were 0.02 and 0.01, μg/L, and respective maximum concentrations were 0.07 μg/L and 0.05 μg/L. Surface runoff and tile drain discharge were key transport mechanisms with similar contributions of 53 and 47% of measured mass losses, respectively. Even if thiamethoxam was applied at a relatively low rate and had a low mass exportation value (0.3%), the relative toxicity was one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of the other chemicals applied in 2014 and 2015. Companion herbicides, except glyphosate in tile drains, exceeded their water quality guideline during one sampling campaign after

  7. [Analysis of literature citations in original articles published in Spanish and international nursing journals and journals in 2 closely related disciplines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Flores-López, María José; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    To compare Spanish nursing journals with 2 English-language standard journals, as well as Spanish journals in closely related disciplines, to identify possible quantitative and qualitative shortcomings in scientific documentation. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study of the references contained in 796 articles from 6 Spanish journals from 3 health disciplines (2000-2002) and 2 English-language nursing journals (2000-2001). The number of references, type of publication cited, and language of the document cited were compared in individual journals, and in journals grouped by discipline and according to language. Spanish-language nursing journals had the lowest mean number of references per article (X- = 16.20) when compared with psychology journals (X- = 31.24), medical journals (X- = 31.39) and international nursing journals (X- = 37.11). Among Spanish journals, citation of English-language publications was most frequent in medical journals (X- = 26.28) and least frequent in nursing journals (X- = 6.04). In contrast, citation of Spanish documents was most frequent in nursing journals (X- = 9.79) and least frequent in medical journals (X- = 4.43). Although scientific publication of Spanish nursing has improved, it is not comparable to publication of closely related disciplines and international nursing. The low citation of English documents clearly reveals the risk of scientific insularity.

  8. Co-evolution in a landrace meta-population: two closely related pathogens interacting with the same host can lead to different adaptive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Leonarda Murgia, Maria; Balmas, Virgilio; Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Nanni, Laura; Attene, Giovanna; Papa, Roberto

    2015-08-07

    We examined the local adaptation patterns in a system comprising several interconnected heterogeneous plant populations from which populations of two phylogenetically closely related pathogens were also sampled. The host is Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley); the pathogens are Pyrenophora teres f. teres (net form) and Pyrenophora teres f. maculata (spot form), the causal agents of barley net blotch. We integrated two approaches, the comparison between the population structures of the host and the pathogens, and a cross-inoculation test. We demonstrated that two closely related pathogens with very similar niche specialisation and life-styles can give rise to different co-evolutionary outcomes on the same host. Indeed, we detected local adaptation for the net form of the pathogen but not for the spot form. We also provided evidence that an a-priori well-known resistance quantitative-trait-locus on barley chromosome 6H is involved in the co-evolutionary 'arms race' between the plant and the net-form pathogen. Moreover, data suggested latitudinal clines of host resistance and that different ecological conditions can result in differential selective pressures at different sites. Our data are of interest for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources, as also in establishing efficient breeding programs and strategies for deployment of resistance genes of P. teres.

  9. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  10. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enrichment and molecular characterization of a bacterial culture that degrades methoxy-methyl urea herbicides and their aniline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fantroussi, S; Verstraete, W; Top, E M

    2000-12-01

    Soil treated with linuron for more than 10 years showed high biodegradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides. Untreated control soil samples taken from the same location did not express any linuron degradation activity, even after 40 days of incubation. Hence, the occurrence in the field of a microbiota having the capacity to degrade a specific herbicide was related to the long-term treatment of the soil. The enrichment culture isolated from treated soil showed specific degradation activity towards methoxy-methyl urea herbicides, such as linuron and metobromuron, while dimethyl urea herbicides, such as diuron, chlorotoluron, and isoproturon, were not transformed. The putative metabolic intermediates of linuron and metobromuron, the aniline derivatives 3, 4-dichloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline, were also degraded. The temperature of incubation drastically affected degradation of the aniline derivatives. Whereas linuron was transformed at 28 and 37 degrees C, 3,4-dichloroaniline was transformed only at 28 degrees C. Monitoring the enrichment process by reverse transcription-PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that a mixture of bacterial species under adequate physiological conditions was required to completely transform linuron. This research indicates that for biodegradation of linuron, several years of adaptation have led to selection of a bacterial consortium capable of completely transforming linuron. Moreover, several of the putative species appear to be difficult to culture since they were detectable by DGGE but were not culturable on agar plates.

  13. Herbicidal Activities of Some Allelochemicals and Their Synergistic Behaviors toward Amaranthus tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawasit Chotsaeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven allelochemicals, namely R-(+-limonene (A, vanillin (B, xanthoxyline (C, vanillic acid (D, linoleic acid (E, methyl linoleate (F, and (±-odorine (G, were investigated for their herbicidal activities on Chinese amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.. At 400 μM, xanthoxyline (C showed the greatest inhibitory activity on seed germination and seedling growth of the tested plant. Both vanillic acid (D and (±-odorine (G inhibited shoot growth, however, apart from xanthoxyline (C, only vanillic acid (D could inhibit root growth. Interestingly, R-(+-limonene (A lightly promoted root length. Other substances had no allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of the tested plant. To better understand and optimize the inhibitory effects of these natural herbicides, 21 samples of binary mixtures of these seven compounds were tested at 400 μM using 0.25% (v/v Tween® 80 as a control treatment. The results showed that binary mixtures of R-(+-limonene:xanthoxyline (A:C, vanillin:xanthoxyline (B:C, and xanthoxyline:linoleic acid (C:E exhibited strong allelopathic activities on germination and seedling growth of the tested plant, and the level of inhibition was close to the effect of xanthoxyline (C at 400 µM and was better than the effect of xanthoxyline (C at 200 µM. The inhibition was hypothesized to be from a synergistic interaction of each pair of alleochemicals. Mole ratios of each pair of allelochemicals ((A:C, (B:C, and (C:E were then evaluated, and the best ratios of the binary mixtures A:C, B:C and C:E were found to be 2:8, 2:8, and 4:6 respectively. These binary mixtures significantly inhibited germination and shoot and root growth of Chinese amaranth at low concentrations. The results reported here highlight a synergistic behavior of some allelochemicals which could be applied in the development of potential herbicides.

