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Sample records for closed-loop brayton cycle

  1. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zelong; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficiency and other performances are analyzed by numerical calculations.

  2. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficien...

  3. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  4. A closed-loop life cycle assessment of recycled aggregate concrete utilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Xiao, Jianzhuang; Tam, Vivian W Y

    2016-10-01

    This paper studies the potential environmental impact of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) for concrete production in China. According to the cradle-to-cradle theory, a closed-loop life cycle assessment (LCA) on recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) utilization in China with entire local life cycle inventory (LCI) is performed, regarding the environmental influence of cement content, aggregate production, transportation and waste landfilling. Special attention is paid on the primary resource and energy conservation, as well as climate protection induced by RAC applications. Environmental impact between natural aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC are also compared. It is shown that cement proportion and transportation are the top two contributors for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and energy consumption for both NAC and RAC. Sensitivity analysis also proves that long delivery distances for natural coarse aggregate (NCA) leave a possible opportunity for lowering environmental impact of RAC in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Brayton cycle space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  6. Comparative energy analysis on a new regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced. • New cycle has higher thermal efficiency and lower exhausted heat per output power. • Regenerator may remain useful in the new cycle even at high pressure ratio. • New regenerative Brayton cycle is suggested for low pressure ratio operations. - Abstract: Gas turbines are frequently used for power generation. Brayton cycle is the basis for gas turbine operation and developing the alternative cycles. Regenerative Brayton cycle is a developed cycle for basic Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency at low to moderate pressure ratios. A new regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced in the present study. Energy analysis has been conducted on ideal cycles to compare them from the first law of thermodynamics viewpoint. Comparative analyses showed that the new regenerative Brayton cycle has higher thermal efficiency than the original one at the same pressure ratio, and also lower heat absorption and exhausted heat per unite output power. Computed results show that new cycle improves thermal efficiency from 12% to 26% relative to the original regenerative Brayton cycle in the range of studied pressure ratios. Contrary to the original regenerative Brayton cycle, regenerator remains useful in the new regenerative Brayton cycle even at higher pressure ratio.

  7. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  8. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  9. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besarati, S.M.; Atashkari, K.; Jamali, A.; Hajiloo, A.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simultaneous optimization study of two outputs performance of a previously proposed combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. It has been carried out by varying the upper cycle pressure ratio, the expansion pressure of the bottom cycle and using variable, above atmospheric, bottom cycle inlet pressure. Multi-objective genetic algorithms are used for Pareto approach optimization of the cycle outputs. The two important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are net specific work (w s ) and thermal efficiency (η th ). It is shown that some interesting features among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the Baryton and inverse Brayton cycles can be discovered consequently.

  10. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    -through labyrinth seals was proposed. A stepped labyrinth seal, which mimics the behavior of the labyrinth seal used in the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) S-CO2 Brayton cycle, was also tested in the experiment along with simulations performed. The rest of this study demonstrates the difference of valves' behavior under supercritical fluid and normal fluid conditions. A small-scale valve was tested in the experiment facility using S-CO2. Different percentages of opening valves were tested, and the measured mass flow rate agreed with simulation predictions. Two transients from a real S-CO2 Brayton cycle design provided the data for valve selection. The selected valve was studied using numerical simulation, as experimental data is not available.

  11. Design of closed-loop nitrogen Joule-Thomson refrigeration cycle for 67 K with sub-atmospheric device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S. [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Closed-loop J-T (Joule-Thomson) refrigeration cycle is advantageous compared to common open loop N{sub 2} decompression system in terms of nitrogen consumption. In this study, two closed-loop pure N{sub 2} J-T refrigeration systems with sub-atmospheric device for cooling High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) power cable are investigated. J-T cooling systems include 2-stage compressor, 2-stage precooling cycle, J-T valve and a cold compressor or an auxiliary vacuum pump at the room temperature. The cold compressor and the vacuum pump are installed after the J-T valve to create sub-atmospheric condition. The temperature of 67 K is possible by lowering the pressure up to 24 kPa at the cold part. The optimized hydrocarbon mixed refrigerant (MR) J-T system is applied for precooling stage. The cold head of precooling MR J-T have the temperature from 120 K to 150 K. The various characteristics of cold compressor are investigated and applied to design parameter of the cold compressor. The Carnot efficiency of cold compressor system is calculated as 16.7% and that of vacuum pump system as 16.4%. The efficiency difference between the cold compressor system and the vacuum pump system is due to difference of enthalpy change at cryogenic temperature, enthalpy change at room temperature and different work load at the pre-cooling cycle. The efficiency of neon-nitrogen MR J-T system is also presented for comparison with the sub-atmospheric devices. These systems have several pros and cons in comparison to typical MR J-T systems such as vacuum line maintainability, system's COP and etc. In this paper, the detailed design of the subcooled N{sub 2} J-T systems are examined and some practical issues of the sub-atmospheric devices are discussed.

  12. Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO{sub 2} like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO{sub 2} instead of water. The supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected.

  13. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  14. Back work ratio of Brayton cycle; La relacion de trabajo de retroceso de un ciclo Brayton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaver de la Fuente, M. [Universidad Maritima del Caribe (Venezuela)]. E-mail: mmf_umc@hotmail.com

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational software helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle. [Spanish] En este articulo se estudia la relacion que existe entre las temperaturas, la relacion de trabajo de retroceso y el trabajo neto en el ciclo Brayton, que es el ciclo ideal que describe el comportamiento de los motores de turbina de gas. La aplicacion de programas computarizados ayuda a mostrar la influencia de la relacion de trabajo de retroceso o relacion de acoplamiento, la temperatura de entrada al compresor y la temperatura de entrada a la turbina en este ciclo termodinamico ideal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten deducir que el valor maximo que alcanza la relacion de trabajo de retroceso dependera de los limites de temperatura maxima y minima impuestos en el ciclo Brayton.

  15. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  16. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  17. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J

    1997-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  18. Power and efficiency optimization for combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanli; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for open combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles is established considering the pressure drops of the working fluid along the flow processes and the size constraints of the real power plant using finite time thermodynamics in this paper. There are 11 flow resistances encountered by the gas stream for the combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, combustion inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances control the air flow rate and the net power output. The relative pressure drops associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle. The analytical formulae about the relations between power output, thermal conversion efficiency, and the compressor pressure ratio of the top cycle are derived with the 11 pressure drop losses in the intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and flow process in the piping, the heat transfer loss to the ambient, the irreversible compression and expansion losses in the compressors and the turbines, and the irreversible combustion loss in the combustion chamber. The performance of the model cycle is optimized by adjusting the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate and the distribution of pressure losses along the flow path. It is shown that the power output has a maximum with respect to the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate or any of the overall pressure drops, and the maximized power output has an additional maximum with respect to the compressor pressure

  19. Power conversion systems based on Brayton cycles for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J.I.; Herranz, L.E.; Moratilla, B.Y.; Serrano, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates Brayton power cycles for fusion reactors. Two working fluids have been explored: helium in classical configurations and CO 2 in recompression layouts (Feher cycle). Typical recuperator arrangements in both cycles have been strongly constrained by low temperature of some of the energy thermal sources from the reactor. This limitation has been overcome in two ways: with a combined architecture and with dual cycles. Combined architecture couples the Brayton cycle with a Rankine one capable of taking advantage of the thermal energy content of the working fluid after exiting the turbine stage (iso-butane and steam fitted best the conditions of the He and CO 2 cycles, respectively). Dual cycles set a specific Rankine cycle to exploit the lowest quality thermal energy source, allowing usual recuperator arrangements in the Brayton cycle. The results of the analyses indicate that dual cycles could reach thermal efficiencies around 42.8% when using helium, whereas thermal performance might be even better (46.7%), if a combined CO 2 -H 2 O cycle was set.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.

  1. Small particle bed reactors: Sensitivity to Brayton cycle parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, John R.; Short, Barry J.

    Relatively simple particle bed reactor (PBR) algorithms were developed for optimizing low power closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems. These algorithms allow the system designer to understand the relationship among key system parameters as well as the sensitivity of the PBR size and mass (a major system component) to variations in these parameters. Thus, system optimization can be achieved.

  2. Enhancing power cycle efficiency for a supercritical Brayton cycle power system using tunable supercritical gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Vernon, Milton E.; Radel, Ross F.

    2017-08-29

    Various technologies pertaining to tuning composition of a fluid mixture in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system are described herein. Compounds, such as Alkanes, are selectively added or removed from an operating fluid of the supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to cause the critical temperature of the fluid to move up or down, depending upon environmental conditions. As efficiency of the supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system is substantially optimized when heat is rejected near the critical temperature of the fluid, dynamically modifying the critical temperature of the fluid based upon sensed environmental conditions improves efficiency of such a system.

  3. Dynamic Modeling and Control of Nuclear Reactors Coupled to Closed-Loop Brayton Cycle Systems using SIMULINKTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Sanchez, Travis

    2005-01-01

    The operation of space reactors for both in-space and planetary operations will require unprecedented levels of autonomy and control. Development of these autonomous control systems will require dynamic system models, effective control methodologies, and autonomous control logic. This paper briefly describes the results of reactor, power-conversion, and control models that are implemented in SIMULINK TM (Simulink, 2004). SIMULINK TM is a development environment packaged with MatLab TM (MatLab, 2004) that allows the creation of dynamic state flow models. Simulation modules for liquid metal, gas cooled reactors, and electrically heated systems have been developed, as have modules for dynamic power-conversion components such as, ducting, heat exchangers, turbines, compressors, permanent magnet alternators, and load resistors. Various control modules for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed have also been developed and simulated. The modules are compiled into libraries and can be easily connected in different ways to explore the operational space of a number of potential reactor, power-conversion system configurations, and control approaches. The modularity and variability of these SIMULINK TM models provides a way to simulate a variety of complete power generation systems. To date, both Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR), Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR), and electric heaters that are coupled to gas-dynamics systems and thermoelectric systems have been simulated and are used to understand the behavior of these systems. Current efforts are focused on improving the fidelity of the existing SIMULINK TM modules, extending them to include isotopic heaters, heat pipes, Stirling engines, and on developing state flow logic to provide intelligent autonomy. The simulation code is called RPC-SIM (Reactor Power and Control-Simulator)

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W

    2007-12-15

    This report contains the description of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO{sub 2} gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO 2 turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling for Open Combined Regenerative Brayton and Inverse Brayton Cycles with Regeneration before the Inverse Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.

  7. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle system for space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhao Gang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2017-01-01

    The closed Brayton cycle system now is the potential choice as the power conversion system for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors because of its high energy conversion efficiency and compact configuration. The helium is the best working fluid for the system for its chemical stability and small neutron absorption cross section. However, the Helium has small mole mass and big specific volume, which would lead to larger pipes and heat exchanger. What's more, the big compressor enthalpy rise of helium would also lead to an unacceptably large number of compressor's stage. For space use, it's more important to satisfy the limit of the system's volume and mass, instead of the requirement of the system's thermal capacity. So Noble-Gas binary mixture of helium and xenon is presented as the working fluid for space Brayton cycle. This paper makes a mathematical model for space Brayton cycle system by Fortran language, then analyzes the binary mixture of helium and xenon's properties and effects on power conversion units of the space power reactor, which would be helpful to understand and design the space power reactor. The results show that xenon would lead to a worse system's thermodynamic property, the cycle's efficiency and specific power decrease as xenon's mole fraction increasing. On the other hand, proper amount of xenon would decrease the enthalpy changes in turbomachines, which would be good for turbomachines' design. Another optimization method – the specific power optimization is also proposed to make a comparison. (author)

  8. High exergetic modified Brayton cycle with thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Fisher, Timothy S.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Shakouri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified Brayton cycle with thermoelectric generators. • 1 kW power output scale hybrid gas turbine for residential applications. • Low profile TEGs are embedded in combustor/recuperator/heat-exchangers. • Analytical primary energy efficiency achieves more than 40%. - Abstract: A novel concept using thermoelectric direct power generators (TEGs) integrated into a 1 kW scale miniature Brayton cycle is investigated based on an analytical study. The work considers a residential scale application aiming to achieve 40% primary energy efficiency in contrast to the state-of-the-art miniature gas turbine alone, which can only achieve <16%. A topping cycle TEG for a hot gas temperature at 1600–1700 °C is embedded in the combustor scale of a kitchen stove. This TEG converts a fraction of the heat into electricity, while all the remaining thermal energy proceeds to the Brayton cycle. Turbine-inlet gas temperature regulates to 800–1100 °C by optimizing the air mixture. A second TEG is built in the recuperator; hence, the associated temperature is similar to that of a vehicle exhaust. A third TEG is used for waste heat recovery from flue gas, and then the downstream heat flow is used by a combined-heat-power system. By taking advantage of low-profile modules, the TEG embedded heat exchanges can be compact and low-cost at 0.2–0.3 $/W. The figure-of-merit of the thermoelectric materials considers ZT 1.0–1.8. Assuming that all advanced components are utilized, the primary energy efficiency predicts 42% with power output 720 W from the alternator and 325 W from the TEGs out of 0.456 g/s of a pipeline natural gas input.

  9. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Consuelo, E-mail: csanchez@ind.uned.es [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER.

  10. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Consuelo; Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier; Perlado, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER

  11. New exergy analysis of a regenerative closed Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum power is studied relating to time and size constraints variations. • The influence of time and size constraints on exergy destruction are investigated. • The definitions of heat exergy, and second law efficiency are modified. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative closed Brayton cycle is sought through power maximization. Optimization is performed on the output power as the objective function using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the time and the size constraints in current problem, the dimensionless mass-flow parameter is used. The influence of the unavoidable exergy destruction due to finite-time constraint is taken into account by developing the definition of heat exergy. Finally, the improved definitions are proposed for heat exergy, and the second law efficiency. Moreover, the new definitions will be compared with the conventional ones. For example, at a specified dimensionless mass-flow parameter, exergy overestimation in conventional definition, causes about 31% lower estimation of the second law efficiency. These results could be expected to be utilized in future solar thermal Brayton cycle assessment and optimization.

  12. Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

  13. Sensitivity study on nitrogen Brayton cycle coupled with a small ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of UCFR are constant neutron flux and power density. They move their positions every moment at constant speed along with axial position of fuel rod for 60 years. Simultaneously with the development of the reactors, a new power conversion system has been considered. To solve existing issues of vigorous sodium-water reaction in SFR with steam power cycle, many researchers suggested a closed Brayton cycle as an alternative technique for SFR power conversion system. Many inactive gases are selected as a working fluid in Brayton power cycle, mainly supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ). However, S-CO 2 still has potential for reaction with sodium. CO 2 -sodium reaction produces solid product, which has possibility to have an auto ignition reaction around 600 .deg. C. Thus, instead of S-CO 2 , CEA in France has developed nitrogen power cycle for ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration). In addition to inactive characteristic of nitrogen with sodium, its thermal and physical similarity with air enables to easily adopt to existing air Brayton cycle technology. In this study, for an optimized power conversion system for UCFR, a nitrogen Brayton cycle was analyzed in thermodynamic aspect. Based on subchannel analysis data of UCFR-100, a parametric study for thermal performance of nitrogen Brayton cycle was achieved. The system maximum pressure significantly affects to the overall efficiency of cycle, while other parameters show little effects. Little differences of the overall efficiencies for all cases between three stages (BOC, MOC, EOC) indicate that the power cycle of UCFR-100 maintains its performance during the operation

  14. Thermo-economic performance of HTGR Brayton power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J. L.; Herranz, L. E.; Moratilla, B. Y.; Fernandez-Perez, A.

    2008-01-01

    High temperature reached in High and Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) results in thermal efficiencies substantially higher than those of actual nuclear power plants. A number of studies mainly driven by achieving optimum thermal performance have explored several layout. However, economic assessments of cycle power configurations for innovative systems, although necessarily uncertain at this time, may bring valuable information in relative terms concerning power cycle optimization. This paper investigates the thermal and economic performance direct Brayton cycles. Based on the available parameters and settings of different designs of HTGR power plants (GTHTR-300 and PBMR) and using the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the effects of compressor inter-cooling and of the compressor-turbine arrangement (i.e., single vs. multiple axes) on thermal efficiency have been estimated. The economic analysis has been based on the El-Sayed methodology and on the indirect derivation of the reactor capital investment. The results of the study suggest that a 1-axis inter-cooled power cycle has a similar thermal performance to the 3-axes one (around 50%) and, what's more, it is substantially less taxed. A sensitivity study allowed assessing the potential impact of optimizing several variables on cycle performance. Further than that, the cycle components costs have been estimated and compared. (authors)

  15. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1998-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  16. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  17. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce [Wilson Solarpower Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were:1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system. This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components.

  18. Parametric Investigation and Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined Cycle for Recovering the Waste Heat from Nuclear Closed Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihuang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined cycle that combines AWM cycle with a nuclear closed Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat rejected from the precooler of a nuclear closed Brayton cycle in this paper. The detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out for the combined cycle. The effects of several important parameters, such as the absorber pressure, the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine inlet temperature, the ammonia mass fraction, and the ambient temperature, are investigated. The combined cycle performance is also optimized based on a multiobjective function. Compared with the closed Brayton cycle, the optimized power output and overall efficiency of the combined cycle are higher by 2.41% and 2.43%, respectively. The optimized LEC of the combined cycle is 0.73% lower than that of the closed Brayton cycle.

  19. Parametric Investigation of Brayton Cycle for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. In this project, we are investigating helium Brayton cycles for the secondary side of an indirect energy conversion system. Ultimately we will investigate the improvement of the Brayton cycle using other fluids, such as supercritical carbon dioxide. Prior to the cycle improvement study, we established a number of baseline cases for the helium indirect Brayton cycle. These cases look at both single-shaft and multiple-shaft turbomachinery. The baseline cases are based on a 250 MW thermal pebble bed HTGR. The results from this study are applicable to other reactor concepts such as a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), fast gas-cooled reactor (FGR), supercritical water reactor (SWR), and others. In this study, we are using the HYSYS computer code for optimization of the helium Brayton cycle. Besides the HYSYS process optimization, we performed parametric study to see the effect of important parameters on the cycle efficiency. For these parametric calculations, we use a cycle efficiency model that was developed based on the Visual Basic computer language. As a part of this study we are currently investigated single-shaft vs. multiple shaft arrangement for cycle efficiency and comparison, which will be published in the next paper. The ultimate goal of this study is to use supercritical carbon dioxide for the HTGR power conversion loop in order to improve the cycle efficiency to values great than that of the helium Brayton cycle. This paper includes preliminary calculations of the steady state overall Brayton cycle efficiency based on the pebble bed reactor reference design (helium used as the working fluid) and compares those results with an initial calculation of a CO2 Brayton cycle

  20. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  1. Assessing the potential of hybrid fossil–solar thermal plants for energy policy making: Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardos, Eva; López, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Javier; Abánades, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a first study in-depth of solar–fossil hybridization from a general perspective. It develops a set of useful parameters for analyzing and comparing hybrid plants, it studies the case of hybridizing Brayton cycles with current solar technologies and shows a tentative extrapolation of the results to integrated combined cycle systems (ISCSS). In particular, three points have been analyzed: the technical requirements for solar technologies to be hybridized with Brayton cycles, the temperatures and pressures at which hybridization would produce maximum power per unit of fossil fuel, and their mapping to current solar technologies and Brayton cycles. Major conclusions are that a hybrid plant works in optimum conditions which are not equal to those of the solar or power blocks considered independently, and that hybridizing at the Brayton cycle of a combined cycle could be energetically advantageous. -- Highlights: •We model a generic solar–fossil hybrid Brayton cycle. •We calculate the operating conditions for maximum ratio power/fuel consumption. •Best hybrid plant conditions are not the same as solar or power blocks separately. •We study potential for hybridization with current solar technologies. •Hybridization at the Brayton in a combined cycle may achieve high power/fuel ratio

  2. A treatment of thermal efficiency improvement in the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji; Nakanishi, Shigeyasu; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Ishigai, Seikan.

    1982-01-01

    So far, as the working fluid for power-generating plants, mainly water and air (combustion gas) have been used. In this study, in regeneration and isothermal compression processes being considered as the means for the efficiency improvement in Brayton cycle, the investigation of equivalent graphical presentation method with T-S diagrams, the introduction of the new characteristic number expressing the possibility of thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, and the investigation of the effect of the difference of working fluid on thermal efficiency were carried out. Next, as the cycle approximately realizing isothermal compression process with condensation process, the super-critical pressure cycle with liquid phase compression was rated, and four working fluids, NH 3 , SO 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O were examined as perfect gas and real gas. The advantage of CO 2 regeneration for the thermal efficiency improvement was clarified by using the dimensionless characteristic number. The graphical presentation of effective work, the thermal efficiency improvement by regeneration, the thermal efficiency improvement by making compression process isothermal, the effect on thermal efficiency due to various factors and working fluids, the characteristic number by regeneration, and the application to real working fluids are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Study of various Brayton cycle designs for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of closed Brayton cycle for small and medium sized SFRs is reviewed. • S-CO 2 , helium and nitrogen cycle designs for small modular SFR applications are analyzed and compared in terms of cycle efficiency, component performance and physical size. • Several new layouts for each Brayton cycle are suggested to simplify the turbomachinery designs. • S-CO 2 cycle design shows the best efficiency and compact size compared to other Brayton cycles. - Abstract: Many previous sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) adopted steam Rankine cycle as the power conversion system. However, the concern of sodium water reaction has been one of the major design issues of a SFR system. As an alternative to the steam Rankine cycle, several closed Brayton cycles including supercritical CO 2 cycle, helium cycle and nitrogen cycle have been suggested recently. In this paper, these alternative gas Brayton cycles will be compared to each other in terms of cycle performance and physical size for small modular SFR application. Several new layouts are suggested for each fluid while considering the turbomachinery design and the total system volume

  4. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2008-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of magnetic Brayton refrigerators is established, in which the thermal resistance and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are obtained at the maximum coefficient of performance. The optimization region (or criteria) for an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigerator is obtained. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of a magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

  5. Potential application of Rankine and He-Brayton cycles to sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pichel, G.D.; Linares, J.I.; Herranz, L.E.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper has been focused on thermal efficiency of several Rankine and Brayton cycles for SFR. → A sub-critical Rankine configuration could reach a thermal efficiency higher than 43%. → It could be increased to almost 45% using super-critical configurations. → Brayton cycles thermal performance can be enhanced by adding a super-critical organic fluid Rankine cycle. → The moderate coolant temperature at the reactor makes Brayton configurations have poorer. - Abstract: Traditionally all the demos and/or prototypes of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology with power output, have used a steam sub-critical Rankine cycle. Sustainability requirement of Gen. IV reactors recommends exploring alternate power cycle configurations capable of reaching high thermal efficiency. By adopting the anticipated working parameters of next SFRs, this paper investigates the potential of some Rankine and He-Brayton layouts to reach thermal efficiencies as high as feasible, so that they could become alternates for SFR reactor balance of plant. The assessment has encompassed from sub-critical to super-critical Rankine cycles and combined cycles based on He-Brayton gas cycles of different complexity coupled to Organic Rankine Cycles. The sub-critical Rankine configuration reached at thermal efficiency higher than 43%, which has been shown to be a superior performance than any of the He-Brayton configurations analyzed. By adopting a super-critical Rankine arrangement, thermal efficiency would increase less than 1.5%. In short, according to the present study a sub-critical layout seems to be the most promising configuration for all those upcoming prototypes to be operated in the short term (10-15 years). The potential of super-critical CO 2 -Brayton cycles should be explored for future SFRs to be deployed in a longer run.

  6. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  7. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de [Institute for Advanced Studies, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gianninocamillo@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  8. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  9. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  10. Combined Brayton-JT cycles with refrigerants for natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sanggyu; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic cycles for natural gas liquefaction with single-component refrigerants are investigated under a governmental project in Korea, aiming at new processes to meet the requirements on high efficiency, large capacity, and simple equipment. Based upon the optimization theory recently published by the present authors, it is proposed to replace the methane-JT cycle in conventional cascade process with a nitrogen-Brayton cycle. A variety of systems to combine nitrogen-Brayton, ethane-JT and propane-JT cycles are simulated with Aspen HYSYS and quantitatively compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, flow rate of refrigerants, and estimated size of heat exchangers. A specific Brayton-JT cycle is suggested with detailed thermodynamic data for further process development. The suggested cycle is expected to be more efficient and simpler than the existing cascade process, while still taking advantage of easy and robust operation with single-component refrigerants.

  11. Task Order 20: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Lindsay, Edward [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); McDowell, Michael [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Huang, Megan [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    AREVA Inc. developed this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in accordance with Task Order 20 Statement of Work (SOW) covering research and development activities for the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Brayton Cycle energy conversion. The study addresses the conversion of sCO2 heat energy to electrical output by use of a Brayton Cycle system and focuses on the potential of a net efficiency increase via cycle recuperation and recompression stages. The study also addresses issues and study needed to advance development and implementation of a 10 MWe sCO2 demonstration project.

  12. A virtual closed loop method for closed loop identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüero, J.C.; Goodwin, G.C.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect methods for the identification of linear plant models on the basis of closed loop data are based on the use of (reconstructed) input signals that are uncorrelated with the noise. This generally requires exact (linear) controller knowledge. On the other hand, direct identification requires

  13. Effects of hysteresis and Brayton cycle constraints on magnetocaloric refrigerant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. D.; Buffington, T.; Shamberger, P. J.

    2018-05-01

    Despite promising proofs of concept, system-level implementation of magnetic refrigeration has been critically limited by history-dependent refrigerant losses that interact with governing thermodynamic cycles to adversely impact refrigeration performance. Future development demands a more detailed understanding of how hysteresis limits performance, and of how different types of cycles can mitigate these limitations, but without the extreme cost of experimental realization. Here, the utility of Brayton cycles for magnetic refrigeration is investigated via direct simulation, using a combined thermodynamic-hysteresis modeling framework to compute the path-dependent magnetization and entropy of a model alloy for a variety of feasible Brayton cycles between 0-1.5 T and 0-5 T. By simultaneously varying the model alloy's hysteresis properties and applying extensions of the thermodynamic laws to non-equilibrium systems, heat transfers and efficiencies are quantified throughout the space of hystereses and Brayton cycles and then compared with a previous investigation using Ericsson cycles. It is found that (1) hysteresis losses remain a critical obstacle to magnetic refrigeration implementation, with efficiencies >80% in the model system requiring hysteresis refrigerant transformation temperatures at the relevant fields; (3) for a given hysteresis and field constraint, Brayton and Ericsson-type cycles generate similar efficiencies; for a given temperature span, Ericsson cycles lift more heat per cycle, with the difference decreasing with the refrigerant heat capacity outside the phase transformation region.

  14. Computational analysis of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Burhanuddin; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computational analysis of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. ► Validation of numerical model with literature data. ► Recompression S-CO 2 Brayton cycle thermal efficiency of 42.44%. ► Reheating concept to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. ► Higher efficiency achieved by the proposed concept. - Abstract: The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Analysis (OSCA) code is being developed to analyze the design of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) driven Brayton cycle for a fusion reactor as part of the Modular Optimal Balance Integral System (MOBIS). This system is based on a recompression Brayton cycle. S-CO 2 is adopted as the working fluid for MOBIS because of its easy availability, high density and low chemical reactivity. The reheating concept is introduced to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. The helium-cooled lithium lead model AB of DEMO fusion reactor is used as reference in this paper.

  15. Research and Technology Activities Supporting Closed-Brayton-Cycle Power Conversion System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The elements of Brayton technology development emphasize power conversion system risk mitigation. Risk mitigation is achieved by demonstrating system integration feasibility, subsystem/component life capability (particularly in the context of material creep) and overall spacecraft mass reduction. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion technology is viewed as relatively mature. At the 2-kWe power level, a CBC conversion system Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six (6) was achieved during the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration (SD-GTD) in 1998. A TRL 5 was demonstrated for 10 kWe-class CBC components during the development of the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) from 1968 to 1976. Components currently in terrestrial (open cycle) Brayton machines represent TRL 4 for similar uses in 100 kWe-class CBC space systems. Because of the baseline component and subsystem technology maturity, much of the Brayton technology task is focused on issues related to systems integration. A brief description of ongoing technology activities is given.

  16. Research on the Development of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Dual Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Young-Jin; Na, Sun Ik; Cho, Junhyun; Shin, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Gilbong [Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Because of the growing interest in supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle technology owing to its potential enhancement in compactness and efficiency, supercritical carbon dioxide cycles have been studied in the fields of nuclear power, concentrated solar power (CSP), and fossil fuel power generation. This study introduces the current status of the research project on the supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle by Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER). During the first phase of the project, the un-recuperated supercritical Brayton cycle test loop was built and tested. In phase two, researchers are designing and building a supercritical carbon dioxide dual Brayton cycle, which utilizes two turbines and two recuperators. Under the simulation condition considered in this study, it was confirmed that the design parameter has an optimal value for maximizing the net power in the supercritical carbon dioxide dual cycle.

  17. Optimization of a regenerative Brayton cycle by maximization of a newly defined second law efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The idea is to find out whether 2nd law efficiency optimization may be a suitable trade-off between maximum work output and maximum 1st law efficiency designs for a regenerative gas turbine engine operating on the basis of an open Brayton cycle. The primary emphasis is placed on analyzing the ideal

  18. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-13

    The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperature SC-CO2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO2 environment is the possibility

  19. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat

    2017-05-01

    Recuperated Brayton Cycle (RBC) has attracted the attention of research scientists not only as a possible replacement for the steam cycle at nuclear power plants but also as an efficient bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery and for concentrated solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows that it is possible to achieve higher efficiencies using methane under some operating conditions. However, as it turns out, the performance of Recuperated Brayton Cycle should be evaluated based on net output work. When the performance is assessed on the net output work criteria carbon dioxide still proves to be superior to other gases. This work also suggests that piston engines as compressors and expanders may be used instead of rotating turbines since reciprocating pistons have higher isentropic efficiencies.

  20. Integration between direct steam generation in linear solar collectors and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Coco Enríquez, Luis; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, José María

    2015-01-01

    Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Troughs or Linear Fresnel solar collectors is a technology under development since beginning of nineties (1990's) for replacing thermal oils and molten salts as heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power plants, avoiding environmental impacts. In parallel to the direct steam generation technology development, supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton power cycles are maturing as an alternative to traditional Rankine cycles for increasing net plant efficie...

  1. Preliminary Design of S-CO2 Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Min Gil; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests a complete modular reactor with an innovative concept of reactor cooling by using a supercritical carbon dioxide directly. Authors propose the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle (S-CO 2 cycle) as a power conversion system to achieve small volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and to contain the core and PCU in one vessel for the full modularization. This study suggests a conceptual design of small modular reactor including PCU which is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). As a part of ongoing research of conceptual design of KAIST MMR, preliminary design of power generation cycle was performed in this study. Since the targets of MMR are full modularization of a reactor system with S-CO 2 coolant, authors selected a simple recuperated S-CO 2 Brayton cycle as a power conversion system for KAIST MMR. The size of components of the S-CO 2 cycle is much smaller than existing helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle, and whole power conversion system can be contained with core and safety system in one containment vessel. From the investigation of the power conversion cycle, recompressing recuperated cycle showed higher efficiency than the simple recuperated cycle. However the volume of heat exchanger for recompressing cycle is too large so more space will be occupied by heat exchanger in the recompressing cycle than the simple recuperated cycle. Thus, authors consider that the simple recuperated cycle is more suitable for MMR. More research for the KAIST MMR will be followed in the future and detailed information of reactor core and safety system will be developed down the road. More refined cycle layout and design of turbomachinery and heat exchanger will be performed in the future study

  2. Preliminary design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for APR-1400 with power generation and desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Won Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to explore the capabilities of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for a cogeneration system for APR-1400 application. Three concepts of the S-CO{sub 2} simple recuperated co-generation cycle were designed. A supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is recently receiving significant attention as a promising power conversion system in wide range of energy applications due to its high efficiency and compact footprint. The main reason why the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has these advantages is that the compressor operates near the critical point of CO{sub 2} (30.98 .deg. C, 7.38MPa) to reduce the compression work significantly compared to the other Brayton cycles. In this study, the concept of replacing the entire steam cycle of APR-1400 with the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is evaluated. The power generation purpose S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are redesigned to generate power and provide heat to the desalination system at the same time. The performance of these newly suggested cycles are evaluated in this paper. The target was to deliver 147MW heat to the desalination process. The thermal efficiencies of the three concepts are not significantly different, but the 3{sup rd} concept is relatively simpler than other cycles because only an additional heat exchanger is required. Although the 2{sup nd} concept is relatively complicated in comparison to other concepts, the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the DHX are higher than that of the others. As shown in the results, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are not easy to outperform the steam cycle with very simple layout and general design points under APR-1400 operating condition. However, this study shows that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles can be designed as a co-generation cycle while producing the target desalination heat with a simple configuration. In addition, it was also found that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can achieve higher cycle thermal efficiency than the steam power cycle under

  3. On some properties of conjugacy closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniran, John Olusola

    2002-07-01

    It is shown that central loops are not conjugacy closed loops but instead are loops of units in their loop algebras that are conjugacy closed. It is also shown that certain inner mappings of a conjugacy closed loop are nuclear. Some invariants of left conjugacy closed loops are obtained. (author)

  4. Computer simulation of transitional process to the final stable Brayton cycle in magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numasawa, T.; Hashimoto, T.

    1981-01-01

    The final working cycle in the magnetic refrigeration largely depends on the heat transfer coefficient β in the system, the parameter γ of the heat inflow from the outer system to this cycle and the period tau of the cycle. Therefore, so as to make clear this dependence, the time variation of the Brayton cycle with β, γ and tau has been investigated. In the present paper the transitional process of this cycle and the dependence of the final cooling temperature of the heat load on β, γ and tau have all been shown. (orig.)

  5. Exergoeconomic multi objective optimization and sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite time exergoeconomic multi objective optimization of a Brayton cycle. • Comparing the exergoeconomic and the ecological function optimization results. • Inserting the cost of fluid streams concept into finite-time thermodynamics. • Exergoeconomic sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle. • Suggesting the cycle performance curve drawing and utilization. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative Brayton cycle is sought through power maximization and then exergoeconomic optimization using finite-time thermodynamic concept and finite-size components. Optimizations are performed using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the finite-time and finite-size concepts in current problem, a dimensionless mass-flow parameter is used deploying time variations. The decision variables for the optimum state (of multi objective exergoeconomic optimization) are compared to the maximum power state. One can see that the multi objective exergoeconomic optimization results in a better performance than that obtained with the maximum power state. The results demonstrate that system performance at optimum point of multi objective optimization yields 71% of the maximum power, but only with exergy destruction as 24% of the amount that is produced at the maximum power state and 67% lower total cost rate than that of the maximum power state. In order to assess the impact of the variation of the decision variables on the objective functions, sensitivity analysis is conducted. Finally, the cycle performance curve drawing according to exergoeconomic multi objective optimization results and its utilization, are suggested.

  6. Features of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle coupled with reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Chengjie; Wang Jie; Yang Xiaoyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain acceptable cycle efficiency, current helium gas turbine power cycle technology needs high cycle temperature which means that the cycle needs high core-out temperature. The technology has high requirements on reactor structure and fuel elements materials, and also on turbine manufacture. While utilizing CO 2 as cycle working fluid, it can guarantee to lower the cycle temperature and turbo machine Janume but achieve the same cycle efficiency, so as to enhance the safety and economy of reactor. According to the laws of thermodynamics, a calculation model of supercritical CO 2 power cycle was established to analyze the feature, and the decisive parameters of the cycle and also investigate the effect of each parameter on the cycle efficiency in detail were obtained. The results show that supercritical CO 2 power cycle can achieve quite satisfied efficiency at a lower cycle highest temperature than helium cycle, and CO 2 is a promising working fluid. (authors)

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power conversion cycle for battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Kim, N. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45% furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth lead-cooled Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is being developed as an ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor. BORIS is coupled to the SCO 2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW precooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO 2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45% was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO 2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Development of Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) is being devised as the SCO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion cycle for BORIS. MOBIS consists of Loop Operating Brayton Optimization Study (LOBOS) for experimental Brayton cycle loop and Gas Advanced Turbine Operation Study (GATOS) for the SCO 2 turbine. Liquid-metal Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS) serves to couple BORIS and MOBIS. LEXIS comprises Physical Aspect Thermal Operation System (PATOS) for SCO 2 thermal hydraulic characteristics, Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study (SOLOS) for shell-and-tube heat exchanger, Printed

  8. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  9. Design and analysis of Helium Brayton cycle for energy conversion system of RGTT200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatius Djoko Irianto

    2016-01-01

    The helium Brayton cycle for the design of cogeneration energy conversion system for RGTT200K have been analyzed to obtain the higher thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor. The aim of this research is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycle to be implemented in the design of cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K. Three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion systems have been investigated. In the first configuration model, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is installed in series with the gas turbine, while in the second configuration model, IHX and gas turbines are installed in parallel. The third configuration model is similar to the first configuration, but with two compressors. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle used for cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K has been done by simulating and calculating using CHEMCAD code. The simulation result shows that the three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion system give the temperature of thermal energy in the secondary side of IHX more than 800 °C at the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s. Nevertheless, the performance parameters, which include thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF), are different for each configuration model. By comparing the performance parameter in the three configurations of helium Brayton cycle for cogeneration energy conversion systems RGTT200K, it is found that the energy conversion system with a first configuration has the highest thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF). Thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor for the first configuration of the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s are 35.82 % and 80.63 %. (author)

  10. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  11. Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System Coupled with SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For a system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of normal operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Computer codes were developed to analysis for the S-CO 2 turbomachinery. Based on the design codes, the design parameters were prepared to configure the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 turbomachinery models. A one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the previous PCHE heat exchangers and a design data for the typical type PCHE was produced. In parallel with the PCHE-type heat exchanger design, an airfoil shape fin PCHE heat exchanger was newly designed. The new design concept was evaluated by three-dimensional CFD analyses. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. The MMS-LMR code was also developed to analyze the transient phenomena in a SFR with a supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle to develop the control logic. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na-CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na-CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  12. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for application to the Very High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out of the feasibility of applying the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle to the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Direct application of the standard S-CO 2 recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the inherent temperature drops across the He and CO 2 sides of the reactor heat exchanger resulting in a relatively low cycle efficiency of 45 % compared to 48 % for a direct helium cycle. Two approaches consisting of either a cascaded cycle arrangement with three separate cascaded S-CO 2 cycles or, alternately, operation of a single S-CO 2 cycle with the minimum pressure below the critical pressure and the minimum temperature above the critical temperature have been identified and shown to successfully enable the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to be adapted to the VHTR such that the benefits of the higher S-CO 2 cycle efficiency can be realized. For both approaches, S-CO 2 cycle efficiencies in excess of 49 % are calculated. (authors)

  13. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  14. Identified corrosion and erosion mechanisms in SCO2 Brayton Cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2014-06-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO2) is an efficient and flexible working fluid for power production. Research to interface S-CO2 systems with nuclear, thermal solar, and fossil energy sources is currently underway. To proceed, we must address concerns regarding compatibility of materials, at high temperature, and compatibility between significantly different heat transfer fluids. Dry, pure S-CO2 is thought to be relatively inert [1], while the addition of ppm levels of water and oxygen result in formation of a protective chromia layer and iron oxide [2]. Thin oxides are favorable as diffusion barriers, and for their minimal impact on heat transfer. While S-CO2 is typically understood to be the secondary fluid, many varieties of primary fluids exist for nuclear applications. Molten salts, for use in the Molten Salt Reactor concept, are given as an example to contrast the materials requirements of primary and secondary fluids. Thin chromia layers are soluble in molten salt systems (nitrate, chloride, and fluoride based salts) [3-8], making materials selection for heat exchangers a precarious balancing act between high temperature oxidation (S-CO2) and metal dissolution (salt side of heat exchanger). Because concerns have been raised regarding component lifetimes, S-CO2 work has begun to characterize starting materials and to establish a baseline by analysis of 1) as-received stainless steel piping, and 2) piping exposed to S-CO2 under typical operating conditions with Sandia National Laboratories Brayton systems. A second issue discovered by SNL involves substantial erosion in the turbine blade and inlet nozzle. It is believed that this is caused by small particulates that originate from different materials around the loop that are entrained by the S-CO2 to the nozzle, where they impact the inlet nozzle vanes, causing erosion. We believe that, in some way, this is linked to the purity of the S-CO2, the corrosion contaminants, and the metal particulates that

  15. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.