  14. Close correlation of herpes zoster-induced voiding dysfunction with severity of zoster-related pain: A single faculty retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mizue; Takahashi, Ichiro; Honma, Masaru; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi

    2015-11-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ), a common vesiculo-erythematous skin disease associated with reactivation of varicella zoster virus in the cranial nerve, dorsal root, and autonomic ganglia, is accompanied by several related symptoms represented by postherpetic neuralgia. Among them, involvement of vesicorectal dysfunction is relatively rare. The vesicorectal symptom can usually be recovered in transient course, but is quite important in terms of impaired quality of life. Male individuals affected with HZ and skin lesions on sacral dermatome have been reported as independent risk factors of zoster-related voiding dysfunction. In this study, urinary symptoms were focused upon and six patients with zoster-related voiding dysfunction at a single faculty of dermatology in Japan from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients showed HZ lesions on the sacral area and the urinary symptom recovered in approximately 2 months (14 days to 7 months). The term of treatment for zoster-associated urinary dysfunction was positively correlated with that for zoster-related pain without significance (r = 0.661, P = 0.153). Average treatment term for pain relief of sacral HZ accompanied by voiding dysfunction (91.3 ± 76.44 days) was significantly longer than that of sacral HZ without urinary symptom (18.9 ± 20.42 days) (P = 0.032). These results suggested that zoster-related voiding dysfunction would mainly be involved in sacral HZ and closely associated with severity of zoster-related pain. Dermatologists should be aware that severe zoster-related pain accompanied by sacral HZ, which is related to prolonged treatment of pain relief, can be a predictive factor of voiding dysfunction. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Seedling Performance Associated with Live or Herbicide Treated Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Halvorson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitrogen and enhance the nutritive value of forage for livestock production. Competition from existing tall fescue typically must be controlled to ensure interseeding success. We used a soil-on-agar method to determine if soil from intact, living (L, or an herbicide killed (K tall fescue sward influenced germination and seedling growth of three cultivars of tall fescue (E+, MaxQ, and E− or legumes (alfalfa, red clover, and white clover. After 30 days, seedlings were larger and present in greater numbers when grown in L soil rather than K soil. Root growth of legumes (especially white clover and tall fescue (especially MaxQ were not as vigorous in K soil as L soil. While shoot biomass was similar for all cultivars of tall fescue in L soil, MaxQ produced less herbage when grown in K soil. Our data suggest establishing legumes or fescue cultivars may not be improved by first killing the existing fescue sod and seedling performance can exhibit significant interseasonal variation, related only to soil conditions.

  16. Rapeseed with tolerance to the non selective herbicide glufosinate ammonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, E. [Hoechst Schering AgrEvo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Weed control with herbicides is essential to grow rapeseed. Glufosinate Ammonium is used as a non selective herbicide successfully in many countries for over 10 years. It conforms well with ever increasing safety standards for human beings, animals and the environment. The tolerance of rapeseed and other crop plants was achieved by genetic modification. A resistance gene (PAT or BAR) was transfered into previously susceptible rapeseed plants. This new approach allowed the development of Glufosinate Ammonium as an almost ideal selective herbicide. In cooperation with major seed companies and by own breeding programmes new Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties and hybrids are developed. Data on metabolism, toxicity, residues, efficacy etc. were generated to get registration for the selective herbicide use. In addition various studies were done for safety assessments of the PAT gene and the modified rapeseed. In spring 1995 Canadian authorities granted worldwide the first approvals for the selective use of Glufosinate Ammonium (trademark Liberty) and Glufosinate tolerant (trademark and logo Liberty Link) spring rapeseed (Canola). After a successful launch in 1995 about 150.000 ha of Liberty Link Canola were grown and treated with Liberty in 1996. The Liberty Link Canola growers were very well satisfied. In a grower survey 84% stated that they will definitely use the Liberty Link System again. In Europe registrations for Glufosinate Ammonium as a selective herbicide and for the first Glufosinate tolerant rapeseed varieties are expected in the course of 1997. The Liberty Link System will be launched in rapeseed most probably in 1998. (orig.)

  17. Effects of the herbicide imazapyr on juvenile Oregon spotted frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Amy E.; Grue, Christian E.; Hayes, Marc P.; Troiano, Alexandra T.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict between native amphibians and aquatic weed management in the Pacific Northwest is rarely recognized because most native stillwater-breeding amphibian species move upland during summer, when herbicide application to control weeds in aquatic habitats typically occurs. However, aquatic weed management may pose a risk for aquatic species present in wetlands through the summer, such as the Oregon spotted frog (OSF, Rana pretiosa), a state endangered species in Washington. Acute toxicity of herbicides used to control aquatic weeds tends to be low, but the direct effects of herbicide tank mixes on OSFs have remained unexamined. We exposed juvenile OSFs to tank mixes of the herbicide imazapyr, a surfactant, and a marker dye in a 96-h static-renewal test. The tank mix was chosen because of its low toxicity to fish and its effectiveness in aquatic weed control. Concentrations were those associated with low-volume (3.5 L/ha) and high-volume (7.0 L/ha) applications of imazapyr and a clean-water control. Following exposure, frogs were reared for two months in clean water to identify potential latent effects on growth. Endpoints evaluated included feeding behavior, growth, and body and liver condition indices. We recorded no mortalities and found no significant differences for any end point between the herbicide-exposed and clean-water control frogs. The results suggest that imazapyr use in wetland restoration poses a low risk of direct toxic effects on juvenile OSFs.

  18. Combined thermal and herbicide stress in functionally diverse coral symbionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J.W. van; Uthicke, S.; Beltran, V.H.; Mueller, J.F.; Negri, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Most reef building corals rely on symbiotic microalgae (genus Symbiodinium) to supply a substantial proportion of their energy requirements. Functional diversity of different Symbiodinium genotypes, endorsing the host with physiological advantages, has been widely reported. Yet, the influence of genotypic specificity on the symbiont's susceptibility to contaminants or cumulative stressors is unknown. Cultured Symbiodinium of presumed thermal-tolerant clade D tested especially vulnerable to the widespread herbicide diuron, suggesting important free-living populations may be at risk in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. Co-exposure experiments where cultured Symbiodinium were exposed to diuron over a thermal stress gradient demonstrated how fast-growing clade C1 better maintained photosynthetic capability than clade D. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action, considering combined thermal stress and herbicide contamination, revealed response additivity for inhibition of photosynthetic yield in both tested cultures, emphasizing the need to account for cumulative stressor impacts in ecological risk assessment and resource management. - Highlights: • Water quality influences thermal stress thresholds in different Symbiodinium types. • Photosystem of clade D tested more sensitive than C1 to a common herbicide. • Increased thermal tolerance quickly countered in presence of herbicide. • Mixture toxicity approach demonstrated response additivity for combined stressors. • Symbiotic partnership may be compromised in areas subjected to terrestrial runoff. - Thermal-tolerant Symbiodinium type D tested especially vulnerable to a common herbicide, emphasizing the significance of cumulative stressors in ecological risk management

  19. Cloud based, Open Source Software Application for Mitigating Herbicide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, D.; Scott, B.