    1990-01-01

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  16. Improvement of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle using binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok

    2011-02-01

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is inevitably subjected to a sodium-water reaction. To prevent hazardous situation caused by sodium-water reaction, the SFR with Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 cycle) as a working fluid can be an alternative approach. The S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work significantly decreases at slightly above the critical point due to high density near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. The critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle increases the efficiency and thus, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. Modifying the critical point of the working fluid can be done by adding other gases to CO 2 . The direction and range of the CO 2 critical point variation depends on the mixed component and its amount. In particular, chemical reactivity of the gas mixture itself and the gas mixture with sodium at high temperatures are of interest. To modify the critical point of the working fluid, several gases were chosen as candidates by which chemical stability with sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition was assured: CO 2 was mixed with N 2 , O 2 , He, Ar and Xe. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code connected with the REFPROP program from the NIST was developed. The developed code is for evaluating

  17. Brayton-Cycle Power-Conversion Unit Tested With Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion has been identified as an enabling technology for future NASA space science missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) now under study. An important element of the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft is the power conversion system, which converts the reactor heat to electrical power for use by the ion propulsion system and other spacecraft loads. The electrical integration of the power converter and ion thruster represents a key technical challenge in making nuclear electric propulsion technology possible. This technical hurdle was addressed extensively on December 1, 2003, when a closed- Brayton-cycle power-conversion unit was tested with a gridded ion thruster at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test demonstrated end-to-end power throughput and marked the first-ever coupling of a Brayton turbo alternator and a gridded ion thruster, both of which are candidates for use on JIMO-type missions. The testing was conducted at Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, where the Brayton unit was installed in the 3-m-diameter vacuum test port and the ion thruster was installed in the 7.6-m-diameter main chamber.

  18. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Optimization of a New Combined Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Recompression Brayton/Kalina Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad S. Mahmoudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new combined supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton/Kalina cycle (SCRB/KC is proposed. In the proposed system, waste heat from a supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle (SCRBC is recovered by a Kalina cycle (KC to generate additional electrical power. The performances of the two cycles are simulated and compared using mass, energy and exergy balances of the overall systems and their components. Using the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing approach and employing selected cost balance equations for the components of each system, the total product unit costs of the cycles are obtained. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects on the SCRB/KC and SCRBC thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of key decision parameters. In addition, considering the exergy efficiency and total product unit cost as criteria, optimization is performed for the SCRBC and SCRB/KC using Engineering Equation Solver software. The results indicate that the maximum exergy efficiency of the SCRB/KC is higher than that of the SCRBC by up to 10%, and that the minimum total product unit cost of the SCRB/KC is lower than that of the SCRBC by up to 4.9%.

  19. Adaptability of Brayton cycle conversion systems to fast, epithermal and thermal spectrum space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    The two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) are carrying out joint preliminary studies on space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 launch vehicle applications. The Brayton cycle is the reference conversion system, whether the heat source is a liquid metal-cooled (NaK, Na or Li) reactor or a gas-cooled direct cycle concept. The search for an adequate utilization of this energy conversion means has prompted additional evaluations featuring the definition of satisfactory cycle conditions for these various kinds of reactor concepts. In addition to firstly studied fast and epithermal spectrum ones, thermal spectrum reactors can offer an opportunity of bringing out some distinctive features of the Brayton cycle, in particular for the temperature conditioning of the efficient metal hydrides (ZrH, Li/sub 7/H) moderators. One of the purposes of the paper is to confirm the potential of long lifetime ZrH moderated reactors associated with a gas cycle and to assess the thermodynamical consequences for both Nak(Na)-cooled or gas-cooled nuclear heat sources. This investigation is complemented by the definition of appropriate reactor arrangements which could be presented on a further occasion

  20. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  1. Counter flow induced draft cooling tower option for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidaparti, Sandeep R., E-mail: sandeep.pidaparti@gmail.com [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ranjan, Devesh, E-mail: devesh.ranjan@me.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A code was developed to investigate the various aspects of using cooling tower for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles. • Cooling tower option to reject heat is quantitatively compared to the direct water cooling and dry air cooling options. • Optimum water conditions resulting in minimal plant capital cost per unit power consumption are calculated. - Abstract: A simplified qualitative analysis was performed to investigate the possibility of using counter flow induced draft cooling tower option to reject heat from the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for advanced fast reactor (AFR)-100 and advanced burner reactor (ABR)-1000 plants. A code was developed to estimate the tower dimensions, power and water consumption, and to perform economic analysis. The code developed was verified against a vendor provided quotation and is used to understand the effect of ambient air and water conditions on the design of cooling tower. The calculations indicated that there exists optimum water conditions for given ambient air conditions which will result in minimum power consumption, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. A cost-based optimization technique is used to estimate the optimum water conditions which will improve the overall plant economics. A comparison of different cooling options for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle indicated that the cooling tower option is a much more practical and economical option compared to the dry air cooling or direct water cooling options.

  2. Malone-brayton cycle engine/heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Thomas A.

    1994-07-01

    A machine, such as a heat pump, and having an all liquid heat exchange fluid, operates over a more nearly ideal thermodynamic cycle by adjustment of the proportionality of the volumetric capacities of a compressor and an expander to approximate the proportionality of the densities of the liquid heat exchange fluid at the chosen working pressures. Preferred forms of a unit including both the compressor and the expander on a common shaft employs difference in axial lengths of rotary pumps of the gear or vane type to achieve the adjustment of volumetric capacity. Adjustment of the heat pump system for differing heat sink conditions preferably employs variable compression ratio pumps.

  3. Impact of closed Brayton cycle test results on gas cooled reactor operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, St.A.; Pickard, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the measurements and model predictions for a series of tests supported by the U.S. Department of Energy that were performed using the recently constructed Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL-30). From the test results we have developed steady-state power operating curves, controls methodologies, and transient data for normal and off-normal behavior, such as loss of load events, and for decay heat removal conditions after shutdown. These tests and models show that because the turbomachinery operates off of the temperature difference (between the heat source and the heat sink), that the turbomachinery can continue to operate (off of sensible heat) for long periods of time without auxiliary power. For our test hardware, operations up to one hour have been observed. This effect can provide significant operations and safety benefits for nuclear reactors that are coupled to a Brayton cycles because the operating turbomachinery continues to provide cooling to the reactor. These capabilities mean that the decay-heat removal can be accommodated by properly managing the electrical power produced by the generator/alternator. In some conditions, it may even be possible to produce sufficient power to continue operating auxiliary systems including the waste heat circulatory system. In addition, the Brayton plant impacts the consequences of off-normal and accident events including loss of load and loss of on-site power. We have observed that for a loss of load or a loss of on-site power event, with a reactor scram, the transient consists initially of a turbomachinery speed increase to a new stable operating point. Because the turbomachinery is still spinning, the reactor is still being cooled provided the ultimate heat sink remains available. These highly desirable operational characteristics were observed in the Sandia Brayton loop. This type of behavior is also predicted by our models. Ultimately, these results provide the designers the opportunity to design gas

  4. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  5. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  6. Analysis of a 115MW, 3 shaft, helium Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.N.

    2002-01-01

    This research theme is originated from a development project that is going on in South Africa, for the design and construction of a closed cycle gas turbine plant using gas-cooled reactor as the heat source to generate 115 MW of electricity. South African Power utility company, Eskorn, promotes this developmental work through its subsidiary called PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor). Some of the attractive features of this plant are the inherent and passive safety features, modular geometry, small evacuation area, small infrastructure requirements for the installation and running of the plant, small construction time, quick starting and stopping and also low operational cost. This exercise is looking at the operational aspects of a closed cycle gas turbine, the finding of which will have a direct input towards the successful development and commissioning of the plant. A thorough understanding of the fluid dynamics in this three-shaft system and its transient performance analysis were the two main objectives of this research work. A computer programme called GTSI, developed by a previous Cranfield University research student, has been used in this as a base programme for the performance analysis. Some modifications were done on this programme to improve its control abilities. The areas covered in the performance analysis are Start-up, Shutdown and Load ramping. A detailed literature survey has been conducted to learn from the helium Turbo machinery experiences, though it is very limited. A critical analysis on the design philosophy of the PBMR is also carried out as part of this research work. The performance analysis has shown the advantage, disadvantage and impact of various power modulation methods suggested for the PBMR. It has tracked the effect of the operations of the various valves included in the PBMR design. The start-up using a hot gas injection has been analysed in detail and a successful start region has been mapped. A start-up procedure is also written

  7. A four-year investigation of Brayton cycle systems for future french space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Proust, E.; Carre, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of a joint program initiated in 1983 by the two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), in order to study space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 applications, extensive investigations have dealt with the Brayton cycle which has been selected as the energy conversion system. Several aspects can be mentioned in this field: the matching of the power system to the available radiator dimensions up to 200 kWe, the direct or indirect waste heat transfer to the radiator, the use of a recuperator, the recent work on moderate (25 kWe) power levels, the simulation studies related to various operating conditions and the general system optimization. A limited experimental program is starting on some crucial technology areas including a first contract to the industry concerning the turbogenerator. Particular attention is being paid to the significance of the adoption of a Brayton cycle for space applications involving a nuclear heat source which can be either a liquid metal-cooled or a gas-cooled reactor. As far as a gas-cooled reactor, direct cycle system is concerned, the relevance to the reactor technology and the concept for moderator thermal conditioning, is particularly addressed

  8. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Integral Characteristics for the Condenser Setups of Independent Power-Supply Sources with the Closed-Looped Thermodynamic Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysokomorny Vladimir S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analyzing of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Integral Characteristics for the Condenser Setups of Independent Power-Supply Sources with the Closed-Looped Thermodynamic Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Vysokomornaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of heat and mass transfer processes with phase transition is developed. It allows analysis of integral characteristics for the condenser setup of independent power-supply plant with the organic Rankine cycle. Different kinds of organic liquids can be used as a coolant and working substance. The temperatures of the working liquid at the condenser outlet under different values of outside air temperature are determined. The comparative analysis of the utilization efficiency of different cooling systems and organic coolants is carried out.

  11. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  12. Thermodynamic analyses and optimization of a recompression N2O Brayton power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Jahar

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses and simultaneous optimizations of cycle pressure ratio and flow split fraction to get maximum efficiency of N 2 O recompression Brayton cycle have been performed to study the effects of various operating conditions and component performances. The energetic as well as exergetic performance comparison with its counterpart recompression CO 2 cycle is presented as well. Optimization shows that the optimum minimum cycle pressure is close to pseudo-critical pressure for supercritical cycle, whereas saturation pressure corresponding to minimum cycle temperature for condensation cycle. Results show that the maximum thermal efficiency increases with decrease in minimum cycle temperature and increase in both maximum cycle pressure and temperature. Influence of turbine performance on cycle efficiency is more compared to that of compressors, HTR (high temperature recuperator) and LTR (low temperature recuperator). Comparison shows that N 2 O gives better thermal efficiency (maximum deviation of 1.2%) as well as second law efficiency compared to CO 2 for studied operating conditions. Component wise irreversibility distribution shows the similar trends for both working fluids. Present study reveals that N 2 O is a potential option for the recompression power cycle.

  13. Conceptual design study of closed Brayton cycle gas turbines for fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power conversion systems suitable for integration with advanced-concept Tokamak fusion reactors (such as UWMAK-III) for efficient power generation without requiring cooling water supply for waste heat rejection. A baseline cycle configuration was selected and parametric performance analyses were made. Based on the results of the parametric analysis and trade-off and interface considerations, the reference design conditions for the baseline cycle were selected. Conceptual designs were made of the major helium gas turbine power system components including a 585-MWe single-shaft turbomachine, (three needed), regenerator, precooler, intercooler, and the piping system connecting them. Structural configuration and significant physical dimensions for major components are illustrated, and a brief discussion on major advantages, power control and crucial technologies for the helium gas turbine power system are presented

  14. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  15. Concept Design for a High Temperature Helium Brayton Cycle with Interstage Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickard, Paul S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The primary metric for the viability of these next generation nuclear power plants will be the cost of generated electricity. One important component in achieving these objectives is the development of power conversion technologies that maximize the electrical power output of these advanced reactors for a given thermal power. More efficient power conversion systems can directly reduce the cost of nuclear generated electricity and therefore advanced power conversion cycle research is an important area of investigation for the Generation IV Program. Brayton cycles using inert or other gas working fluids, have the potential to take advantage of the higher outlet temperature range of Generation IV systems and allow substantial increases in nuclear power conversion efficiency, and potentially reductions in power conversion system capital costs compared to the steam Rankine cycle used in current light water reactors. For the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Helium Brayton cycles which can operate in the 900 to 950 C range have been the focus of power conversion research. Previous Generation IV studies examined several options for He Brayton cycles that could increase efficiency with acceptable capital cost implications. At these high outlet temperatures, Interstage Heating and Cooling (IHC) was shown to provide significant efficiency improvement (a few to 12%) but required increased system complexity and therefore had potential for increased costs. These scoping studies identified the potential for increased efficiency, but a more detailed analysis of the turbomachinery and heat exchanger sizes and costs was needed to determine whether this approach could be cost effective. The purpose of this study is to examine the turbomachinery and heat exchanger implications of interstage heating and cooling configurations. In general, this analysis illustrates that these engineering considerations introduce new constraints to the design of IHC systems that may require

  16. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  17. A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Beohar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.

  18. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: edu_longhini@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  19. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.

    2017-01-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  20. Laser welding closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser.......A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser....

  1. Optimization of Brayton cycles for low-to-moderate grade thermal energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Muñoz-Antón, Javier; Montes, María José; Martínez-Val, José María

    2013-01-01

    Future electricity generation will involve low or moderate temperature technologies. In such a scenario, optimisation of thermodynamic cycles will be a key task. This work presents a systematic analysis to find the operating regime where Brayton cycles reach the highest efficiency, using real substances and given heat source and sink temperatures. Several configurations using fluids close to its critical point at the compressor inlet are considered. Irreversibility sources are carefully analysed, as well as the type of working fluid. The analysis is performed by means of a theoretical approach to obtain some trends, which are afterwards validated with real gases. Results show that the efficiency and the specific work improve if the compressor inlet is close to the critical point. Furthermore, these cycles are less sensitive to pressure drops and politropic efficiencies than those working with ideal gases. The above features are more evident when the ratio of heat source and heat sink temperatures is low. The selection of the gas becomes a fundamental issue in this quest. Critical temperature should be close to ambient temperature, low critical pressure is advisable and the R/c p factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be low to further enhance the efficiency. - Highlights: • Performance analysis of Brayton cycles with the compressor inlet close to the critical point. • Cycles are not very sensitive to pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies of the compressor. • Gas selection becomes important, regarding the critical pressure and temperature as well as the kind of fluid. • R/c p factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be as low as possible

  2. Energy and exergy analysis of a closed Brayton cycle-based combined cycle for solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Hasanzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combined cycle is proposed for solar power tower plants. • The effects of solar subsystem and power cycle parameters are examined. • The proposed combined cycle yields exergy efficiencies of higher than 70%. • For the overall power plant exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% is achievable. - Abstract: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology offers an interesting potential for future power generation and research on CSP systems of all types, particularly those with central receiver system (CRS) has been attracting a lot of attention recently. Today, these power plants cannot compete with the conventional power generation systems in terms of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and if a competitive LCOE is to be reached, employing an efficient thermodynamic power cycle is deemed essential. In the present work, a novel combined cycle is proposed for power generation from solar power towers. The proposed system consists of a closed Brayton cycle, which uses helium as the working fluid, and two organic Rankine cycles which are employed to recover the waste heat of the Brayton cycle. The system is thermodynamically assessed from both the first and second law viewpoints. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of key operating parameters (including solar subsystem and power cycle parameters) on the overall power plant performance. The results indicate that exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% are achieved for the overall power plant. Also, according to the results, the power cycle proposed in this work has a better performance than the other investigated Rankine and supercritical CO_2 systems operating under similar conditions, for these types of solar power plants.

  3. Promising designs of compact heat exchangers for modular HTRs using the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pra, Franck; Tochon, Patrice; Mauget, Christian; Fokkens, Jan; Willemsen, Sander

    2008-01-01

    The presented study was carried out within the Work Package 2 'Recuperator' of the High Temperature Reactor-E European program. High Temperature gas cooled Reactor concepts with a direct cycle have become potentially interesting for the future. Theoretically, these concepts provide higher efficiency than a classical steam cycle. Within the Brayton cycle the helium/helium recuperator, required to achieve the high efficiency, has to work under very harsh conditions (temperature, pressure, and pressure difference between circuits). Within the project the most promising technologies for the compact recuperator were investigated. First, the requirements for the recuperator to operate under the direct Brayton cycle have been defined. Based on these requirements the various potential technologies available on the market have been investigated. Two particular technologies (HEATRIC Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger, NORDON plate fin concept) have been selected as most promising. For the former, a precise description has been given and a mock-up has been fabricated and tested in the Claire loop at CEA. In the Claire loop the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger mock-up has been subjected to thermal shocks, which are considered to be representative for a recuperator. Prior to the experimental testing coupled Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and Finite Element analyses have been performed to give insight into the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the mock-ups during the thermal shock. Based on these results the experimental measuring program has been optimized. Upon completion of the tests the experimental and numerical results have been compared. Based on the results from the investigation performed recommendations are given for the full-size recuperator using the selected technologies

  4. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Addad, Yacine

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S-CO 2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ► MATLAB code used for S-CO 2 cycle analysis. ► Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO 2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MW th integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency

  5. Method for controlling start-up and steady state performance of a closed split flow recompression brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, James Jay

    2017-02-07

    A method of resolving a balanced condition that generates control parameters for start-up and steady state operating points and various component and cycle performances for a closed split flow recompression cycle system. The method provides for improved control of a Brayton cycle thermal to electrical power conversion system. The method may also be used for system design, operational simulation and/or parameter prediction.

  6. Development of the System Dynamics Code using Homogeneous Equilibrium Model for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle Transient Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Won Woong; Oh, Bongseong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The features of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle come from a small compressing work by designing the compressor inlet close the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This means the system condition can be operating under two-phase or sub-critical phase during transient situations such as changes of cooling system performance, load variations, etc. Since there is no operating MW scale S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system in the world yet, using an analytical code is the only way to predict the system behavior and develop operating strategies of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles. Therefore, the development of a credible system code is an important part for the practical S-CO{sub 2} system research. The current status of the developed system analysis code for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle transient analyses in KAIST and verification results are presented in this paper. To avoid errors related with convergences of the code during the phase changing flow calculation in GAMMA+ code, the authors have developed a system analysis code using Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle transient analysis. The backbone of the in-house code is the GAMMA+1.0 code, but treating the quality of fluid by tracking system enthalpy gradient every time step. Thus, the code adopts pressure and enthalpy as the independent scalar variables to track the system enthalpy for updating the quality of the system every time step. The heat conduction solving method, heat transfer correlation and frictional losses on the pipe are referred from the GAMMA+ code.

  7. Regenerator optimization of a Closed Brayton Cycle via entropy generation minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Guimarães, Lamartine N. F., E-mail: falcao@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançacados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims the numerical study of the heat transfer and fluid flow of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) regenerator that is part of TERRA microreactor. This regenerator consists in a cross flow heat exchanger, where heat transfer occurs between internal fluid flow in radial tubes and external fluid flow passing perpendicularly to the tubes, which are disposed in a symmetrical cylindrical set where the number of tubes in the axial and radial directions can vary. In the simulations, mass flow inlet is varied for a fixed geometry. The fluid flow solution is provided by a commercial CFD solver and the entropy generation number calculation is later computed for optimization purposes. As a result, the entropy minimization method provides the regenerator configuration that enables the highest energy conversion efficiency. (author)

  8. Design and fabrication of gas bearings for Brayton cycle rotating unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, A.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Arwas, E. B.; Waldron, W. D. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Analysis, design, and testing of two types of pivoted pad journal bearings and a spiral-grooved thrust bearing suitable for direct installation into the NASA 2 to 15 KW Brayton Cycle Rotating Unit (BRU) have been accomplished. Both types of tilting pad bearing assemblies are of the preloaded type, consisting of three pads with one pad flexibly mounted. One type utilizes a non-conforming pivot, while the other replaces the conventional spherical pivot with a cruciform flexible member. The thrust bearing is flexure mounted to accommodate static machine mislinement. Test results indicate that both types of journal bearings should satisfy the requirements imposed by the BRU. Hydrostatic tests of the spiral-grooved thrust bearing showed it to be free of pneumatic hammer with as many as 24 orifices over the BRU pressure and load range.

  9. The closed Brayton cycle: An energy conversion system for near-term military space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Keith A.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR)-closed Brayton cycle (CBC) provides a 5 to 30 kWe class nuclear power system for surveillance and communication missions during the 1990s and will scale to 100 kWe and beyond for other space missions. The PBR-CBC is technically feasible and within the existing state of the art. The PBR-CBC system is flexible, scaleable, and offers development economy. The ability to operate over a wide power range promotes commonality between missions with similar but not identical power spectra. The PBR-CBC system mass is very competitive with rival nuclear dynamic and static power conversion and systems. The PBR-CBC provides growth potential for the future with even lower specific masses.

  10. Regenerator optimization of a Closed Brayton Cycle via entropy generation minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Guimarães, Lamartine N. F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims the numerical study of the heat transfer and fluid flow of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) regenerator that is part of TERRA microreactor. This regenerator consists in a cross flow heat exchanger, where heat transfer occurs between internal fluid flow in radial tubes and external fluid flow passing perpendicularly to the tubes, which are disposed in a symmetrical cylindrical set where the number of tubes in the axial and radial directions can vary. In the simulations, mass flow inlet is varied for a fixed geometry. The fluid flow solution is provided by a commercial CFD solver and the entropy generation number calculation is later computed for optimization purposes. As a result, the entropy minimization method provides the regenerator configuration that enables the highest energy conversion efficiency. (author)

  11. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: braz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  12. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  13. Validation of the CATHARE2 code against experimental data from Brayton-cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentivoglio, Fabrice; Tauveron, Nicolas; Geffraye, Genevieve; Gentner, Herve

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has commissioned a wide range of feasibility studies of future-advanced nuclear reactors, in particular gas-cooled reactors (GCR). The thermohydraulic behaviour of these systems is a key issue for, among other things, the design of the core, the assessment of thermal stresses, and the design of decay heat removal systems. These studies therefore require efficient and reliable simulation tools capable of modelling the whole reactor, including the core, the core vessel, piping, heat exchangers and turbo-machinery. CATHARE2 is a thermal-hydraulic 1D reference safety code developed and extensively validated for the French pressurized water reactors. It has been recently adapted to deal also with gas-cooled reactor applications. In order to validate CATHARE2 for these new applications, CEA has initiated an ambitious long-term experimental program. The foreseen experimental facilities range from small-scale loops for physical correlations, to component technology and system demonstration loops. In the short-term perspective, CATHARE2 is being validated against existing experimental data. And in particular from the German power plants Oberhausen I and II. These facilities have both been operated by the German utility Energie Versorgung Oberhausen (E.V.O.) and their power conversion systems resemble to the high-temperature reactor concepts: Oberhausen I is a 13.75-MWe Brayton-cycle air turbine plant, and Oberhausen II is a 50-MWe Brayton-cycle helium turbine plant. The paper presents these two plants, the adopted CATHARE2 modelling and a comparison between experimental data and code results for both steady state and transient cases

  14. Closed Loop Experiment Manager (CLEM—An Open and Inexpensive Solution for Multichannel Electrophysiological Recordings and Closed Loop Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananel Hazan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments. Finally, they should provide powerful, yet reasonably easy to implement facilities for developing closed-loop protocols for interacting with neuronal systems. Here, we survey commercial and open source systems that address these needs to varying degrees. We then present our own solution, which we refer to as Closed Loop Experiments Manager (CLEM. CLEM is an open source, soft real-time, Microsoft Windows desktop application that is based on a single generic personal computer (PC and an inexpensive, general-purpose data acquisition board. CLEM provides a fully functional, user-friendly graphical interface, possesses facilities for recording, presenting and logging electrophysiological data from up to 64 analog channels, and facilities for controlling external devices, such as stimulators, through digital and analog interfaces. Importantly, it includes facilities for running closed-loop protocols written in any programming language that can generate dynamic link libraries (DLLs. We describe the application, its architecture and facilities. We then demonstrate, using networks of cortical neurons growing on multielectrode arrays (MEA that despite its reliance on generic hardware, its performance is appropriate for flexible, closed-loop experimentation at the neuronal network level.

  15. Comparative thermodynamic performance of some Rankine/Brayton cycle configurations for a low-temperature energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Various configurations combining solar-Rankine and fuel-Brayton cycles were analyzed in order to find the arrangement which has the highest thermal efficiency and the smallest fuel share. A numerical example is given to evaluate both the thermodynamic performance and the economic feasibility of each configuration. The solar-assisted regenerative Rankine cycle was found to be leading the candidates from both points of energy utilization and fuel conservation.

  16. Enhanced arrangement for recuperators in supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle for energy conversion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, I.P.; Linares, J.I.; Cantizano, A.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose an enhanced power conversion system layout for a Model C fusion reactor. •Proposed layout is based on a modified recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle. •New arrangement in recuperators regards to classical cycle is used. •High efficiency is achieved, comparable with the best obtained in complex solutions. -- Abstract: A domestic research program called TECNO F US was launched in Spain in 2009 to support technological developments related to a dual coolant breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors. This concept of blanket uses Helium (300 °C/400 °C) to cool part of it and a liquid metal (480 °C/700 °C) to cool the rest; it also includes high temperature (700 °C/800 °C) and medium temperature (566 °C/700 °C) Helium cooling circuits for divertor. This paper proposes a new layout of the classical recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle which replaces one of the recuperators (the one with the highest temperature) by another which by-passes the low temperature blanket source. This arrangement allows reaching high turbine inlet temperatures (around 600 °C) with medium pressures (around 225 bar) and achieving high cycle efficiencies (close to 46.5%). So, the proposed cycle reveals as a promising design because it integrates all the available thermal sources in a compact layout achieving high efficiencies with the usual parameters prescribed in classical recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles

  17. Solar chemical heat pipe in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.

    1990-06-01

    The work on the solar CO 2 reforming of methane was completed. A computer program was developed for simulation of the whole process. The calculations agree reasonably well with the experimental results. The work was written up and submitted for publication in Solar Energy. A methanator was built and tested first with a CO/H 2 mixture from cylinders, and then with the products of the solar reformer. The loop was then closed by recirculating the products from the methanator into the solar reformer. Nine closed loop cycles were performed, so far, with the same original gas mixture. This is the first time that a closed loop solar chemical heat pipe was operated anywhere in the world. (author). 13 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  19. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  20. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  1. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  2. Potential improvements of supercritical recompression CO2 Brayton cycle by mixing other gases for power conversion system of a SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → S-CO 2 cycle could be enhanced by shifting the critical point of working fluids using gas mixture. → In-house cycle code was developed to analyze supercritical Brayton cycles with gas mixture. → Gas mixture candidates were selected through a screening process: CO 2 mixing with N 2 , O 2 , He, and Ar. → CO 2 -He binary mixture shows the highest cycle efficiency increase. → Lowering the critical temperature and critical pressure of the coolant has a positive effect on the total cycle efficiency. - Abstract: A sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is subjected to a possible sodium-water reaction. To prevent any hazards from sodium-water reaction, a SFR with the Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluid can be an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. However, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work is significantly decreased slightly above the critical point due to high density of CO 2 near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency. Therefore, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. A small amount of other gases can be added in order to change the critical point of CO 2 . The direction and range of the critical point variation of CO 2 depends on the mixed component and its amount. Several gases that show chemical stability with

  3. Optimization of airfoil-type PCHE for the recuperator of small scale brayton cycle by cost-based objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jin Gyu; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Hyun Sun; Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO_2) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO_2 Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.

  4. Optimization of airfoil-type PCHE for the recuperator of small scale brayton cycle by cost-based objective function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jin Gyu [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO{sub 2} Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.

  5. An evaluation of thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines with open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    A performance analysis of innovative solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle, with and without intercooling and regeneration, is presented. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it seems able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. -- Highlights: ► Innovative CPS solar plants, operating with air in open Joule–Brayton cycle, are proposed. ► They are attractive for their simplicity and present interesting values of global efficiency. ► They seem able to compete well with other more complex solar plants.

  6. CFD aided approach to design printed circuit heat exchangers for supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Youho; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD analyses were performed to find performance of PCHE for supercritical CO 2 power cycle. • CFD results were obtained beyond the limits of existing correlations. • Designs of different PCHEs with different correlations were compared. • A new CFD-aided correlation covering a wider Reynolds number range was proposed. - Abstract: While most conventional PCHE designs for working fluid of supercritical CO 2 require an extension of valid Reynolds number limits of experimentally obtained correlations, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS CFX was used to explore validity of existing correlations beyond their tested Reynolds number ranges. For heat transfer coefficient correlations, an appropriate piece-wising with Ishizuka’s and Hesselgreaves’s correlation is found to enable an extension of Reynolds numbers. For friction factors, no single existing correlation is found to capture different temperature and angular dependencies for a wide Reynolds number range. Based on the comparison of CFD results with the experimentally obtained correlations, a new CFD-aided correlation covering an extended range of Reynolds number 2000–58,000 for Nusselt number and friction factor is proposed to facilitate PCHE designs for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle application.

  7. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  8. Potential Improvements of Supercritical Recompression CO2 Brayton Cycle Coupled with KALIMER-600 by Modifying Critical Point of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Most of the existing designs of a Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have a Rankine cycle as an electric power generation cycle. This has the risk of a sodium water reaction. To prevent any hazards from a sodium water reaction, an indirect Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluids for a SFR is an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. The supercritical Brayton cycle is defined as a cycle with operating conditions above the critical point and the main compressor inlet condition located slightly above the critical point of working fluid. This is because the main advantage of the cycle comes from significantly decreased compressor work just above the critical point due to high density near boundary between supercritical state and subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the minimum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency and the minimum temperature can be decreased by shifting the critical point of CO 2 as mixed with other gases. In this paper, potential enhancement of S-CO 2 cycle coupled with KALIMER-600, which has been developed at KAERI, was investigated using a developed cycle code with a gas mixture property program

  9. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  10. Multitarget multisensor closed-loop tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Reed, John N.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a closed-loop tracking system using multiple co-located sensors to develop multi-sensor track histories on multiple targets. The use of multiple, co-aligned sensors to track multiple, possibly maneuvering targets, presents a number of tracker design challenges and opportunities. Many of these problems have been addressed individually in the published literature from a theoretical point of view. However, no one has yet addressed the design and implementation of a specific tracker to meet all of these requirements at once. Specific questions addressed in this paper include how to assign N detections in a current frame to M active tracks, how to initiate new tracks and terminate dead tracks, how to combine information from multiple sensors into a single integrated picture, represented by a global track file, and how to perform these functions in a timely manner to support a precision closed loop tracking system.

  11. Supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle compression and control near the critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S. A.; Fuller, R.; Noall, J.; Radel, R.; Vernon, M. E.; Pickard, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the supercritical compression and control issues, the analysis, and the measured test results of a small-scale supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) compression test-loop. The test loop was developed by Sandia and is described in a companion paper in this conference. The results of these experiments will for the first time evaluate and experimentally demonstrate supercritical compression and the required compressor inlet control approaches on an appropriate scale in a series of test loops at Sandia National Laboratories. The Sandia effort is focused on the main compressor of a supercritical Brayton loop while a separate DOE Gen lV program focus is on studying similar behavior in re-compression Brayton cycles that have dual compressors. One of the main goals of this program is to develop and demonstrate the ability to design, operate, and control the supercritical compression process near the critical point due to highly non-linear behavior near this point. This Sandia supercritical test-loop uses a 50 kW radial compressor to pump supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) through an orifice and through a water-cooled gas-chiller. At the design point the compressor flow rate is 3.5 kg/s, the inlet pressure is 7, 690 kPa, the pressure ratio is 1.8, the inlet temperature is 305 K, and the shaft speed is 75, 000 rpm. The purpose of the loop is to study the compression and control issues near the critical point. To study compression we intend to compare the design code predictions for efficiency and change in enthalpy (or pressure ratio / head) of the radial compressor with the measured results from actual tests. In the tests the inlet flow, temperature, and pressure, will be varied around the critical point of CO 2 (Tc=304.2 K, and Pc=7.377 MPa). To study control, the test loop will use a variety of methods including inventory control, shaft speed control, and cooling water flow rate, and cooling water temperature control methods to set the compressor inlet temperature

  12. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  13. Performance analysis for an irreversible variable temperature heat reservoir closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenhua; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of finite time thermodynamics is used in the performance analysis of an irreversible closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The analytical formulae for dimensionless power and efficiency, as functions of the total pressure ratio, the intercooling pressure ratio, the component (regenerator, intercooler, hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies and the thermal capacity rates of the working fluid and the heat reservoirs, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, are derived. The intercooling pressure ratio is optimized for optimal power and optimal efficiency, respectively. The effects of component (regenerator, intercooler and hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio on optimal power and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio, as well as optimal efficiency and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. When the heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs are executed ideally, the pressure drop losses are small enough to be neglected and the thermal capacity rates of the heat reservoirs are infinite, the results of this paper replicate those obtained in recent literature

  14. Enhanced arrangement for recuperators in supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle for energy conversion in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, I.P.; Linares, J.I., E-mail: linares@dim.icai.upcomillas.es; Cantizano, A.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We propose an enhanced power conversion system layout for a Model C fusion reactor. •Proposed layout is based on a modified recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. •New arrangement in recuperators regards to classical cycle is used. •High efficiency is achieved, comparable with the best obtained in complex solutions. -- Abstract: A domestic research program called TECNO{sub F}US was launched in Spain in 2009 to support technological developments related to a dual coolant breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors. This concept of blanket uses Helium (300 °C/400 °C) to cool part of it and a liquid metal (480 °C/700 °C) to cool the rest; it also includes high temperature (700 °C/800 °C) and medium temperature (566 °C/700 °C) Helium cooling circuits for divertor. This paper proposes a new layout of the classical recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle which replaces one of the recuperators (the one with the highest temperature) by another which by-passes the low temperature blanket source. This arrangement allows reaching high turbine inlet temperatures (around 600 °C) with medium pressures (around 225 bar) and achieving high cycle efficiencies (close to 46.5%). So, the proposed cycle reveals as a promising design because it integrates all the available thermal sources in a compact layout achieving high efficiencies with the usual parameters prescribed in classical recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles.

  15. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  16. Closed-loop, open-source electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Rolston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple extracellular microelectrodes (multi-electrode arrays, or MEAs effectively record rapidly varying neural signals, and can also be used for electrical stimulation. Multi-electrode recording can serve as artificial output (efferents from a neural system, while complex spatially and temporally targeted stimulation can serve as artificial input (afferents to the neuronal network. Multi-unit or local field potential recordings can not only be used to control real world artifacts, such as prostheses, computers or robots, but can also trigger or alter subsequent stimulation. Real-time feedback stimulation may serve to modulate or normalize aberrant neural activity, to induce plasticity, or to serve as artificial sensory input. Despite promising closed-loop applications, commercial electrophysiology systems do not yet take advantage of the bidirectional capabilities of multi-electrodes, especially for use in freely moving animals. We addressed this lack of tools for closing the loop with NeuroRighter, an open-source system including recording hardware, stimulation hardware, and control software with a graphical user interface. The integrated system is capable of multi-electrode recording and simultaneous patterned microstimulation triggered by recordings with minimal stimulation artifact. The potential applications of closed-loop systems as research tools and clinical treatments are broad; we provide one example where epileptic activity recorded by a multi-electrode probe is used to trigger targeted stimulation, via that probe, to freely moving rodents.

  17. Properties of noble gases and binary mixtures for closed Brayton Cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel P.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-01

    A review is conducted of the properties of the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon, and their binary mixtures at pressures from 0.1 to 20 MPa and temperatures up to 1400 K. An extensive database of experimental measurements is compiled and used to develop semi-empirical properties correlations. The correlations accurately account for the effects of pressure and temperature on the thermodynamic and transport properties of these gases for potential uses in space (∼2 MPa and up to 1400 K) and terrestrial (∼7.0 MPa and up to 1200 K) applications of Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC). The developed correlations are based on the Chapman-Enskog kinetic theory for dilute gases, and on the application of the law of corresponding states to account for the dependence of properties on pressure. The correlations use the critical temperature and density of the gases as scaling parameters, and their predictions are compared with the compiled database. At temperatures ≥400 K and pressures ≤2 MPa in CBC space power systems, He and Ne, and the binary mixtures of He-Xe and He-Kr with molecular weights ≤40 g/mole behave essentially like a perfect gas, and the error of neglecting the effect of pressure on their compressibility factor, specific heats and transport properties is ≤1%. At a typical operating pressure of 7.0 MPa and up to 1200 K in terrestrial CBC power plants, neglecting the effect of pressure can result in ∼4% error in the properties of noble gases and the binary mixtures of He-Xe and He-Kr with molecular weights ≤40 g/mole, and as much as 20% error for pure argon. Therefore, when operating at pressures >2.0 MPa and/or using noble gases or binary mixtures with molecular weights > 40 g/mole, the present correlations should be used to accurately predict the thermodynamic and transport properties

  18. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  19. Close-loop Dynamic Stall Control on a Pitching Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Ian; Corke, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    A closed-loop control scheme utilizing a plasma actuator to control dynamic stall is presented. The plasma actuator is located at the leading-edge of a pitching airfoil. It initially pulses at an unsteady frequency that perturbs the boundary layer flow over the suction surface of the airfoil. As the airfoil approaches and enters stall, the amplification of the unsteady disturbance is detected by an onboard pressure sensor also located near the leading edge. Once detected, the actuator is switched to a higher voltage control state that in static airfoil experiments would reattach the flow. The threshold level of the detection is a parameter in the control scheme. Three stall regimes were examined: light, medium, and deep stall, that were defined by their stall penetration angles. The results showed that in general, the closed-loop control scheme was effective at controlling dynamic stall. The cycle-integrated lift improved in all cases, and increased by as much as 15% at the lowest stall penetration angle. As important, the cycle-integrated aerodynamic damping coefficient also increased in all cases, and was made to be positive at the light stall regime where it traditionally is negative. The latter is important in applications where negative damping can lead to stall flutter.

  20. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-01-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for state-of-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency

  1. Closed loop supply chain in printing operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcius Fabius Henriques Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear change in focus in large companies, previously dedicated primarily to the production of physical goods, toward offering complimentary services and changing their focus toward more service-oriented businesses, in order to increase their competitiveness. At the same time, companies are facing increasing product returns due to various reasons leading to reverse logistics practices and toward the introduction of a Closed Loop Supply Chain management perspective. The purpose of this work is to identify, using a case study in the printing industry,  specific characteristics, regarding product returns, both in a product-oriented and a service-oriented operation. Furthermore, the current work performs a diagnosis of current practices applications of CLSC models in the two operating models. The paper concludes that indeed there are relevant differences in managing the CLSC for each case and identify the main gaps for each operation.