    2014-12-01

    The spread of herbicide resistant weeds has resulted in the need for clearly marked fields. In response to this need, the University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service launched a program named Flag the Technology in 2011. This program uses color-coded flags as a visual alert of the herbicide trait technology within a farm field. The flag based program also serves to help avoid herbicide misapplication and prevent herbicide drift damage between fields with differing crop technologies. This program has been endorsed by Southern Weed Science Society of America and is attracting interest from across the USA, Canada, and Australia. However, flags have risk of misplacement or disappearance due to mischief or severe windstorms/thunderstorms, respectively. This presentation will discuss the design and development of a cloud-based, free application utilizing open-source technologies, called Flag the Technology Cloud (FTTCloud), for allowing agricultural stakeholders to color code their farm fields for indicating herbicide resistant technologies. The developed software utilizes modern web development practices, widely used design technologies, and basic geographic information system (GIS) based interactive interfaces for representing, color-coding, searching, and visualizing fields. This program has also been made compatible for a wider usability on different size devices- smartphones, tablets, desktops and laptops.

  20. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  1. Acute effects on pulmonary function in young healthy adults exposed to traffic-related air pollution in semi-closed transport hub in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Deng, Furong; Wu, Shaowei; Zhao, Yan; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Bin; Liu, Qichen; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Transport hub is an important part of urban comprehensive transportation system. Traffic-related air pollution can reach high level because of difficulty of diffusion and increase of emission in transport hub. However, whether exposure in this semi-closed traffic micro-environment causes acute changes in pulmonary function of commuters still needs to be explored. Forty young healthy adults participated in this randomized, crossover study. Each participant underwent 2 h exposure in a designated transport hub and, on a separate occasion, in an appointed park. Personal exposures to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were assessed pre-, during and post-exposure. Mixed linear models were used to analyze the pulmonary effects of traffic-related air pollutants. Participants had significantly higher exposures to PM 2.5 , BC and CO in the transport hub than in the park. Exposure in transport hub induced significant reductions in FEV 1 and PEF compared with the park during exposure 1 and 2 h. The reductions were significant associated with traffic-related air pollutants. For instance, per 10 μg/m 3 increment in PM 2.5 was associated with -0.15 % (95 % CI -0.28, -0.02 %) reduction in FEV 1 during exposure 2 h. However, effects became attenuate after 2 h exposure. Short-term exposure in transport hub had acute reduction effects on pulmonary function. More attention should be paid to the health effects of exposure in the semi-closed traffic micro-environment.

  2. Plant reproduction is altered by simulated herbicide drift to constructed plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide drift may have unintended impacts on native vegetation, adversely affecting structure and function of plant communities. However, these potential effects have been rarely studied or quantified. To determine potential ecological effects of herbicide drift, we construct...

  3. Bioactivity of Several Herbicides on the Nanogram Level Under Different Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S C; Kuk, Y I; Senseman, S A; Ahn, H G; Seong, C N; Lee, D J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a double-tube centrifuge method was employed to determine the effects of soil moisture on the bioactivity of cafenstrole, pretilachlor, benfuresate, oxyfluorfen and simetryn. In general, the available herbicide concentration in soil solution (ACSS) showed little change as soil moisture increased for herbicides. The total available herbicide in soil solution (TASS) typically increased as soil moisture increased for all herbicides. The relationship between TASS and % growth rate based on dry weight showed strong linear relationships for both cafenstrole and pretilachlor, with r2 values of 0.95 and 0.84, respectively. Increasing TASS values were consistent with increasing herbicide water solubility, with the exception of the ionizable herbicide simetryn. Plant absorption and % growth rate exhibited a strong linear relationship with TASS. According to the results suggested that TASS was a better predictor of herbicidal bioactivity than ACSS for all herbicides under unsaturated soil moisture conditions.

  4. Pipe closing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    The closing device closes the upper end of a support tube for monitoring samples. It meshes with the upper connecting piece of the monitorung sample capsule, and loads the capsule within the bore of the support tube, so that it is fixed but can be released. The closing device consists of an interlocking component with a chamber and several ratchets which hang down. The interlocking component surrounds the actuating component for positioning the ratchets. The interlocking and actuating components are movable axially relative to each other. (DG) [de

  5. Solid state conformations and antidopaminergic effects of remoxipride hydrochloride and a closely related salicylamide, FLA 797, in relation to dopamine receptor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, T; Rämsby, S; de Paulis, T; Stensland, B; Csöregh, I; Wägner, A

    1986-10-01

    The X-ray structures of two new 2,6-disubstituted benzamides, i.e., remoxipride hydrochloride monohydrate [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenza mide hydrochloride monohydrate) and FLA 797 [-)-(S)-3-bromo-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamide ), have been determined as well as the distribution coefficients. The difference in dopamine receptor blocking activity is discussed in terms of lipophilicity and solid state conformations of the two benzamides. The major difference between the solid state conformations lies in the orientation of the carboxamide moiety. In remoxipride the carbonyl group is oriented almost perpendicularly to the benzene ring, thus preventing the formation of a hydrogen-bonded pseudo-ring between the amide hydrogen and the methoxy group found in other types of o-methoxybenzamides. In FLA 797, however, this pseudo-ring is present in the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety. This conformation is further stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the phenol group and the carbonyl oxygen. The side chain in remoxipride adopts an extended conformation in contrast to FLA 797, where the side chain has a folded conformation. The crystal structures are related to current topographic dopamine receptor models developed from more rigid antidopaminergic compounds. Based on these comparisons, it is suggested that benzamides having an N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinylmethyl side chain interact with the receptor in the folded conformation. The binding affinity is thought to be further increased by the planar conformation of the salicylamide moiety present in FLA 797, which permits an efficient pi-pi stacking interaction.

  6. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals that isolates from cultured tilapia in China are closely related to the human strain A909.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangjin; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping

    2013-11-11

    Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. The complete genome sequence of the piscine S. agalactiae isolate GD201008-001 was compared with 14 other piscine, human and bovine strains to explore their virulence determinants, evolutionary relationships and the genetic basis of host tropism in S. agalactiae. The pan-genome of S. agalactiae is open and its size increases with the addition of newly sequenced genomes. The core genes shared by all isolates account for 50 ~ 70% of any single genome. The Chinese piscine isolates GD201008-001 and ZQ0910 are phylogenetically distinct from the Latin American piscine isolates SA20-06 and STIR-CD-17, but are closely related to the human strain A909, in the context of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), prophage, virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic relationships. We identified a unique 10 kb gene locus in Chinese piscine strains. Isolates from cultured tilapia in China have a close genomic relationship with the human strain A909. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of piscine S. agalactiae isolated in China.