  2. A review of test results on solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Stirling and Brayton cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development tests of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies that used dish-mounted Brayton or Stirling cycle engines for production of electric power. These tests indicate that early modules achieve net efficiencies up to 29 percent in converting sunlight to electricity, as delivered to the grid. Various equipment deficiencies were observed and a number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other test experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  3. The efficiency of an open-cavity tubular solar receiver for a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results show efficiencies of a low-cost stainless steel tubular cavity receiver. • Optimum ratio of 0.0035 is found for receiver aperture area to concentrator area. • Smaller receiver tube and higher mass flow rate increase receiver efficiency. • Larger tube and smaller mass flow rate increase second law efficiency. • Large-tube receiver performs better in the small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle. - Abstract: The first law and second law efficiencies are determined for a stainless steel closed-tube open rectangular cavity solar receiver. It is to be used in a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle using a micro-turbine with low compressor pressure ratios. There are many different variables at play to model the air temperature increase of the air running through such a receiver. These variables include concentrator shape, concentrator diameter, concentrator rim angle, concentrator reflectivity, concentrator optical error, solar tracking error, receiver aperture area, receiver material, effect of wind, receiver tube diameter, inlet temperature and mass flow rate through the receiver. All these variables are considered in this paper. The Brayton cycle requires very high receiver surface temperatures in order to be successful. These high temperatures, however, have many disadvantages in terms of heat loss from the receiver, especially radiation heat loss. With the help of ray-tracing software, SolTrace, and receiver modelling techniques, an optimum receiver-to-concentrator-area ratio of A′ ≈ 0.0035 was found for a concentrator with 45° rim angle, 10 mrad optical error and 1° tracking error. A method to determine the temperature profile and net heat transfer rate along the length of the receiver tube is presented. Receiver efficiencies are shown in terms of mass flow rate, receiver tube diameter, pressure drop, maximum receiver surface temperature and inlet temperature of the working fluid. For a 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish, the

  4. A review of test results on solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Stirling and Brayton cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents results of development tests of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies that used dish-mounted Brayton or Stirling cycle engines for production of electric power. These tests indicate that early modules achieve net efficiencies up to 29 percent in converting sunlight to electricity, as delivered to the grid. Various equipment deficiencies were observed and a number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other test experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  5. Performance of supercritical Brayton cycle using CO2-based binary mixture at varying critical points for SFR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 -based gas mixture Brayton cycles were investigated for a SFR. • The critical point of CO 2 is the lowest cycle operating limit of the S-CO 2 cycles. • Mixing additives with CO 2 changes the CO 2 critical point. • CO 2 –Xe and CO 2 –Kr cycles achieve higher cycle efficiencies than the S-CO 2 cycles. • CO 2 –H 2 S and CO 2 –cyclohexane cycles perform better at higher heat sink temperatures. -- Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle (S-CO 2 cycle) has attracted much attention as an alternative to the Rankine cycle for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The higher cycle efficiency of the S-CO 2 cycle results from the considerably decreased compressor work because the compressor behaves as a pump in the proximity of the CO 2 vapor–liquid critical point. In order to fully utilize this feature, the main compressor inlet condition should be controlled to be close to the critical point of CO 2 . This indicates that the critical point of CO 2 is a constraint on the minimum cycle condition for S-CO 2 cycles. Modifying the CO 2 critical point by mixing additive gases could be considered as a method of enhancing the performance and broadening the applicability of the S-CO 2 cycle. Due to the drastic fluctuations of the thermo-physical properties of fluids near the critical point, an in-house cycle analysis code using the NIST REFPROP database was implemented. Several gases were selected as potential additives considering their thermal stability and chemical interaction with sodium in the temperature range of interest and the availability of the mixture property database: xenon, krypton, hydrogen sulfide, and cyclohexane. The performances of the optimized CO 2 -containing binary mixture cycles with simple recuperated and recompression layouts were compared with the reference S-CO 2 , CO 2 –Ar, CO 2 –N 2 , and CO 2 –O 2 cycles. For the decreased critical temperatures, the CO 2 –Xe and CO 2

  6. Thermal performance of Brayton power cycles. A study based on high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, Luis E.; Linares, Jose I.; Moratilla, Beatriz Y.

    2005-01-01

    Power cycles optimization has become an essential ingredient to achieve sustainability and improve economic competitiveness of forthcoming Generation IV designs. This paper investigates performance of several configurations of direct helium Brayton cycles. An optimum layout is proposed based on multiple intercooled compression stages and in-between turbines reheating: C(IC) 2 HTRTX. Under the hypotheses and approximations made, a 59% is estimated and it increases even further (67%) when the foreseen technological development is considered. A sensitive analysis identified key components and variables for cycle performance. Particular attention is paid to the effect of the extracted gas mass fraction for reheating. It is shown that the C(IC) 2 HTRTX cycle provides a feasible and simple way to operate the power plant the load-follow mode with a very little loss of efficiency. (author)

  7. Performance Optimization of a Solar-Driven Multi-Step Irreversible Brayton Cycle Based on a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An applicable approach for a multi-step regenerative irreversible Brayton cycle on the basis of thermodynamics and optimization of thermal efficiency and normalized output power is presented in this work. In the present study, thermodynamic analysis and a NSGA II algorithm are coupled to determine the optimum values of thermal efficiency and normalized power output for a Brayton cycle system. Moreover, three well-known decision-making methods are employed to indicate definite answers from the outputs gained from the aforementioned approach. Finally, with the aim of error analysis, the values of the average and maximum error of the results are also calculated.

  8. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on a Supercritical CO_2 Brayton Cycle for SMART Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan

    2016-01-01

    To maximize the benefits of modularization, the supercritical CO_2 (S-CO_2) power cycle can replace the conventional steam Rankine cycle to increase the cycle efficiency and reduce its system size. Previous works have been conducted to evaluate potential advantages of applying the S-CO_2 cycle to SMRs, specifically to SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which is an integral SMR developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute). One of the optimized S-CO_2 cycle layouts is the recompressing Brayton cycle. This paper attempts to improve the cycle layout by replacing the conventional compressor with an isothermal compressor, of which its potential in the S-CO_2 power cycle is conceptually being evaluated. The SMR applications, for which SMART reactor has been represented, can take advantage of the currently developing S-CO_2 cycle greatly by the reduction of size. By introducing the isothermal compressor, the cycle layout considered in has been further improved by increasing the cycle net efficiency by around 0.5%

  9. A Conceptual Study of Using an Isothermal Compressor on a Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for SMART Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Yoonhan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To maximize the benefits of modularization, the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) power cycle can replace the conventional steam Rankine cycle to increase the cycle efficiency and reduce its system size. Previous works have been conducted to evaluate potential advantages of applying the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to SMRs, specifically to SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) which is an integral SMR developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute). One of the optimized S-CO{sub 2} cycle layouts is the recompressing Brayton cycle. This paper attempts to improve the cycle layout by replacing the conventional compressor with an isothermal compressor, of which its potential in the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle is conceptually being evaluated. The SMR applications, for which SMART reactor has been represented, can take advantage of the currently developing S-CO{sub 2} cycle greatly by the reduction of size. By introducing the isothermal compressor, the cycle layout considered in has been further improved by increasing the cycle net efficiency by around 0.5%.

  10. Effect of geometrical shape of the working substance Gadolinium on the performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Mean Field Theory (MFT), the entropy of magnetic material Gadolinium (Gd), which is a function of the local magnetic field and temperature, is calculated and analyzed. This local magnetic field is the sum of the applied field H 0 plus the exchange field H W =λM and the demagnetizing field H d =−NM, where the demagnetizing factor N depends on the shape of magnetic materials. Hereby, the impacts of the demagnetizing factor N on the magnetic entropy, magnetic entropy change and main thermodynamics performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd as the working substance are investigated and evaluated in detail. The results obtained underline the importance of the shape of the working substance used in magnetic refrigerators for room-temperature application; elongated materials provide better thermodynamics performance such as higher COP and net heat absorption. It is pointed out that for low external fields, the magnetic refrigerator ceased to be functional if flat materials were used. - Highlights: ► Gd entropy is calculated as a function of temperature and internal magnetic field. ► Magnetic Brayton cycle properties generally depend on the demagnetizing factor. ► Redundant heat transfer is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► The net cooling quantity is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► Coefficient of performance is dependant to the magnetic material shape.

  11. Thermal performance analysis of Brayton cycle with waste heat recovery boiler for diesel engines of offshore oil production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianglong; Gong, Guangcai; Wu, Yi; Li, Hangxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of Brayton cycle with WHRB adopted in diesel engines with and without fans by thermal performance. • Waste heat recovery technology for FPSO. • The thermoeconomic analysis for the heat recovery for FPSO. - Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis and on-site testing on the thermal performance of the waste heat recovery system for offshore oil production facilities, including the components of diesel engines, thermal boilers and waste heat boilers. We use the ideal air standard Brayton cycle to analyse the thermal performance. In comparison with the traditional design, the fans at the engine outlet of the waste heat recovery boiler is removed due to the limited space of the offshore platform. The cases with fan and without fan are compared in terms of thermal dynamics performance, energy efficiency and thermo-economic index of the system. The results show that the application of the WHRB increases the energy efficiency of the whole system, but increases the flow resistance in the duct. It is proved that as the waste heat recovery boiler takes the place of the thermal boiler, the energy efficiency of whole system without fan is slightly reduced but heat recovery efficiency is improved. This research provides an important guidance to improve the waste heat recovery for offshore oil production facilities.

  12. Conceptual Design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle Radial Turbomachinery for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seongkuk; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    KAIST proposed a new SMR design, which utilizes S-CO{sub 2} as the working fluid. It was named as KAIST MMR. Compared with existing SMR concepts, KAIST MMR has advantages of achieving smaller volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and containing the core and PCU in one vessel for the complete modularization. Authors noticed that the compressor and turbine assumed performances of KAIST MMR were conservatively selected previously. Thus, this paper tries to address the best estimate values of each turbomachinery in 10MWe class KAIST MMR. The turbomachinery size of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle is smaller than helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle. The suggested SMR concept adopts passive cooling system by using air. This method can cool reactor without external electricity supply. Small size and more flexible installation in the inland area will be necessary characteristics for the future nuclear application in the water limited region. KAIST MMR meets all these requirements by utilizing S-CO{sub 2} as a working fluid. This paper presents the work for further increasing the system performance by estimating the component efficiency more realistically. The cycle layout adopted for the application is S-CO{sub 2} recuperated Brayton cycle. The best efficiency of compressor and turbine was evaluated to be 84.94% and 90.94%, respectively. By using KAIST in-house code, thermal efficiency and net output were increased to 35.81% and 12.45MWe, respectively, for the same core thermal power. More refined cycle layout and suitable turbomachinery design will be performed in the near future.

  13. Preliminary design of a Brayton cycle as a standalone Decay Heat Removal system for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Chawla, R.; Alpy, N.; Haubensack, D.; Malo, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary design study of a Brayton cycle which would be a dedicated, standalone Decay Heat Removal (DHR) loop of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed by the CEA at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - to the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping' model, is described in the paper. This is based on simplified thermodynamical and aerodynamical equations and was developed to highlight design choices. First simulations of the proposed device's performance during loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) transients have been performed using the CATHARE code, and these are also reported. Analysis of the simulation results are consistent with the first insights obtained from usage of the 'Brayton scoping' model, e.g. the turbomachine accelerates during the depressurization process to tend towards a steady rotational speed value which is inversely proportional to the pressure. For small break LOCA events, the device operates successfully as regards its safety function and delivers to the core a relatively unperturbed cooling mass flowrate as a function of pressure change. However, further studies are required for medium to large break sizes, since certain stability concerns have been met in such cases. For example, an unexpected turbomachine stoppage was induced during the transients, resulting in loss of the necessary core cooling mass flow. (author)

  14. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end-of-life prod......Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end...

  15. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO fusion reactor based on Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, José Ignacio; Herranz, Luis Enrique; Fernández, Iván; Cantizano, Alexis; Moratilla, Beatriz Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Fusion energy is one of the most promising solutions to the world energy supply. This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycles (S-CO 2 ) for low-temperature divertor fusion reactors cooled by helium (as defined by EFDA). Integration of three thermal sources (i.e., blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel) has been studied through proposing and analyzing a number of alternative layouts, achieving an improvement on power production higher than 5% over the baseline case, which entails to a gross efficiency (before self-consumptions) higher than 42%. In spite of this achievement, the assessment of power consumption for the circulating heat transfer fluids results in a penalty of 20% in the electricity production. Once the most suitable layout has been selected an optimization process has been conducted to adjust the key parameters to balance performance and size, achieving an electrical efficiency (electricity without taking into account auxiliary consumptions due to operation of the fusion reactor) higher than 33% and a reduction in overall size of heat exchangers of 1/3. Some relevant conclusions can be drawn from the present work: the potential of S-CO 2 cycles as suitable converters of thermal energy to power in fusion reactors; the significance of a suitable integration of thermal sources to maximize power output; the high penalty of pumping power; and the convenience of identifying the key components of the layout as a way to optimize the whole cycle performance. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of HCLL fusion reactor. • Low temperature sources have been successfully integrated with high temperature ones. • Optimization of thermal sources integration improves 5% the electricity production. • Assessment of pumping power with sources and sink loops results on 20% of gross power. • Matching of key parameters has conducted to 1/3 of reduction in heat

  16. Detailed analysis of the effect of the turbine and compressor isentropic efficiency on the thermal and exergy efficiency of a Brayton cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and exergy analysis of a Brayton cycle with an ideal gas is given. The irreversibility of the adiabatic processes in turbine and compressor is taken into account through their isentropic efficiencies. The net work per cycle, the thermal efficiency and the two exergy efficiencies are expressed as functions of the four dimensionless variables: the isentropic efficiencies of turbine and compressor, the pressure ratio, and the temperature ratio. It is shown that the maximal values of the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiency are achieved when the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio are as high as possible, while the different values of pressure ratio that maximize the net work per cycle, the thermal and the exergy efficiencies exist. These pressure ratios increase with the increase of the temperature ratio and the isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine. The increase of the turbine isentropic efficiency has a greater impact on the increase of the net work per cycle and the thermal efficiency of a Brayton cycle than the same increase of compressor isentropic efficiency. Finally, two goal functions are proposed for thermodynamic optimization of a Brayton cycle for given values of the temperature ratio and the compressor and turbine isentropic efficiencies. The first maximizes the sum of the net work per cycle and thermal efficiency while the second the net work per cycle and exergy efficiency. In both cases the optimal pressure ratio is closer to the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work per cycle.

  17. Motor starting a Brayton cycle power conversion system using a static inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, J. S.; Edkin, R. A.; Kruchowy, R.

    1973-01-01

    The power conversion module of a 2- to 15-kWe Brayton engine was motor started using a three-phase, 400-hertz static inverter as the power source. Motor-static tests were conducted for initial gas loop pressures of 10, 14, and 17 N/sq cm (15, 20, and 25 psia) over a range of initial turbine inlet temperatures from 366 to 550 K (200 to 530 F). The data are presented to show the effects of temperature and pressure on the motor-start characteristics of the rotating unit. Electrical characteristics during motoring are also discussed.

  18. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO (demonstration power plant) fusion reactor based on dual coolant lithium lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, José Ignacio; Cantizano, Alexis; Moratilla, Beatriz Yolanda; Martín-Palacios, Víctor; Batet, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycles as alternative energy conversion systems for a future fusion reactor based on a DCLL (dual coolant lithium-lead) blanket, as prescribed by EUROfusion. The main issue dealt is the optimization of the integration of the different thermal sources with the power cycle in order to achieve the highest electricity production. The analysis includes the assessment of the pumping consumption in the heating and cooling loops, taking into account additional considerations as control issues and integration of thermal energy storage systems. An exergy analysis has been performed in order to understand the behavior of each layout. Up to ten scenarios have been analyzed assessing different locations for thermal sources heat exchangers. Neglecting the worst four scenarios, it is observed less than 2% of variation among the other six ones. One of the best six scenarios clearly stands out over the others due to the location of the thermal sources in a unique island, being this scenario compatible with the control criteria. In this proposal 34.6% of electric efficiency (before the self-consumptions of the reactor but including pumping consumptions and generator efficiency) is achieved. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of DCLL fusion reactor. • Integration of different available thermal sources has been analyzed considering ten scenarios. • Neglecting the four worst scenarios the electricity production varies less than 2%. • Control and energy storage integration issues have been considered in the analysis. • Discarding the vacuum vessel and joining the other sources in an island is proposed.

  19. Operating conditions of an open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with optimised cavity receiver and recuperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The small-scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with recuperator has several advantages, including low cost, low operation and maintenance costs and it is highly recommended. The main disadvantages of this cycle are the pressure losses in the recuperator and receiver, turbomachine efficiencies and recuperator effectiveness, which limit the net power output of such a system. The irreversibilities of the solar thermal Brayton cycle are mainly due to heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and fluid friction. In this paper, thermodynamic optimisation is applied to concentrate on these disadvantages in order to optimise the receiver and recuperator and to maximise the net power output of the system at various steady-state conditions, limited to various constraints. The effects of wind, receiver inclination, rim angle, atmospheric temperature and pressure, recuperator height, solar irradiance and concentration ratio on the optimum geometries and performance were investigated. The dynamic trajectory optimisation method was applied. Operating points of a standard micro-turbine operating at its highest compressor efficiency and a parabolic dish concentrator diameter of 16 m were considered. The optimum geometries, minimum irreversibility rates and maximum receiver surface temperatures of the optimised systems are shown. For an environment with specific conditions and constraints, there exists an optimum receiver and recuperator geometry so that the system produces maximum net power output. -- Highlights: → Optimum geometries exist such that the system produces maximum net power output. → Optimum operating conditions are shown. → Minimum irreversibility rates and minimum entropy generation rates are shown. → Net power output was described in terms of total entropy generation rate. → Effects such as wind, recuperator height and irradiance were investigated.

  20. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended...

  1. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    Active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults is considered in connection with closed loop feedback systems. AFD involves auxiliary signals applied on the closed loop system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD and it is shown that if a limited number of faults can...

  2. Optimum performance of the small scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle at various environmental conditions and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    The energy of the sun can be transformed into mechanical power through the use of concentrated solar power systems. The use of the Brayton cycle with recuperator has significant advantages but also raises issues such as pressure loss and low net power output which are mainly due to irreversibilities of heat transfer and fluid friction. The aim of this study is to optimize the system to generate maximum net power output. Thermodynamic and dynamic trajectory optimizations were performed on a dish concentrator and an off-the-shelf micro-turbine and the effects of wind, solar irradiance and other environmental conditions and constraints on the power output were analyzed. Results showed that the maximum power output is increased when wind decreases and irradiance increases; solar irradiance was found to have a more significant impact than wind. This study highlighted the factors which impact the power generation of concentrated solar power systems so that designers can take them into account.

  3. Cycle Design of Reverse Brayton Cryocooler for HTS Cable Cooling Using Exergy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudeep Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-01

    The reliability and price of cryogenic refrigeration play an important role in the successful commercialization of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. For cooling HTS cable, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) circulation system is used. One of the options to maintain LN2 in its sub-cooled state is by providing refrigeration with the help of Reverse Brayton Cryo-cooler (RBC). The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling LN2 from 72 K to 65 K for cooling 1 km length of HTS cable [1]. In this paper, a parametric evaluation of RBC for sub-cooling LN2 has been performed using helium as a process fluid. Exergy approach has been adopted for this analysis. A commercial process simulator, Aspen HYSYS® V8.6 has been used for this purpose. The critical components have been identified and their exergy destruction and exergy efficiency have been obtained for a given heat load condition.

  4. Closed loop identification using a modified Hansen scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    in closed loop [4], and one such method is the Hansen scheme [1]. Standard identification using Hansen scheme demands generating the identification signals indirectly. In this paper it is instead proposed to use the relationship between the Youla factorization of a plant and its stabilizing controller...... in order to keep the system stable. Furthermore because the dynamics of such a system depends on the rotational speed it is needed to conduct an identification while the system is part of a closed loop scheme. The authors believe the paper able to contribute towards a simpler and more direct way...... of identifying closed loop plants using Hansen scheme....

  5. Ionic Liquids Enabling Revolutionary Closed-Loop Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to utilize ionic liquids with the Bosch process to achieve closed-loop life support. Specific tasks are to: 1) Advance the technology readiness of...

  6. Generalized modal analysis for closed-loop piezoelectric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud-Audine, Christophe; Giraud, Frédéric; Amberg, Michel; Lemaire-Semail, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Stress in a piezoelectric material can be controlled by imposing an electrical field. Thanks to feedback, this electrical field can be a function of some strain-related measurement so as to confer on the piezoelectric device a closed-loop macroscopic behaviour. In this paper we address the modelling of such a system by extending the modal decomposition methods to account for the closed loop. To do so, the boundary conditions are modified to include the electrical feedback circuit, hence allowing a closed-loop modal analysis. A case study is used to illustrate the theory and to validate it. The main advantage of the method is that design issues such as the coupling factor of the device and closed-loop stability are simultaneously captured. (paper)

  7. Active fault diagnosis in closed-loop uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems by using an auxiliary input vector is considered in this paper, i.e. active fault diagnosis (AFD). The active fault diagnosis is based directly on the socalled fault signature matrix, related to the YJBK (Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno...... and Kucera) parameterization. Conditions are given for exact detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop uncertain systems....

  8. Empirical Analysis of Closed-Loop Duopoly Advertising Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gary M. Erickson

    1992-01-01

    Closed-loop (perfect) equilibria in a Lanchester duopoly differential game of advertising competition are used as the basis for empirical investigation. Two systems of simultaneous nonlinear equations are formed, one from a general Lanchester model and one from a constrained model. Two empirical applications are conducted. In one involving Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola, a formal statistical testing procedure is used to detect whether closed-loop equilibrium advertising strategies are used by the c...