  8. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    2007-01-01

    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  9. In vitro sensitivity of antagonistic Trichoderma atroviride to herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Helena Santoro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma atroviride was tested in vitro for its sensitivity to different herbicides. The dosages tested were recommended dosage (RD, half dosage (½RD, and double dosage (2RD. Germination, colony-forming units (CFU, radial growth, and spore production were evaluated. Carfentrazone-ethyl and sulfentrazone inhibited the germination at RD and 2RD. A reduction in the CFU was observed for glufosinate-ammonium, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, diuron + paraquat dichloride, imazapyr, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone at each of the tested dosages. Radial growth was influenced by ametryn, atrazine, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone herbicides, with an 80% reduction of the colonial area. Spore production was affected by carfentrazone-ethyl, oxyfluorfen, and sulfentrazone with colonial area reductions of over 70%. It was concluded that 2,4 D, clomazone, and imazapyr herbicides showed the least toxicity to T. atroviride and should be used in the crops where the fungus has been applied for phytopathogen control.

  10. Death of a Close Relative and the Risk of Suicide in Sweden-A Large Scale Register-Based Case-Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mogensen

    Full Text Available Bereavement is thought to be a risk factor for suicide but the association has not been thoroughly investigated according to specific sensitive time periods and risk groups using a self-matched design. We aimed to 1 determine the risk of suicide within the first year after death of a close relative, 2 investigate if and how the risk changes within this time window and 3 determine if sex, age, and type of relationship, affect this association.A self-matched, case-crossover study was performed by linking Swedish registers. In total, 31 059 individuals with suicide between 1990 and 2011 were included. Different periods within the year prior to the suicide were compared with corresponding periods one year earlier in the same individual's life. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for suicide after death of a close relative.Increased ORs of suicide were seen during the first month, OR 1·77 (95% CI 1·35-2·34, and the first half-year, 1·27 (1·13-1·43. An even higher OR was found within the first week, 3·43 (1·89-6·22. Patterns were similar for women and men and across age groups. Death of a partner or child but not death of a sibling or parent was associated with a significantly increased suicide risk. The strongest association was seen after death of a partner in individuals aged 45 and older.These findings provide knowledge of sensitive time periods and at-risk groups in the early period of bereavement. Due to the use of a self-matched study design, methodological challenges of unmeasured residual confounding could be overcome.

  11. Cultivable fungi present in Antarctic soils: taxonomy, phylogeny, diversity, and bioprospecting of antiparasitic and herbicidal metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Eldon C Q; Godinho, Valéria M; Silva, Débora A S; de Paula, Maria T R; Vitoreli, Gislaine A; Zani, Carlos L; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Murta, Silvane M F; Barbosa, Emerson C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Oliveira, Fabio S; Carvalho, Camila R; Ferreira, Mariana C; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2018-05-01

    Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, Mortierella parvispora, and Penicillium chrysogenum displayed antiparasitic activities, whilst extracts of P. destructans, Mortierella amoeboidea, Mortierella sp. 3, and P. tardochrysogenum showed herbicidal activities. Reported as pathogenic for bats, different isolates of P. destructans exhibited trypanocidal activities and herbicidal activity, and may be a source of bioactive molecules to be considered for chemotherapy against neglected tropical diseases. The abundant presence of P. destructans in soils of the four islands gives evidence supporting that soils in the Antarctic Peninsula constitute a natural source of strains of this genus, including some P. destructans strains that are phylogenetically close to those that infect bats in North America and Europe/Palearctic Asia.

  12. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  13. Agricultural herbicide transport in a first-order intermittent stream, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Linard, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of herbicides in surface waters is a function of many variables, including scale of the watershed, physical and chemical properties of the herbicide, physical and chemical properties of the soil, rainfall intensity, and time of year. In this study, the transport of 6 herbicides and 12 herbicide degradates was examined during the 2004 growing season in an intermediate-scale agricultural watershed (146 ha) that is drained by a first-order intermittent stream, and the mass load for each herbicide in the stream was estimated. The herbicide load during the first week of storm events after application ranged from 17% of annual load for trifluralin to 84% of annual load for acetochlor. The maximum weekly herbicide load in the stream was generally within the first 3 weeks after application for those compounds that were applied within the watershed during 2004, and later for herbicides not applied within the watershed during 2004 but still detected in the stream. The apparent dominant mode of herbicide transport in the stream-determined by analysis amongst herbicide and conservative ion concentrations at different points in the hydrograph and in base flow samples-was either overland runoff or shallow subsurface flow, depending on the elapsed time after application and type of herbicide. The load as a percentage of use (LAPU) for the parent compounds in this study was similar to literature values for those compounds applied by the farmer within the watershed, but smaller for those herbicides that had rainfall as their only source within the watershed.

  14. Transcript markers of herbicide stress in Arabidopsis and their cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low concentrations and short environmental persistence times of some herbicides make it difficult to develop analytical methods to detect herbicide residues in plants or soils. In contrast, genomics may provide tools to identify herbicide exposure to plants in field settings. Usi...

  15. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  16. Using a Hydrological Model to Determine Environmentally Safer Windows for Herbicide Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; D.G. Neary; W.P. Fowler; D.J. Turton

    1996-01-01

    A modification of the GLEAMS model was used to determine application windows which would optimise efficacy and environmental safety for herbicide application to a forest site. Herbicide/soil partition coefficients were determined using soil samples collected from the study site for two herbicides (imazapyr, Koc=46, triclopyr ester, K

  17. Effect of herbicides on photosynthetic electron transport and on the growth of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hendrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of herbicides on the Hill reaction (with 2,6-dichloro-phenol-indophenol as acceptor and their influence on development of the alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was studied. The following herbicides were tested: 2,4-D, Gramoxone, Afalon, Kresamone, CIPC and Simazine. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanism of action of the investigated herbicides.

  18. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  19. Geographic variation in floral traits and the capacity of autonomous selfing across allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Dorien; Brys, Rein; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-04-21

    Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. In this study, we investigated variation in floral traits and its implications on the capacity of autonomous selfing in both allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species(Gentianaceae) across two distinct geographic regions(UK and mainland Europe). Although the magnitude and direction of floral differentiation varied between regions, sympatric populations were always significantly more divergent in floral traits and the capacity to self autonomously than allopatric populations. These results indicate that mating systems can vary substantially within a species and that the joint occurrence of plant species can have a major impact on floral morphology and capacity of autonomous selfing, most likely as a way to reduce the probability of interspecific interference.

  20. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K

    2014-01-01

    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...... as the Treatment Frequency Index (TFI)) compared to a high level of required weed control. The observations indicated that the current level of weed control required is robust for a range of weed scenarios. Weed plant numbers 3 wk after spraying indicated that the growth of the weed species were inhibited...

  2. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslycky, E B

    1977-04-01

    Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively. Respiration of the total microbiota in soil suspension was afeected by the combinations as well as individual herbicides in various concentrations. Yet, the inhibition of the O2 uptake by any of these herbicides, including some extreme concentrations, was not permanent, indicating adaptation, or suppression of specific organisms. Only linuron in concentrations up to 20 microng/ml stimulated respiration of the soil.

  3. Residual herbicide study on selected Hanford Site roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1993-08-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company routinely treats roadsides with herbicides to control undesirable plant growth. An experiment was conducted to test perennial grass germination in soils adjacent to roadways of the Hanford Site. The primary variable was the distance from the roadside. A simple germination test was executed in a controlled-environment chamber to determine the residual effects of these applications. As expected, the greatest herbicide activity was found directly adjacent to the roadway, approximately 0 to 20 ft (0 to 6.3 m) from the roadway.

  4. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, comb. nov., in bat hibernacula of eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Andrew M; Lindner, Daniel L

    2013-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats, caused by the fungus previously known as Geomyces destructans, has decimated populations of insectivorous bats in eastern North America. Recent work on fungi associated with bat hibernacula uncovered a large number of species of Geomyces and allies, far exceeding the number of described species. Communication about these species has been hindered by the lack of a modern taxonomic evaluation, and a phylogenetic framework of the group is needed to understand the origin of G. destructans and to target closely related species and their genomes for the purposes of understanding mechanisms of pathogenicity. We addressed these issues by generating DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA, MCM7, RPB2, and TEF1 from a diverse array of Geomyces and allies that included isolates recovered from bat hibernacula as well as those that represent important type species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Geomyces and allies should be classified in the family Pseudeurotiaceae, and the genera Geomyces, Gymnostellatospora, and Pseudogymnoascus should be recognized as distinct. True Geomyces are restricted to a basal lineage based on phylogenetic placement of the type species, Geomyces auratus. Thus, G. destructans is placed in genus Pseudogymnoascus. The closest relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans are members of the Pseudogymnoascus roseus species complex, however, the isolated and long branch of P. destructans indicates that none of the species included in this study are closely related, thus providing further support to the hypothesis that this pathogen is non-native and invasive in eastern North America. Several conidia-producing isolates from bat hibernacula previously identified as members of Pseudeurotium are determined to belong to the genus Leuconeurospora, which is widespread, especially in colder regions. Teberdinia hygrophila is transferred to Pseudeurotium as Pseudeurotium

  6. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  7. Radiating despite a Lack of Character: Ecological Divergence among Closely Related, Morphologically Similar Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) Co-occurring in Arid Australian Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliot T; Wagner, Sarah K; Harmon, Luke J; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent. We found that morphology explained 37% of the variance in ecology (and 62% vice versa), and we uncovered well-known bivariate relationships among the multivariate ecomorphological data. Ecological trait diversity declined less rapidly than phylogenetic diversity along a gradient of decreasing precipitation. We employ a new method (trait fields) and extend another (phylogenetic fields) to show that while species in phylogenetically clustered, arid-environment assemblages are similar morphologically, they are as varied in foraging behavior as those from more diverse assemblages. Thus, although closely related and similar morphologically, these arid-adapted species have diverged in ecological space to a similar degree as their mesic counterparts.

  8. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh eSheibani-Tezerji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7 and S8, which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7, commensal (S8, to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6 in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  9. Evaluation Effect of Adjuvant on Mesosulfuron+Iodosulfuron Herbicide Performance on Littleseed Canarygrass Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. kargar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adjuvant application is one of the most important ways to increase herbicide efficacy and decrease environmental damaging effects of herbicides. In general, It has displayed that a very few of the spray droplets retained on the surface of leaf plants and the majority of them bounce off the leaf surface. Therefore, in spraying processes, adjuvant designed to enhance the absorbing, emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, sticking, wetting, or penetrating properties of pesticides. Adjuvant are most often used with herbicides to help a pesticide spread over a leaf surface and penetrate the waxy cuticle of a leaf or to penetrate through the small hairs present on a leaf surface. Surfactants and crop oils are two types of adjuvant that are used for increasing efficacy of herbicides. In many cases, significant increases have been observed in biological activity with the addition of surfactants or crop oils. For example, the performance of specific graminicides and some sulfonylureas is usually increased by the addition of tank-mix oils. It is generally accepted that the benefit of oils is related to their ability to increase the drying period of droplets during their fly time before their impact on the plants, to improve the spreading of the deposit on difficult-to-wet targets (mainly Graminaceae, to act as solubilizing agents, and above all to enhance the penetration of herbicides into the plants. Among commercially available adjuvants, emulsified vegetable oils have been shown to increase droplet retention and spreading, and enhance absorption and translocation of active ingredients. It has been reported that efficacy of atrazine, bentazone, phenmedipham and rimsulfuron on various weeds were increased by the addition of rapeseed oils to solution spray. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvant concentrations on surface tension of aqueous solutions, an experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with 4

  10. Analysis and environmental concentrations of the herbicide dichlobenil and its main metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Anskjær, Gitte Gotholdt; Hansen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Dichlobenil is an herbicide which has been applied in many countries for weed control in non-agricultural areas such as railroads, car parks and private gardens. In the aquatic environment it has been used for control of floating aquatic weeds. Dichlobenil is relatively persistent in the environm......Dichlobenil is an herbicide which has been applied in many countries for weed control in non-agricultural areas such as railroads, car parks and private gardens. In the aquatic environment it has been used for control of floating aquatic weeds. Dichlobenil is relatively persistent...... in the environment, and primarily bound to solid matrices. Of great concern is its main degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide which is water soluble and therefore transported downward in aquifers, contaminating groundwater resources. It is often found in concentrations exceeding 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum...

  11. Effects of fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides on the fate of 14C-parathion and 14C-fonofos in soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstein, E.P.; Ferris, I.; Liang, T.T.; Koeppe, M.