  9. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  10. Integrated solar thermal Brayton cycles with either one or two regenerative heat exchangers for maximum power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to optimise the open-air solar-thermal Brayton cycle by considering the implementation of the second law of thermodynamics and how it relates to the design of the heat exchanging components within it. These components included one or more regenerators (in the form of cross-flow heat exchangers) and the receiver of a parabolic dish concentrator where the system heat was absorbed. The generation of entropy was considered as it was associated with the destruction of exergy or available work. The dimensions of some components were used to optimise the cycles under investigation. EGM (Entropy Generation Minimisation) was employed to optimise the system parameters by considering their influence on the total generation of entropy (destruction of exergy). Various assumptions and constraints were considered and discussed. The total entropy generation rate and irreversibilities were determined by considering the individual components and ducts of the system, as well as their respective inlet and outlet conditions. The major system parameters were evaluated as functions of the mass flow rate to allow for a proper discussion of the system performance. The performances of both systems were investigated, and characteristics were listed for both. Finally, a comparison is made to shed light on the differences in performance. - Highlights: • Implementation of the second law of thermodynamics. • Design of heat exchanging and collecting equipment. • Utilisation of Entropy Generation Minimization. • Presentation of a multi-objective optimization. • Raise efficiency with more regeneration

  11. Development of the ANL plant dynamics code and control strategies for the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle and code validation with data from the Sandia small-scale supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle test loop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-11-07

    Significant progress has been made in the ongoing development of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Plant Dynamics Code (PDC), the ongoing investigation and development of control strategies, and the analysis of system transient behavior for supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles. Several code modifications have been introduced during FY2011 to extend the range of applicability of the PDC and to improve its calculational stability and speed. A new and innovative approach was developed to couple the Plant Dynamics Code for S-CO{sub 2} cycle calculations with SAS4A/SASSYS-1 Liquid Metal Reactor Code System calculations for the transient system level behavior on the reactor side of a Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) or Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR). The new code system allows use of the full capabilities of both codes such that whole-plant transients can now be simulated without additional user interaction. Several other code modifications, including the introduction of compressor surge control, a new approach for determining the solution time step for efficient computational speed, an updated treatment of S-CO{sub 2} cycle flow mergers and splits, a modified enthalpy equation to improve the treatment of negative flow, and a revised solution of the reactor heat exchanger (RHX) equations coupling the S-CO{sub 2} cycle to the reactor, were introduced to the PDC in FY2011. All of these modifications have improved the code computational stability and computational speed, while not significantly affecting the results of transient calculations. The improved PDC was used to continue the investigation of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control and transient behavior. The coupled PDC-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code capability was used to study the dynamic characteristics of a S-CO{sub 2} cycle coupled to a SFR plant. Cycle control was investigated in terms of the ability of the cycle to respond to a linear reduction in the electrical grid demand from 100% to 0% at a rate of 5

  12. Virtual grasping: closed-loop force control using electrotactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgovanovic, Nikola; Dosen, Strahinja; Djozic, Damir J; Krajoski, Goran; Farina, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously "unseen" objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.

  13. Virtual Grasping: Closed-Loop Force Control Using Electrotactile Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Jorgovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Closing the control loop by providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is a well-known, long standing challenge in the field of prosthetics. Various approaches have been investigated for feedback restoration, ranging from direct neural stimulation to noninvasive sensory substitution methods. Although there are many studies presenting closed-loop systems, only a few of them objectively evaluated the closed-loop performance, mostly using vibrotactile stimulation. Importantly, the conclusions about the utility of the feedback were partly contradictory. The goal of the current study was to systematically investigate the capability of human subjects to control grasping force in closed loop using electrotactile feedback. We have developed a realistic experimental setup for virtual grasping, which operated in real time, included a set of real life objects, as well as a graphical and dynamical model of the prosthesis. We have used the setup to test 10 healthy, able bodied subjects to investigate the role of training, feedback and feedforward control, robustness of the closed loop, and the ability of the human subjects to generalize the control to previously “unseen” objects. Overall, the outcomes of this study are very optimistic with regard to the benefits of feedback and reveal various, practically relevant, aspects of closed-loop control.

  14. Conceptual Design Study of a Closed Brayton Cycle Turbogenerator for Space Power Thermal-To-Electric Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeff L.

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual design study was completed for a 360 kW Helium-Xenon closed Brayton cycle turbogenerator. The selected configuration is comprised of a single-shaft gas turbine engine coupled directly to a high-speed generator. The engine turbomachinery includes a 2.5:1 pressure ratio compression system with an inlet corrected flow of 0.44 kg/sec. The single centrifugal stage impeller discharges into a scroll via a vaned diffuser. The scroll routes the air into the cold side sector of the recuperator. The hot gas exits a nuclear reactor radiator at 1300 K and enters the turbine via a single-vaned scroll. The hot gases are expanded through the turbine and then diffused before entering the hot side sector of the recuperator. The single shaft design is supported by air bearings. The high efficiency shaft mounted permanent magnet generator produces an output of 370 kW at a speed of 60,000 rpm. The total weight of the turbogenerator is estimated to be only 123 kg (less than 5% of the total power plant) and has a volume of approximately 0.11 cubic meters. This turbogenerator is a key element in achieving the 40 to 45% overall power plant thermal efficiency.

  15. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-05-09

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception.

  16. Impact of Closed-Loop Gift Card Promotions By Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn W. Ernstberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At their inception, gift cards were sold by businesses to customers to give as gifts to others. More recently, gift cards are beingused strategically by businesses to manage and transform their relationships with customers. Of particular interest here is the closed-loop gift card that can only be redeemed at the business whose name is on it. This analysis discusses the impact of closed-loop gift card promotions and evaluates the impact of these promotions ontotal spending, lift and redemption rates.

  17. Reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Soleimani, Hamed; Kannan, Devika

    2015-01-01

    Based on environmental, legal, social, and economic factors, reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain issues have attracted attention among both academia and practitioners. This attention is evident by the vast number of publications in scientific journals which have been published in recent...... years. Hence, a comprehensive literature review of recent and state-of-the-art papers is vital to draw a framework of the past, and to shed light on future directions. The aim of this paper is to review recently published papers in reverse logistic and closed-loop supply chain in scientific journals...

  18. Transient Model of a 10 MW Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle for Light Water Reactors by using MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Won; Cha, Jae-Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, recuperation cycle was chosen as a reference loop design and the MARS code was chosen as the transient cycle analysis code. Cycle design condition is focus on operation point of the light-water reactor. Development of a transient model was performed for 10MW-electron SCO{sub 2} coupled with light water reactors. In order to perform transient analysis, cycle transient model was developed and steady-state run was performed and presented in the paper. In this study, the transient model of SCO{sub 2} recuperation Brayton cycle was developed and implemented in MARS to study the steady-state simulation. We performed nodalization of the transient model using MARS code and obtained steady-state results. This study is shown that the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can be used as a power conversion system for light water reactors. Future work will include transient analysis such as partial road operation, power swing, start-up, and shutdown. Cycle control strategy will be considered for various control method.

  19. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: luisromano_91@hotmail.com, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação Ciências e Tecnologias Espaciais

    2017-07-01

    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  20. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.

    2017-01-01

    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  1. RANS simulation of a radial compressor for supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jekyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si Woo [Jinsol Turbo, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    S-CO{sub 2} cycle has a small footprint due to the compact turbomachine and heat exchanger. It was found that the S-CO{sub 2} compressor consumes small compression work if the operating conditions approach to the critical point (7.38MPa, 31.1℃). Therefore, this reduced compression work contributes to high cycle efficiency. Due to the above mentioned advantages, the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be applied to various heat sources such as coal power, bottoming cycle of fuel cells, and the next generation nuclear systems. To demonstrate the S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance, an integral test facility is necessary. Therefore, the joint research team of KAERI, KAIST, POSTECH designed a supercritical CO{sub 2} integral experiment loop (SCIEL). The experimental data from this loop are accumulating in various conditions, rotational speed. The design of a S-CO{sub 2} compressor operating near the critical point is one of the major technical challenges in the development of cycle components. A radial compressor geometry designed for supercritical CO{sub 2} loop was utilized for CFD analysis. The preliminary results were compared to the experimental data. In this study, the authors present a CFD approach with accurate CSV type property table. Compared results showed reasonable difference between CFD and experiment except for efficiency curve at 35,000rpm. In future works, the loss models used for the design of S-CO{sub 2} compressor will be validated, and established with CFD results.

  2. Production planning and control of closed-loop supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Inderfurth (Karl); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMore and more supply chains emerge that include a return flow of materials. Many original equipment manufacturers are nowadays engaged in the remanufacturing business. In many process industries, production defectives and by-products are reworked. These closed-loop supply chains deserve

  3. Ammonia sensor for closed-loop SCR control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.Y.; Yao, S.; Shost, M.; Yoo, J.H.; Cabush, D.; Racine, D.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2009-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the dominant solution for meeting future NOx reduction regulations for heavy-duty diesel powertrains. SCR systems benefit from closed-loop control if an appropriate exhaust gas sensor were available. An ammonia sensor has recently been developed for use as a

  4. Value of information in closed-loop reservoir managment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.G.D.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    This paper proposes a new methodology to perform value of information (VOI) analysis within a closed-loop reservoir management (CLRM) framework. The workflow combines tools such as robust optimization and history matching in an environment of uncertainty characterization. The approach is illustrated

  5. Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the mould unit is full, this drive keeps transporting filament materials without proper control. This project developed a closed loop feedback tension control system and it is to replace servo motor drive system for the transportation of filament and it demonstrated a new technological advancement and the theory of ...

  6. Estimation of Parametric Fault in Closed-loop Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method for estimation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems. The key technology applied in this paper is coprime factorization of both the dynamic system as well as the feedback controller. Using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization...

  7. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Eriksen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  8. CLOSED LOOP AOCS TESTING OF AN AUTONOMOUS STAR TRACKER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    not even a high quality star pattern generator may be able to pass the outlier rejection filtering of the ASC thus efficiently precluding artificial stimuli during AIT tests. In order to circumvent this impasse, the ASC has a series of build-in features enabling simple, yet comprehensive, closed loop...

  9. Estimation of Model Uncertainties in Closed-loop Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describe a method for estimation of parameters or uncertainties in closed-loop systems. The method is based on an application of the dual YJBK (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) parameterization of all systems stabilized by a given controller. The dual YJBK transfer function...

  10. Gain Scheduling Control based on Closed-Loop System Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    the first and a second operating point is identified in closed-loop using system identification methods with open-loop properties. Next, a linear controller is designed for this linearised model, and gain scheduling control can subsequently be achieved by interpolating between each controller...

  11. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  12. Interconnection of subsystems in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    -Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. The dual YJBK transfer function is applied in connection with the closed-loop stability analysis. The primary YJBK parameterization is applied in connection with design of controllers. Further, it is shown how it is possible to obtain a direct estimation of a connected sub...

  13. Creating integral value for stakeholders in closed loop supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkel, Maren; Krikke, Harold; Caniëls, Marjolein CJ; van der Laan, Erwin

    This paper contributes to the existing literature by researching integral value creation in closed loop supply chains (CLSCs). We distinguish between multiple types of business value, strategic success factors, and multiple groups of stakeholders that affect and are affected by CLSC activities. To

  14. Ammonia sensor for closed-loop SCR control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.Y.; Yao, S.; Shost, M.; Yoo, J.H.; Cabush, D.; Racine, D.; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the dominant solution for meeting future NOx reduction regulations for heavy-duty diesel powertrains. SCR systems benefit from closed-loop control if an appropriate exhaust gas sensor were available. An ammonia sensor has recently been developed for use as a

  15. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  16. Closed-loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  17. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  18. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  19. Thermodynamic analysis and preliminary design of closed Brayton cycle using nitrogen as working fluid and coupled to small modular Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SM-SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumayegun, Olumide; Wang, Meihong; Kelsall, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen closed Brayton cycle for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor studied. • Thermodynamic modelling and analysis of closed Brayton cycle performed. • Two-shaft configuration proposed and performance compared to single shaft. • Preliminary design of heat exchangers and turbomachinery carried out. - Abstract: Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is considered the most promising of the Generation IV reactors for their near-term demonstration of power generation. Small modular SFRs (SM-SFRs) have less investment risk, can be deployed more quickly, are easier to operate and are more flexible in comparison to large nuclear reactor. Currently, SFRs use the proven Rankine steam cycle as the power conversion system. However, a key challenge is to prevent dangerous sodium-water reaction that could happen in SFR coupled to steam cycle. Nitrogen gas is inert and does not react with sodium. Hence, intercooled closed Brayton cycle (CBC) using nitrogen as working fluid and with a single shaft configuration has been one common power conversion system option for possible near-term demonstration of SFR. In this work, a new two shaft nitrogen CBC with parallel turbines was proposed to further simplify the design of the turbomachinery and reduce turbomachinery size without compromising the cycle efficiency. Furthermore, thermodynamic performance analysis and preliminary design of components were carried out in comparison with a reference single shaft nitrogen cycle. Mathematical models in Matlab were developed for steady state thermodynamic analysis of the cycles and for preliminary design of the heat exchangers, turbines and compressors. Studies were performed to investigate the impact of the recuperator minimum terminal temperature difference (TTD) on the overall cycle efficiency and recuperator size. The effect of turbomachinery efficiencies on the overall cycle efficiency was examined. The results showed that the cycle efficiency of the proposed

  20. Compressor Modeling for Transient Analysis of Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle by using MARS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Kwon, Jin Gyu [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Won; Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, SCIEL (Supercritical CO{sub 2} Integral Experimental Loop) was chosen as a reference loop and the MARS code was as the transient cycle analysis code. As a result, the compressor homologous curve was developed from the SCIEL experimental data and MARS analysis was performed and presented in the paper. The advantages attract SCO{sub 2}BC as a promising next generation power cycles. The high thermal efficiency comes from the operation of compressor near the critical point where the properties of SCO{sub 2}. The approaches to those of liquid phase, leading drastically lower the compression work loss. However, the advantage requires precise and smooth operation of the cycle near the critical point. However, it is one of the key technical challenges. The experimental data was steady state at compressor rotating speed of 25,000 rpm. The time, 3133 second, was starting point of steady state. Numerical solutions were well matched with the experimental data. The mass flow rate from the MARS analysis of approximately 0.7 kg/s was close to the experimental result of 0.9 kg/s. It is expected that the difference come from the measurement error in the experiment. In this study, the compressor model was developed and implemented in MARS to study the transient analysis of SCO{sub 2}BC in SCIEL. We obtained the homologous curves for the SCIEL compressor using experimental data and performed nodalization of the compressor model using MARS code. In conclusions, it was found that numerical solutions from the MARS model were well matched with experimental data.

  1. Development and validation of models for simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles and application to self-propelling heat removal systems in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venker, Jeanne

    2015-03-31

    The objective of the current work was to develop a model that is able to describe the transient behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles, to be applied to self-propelling residual heat removal systems in boiling water reactors. The developed model has been implemented into the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. By means of this improved ATHLET version, novel residual heat removal systems, which are based on closed sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles, can be assessed as a retrofit measure for present light water reactors. Transient simulations are hereby of great importance. The heat removal system has to be modeled explicitly to account for the interaction between the system and the behavior of the plant during different accident conditions. As a first step, transport and thermodynamic fluid properties of supercritical carbon dioxide have been implemented in ATHLET to allow for the simulation of the new working fluid. Additionally, a heat transfer correlation has been selected to represent the specific heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide. For the calculation of pressure losses due to wall friction, an approach for turbulent single phase flow has been adopted that is already implemented in ATHLET. In a second step, a component model for radial compressors has been implemented in the system code. Furthermore, the available model for axial turbines has been adapted to simulate the transient behavior of radial turbines. All extensions have been validated against experimental data. In order to simulate the interaction between the self-propelling heat removal system and a generic boiling water reactor, the components of the sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycle have been dimensioned with first principles. An available input deck of a generic BWR has then been extended by the residual heat removal system. The modeled application has shown that the extended version of ATHLET is suitable to simulate sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles and to evaluate the introduced

  2. Development and validation of models for simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles and application to self-propelling heat removal systems in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venker, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to develop a model that is able to describe the transient behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) Brayton cycles, to be applied to self-propelling residual heat removal systems in boiling water reactors. The developed model has been implemented into the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. By means of this improved ATHLET version, novel residual heat removal systems, which are based on closed sCO 2 Brayton cycles, can be assessed as a retrofit measure for present light water reactors. Transient simulations are hereby of great importance. The heat removal system has to be modeled explicitly to account for the interaction between the system and the behavior of the plant during different accident conditions. As a first step, transport and thermodynamic fluid properties of supercritical carbon dioxide have been implemented in ATHLET to allow for the simulation of the new working fluid. Additionally, a heat transfer correlation has been selected to represent the specific heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide. For the calculation of pressure losses due to wall friction, an approach for turbulent single phase flow has been adopted that is already implemented in ATHLET. In a second step, a component model for radial compressors has been implemented in the system code. Furthermore, the available model for axial turbines has been adapted to simulate the transient behavior of radial turbines. All extensions have been validated against experimental data. In order to simulate the interaction between the self-propelling heat removal system and a generic boiling water reactor, the components of the sCO 2 Brayton cycle have been dimensioned with first principles. An available input deck of a generic BWR has then been extended by the residual heat removal system. The modeled application has shown that the extended version of ATHLET is suitable to simulate sCO 2 Brayton cycles and to evaluate the introduced heat removal system

  3. A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.

  4. Closed-Loop Analysis of Soft Decisions for Serial Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Steele, Glen F.; Zucha, Joan P.; Schlesinger, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  5. A complete closed loop control system for MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyu

    1988-01-01

    The MNSR (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor), a 27 kW reactor, was built in 1984 in the Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, China. A microcomputer closed-loop control system has been developed for the MNSR using an IBM PC-XT. This system not only controls the reactor, but it is also a data acquisition system and a reactivity monitor for the reactor. A closed-loop control system can be used for reactors such as the MNSR, in which the power is self-limited and the reactivity is limited to less than 5mk (∼0.7$). As a data acquisition system or a reactivity monitor, it is applicable for any nuclear reactor. This paper describes the hardware and software in detail. 4 refs, 11 figs

  6. Simulation of closed loop controlled boost converter for solar installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalirasu Athimulam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the shortage of the energy and ever increasing of the oil price, research on the renewable and green energy sources, especially the solar arrays and the fuel cells, becomes more and more important. How to achieve high stepup and high efficiency DC/DC converters is the major consideration in the renewable power applications due to the low voltage of PV arrays and fuel cells. In this paper digital simulation of closed loop controlled boost converter for solar installation is presented. Circuit models for open loop and closed loop controlled systems are developed using the blocks of simulink. The simulation results are compared with the theoretical results. This converter has advantages like improved power factor, fast response and reduced hardware. .

  7. Closed-loop waveform control of boost inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Guo Rong; Xiao, Cheng Yuan; Wang, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    The input current of single-phase inverter typically has an AC ripple component at twice the output frequency, which causes a reduction in both the operating lifetime of its DC source and the efficiency of the system. In this paper, the closed-loop performance of a proposed waveform control method...... to eliminate such a ripple current in boost inverter is investigated. The small-signal stability and the dynamic characteristic of the inverter system for input voltage or wide range load variations under the closed-loop waveform control method are studied. It is validated that with the closedloop waveform...... control, not only was stability achieved, the reference voltage of the boost inverter capacitors can be instantaneously adjusted to match the new load, thereby achieving improved ripple mitigation for a wide load range. Furthermore, with the control and feedback mechanism, there is minimal level of ripple...

  8. A Three Level Framework for Closed-Loop Supply Chain Management—Linking Society, Chain and Actor Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seuring

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management and closed-loop supply chain management (CLSCM have developed into established concepts in recent years. The related material cycles and product returns form an important part of all related processes with high potential for reducing environmental burden. The paper proposes a framework for (environmentally triggered closed-loop supply chain management, spanning three different levels: the societal or governance, the chain and the actor level. Within each level, a set of activities or processes can be identified. Taken together, the levels allow a comprehensive analysis of a closed-loop supply chain system. This is illustrated building on two case studies in the textile and apparel industry, where closed-loop supply chains have been designed to take specific apparel products back. The case studies are analyzed against all three levels and allow exemplification of related challenges and interrelations among the three levels. The three levels contribute to the further comprehension of the multiple issues having to be taken into account for successfully implementing closed-loop supply chains.