    1983-01-01

    The fate of 14 C-parathion and 14 C-fonofos in soil is significantly affected by the presence of organic and inorganic fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides, possibly via the effect of soil microflora. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the oxidative as well as the reductive degradation of the insecticide. Using 14 carbon, the authors studied the effects of selected fungicides (benlate, captafol and manzate) herbicides (2,4-D parathion) and fertilizers ((NH 4 ) 6 SO 4 , KNO 3 , urea) on pesticides in Cromberry soils. Results of the study stress the importance of investigating the environmental fate of a particular pesticide in relation to the presence of the agricultural chemicals

  12. Analysis of the metabolic resistance of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. to the herbicides action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Lykholat

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Action and aftereffect of the herbicides with different modes of action on the common ragweed population were studied in the field and greenhouse experiments. Activation of glutathione S-transferase has been detected due to the action of herbicides Harness and Guardian-Tetra both in leaves of juvenile plants and in ragweed seeds, which indicates intensive detoxification of herbicides during weed ontogenesis. Electrophoretic analysis showed that four components in protein spectra of ragweed seeds were inherent in seeds collected from herbicides-treated plants only. Using the method of isoelectric focusing, three specific peroxidase isoforms associated with a certain mechanism of herbicidal action on the parent plants were found in leaves of the next generation plants. The results confirm the intensive adaptive changes in A. artemisiifolia population that could provide the metabolic resistance to different modes of the herbicide action. Keywords: Common ragweed, Metabolic resistance, Herbicide, Mode of action, Isoforms, Isoelectric

  13. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How to test herbicides at forest tree nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. Sandquist; Peyton W. Owston; Stephen E. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Procedures developed in a cooperative westwide study of weed control in forest tree nurseries are described in a form modified for use by nursery managers. The proven, properly designed test and evaluation methods can be used to generate data needed for evaluation and registration of herbicides.

  15. Epigenetic regulation – contribution to herbicide resistance in weeds?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markus, C.; Pečinka, Aleš; Karan, R.; Barney, J. N.; Merotto, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 2 (2018), s. 275-281 ISSN 1526-498X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : DNA methylation * epigenetic s * gene expression * gene regulation * herbicide detoxification * plant stress response Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2016

  16. Treating downy brome with herbicide and seeding with native shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Owen; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome or cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is one of the most invasive and widespread exotic plants in North America. Downy brome can reduce soil nutrient availability, alter native plant community composition, and increase fire frequencies. The effectiveness of Plateau® imazapic herbicide in reducing downy brome cover has been variable, and there is uncertainty...

  17. Selective isolation and screening of fungi with herbicidal potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The respective fungal isolates were cultivated in modified Fries media under standard condition. The mycelia and the filtrate were extracted with ethyl acetate and the concentrated extract was evaluated for the herbicidal activity adopting leaf necrosis assay. Among the different isolates, extract prepared from A. alternata and ...

  18. Biological Efficacy of Herbicides for Weed Control in Noncropped Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetanka Dimitrova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing problem facing agricultural producers is the invasion of weeds, perennial in particular, so that implementation of industrial technologies is impossible without their highly efficient and rational control. For the purpose of studying efficient herbicides for weed control in noncropped areas (stubbles, a biological study of five total systemic herbicides was conducted in areas under natural weed infestation and pressure from othersurrounding weeds at the Institute of Forage Crops in Pleven in 2005-2007. The trials were carried out in field conditions using the block method with plot size of 20 m². Treatment was conducted at the predominant stage of budding of perennial dicotyledonous weeds and earing of monocotyledonous weeds. Herbicidal efficacy was recorded on the EWRS 9-score scale (0-100% killed weeds = score 9-1. It was found that treatment of noncropped areas (stubbles with the total systemic herbicides Touchdown System 4 (360 g/l glyphosate; Cosmic (360 g/l glyphosate; Roundup Plus (441 g/l glyphosate potassium salt; Leon 36 SL (360 g/l glyphosate and Glyphos Super 45 SL (450 g/l glyphosate was highly efficient, so that it was a successful element of a strategy for controlling weeds of different biological groups, and was especially effective against perennial weeds.

  19. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  20. Efficacy of selected herbicide formulations on sugarcane field weeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation for the search of appropriate weed control strategy for sugarcane field weeds at the Unilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), Ilorin located at 8o 030' N; 4o 32' E , Nigeria. Field trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design during 2012 and 2013 growing seasons to evaluate four herbicide ...

  1. Effect of atrazine (Herbicide) on blood parameters of common carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    could be used as an important tool for the assessment of pathological conditions of fish. ... agricultural or industrial areas have high probability of ... The use of herbicides to control aquatic weeds has ... Five hundred fish were stocked in a large cement tank (4 m × 6 m × 3 m) ..... Ecological risk assessment of atrazine in North.

  2. Ecological risks of pesticides in freshwater ecosystems; Part 1: herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Lahr, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2000-01-01

    A literature review of freshwater model ecosystem studies with herbicides was performed to assess the NOEC[sub]ecosystem for individual compounds, to compare these threshold levels with water quality standards, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these standards. Studies were

  3. Herbicide Trials on European Larch in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel A. Netzer

    1984-01-01

    Herbicides of 17 different rates and formulations were oversprayed on newly planted 1-0 European larch seedlings in teh spring of 1983 at the recommended rates. Simazine, bifenox, oxyfluorfen, promamide, and oryzalin provided adequate weed control with no damage to the larch. Height growth at the end of the first growing season was one-and-a-half times greater in the...

  4. Chromatographic determination of herbicide residues in various matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cserháti, T.; Forgács, E.; Deyl, Zdeněk; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2004), s. 350-359 ISSN 0269-3879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : herbicide residues * extraction methods * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.069, year: 2004

  5. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  6. Hazard and risk of herbicides for marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, S.B.; Martínez-García, G.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Booij, P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Admiraal, W.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specific effect on photosynthesis, herbicides pose a potential threat to coastal and estuarine microalgae. However, comprehensive understanding of the hazard and risk of these contaminants is currently lacking. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the toxic effects

  7. Cytogenetic studies of three triazine herbicides. I. In vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine are widely used pre-emergence and post-emergence triazine herbicides that have made their way into the potable water supply of many agricultural communities. Because of this and the prevalence of contradictory cytogenetic studies in the literatur...

  8. Bleaching herbicide norflurazon inhibits phytoene desaturase by competition with the cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, J; Zhu, C; Sandmann, G

    2001-11-01

    Cofactor requirement was determined for the heterologous expressed phytoene desaturases from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus and the higher plant Gentiana lutea. The cyanobacterial enzyme is dependent on either NAD(P) or plastoquinone, whereas only quinones such as plastoquinone can function as a cofactor for the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea. Enzyme kinetic studies were carried out to determine a possible competition between the cofactors and the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. For the Synechococcus enzyme, competition between norflurazon and NADP, as well as plastoquinone, could be demonstrated. The K(m) values for these cofactors were 6.6 mM and 0.23 microM, respectively. Inhibition of the phytoene desaturase from G. lutea by norflurazon was also competitive with respect to plastoquinone. The K(m) values of both enzymes for plastoquinone were very close.

  9. Closing Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    2015-01-01

    For me, this week has been a success. I have been impressed with the range and depth of discussion that has taken place, not only in the formal sessions, but also in the coffee breaks, over lunch and into the evening. When we placed an international call for papers earlier this year, we did not expect that we would receive 400 abstracts and end up arranging 237 oral presentations and 91 poster sessions. There have been over 600 participants originating from 54 Member States and 11 invited organizations. A wealth of information and analysis arising from this week's deliberations is now available on the Agency website. This provides you with the chance to catch up on any presentations that you may have missed the first time, as well as providing a resource for future research and application. If you recall, the purpose of the symposium was to foster dialogue and exchange of information involving Member States, the nuclear industry and members of the broader nuclear non-proliferation community, including civil society. I believe we have succeeded on that score. We are living in a rapidly changing world and the nuclear world is no exception. More nuclear material and facilities are coming under safeguards all the time. International nuclear cooperation between States is intensifying with an expansion of trade and services in nuclear and related equipment, items and materials. Also, technologies are changing. Many older nuclear plants are being modernized and becoming more technologically sophisticated. The geographical focus of these expanding programmes also continues to change. Yet, our budget remains static. This means that the only way we can maintain our effectiveness in the face of rising demand for our services, is to become more productive. That is the backdrop to this symposium. The overarching theme was to link strategy, implementation and people: the three core processes of any business. As I said on Monday, the strength of the link between these three

  10. Effect of sugarcane cropping systems on herbicide losses in surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, Gunasekhar; Halpin, Neil V; Bell, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Herbicide runoff from cropping fields has been identified as a threat to the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem. A field investigation was carried out to monitor the changes in runoff water quality resulting from four different sugarcane cropping systems that included different herbicides and contrasting tillage and trash management practices. These include (i) Conventional - Tillage (beds and inter-rows) with residual herbicides used; (ii) Improved - only the beds were tilled (zonal) with reduced residual herbicides used; (iii) Aspirational - minimum tillage (one pass of a single tine ripper before planting) with trash mulch, no residual herbicides and a legume intercrop after cane establishment; and (iv) New Farming System (NFS) - minimum tillage as in Aspirational practice with a grain legume rotation and a combination of residual and knockdown herbicides. Results suggest soil and trash management had a larger effect on the herbicide losses in runoff than the physico-chemical properties of herbicides. Improved practices with 30% lower atrazine application rates than used in conventional systems produced reduced runoff volumes by 40% and atrazine loss by 62%. There were a 2-fold variation in atrazine and >10-fold variation in metribuzin loads in runoff water between reduced tillage systems differing in soil disturbance and surface residue cover from the previous rotation crops, despite the same herbicide application rates. The elevated risk of offsite losses from herbicides was illustrated by the high concentrations of diuron (14μgL(-1)) recorded in runoff that occurred >2.5months after herbicide application in a 1(st) ratoon crop. A cropping system employing less persistent non-selective herbicides and an inter-row soybean mulch resulted in no residual herbicide contamination in runoff water, but recorded 12.3% lower yield compared to Conventional practice. These findings reveal a trade-off between achieving good water quality with minimal herbicide contamination and

  11. Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruggen, A H C; He, M M; Shin, K; Mai, V; Jeong, K C; Finckh, M R; Morris, J G

    2018-03-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health. Although the acute toxic effects of glyphosate and AMPA on mammals are low, there are animal data raising the possibility of health effects associated with chronic, ultra-low doses related to accumulation of these compounds in the environment. Intensive glyphosate use has led to the selection of glyphosate-resistant weeds and microorganisms. Shifts in microbial compositions due to selective pressure by glyphosate may have contributed to the proliferation of plant and animal pathogens. Research on a link between glyphosate and antibiotic resistance is still scarce but we hypothesize that the selection pressure for glyphosate-resistance in bacteria could lead to shifts in microbiome composition and increases in antibiotic resistance to clinically important antimicrobial agents. We recommend interdisciplinary research on the associations between low level chronic glyphosate exposure, distortions in microbial communities, expansion of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of animal, human and plant diseases. Independent research is needed to revisit the tolerance thresholds for glyphosate residues in water, food and animal feed taking all possible health risks into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-resistance to herbicides in annual ryegrass (lolium rigidum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.T.; Powles, S.B.; Liljegren, D.R.; Holtum, J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Lolium rigidum Gaud. biotype SLR31 is resistant to the herbicide diclofop-methyl and cross-resistant to several sulfonylurea herbicides. Wheat and the cross-resistant ryegrass exhibit similar patterns of resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides, suggesting that the mechanism of resistance may be similar. Cross-resistant ryegrass is also resistant to the wheat-selective imidazolinone herbicide imazamethabenz. The cross-resistant biotype SLR31 metabolized [phenyl-U- 14 C]chlorsulfuron at a faster rate than a biotype which is susceptible to both diclofop-methyl and chlorsulfuron. A third biotype which is resistant to diclofop-methyl but not to chlorsulfuron metabolized chlorsulfuron at the same rate as the susceptible biotype. The increased metabolism of chlorsulfuron observed in the cross-resistant biotype is, therefore, correlated with the patterns of resistance observed in these L. rigidum biotypes. During high performance liquid chromatography analysis the major metabolite of chlorsulfuron in both susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass coeluted with the major metabolite produced in wheat. The major product is clearly different from the major product in the tolerant dicot species, flax (Linium usitatissimum). The elution pattern of metabolites of chlorsulfuron was the same for both the susceptible and cross-resistant ryegrass but the cross-resistant ryegrass metabolized chlorsulfuron more rapidly. The investigation of the dose response to sulfonylurea herbicides at the whole plant level and the study of the metabolism of chlorsulfuron provide two independent sets of data which both suggest that the resistance to chlorsulfuron in cross-resistant ryegrass biotype SLR31 involves a wheat-like detoxification system

  13. Imported parakeets harbor H9N2 influenza A viruses that are genetically closely related to those transmitted to humans in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, M; Imada, T; Sanada, Y; Etoh, M; Sanada, N; Tsukamoto, K; Kawaoka, Y; Yamaguchi, S

    2001-04-01

    In 1997 and 1998, H9N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from the respiratory organs of Indian ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula Krameri manillensis) that had been imported from Pakistan to Japan. The two isolates were closely related to each other (>99% as determined by nucleotide analysis of eight RNA segments), indicating that H9N2 viruses of the same lineage were maintained in these birds for at least 1 year. The hemagglutinins and neuraminidases of both isolates showed >97% nucleotide identity with those of H9N2 viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 1999, while the six genes encoding internal proteins were >99% identical to the corresponding genes of H5N1 viruses recovered during the 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong. These results suggest that the H9N2 parakeet viruses originating in Pakistan share an immediate ancestor with the H9N2 human viruses. Thus, influenza A viruses with the potential to be transmitted directly to humans may be circulating in captive birds worldwide.