  9. Assisted closed-loop optimization of SSVEP-BCI efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo eFernandez-Vargas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed a novel assisted closed-loop optimization protocol to improve the efficiency of brain computer interfaces (BCI based on steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP. In traditional paradigms, the control over the BCI-performance completely depends on the subjects’ ability to learn from the given feedback cues. By contrast, in the proposed protocol both the subject and the machine share information and control over the BCI goal. Generally, the innovative assistance consists in the delivery of online information together with the online adaptation of BCI stimuli properties. In our case, this adaptive optimization process is realized by (i a closed-loop search for the best set of SSVEP flicker frequencies and (ii feedback of actual SSVEP magnitudes to both the subject and the machine. These closed-loop interactions between subject and machine are evaluated in real-time by continuous measurement of their efficiencies, which are used as online criteria to adapt the BCI control parameters. The proposed protocol aims to compensate for variability in possibly unknown subjects’ state and trait dimensions. In a study with N = 18 subjects, we found significant evidence that our protocol outperformed classic SSVEP-BCI control paradigms. Evidence is presented that it takes indeed into account interindividual variabilities: e.g. under the new protocol, baseline resting state EEG measures predict subjects’ BCI performances. This paper illustrates the promising potential of assisted closed-loop protocols in BCI systems. Probably their applicability might be expanded to innovative uses, e.g. as possible new diagnostic/therapeutic tools for clinical contexts and as new paradigms for basic research.

  10. Joint angle sensors for closed-loop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen H.; Miao, Chih-Lei

    In order to substitute braces that have built-in goniometers and to provide feedback signals for closed loop control of lower extremity Functional Neuromuscular System in paraplegics, a stretchable capacitive sensor was developed to accurately detect angular movement in joints. Promising clinical evaluations on the knee joints of a paraplegic and a volunteer were done. The evaluations show great promise for the possibility of implantation applications.

  11. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  12. A closed-loop based framework for design requirement management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhinan; Li, Xuemeng; Liu, Zelin

    2014-01-01

    management from product lifecycle, and requirement and requirement management lifecycle views. This paper highlights the importance of requirement lifecycle management and aims at closing the requirement information loop in product lifecycle. Then, it addresses the requirement management in engineering...... design field with focusing on the dynamics nature and incomplete nature of requirements. Finally, a closed-loop based framework is proposed for requirement management in engineering design....

  13. Closed-Loop Optimal Control Implementations for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    with standard linear algebra techniques if is converted to a diagonal square matrix by multiplying by the identity matrix, I , as was done in (1.134...OPTIMAL CONTROL IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS by Colin S. Monk December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Mark Karpenko Second Reader: I. M...COVERED Master’s thesis, Jan-Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CLOSED-LOOP OPTIMAL CONTROL IMPLEMENTATIONS FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

  14. Eigenvalue sensitivity of sampled time systems operating in closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Dionisio

    2018-05-01

    The use of feedback to create closed-loop eigenstructures with high sensitivity has received some attention in the Structural Health Monitoring field. Although practical implementation is necessarily digital, and thus in sampled time, work thus far has center on the continuous time framework, both in design and in checking performance. It is shown in this paper that the performance in discrete time, at typical sampling rates, can differ notably from that anticipated in the continuous time formulation and that discrepancies can be particularly large on the real part of the eigenvalue sensitivities; a consequence being important error on the (linear estimate) of the level of damage at which closed-loop stability is lost. As one anticipates, explicit consideration of the sampling rate poses no special difficulties in the closed-loop eigenstructure design and the relevant expressions are developed in the paper, including a formula for the efficient evaluation of the derivative of the matrix exponential based on the theory of complex perturbations. The paper presents an easily reproduced numerical example showing the level of error that can result when the discrete time implementation of the controller is not considered.

  15. Closed-Loop and Robust Control of Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA, and reinforcement learning (RL methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H∞ control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention.

  16. Closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Wang, Yuanlong

    2013-01-01

    For most practical quantum control systems, it is important and difficult to attain robustness and reliability due to unavoidable uncertainties in the system dynamics or models. Three kinds of typical approaches (e.g., closed-loop learning control, feedback control, and robust control) have been proved to be effective to solve these problems. This work presents a self-contained survey on the closed-loop and robust control of quantum systems, as well as a brief introduction to a selection of basic theories and methods in this research area, to provide interested readers with a general idea for further studies. In the area of closed-loop learning control of quantum systems, we survey and introduce such learning control methods as gradient-based methods, genetic algorithms (GA), and reinforcement learning (RL) methods from a unified point of view of exploring the quantum control landscapes. For the feedback control approach, the paper surveys three control strategies including Lyapunov control, measurement-based control, and coherent-feedback control. Then such topics in the field of quantum robust control as H(∞) control, sliding mode control, quantum risk-sensitive control, and quantum ensemble control are reviewed. The paper concludes with a perspective of future research directions that are likely to attract more attention.

  17. A comparative approach to closed-loop computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E; Sponberg, S; Cowan, N J

    2014-04-01

    Neural computation is inescapably closed-loop: the nervous system processes sensory signals to shape motor output, and motor output consequently shapes sensory input. Technological advances have enabled neuroscientists to close, open, and alter feedback loops in a wide range of experimental preparations. The experimental capability of manipulating the topology-that is, how information can flow between subsystems-provides new opportunities to understand the mechanisms and computations underlying behavior. These experiments encompass a spectrum of approaches from fully open-loop, restrained preparations to the fully closed-loop character of free behavior. Control theory and system identification provide a clear computational framework for relating these experimental approaches. We describe recent progress and new directions for translating experiments at one level in this spectrum to predictions at another level. Operating across this spectrum can reveal new understanding of how low-level neural mechanisms relate to high-level function during closed-loop behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Shinde, R.R.; Joshi, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m 2 , with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C 2 H 2 F 4 ), isobutane (iC 4 H 10 ) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  19. Development of a Performance Analysis Code for the Off-design conditions of a S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong-Hwan; Cha, Jae-Eun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-O

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled to KALIMER-600, a thermal balance has been established on 100% power operating conditions including all the reactor system models such as a primary heat transport system (PHTS), an intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), and an energy conversion system. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system consists of a sodium-CO2 heat exchanger (Hx), turbine, high temperature recuperate (HTR), low temperature recuperate (LTR), precooler, compressor no.1, and compressor no.2. Two compressors were employed to avoid a sharp change of the physical properties near their critical point with a corresponding pressure. The component locations and their operating conditions are illustrated. Energy balance of the power conversion system in KALIMER-600 was designed with the full power condition of each component. Therefore, to predict the off-design conditions and to evaluate each component, an off-design performance analysis code should be accomplished. An off-design performance analysis could be classified into overall system control logic and local system control logic. The former means that mass flow rate and power are controlled by valves, and the latter implies that a bypass or inventory control is an admitted system balance. The ultimate goal of this study is development of the overall system control logic

  20. An improved model to evaluate thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines in open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants

  1. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle using evolutionary algorithm and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; S.C. Kaushik; Raj Kumar; Ranjana Hans

    2016-01-01

    Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is s...

  2. Integrated Evaluation of Closed Loop Air Revitalization System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s vision and mission statements include an emphasis on human exploration of space, which requires environmental control and life support technologies. This Contractor Report (CR) describes the development and evaluation of an Air Revitalization System, modeling and simulation of the components, and integrated hardware testing with the goal of better understanding the inherent capabilities and limitations of this closed loop system. Major components integrated and tested included a 4-Bed Modular Sieve, Mechanical Compressor Engineering Development Unit, Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and a Sabatier Engineering and Development Unit. The requisite methodolgy and technical results are contained in this CR.

  3. Numerical investigation of closed-loop control for Hall accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, S.; Miedzik, J.

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency discharge current oscillations in Hall accelerators are conventionally damped with external inductor-capacitor (LC) or resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) networks. The role of such network in the stabilization of the plasma discharge is investigated with a numerical model and the potential advantages of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control over RLC networks are subsequently assessed using either discharge voltage or magnetic field modulation. Simulations confirm the reduction of current oscillations in the presence of a RLC network, but suggest that PID control could ensure nearly oscillation-free operation with little sensitivity toward the PID settings.

  4. Closed-loop System Identification with New Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with system identification of new system dynamics revealed by online introduction of new sensors in existing multi-variable linear control systems. The so-called "Hansen Scheme" utilises the dual Youla-Kucera parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given linear controller...... to transform closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems. We show that this scheme can be formally extended to accomodate extra sensors in a nice way. The approach is illustrated on a simple simulation example....

  5. Delivering precision antimicrobial therapy through closed-loop control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, T M; O’Hare, D; Herrero, P; Sharma, S; Moore, L S P; de Barra, E; Roberts, J A; Gordon, A C; Hope, W; Georgiou, P; Cass, A E G; Holmes, A H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sub-optimal exposure to antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Mechanisms for optimizing the concentration of a drug within the individual patient are under development. However, several barriers remain in realizing true individualization of therapy. These include problems with plasma drug sampling, availability of appropriate assays, and current mechanisms for dose adjustment. Biosensor technology offers a means of providing real-time monitoring of antimicrobials in a minimally invasive fashion. We report the potential for using microneedle biosensor technology as part of closed-loop control systems for the optimization of antimicrobial therapy in individual patients. PMID:29211877

  6. Closed-Loop Autofocus Scheme for Scanning Electron Microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Le

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a full scale autofocus approach for scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimal focus (in-focus position of the microscope is achieved by maximizing the image sharpness using a vision-based closed-loop control scheme. An iterative optimization algorithm has been designed using the sharpness score derived from image gradient information. The proposed method has been implemented and validated using a tungsten gun SEM at various experimental conditions like varying raster scan speed, magnification at real-time. We demonstrate that the proposed autofocus technique is accurate, robust and fast.

  7. Modeling and sizing of the heat exchangers of a new supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle for energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, I.P.; Cantizano, A.; Linares, J.I.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose a procedure to model the heat exchangers of a S-CO2 Brayton power cycle. •Discretization in sub-heat exchangers is performed due to complex behavior of CO 2 . •Different correlations have been tested, verifying them with CFD when necessary. •Obtained sizes are agree with usual values of printed circuit heat exchangers. -- Abstract: TECNO F US is a research program financed by the Spanish Government to develop technologies related to a dual-coolant (He/Pb–Li) breeding blanket design concept including the auxiliary systems for a future power reactor (DEMO). One of the main issues of this program is the optimization of heat recovery from the reactor and its conversion into electrical power. This paper is focused on the methodology employed for the design and sizing of all the heat exchangers of the supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycle (S-CO2) proposed by the authors. Due to the large pressure difference between the fluids, and also to their compactness, Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) are suggested in literature for these type of cycles. Because of the complex behavior of CO 2 , their design is performed by a numerical discretization into sub-heat exchangers, thus a higher precision is reached when the thermal properties of the fluids vary along the heat exchanger. Different empirical correlations for the pressure drop and the Nusselt number have been coupled and assessed. The design of the precooler (PC) and the low temperature recuperator (LTR) is also verified by simulations using CFD because of the near-critical behavior of CO 2 . The size of all of the heat exchangers of the cycle have been assessed

  8. Modeling and sizing of the heat exchangers of a new supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle for energy conversion for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, I.P.; Cantizano, A.; Linares, J.I., E-mail: linares@upcomillas.es; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We propose a procedure to model the heat exchangers of a S-CO2 Brayton power cycle. •Discretization in sub-heat exchangers is performed due to complex behavior of CO{sub 2}. •Different correlations have been tested, verifying them with CFD when necessary. •Obtained sizes are agree with usual values of printed circuit heat exchangers. -- Abstract: TECNO{sub F}US is a research program financed by the Spanish Government to develop technologies related to a dual-coolant (He/Pb–Li) breeding blanket design concept including the auxiliary systems for a future power reactor (DEMO). One of the main issues of this program is the optimization of heat recovery from the reactor and its conversion into electrical power. This paper is focused on the methodology employed for the design and sizing of all the heat exchangers of the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle (S-CO2) proposed by the authors. Due to the large pressure difference between the fluids, and also to their compactness, Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) are suggested in literature for these type of cycles. Because of the complex behavior of CO{sub 2}, their design is performed by a numerical discretization into sub-heat exchangers, thus a higher precision is reached when the thermal properties of the fluids vary along the heat exchanger. Different empirical correlations for the pressure drop and the Nusselt number have been coupled and assessed. The design of the precooler (PC) and the low temperature recuperator (LTR) is also verified by simulations using CFD because of the near-critical behavior of CO{sub 2}. The size of all of the heat exchangers of the cycle have been assessed.

  9. Optimizing an advanced hybrid of solar-assisted supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle: A vital transition for low-carbon power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Dia; Luu, Minh Tri; McNaughton, Robbie; Abbas, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The layout of 14 demonstrative supercritical CO 2 closed Brayton cycles are analysed. • The key parameters of the “combined” cycle are sensitized and optimized. • The effect of thermal efficiency vs HX area on techno-economic nexus is highlighted. • The design of a matching solar heliostat field in direct configuration is revealed. • The water demand for hybrid vs water-only cooling scenarios are assessed. - Abstract: Current worldwide infrastructure of electrical power generation would mostly continue to rely on fossil-fuel but require a modest transition for the ultimate goal of decarbonizing power generation industry. By relying on those already established and carefully managed centrepiece power plants (PPs), we aim at filling the deficits of the current electrical networks with smaller, cleaner, and also more efficient PPs. In this context, we present a unique model for a small-scale decentralized solar-assisted supercritical CO 2 closed Brayton cycle (sCO 2 -CBC). Our model is based on the optimized values of three key performance indicators (KPIs); thermal efficiency, concentrated solar power (CSP) compatibility, and water demand for cooling. For a case-study of 10 MW e CSP-assisted sCO 2 -CBC power plant, our dynamic model shows a 52.7% thermal efficiency and 25.9% solar penetration and up to 80% of water saving in heat-rejection units. These KPIs show significant promise of the solar-assisted supercritical CO 2 power cycle for an imperative transformation in the power industry towards future sustainable electricity generation.

  10. Retrospective Cost Adaptive Control with Concurrent Closed-Loop Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolic, Frantisek M.

    Retrospective cost adaptive control (RCAC) is a discrete-time direct adaptive control algorithm for stabilization, command following, and disturbance rejection. RCAC is known to work on systems given minimal modeling information which is the leading numerator coefficient and any nonminimum-phase (NMP) zeros of the plant transfer function. This information is normally needed a priori and is key in the development of the filter, also known as the target model, within the retrospective performance variable. A novel approach to alleviate the need for prior modeling of both the leading coefficient of the plant transfer function as well as any NMP zeros is developed. The extension to the RCAC algorithm is the use of concurrent optimization of both the target model and the controller coefficients. Concurrent optimization of the target model and controller coefficients is a quadratic optimization problem in the target model and controller coefficients separately. However, this optimization problem is not convex as a joint function of both variables, and therefore nonconvex optimization methods are needed. Finally, insights within RCAC that include intercalated injection between the controller numerator and the denominator, unveil the workings of RCAC fitting a specific closed-loop transfer function to the target model. We exploit this interpretation by investigating several closed-loop identification architectures in order to extract this information for use in the target model.

  11. Closed loop kinesthetic feedback for postural control rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérité, Fabien; Bachta, Wael; Morel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Postural control rehabilitation may benefit from the use of smart devices providing biofeedback. This approach consists of increasing the patients perception of their postural state. Namely, postural state is monitored and fed back in real time to the patients through one or more sensory channels. This allows implementing rehabilitation exercises where the patients control their posture with the help of additional sensory inputs. In this paper, a closed loop control of the Center-Of-Pressure (CoP) based on kinesthetic feedback is proposed as a new form of biofeedback. The motion of a one Degree of Freedom (DoF) translational device, lightly touched by the patient's forefinger, is servoed to the patient's CoP position extracted from the measurements of a force plate on which he/she stands. As a result, the patient's CoP can be controllably displaced. A first set of experiments is used to prove the feasibility of this closed-loop control under ideal conditions favoring the perception of the kinesthetic feedback, while the subject is totally unaware of the context. A second set of experiments is then proposed to evaluate the robustness of this approach under experimental conditions that are more realistic with regards to the clinical context of a rehabilitation program involving biofeedback-based exercises.

  12. Photoacoustic-Based-Close-Loop Temperature Control for Nanoparticle Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, Feng; Fei, Gao; Yuanjin, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia therapy requires tight temperature control to achieve selective killing of cancerous tissue with minimal damage on surrounding healthy tissues. To this end, accurate temperature monitoring and subsequent heating control are critical. However, an economic, portable, and real-time temperature control solution is currently lacking. To bridge this gap, we present a novel portable close-loop system for hyperthermia temperature control, in which photoacoustic technique is proposed for noninvasive real-time temperature measurement. Exploiting the high sensitivity of photoacoustics, the temperature is monitored with an accuracy of around 0.18 °C and then fed back to a controller implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA) for temperature control. Dubbed as portable hyperthermia feedback controller (pHFC), it stabilizes the temperature at preset values by regulating the hyperthermia power with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm; and to facilitate digital implementation, the pHFC further converts the PID output into switching values (0 and 1) with the pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithm. Proof-of-concept hyperthermia experiments demonstrate that the pHFC system is able to bring the temperature from baseline to predetermined value with an accuracy of 0.3° and a negligible temperature overshoot. The pHFC can potentially be translated to clinical applications with customized hyperthermia system design. This paper can facilitate future efforts in seamless integration of close-loop temperature control solution and various clinical hyperthermia systems.

  13. A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Pedram; Khambhati, Ankit; Stanslaski, Scott; Carlson, David; Jensen, Randy; Linde, Dave; Dani, Siddharth; Lazarewicz, Maciej; Cong, Peng; Giftakis, Jon; Stypulkowski, Paul; Denison, Tim

    2013-01-01

    While modulating neural activity through stimulation is an effective treatment for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, an opportunity for improving neuromodulation therapy remains in automatically adjusting therapy to continuously optimize patient outcomes. Practical issues associated with achieving this include the paucity of human data related to disease states, poorly validated estimators of patient state, and unknown dynamic mappings of optimal stimulation parameters based on estimated states. To overcome these challenges, we present an investigational platform including: an implanted sensing and stimulation device to collect data and run automated closed-loop algorithms; an external tool to prototype classifier and control-policy algorithms; and real-time telemetry to update the implanted device firmware and monitor its state. The prototyping system was demonstrated in a chronic large animal model studying hippocampal dynamics. We used the platform to find biomarkers of the observed states and transfer functions of different stimulation amplitudes. Data showed that moderate levels of stimulation suppress hippocampal beta activity, while high levels of stimulation produce seizure-like after-discharge activity. The biomarker and transfer function observations were mapped into classifier and control-policy algorithms, which were downloaded to the implanted device to continuously titrate stimulation amplitude for the desired network effect. The platform is designed to be a flexible prototyping tool and could be used to develop improved mechanistic models and automated closed-loop systems for a variety of neurological disorders. PMID:23346048

  14. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  15. Inventory decision in a closed-loop supply chain with inspection, sorting, and waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwicahyani, A. R.; Jauhari, W. A.; Kurdhi, N. A.