  14. Serum hepatitis B core-related antigen is a satisfactory surrogate marker of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, En-Qiang; Feng, Shu; Wang, Meng-Lan; Liang, Ling-Bo; Zhou, Ling-Yun; Du, Ling-Yao; Yan, Li-Bo; Tao, Chuan-Min; Tang, Hong

    2017-03-14

    Recently, hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to investigate whether serum quantitative HBcrAg (qHBcrAg) was a satisfactory surrogate marker of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). A total of 139 patients with liver biopsy were enrolled, consisting of 59 patients in immune tolerance (IT) phase, 52 patients in immune clearance (IC) phase, 18 patients in low-replication (LR) phase, and 10 patients in reactivation phase. All patients in IC phase have received entecavir (ETV) therapy, and 32 of them undergone a second liver biopsy at 24 months. Among those patients, qHBcrAg was strongly correlated with intrahepatic cccDNA, which is superior to that of qHBsAg and HBV DNA. And similar findings were also observed in patients in IT, IC, LR and reactivation phases. Among the 32 ETV-treated patients with a second liver biopsy in IC phase, the decline of intrahepatic cccDNA was accompanied by changes in both qHBcrAg and qHBsAg. However, as compared to qHBsAg, the change of qHBcrAg was more strongly associated with intrahepatic cccDNA-decline. In summary, serum qHBcrAg should be a satisfactory surrogate of intrahepatic HBV cccDNA in CHB patients.

  15. Brain spontaneous fluctuations in sensorimotor regions were directly related to eyes open and eyes closed: evidences from a machine learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan eLiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference between resting-state brain activations depends on whether the subject was eyes open (EO or eyes closed (EC. However, whether the spontaneous fluctuations are directly related to these two different resting states are still largely unclear. In the present study, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 24 healthy subjects (11 males, 20.17 ± 2.74 years under the EO and EC states. The amplitude of the spontaneous brain activity in low-frequency band was subsequently investigated by using the metric of fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF for each subject under each state. A support vector machine (SVM analysis was then applied to evaluate whether the category of resting states could be determined from the brain spontaneous fluctuations. We demonstrated that these two resting states could be decoded from the identified pattern of brain spontaneous fluctuations, predominantly based on fALFF in the sensorimotor module. Specifically, we observed prominent relationships between increased fALFF for EC and decreased fALFF for EO in sensorimotor regions. Overall, the present results indicate that a SVM performs well in the discrimination between the brain spontaneous fluctuations of distinct resting states and provide new insight into the neural substrate of the resting states during EC and EO.

  16. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  18. Subcellular localization analysis of the closely related Fps/Fes and Fer protein-tyrosine kinases suggests a distinct role for Fps/Fes in vesicular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirngibl, R; Schulze, D; Mirski, S E; Cole, S P; Greer, P A

    2001-05-15

    The subcellular localizations of the Fps/Fes and closely related Fer cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases were studied using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In contrast to previous reports, neither kinase localized to the nucleus. Fer was diffusely cytoplasmic throughout the cell cycle. Fps/Fes also displayed a diffuse cytoplasmic localization, but in addition it showed distinct accumulations in cytoplasmic vesicles as well as in a perinuclear region consistent with the Golgi. This localization was very similar to that of TGN38, a known marker of the trans Golgi. The localization of Fps/Fes and TGN38 were both perturbed by brefeldin A, a fungal metabolite that disrupts the Golgi apparatus. Fps/Fes was also found to colocalize to various extents with several Rab proteins, which are members of the monomeric G-protein superfamily involved in vesicular transport between specific subcellular compartments. Using Rabs that are involved in endocytosis (Rab5B and Rab7) or exocytosis (Rab1A and Rab3A), we showed that Fps/Fes is localized in both pathways. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may play a general role in the regulation of vesicular trafficking. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. The evolution and diversity of a low complexity vaccine candidate, merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP-9), in Plasmodium vivax and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, Stella M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Bacon, David J; Collins, William E; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-12-01

    The merozoite surface protein-9 (MSP-9) has been considered a target for an anti-malarial vaccine since it is one of many proteins involved in the erythrocyte invasion, a critical step in the parasite life cycle. Orthologs encoding this antigen have been found in all known species of Plasmodium parasitic to primates. In order to characterize and investigate the extent and maintenance of MSP-9 genetic diversity, we analyzed DNA sequences of the following malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium gonderi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium simiovale, Plasmodium fieldi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium vivax and evaluated the signature of natural selection in all MSP-9 orthologs. Our findings suggest that the gene encoding MSP-9 is under purifying selection in P. vivax and closely related species. We further explored how selection affected different regions of MSP-9 by comparing the polymorphisms in P. vivax and P. falciparum, and found contrasting patterns between these two species that suggest differences in functional constraints. This observation implies that the MSP-9 orthologs in human parasites may interact differently with the host immune response. Thus, studies carried out in one species cannot be directly translated into the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selectivity and weed control efficacy of some herbicides applied to sprinkler irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavero, J; Zaragoza, C; Cirujeda, A; Anzalone, A; Faci, J M; Blanco, O

    2011-07-01

    Sprinkler irrigation can reduce the irrigation water needed to grow rice. However, most available information on weed control with herbicides is related to flood irrigated rice because this is the main growing method. Field experiments were conducted at Zaragoza (Spain) during two years to study weed control and tolerance of sprinkler irrigated rice to several herbicides. The main weeds were Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC., Cyperus rotundus L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Rice cv Guadiamar was tolerant to preemergence (PRE) application of clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 and oxadiazon at 0.5 kg ha{sup -}1. PRE application of pendimethalin at 1.32 kg ha{sup -}1 combined with clomazone at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 decreased rice yield. Postemergence (POST) application of bentazon at 1.6 kg ha{sup -}1 + MCPA at 0.25 kg ha{sup -}1 did not injure rice but POST application of azimsulfuron at 0.025 kg ha{sup -}1 produced visual crop injury. Only treatments that controlled grassy weeds since rice was planted and by more than 80% at harvest time lead to acceptable rice yield (> 5,000 kg ha{sup -}1). Clomazone applied PRE at 0.36 kg ha{sup -}1 provided good control of grassy weeds (> 80%) and the highest rice yield, so it is recommended as a selective and efficacious PRE treatment for weed control of annual weeds in sprinkler irrigated rice. The perennial purple nutsedge was difficult to control at high plant densities (> 150 plants m{sup -}2) and the recommended herbicide is azimsulfuron applied at POST at 0.02 kg ha{sup -}1. (Author) 37 refs.