    2016-02-01

    The study of returned item inventory management in a closed-loop supply chain system has become an important issue in recent years. So far, investigations about inventory decision making in a closed-loop supply chain system have been confined to traditional forward and reverse oriented material flow supply chain. In this study, we propose an integrated inventory model consisting a supplier, a manufacturer, and a retailer where the manufacturer inspects all of the returned items collected from the customers and classifies them as recoverable or waste. Returned items that recovered through the remanufacturing process and the newly manufactured products are then used to meet the demand of the retailer. However, some recovered items which are not comparable to the ones in quality, classified as refurbished items, are sold to a secondary market at a reduced price. This study also suggests that the flow of returned items is controlled by a decision variable, namely an acceptance quality level of recoverable item in the system. We apply multiple remanufacturing cycle and multiple production cycle policy to the proposed model and give the corresponding iterative procedure to determine the optimal solutions. Further, numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  16. Entropy, exergy, and cost analyses of solar driven cogeneration systems using supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycles and MEE-TVC desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouta, Amine; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad; Atif, Maimoon; Marshad, Saud Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The entropy, exergy, and cost analyses for two solar cogeneration configurations are conducted. • The recompression cogeneration cycle achieves lower LCOE as compared to the regeneration cogeneration cycle. • The solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations reaching almost 80%. • The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases with decreasing the fraction. - Abstract: In this study, performance and cost analyses are conducted for a solar power tower integrated with supercritical CO_2 (sCO_2) Brayton cycles for power production and a multiple effect evaporation with a thermal vapor compression (MEE-TVC) desalination system for water production. The study is performed for two configurations based on two different supercritical cycles: the regeneration and recompression sCO_2 Brayton cycles. A two-tank molten salt storage is utilized to ensure a uniform operation throughout the day. From the entropy analysis, it was shown that the solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations, reaching almost 80% from the total entropy generation, followed by the MEE-TVC desalination system, and the sCO_2 power cycle. The entropy generation in the two-tank thermal storage is negligible, around 0.3% from the total generation. In the MEE-TVC system the highest contributing component is the steam jet ejector, which is varying between 50% and 60% for different number of effects. The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases as the fraction of the input heat to the desalination system decreases; while the specific entropy generation of the sCO_2 cycle remains constant. The cost analysis performed for different regions in Saudi Arabia and the findings reveal that the regions characterized by the highest average solar irradiation throughout the year have the lowest LCOE and LCOW values. The region achieving the lowest cost is Yanbu, followed by Khabt Al-Ghusn in the second

  17. Closed-loop suppression of chaos in nonlinear driven oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, L. A.; Billings, S. A.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses the suppression of chaos in nonlinear driven oscillators via the addition of a periodic perturbation. Given a system originally undergoing chaotic motions, it is desired that such a system be driven to some periodic orbit. This can be achieved by the addition of a weak periodic signal to the oscillator input. This is usually accomplished in open loop, but this procedure presents some difficulties which are discussed in the paper. To ensure that this is attained despite uncertainties and possible disturbances on the system, a procedure is suggested to perform control in closed loop. In addition, it is illustrated how a model, estimated from input/output data, can be used in the design. Numerical examples which use the Duffing-Ueda and modified van der Pol oscillators are included to illustrate some of the properties of the new approach.

  18. Manufacturers’ Closed-Loop Orientation for Green Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green supply chain management (GSCM is still in its infancy and has been implemented only to a limited extent. Strategic orientation is an important factor affecting its implementation. No reliable and valid strategic orientation construct has been developed for greening a supply chain. This study proposes closed-loop orientation (CLO as the appropriate strategic orientation to implement GSCM practices successfully and develops a valid measurement of CLO. Data collected from 296 Chinese manufacturers were analyzed using the structural equation modeling method to examine the relationships among CLO, GSCM practice and environmental and economic performance. The results show that both CLO and GSCM have positive effects on the environmental performance and economic performance and that CLO positively impacts the level of implementation of GSCM. The results also show that GSCM completely mediates the relationships between CLO and environmental and economic performance.

  19. A closed-loop analysis of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1991-01-01

    The tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism is of importance in the regulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). A second mechanism of potential importance is the change in proximal pressure caused by a change, for example, in the rate of proximal fluid reabsorption. The quantitative contrib...... and the late proximal flow rate, with changes in the proximal pressure of lesser importance. Furthermore, under closed-loop conditions the operating point for the TGF mechanism is at or close to the point of maximal sensitivity....... nl/min in steps of 5 nl/min. The open-loop gain (OLG) was 3.1 (range 1.5-9.9, n = 13) at the unperturbed tubular flow rate, and decreased as the tubular flow rate was either increased or decreased. The proximal pressure increased by 0.21 +/- 0.03 mmHg per unit increase in late proximal flow rate (nl...

  20. Robust environmental closed-loop supply chain design under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MA, Ruimin; YAO, Lifei; JIN, Maozhu; REN, Peiyu; LV, Zhihan

    2016-01-01

    With the fast developments in product remanufacturing to improve economic and environmental performance, an environmental closed-loop supply (ECLSC) chain is important for enterprises' competitiveness. In this paper, a robust ECLSC network is investigated which includes multiple plants, collection centers, demand zones, and products, and consists of both forward and reverse supply chains. First, a robust multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to deal with ECLSC considering two conflicting objectives simultaneously, as well as the uncertain nature of the supply chain. Cost parameters of the supply chain and demand fluctuations are subject to uncertainty. The first objective function aims to minimize the economical cost and the second objective function is to minimize the environmental influence. Then, the proposed model is solved as a single-objective mixed integer programming model applying the LP-metrics method. Finally, numerical example has been presented to test the model. The results indicate that the proposed model is applicable in practice.

  1. Multiple Description Coding for Closed Loop Systems over Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jan; Quevedo, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider robust source coding in closed-loop systems. In particular, we consider a (possibly) unstable LTI system, which is to be stabilized via a network. The network has random delays and erasures on the data-rate limited (digital) forward channel between the encoder (controller......) and the decoder (plant). The feedback channel from the decoder to the encoder is assumed noiseless. Since the forward channel is digital, we need to employ quantization.We combine two techniques to enhance the reliability of the system. First, in order to guarantee that the system remains stable during packet...... by showing that the system can be cast as a Markov jump linear system....

  2. Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael [CRC Development, LLC, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CRC Development LLC is pursuing commercialization of shrub willow crops to evaluate and confirm estimates of yield, harvesting, transportation and renewable energy conversion costs and to provide a diverse resource in its supply portfolio.The goal of Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops is supply expansion in Central New York to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops as part of the mix of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts. CRC Development LLC established the first commercial willow biomass plantation acreage in North America was established on the Tug Hill in the spring of 2006 and expanded in 2007. This was the first 230- acres toward the goal of 10,000 regional acres. This project replaces some 2007-drought damaged acreage and installs a total of 630-acre new planting acres in order to demonstrate to regional agricultural producers and rural land-owners the economic vitality of closed loop short rotation woody biomass energy crops when deployed commercially in order to motivate new grower entry into the market-place. The willow biomass will directly help stabilize the fuel supply for the Lyonsdale Biomass facility, which produces 19 MWe of power and exports 15,000 pph of process steam to Burrows Paper. This project will also provide feedstock to The Biorefinery in New York for the manufacture of renewable, CO2-neutral liquid transportation fuels, chemicals and polymers. This project helps end dependency on imported fossil fuels, adds to region economic and environmental vitality and contributes to national security through improved energy independence.

  3. Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation for Refractory Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Shirvalkar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a subjective experience that alerts an individual to actual or potential tissue damage. Through mechanisms that are still unclear, normal physiological pain can lose its adaptive value and evolve into pathological chronic neuropathic pain. Chronic pain is a multifaceted experience that can be understood in terms of somatosensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions, each with associated symptoms and neural signals. While there have been many attempts to treat chronic pain, in this article we will argue that feedback-controlled ‘closed-loop’ deep brain stimulation (DBS offers an urgent and promising route for treatment. Contemporary DBS trials for chronic pain use “open-loop” approaches in which tonic stimulation is delivered with fixed parameters to a single brain region. The impact of key variables such as the target brain region and the stimulation waveform is unclear, and long-term efficacy has mixed results. We hypothesize that chronic pain is due to abnormal synchronization between brain networks encoding the somatosensory, affective and cognitive dimensions of pain, and that multisite, closed-loop DBS provides an intuitive mechanism for disrupting that synchrony. By (1 identifying biomarkers of the subjective pain experience and (2 integrating these signals into a state-space representation of pain, we can create a predictive model of each patient's pain experience. Then, by establishing how stimulation in different brain regions influences individual neural signals, we can design real-time, closed-loop therapies tailored to each patient. While chronic pain is a complex disorder that has eluded modern therapies, rich historical data and state-of-the-art technology can now be used to develop a promising treatment.

  4. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using the compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Umoto, J.; Fukuyama, A.; Mitarai, O.; Okamoto, M.; Sekimoto, H.; Nagatsu, M.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary key issues for a synchrotron radiation-enhanced compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle fusion reactor similar to the CFAR (compact fusion advanced Rankine) cycle reactor are presented. These include plasma operation windows as a function of the first wall reflectivity and related issues, to estimate an allowance for deterioration of the first wall reflectivity due to dpa effects. It was found theoretically that first wall reflectivities down to 0.8 are still adequate for operation at an energy confinement scaling of 3 times Kaye-Goldston. Measurements of the graphite first wall reflectivities at Nagoya University indicate excellent reflectivities in excess of 90% for CC-312, PCC-2S, and PD-330S in the submillimeter regime, even at high temperatures in excess of 1000K. Some engineering issues inherent to the CFAB cycle are also discussed briefly in comparison with the CFAR cycle which uses hazardous limited-resource materials but is capable of using mercury as coolant for high heat removal. The CFAB cycle using helium coolant is found to achieve higher net plant conversion efficiencies in excess 60% using a non-equilibrium magnetohydrodynamic disk generator in the moderate pressure range, even at the cost of a relatively large pumping power, and at the penalty of high temperature materials, although excellent heat removal characteristics in the moderate pressure range need to be guaranteed in the future. (orig.)

  5. Water conservation and improved production efficiency using closed-loop evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetta, C. [Niagara Blower Co., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described wet surface air coolers (WSAC) that can be used in refineries and hydrocarbon processing plants to address water use issues. These closed-loop evaporative cooling systems are a cost-effective technology for both heat transfer and water conservation. WSACs can help deliver required cooling water temperatures and improve plant performance while using water streams currently considered to be unusable with conventional towers and heat exchangers. WSACs are versatile and can provide solutions to water use, water quality, and outlet temperature. The benefits of the WSAC include capital cost savings, reduced system pressures, lower carbon footprint, and the ability to use poor quality water as makeup. Water makeup can be blowdown from other equipment, plant effluent, reclaimed water, produced water, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater, and even seawater. Units can be manufactured with a wide variety of materials depending on water quality, water treatment, and cycles of concentration. This paper also provided comparisons to other alternative technologies, capital and operating cost savings, and site specific case studies. Two other system designs can accommodate closed-loop heat transfer applications, notably an open tower with a heat exchanger and a dry, air-cooled system. A WSAC system is an efficient and effective heat rejection technology for several reasons. The WSAC cooler or condenser utilizes latent cooling, which is far more efficient than sensible cooling. This means that a WSAC system can cool the same heat load with a smaller footprint than all-dry systems. 6 figs.

  6. Closed loop statistical performance analysis of N-K knock controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton Jones, James C.; Shayestehmanesh, Saeed; Frey, Jesse

    2017-09-01

    The closed loop performance of engine knock controllers cannot be rigorously assessed from single experiments or simulations because knock behaves as a random process and therefore the response belongs to a random distribution also. In this work a new method is proposed for computing the distributions and expected values of the closed loop response, both in steady state and in response to disturbances. The method takes as its input the control law, and the knock propensity characteristic of the engine which is mapped from open loop steady state tests. The method is applicable to the 'n-k' class of knock controllers in which the control action is a function only of the number of cycles n since the last control move, and the number k of knock events that have occurred in this time. A Cumulative Summation (CumSum) based controller falls within this category, and the method is used to investigate the performance of the controller in a deeper and more rigorous way than has previously been possible. The results are validated using onerous Monte Carlo simulations, which confirm both the validity of the method and its high computational efficiency.

  7. Closed Loop Control Compact Exercise Device for Use on MPCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Chris; Funk, Justin; Funk, Nathan; Kutnick, Gilead; Humphreys, Brad; Bruinsma, Douwe; Perusek, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. To combat spaceflight physiological deconditioning, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimens for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the mass and volume available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact exercise device prototypes are being developed for human in the loop evaluations. The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) is managing Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) requirements development and candidate technology maturation for all exploration mission profiles from Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) exploration missions (e.g., EM-2, up to 21 day) to Mars Transit (up to 1000 day) missions. Numerous technologies have been considered and evaluated against HRP-approved functional requirements and include flywheel, pneumatic and closed-loop microprocessor-controlled motor driven power plants. Motor driven technologies offer excellent torque density and load accuracy characteristics as well as the ability to create custom mechanical impedance (the dynamic relationship between force and velocity) and custom load versus position exercise algorithms. Further, closed-loop motor-driven technologies offer the ability to monitor exercise dose parameters and adapt to the needs of the crewmember for real time optimization of exercise prescriptions. A simple proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is demonstrated in a prototype motor driven exercise device with comparison to resistive static and dynamic load set points and aerobic work rate targets. The resistive load term in the algorithm includes a constant force component (Fcmg) as well as inertial component (Fima) and a discussion of system tuning is presented

  8. Closed-loop strategies for patient care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauldine, Ronald; Beck, George; Salinas, Jose; Kaczka, David W

    2008-04-01

    Military operations, mass casualty events, and remote work sites present unique challenges to providers of immediate medical care, who may lack the necessary skills for optimal clinical management. Moreover, the number of patients in these scenarios may overwhelm available health care resources. Recent applications of closed-loop control (CLC) techniques to critical care medicine may offer possible solutions for such environments. Here, feedback of a monitored variable or group of variables is used to control the state or output of a dynamic system. Some potential advantages of CLC in patient management include limiting task saturation when there is simultaneous demand for cognitive and active clinical intervention, improving quality of care through optimization of the titration of medications, conserving limited consumable supplies, preventing secondary insults in traumatic brain injury, shortening the duration of mechanical ventilation, and achieving appropriate goal-directed resuscitation. The uses of CLC systems in critical care medicine have been increasingly explored across a wide range of therapeutic modalities. This review will provide an overview of control system theory as applied to critical care medicine that must be considered in the design of autonomous CLC systems, and introduce a number of clinical applications under development in the context of deployment of such applications to austere environments.

  9. Closed loop deep brain stimulation: an evolving technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosain, Md Kamal; Kouzani, Abbas; Tye, Susannah

    2014-12-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an effective and safe medical treatment for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, dystonia, and treatment resistant obsessive compulsive disorder. A closed loop deep brain stimulation (CLDBS) system automatically adjusts stimulation parameters by the brain response in real time. The CLDBS continues to evolve due to the advancement in the brain stimulation technologies. This paper provides a study on the existing systems developed for CLDBS. It highlights the issues associated with CLDBS systems including feedback signal recording and processing, stimulation parameters setting, control algorithm, wireless telemetry, size, and power consumption. The benefits and limitations of the existing CLDBS systems are also presented. Whilst robust clinical proof of the benefits of the technology remains to be achieved, it has the potential to offer several advantages over open loop DBS. The CLDBS can improve efficiency and efficacy of therapy, eliminate lengthy start-up period for programming and adjustment, provide a personalized treatment, and make parameters setting automatic and adaptive.

  10. Wireless technologies for closed-loop retinal prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David C.; Bai, Shun; Yang, Jiawei; Tran, Nhan; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss various technologies needed to develop retinal prostheses with wireless power and data telemetry operation. In addition to the need to communicate with the implanted device, supply of power to the retinal prosthesis is especially difficult. This is because, in the implanted state, the device is not fixed in position due to constant motion of the eye. Furthermore, a retinal prosthesis incorporating a high density electrode array of more than 1000 electrodes is expected to consume approximately 45 mW of power and require 300 kbps of image and stimulation data. The front end of the wireless power and data transmission, the antenna, needs to be small compared to the size of the eye. Also, the wireless module is expected to operate in the reactive near-field region due to small separation between the transmit and receive antennas compared to their size and corresponding operating wavelength. An inductive link is studied as a means to transfer power and for data telemetry between the implant and external unit. In this work, the use of integrated circuit and microfabrication technologies for implementing inductive links is discussed. A closed-loop approach is taken to improve performance and reach optimum operation condition. Design and simulation data are presented as the basis for development of viable wireless module prototypes.

  11. Closed Loop Brain Model of Neocortical Information Based Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eKozloski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an information based exchange' model of brain function that ascribes to neocortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus distinct network functions. The model allows us to analyze whole brain system set point measures, such as the rate and heterogeneity of transitions in striatum and neocortex, in the context of neuromodulation and other perturbations. Our closed-loop model is grounded in neuroanatomical observations, proposing a novel Grand Loop through neocortex, and invokes different forms of plasticity at specific tissue interfaces and their principle cell synapses to achieve these transitions. By implementing a system for maximum information based exchange of action potentials between modeled neocortical areas, we observe changes to these measures in simulation. We hypothesize that similar dynamic set points and modulations exist in the brain's resting state activity, and that different modifications to information based exchange may shift the risk profile of different component tissues, resulting in different neurodegenerative diseases. This model is targeted for further development using IBM's Neural Tissue Simulator, which allows scalable elaboration of networks, tissues, and their neural and synaptic components towards ever greater complexity and biological realism.

  12. Real-Time Closed Loop Modulated Turbine Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Culley, Dennis E.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Jones, Scott; Woike, Mark; Cuy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It has been noted by industry that in addition to dramatic variations of temperature over a given blade surface, blade-to-blade variations also exist despite identical design. These variations result from manufacturing variations, uneven wear and deposition over the life of the part as well as limitations in the uniformity of coolant distribution in the baseline cooling design. It is proposed to combine recent advances in optical sensing, actuation, and film cooling concepts to develop a workable active, closed-loop modulated turbine cooling system to improve by 10 to 20 the turbine thermal state over the flight mission, to improve engine life and to dramatically reduce turbine cooling air usage and aircraft fuel burn. A reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) can also be achieved by using the excess coolant to improve mixing in the combustor especially for rotorcraft engines. Recent patents filed by industry and universities relate to modulating endwall cooling using valves. These schemes are complex, add weight and are limited to the endwalls. The novelty of the proposed approach is twofold 1) Fluidic diverters that have no moving parts are used to modulate cooling and can operate under a wide range of conditions and environments. 2) Real-time optical sensing to map the thermal state of the turbine has never been attempted in realistic engine conditions.

  13. Dynamical behaviour of natural convection in closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, P.

    1988-04-01

    A one dimensional model is presented together with experiments, which describe the natural convective flow in closed loops heated at the bottom and cooled in the upper semicircle. Starting from a single loop, mechanical and thermal coupling with a second loop is discussed. The experiments and the theoretical model both concurrently demonstrate that the investigated natural convection is clearly influenced by non-linear effects. Beside the variety of stable steady flows there are extensive subcritical ranges of convective flow. In these parameter ranges subcritical instabilities of the steady state flow could occur in the presence of finite amplitude disturbances. However, the supercritical, global unstable range is characterized by chaotic histories of the variables of state. Non-symmetric heating generates an imperfect bifurcation out of the steady solution with zero velocity in the loop. This effect stabilizes the flow in the preferred direction. The flow in the opposite direction only remains stable in a small isolated interval of the heating parameter. Furthermore the calculations with the model equations demonstrate that a stable periodic behaviour of the flow is possible in a small parameter window. However, it has not been possible to verify this particular effect in the experiments conducted to date. (orig./GL) [de

  14. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model of Rare Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Son

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare metals (RMs are becoming increasingly important in high-tech industries associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, such as the electric vehicle (EV and 3D printer industries. As the growth of these industries accelerates in the near future, manufacturers will also face greater RM supply risks. For this reason, many countries are putting considerable effort into securing the RM supply. For example, countries including Japan, Korea, and the USA have adopted two major policies: the stockpile system and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR. Therefore, it is necessary for the manufacturers with RMs to establish a suitable supply chain plan that reflects this situation. In this study, the RM classification matrix is created based on the stockpile and recycling level in Korea. Accordingly, three different types of supply chain are designed in order to develop the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC planning model of RM, and the CLSC planning models of RM are validated through experimental analysis. The results show that the stockpiling and the EPR recycling obligation increase the amount of recycled flow and reduce the total cost of the part manufacturing, which means that these two factors are significant for obtaining sustainability of the RMs’ CLSC. In addition, the government needs to set an appropriate sharing cost for promoting the manufacturer’s recycling. Also, from the manufacturer’s perspective, it is better to increase the return rate by making a contract with the collectors to guarantee the collection of used products.

  15. Commissioning of closed loop controls at CPP, HWP, Manuguru (Paper No. 3.5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Sukumar; Narasimham, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    The captive power plant (CPP) for Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru is equipped with 3x265 T/hr steam capacity boilers. The control system is built around ASEA master hardware for sequence interlocks, closed loop control, and data acquisition functions. This paper describes the configuration of the system hardware, the steps carried out during commissioning of closed loop controls in distributed digital control systems and also the problems faced during the commissioning of closed loops. (author). 3 figs

  16. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle using evolutionary algorithm and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is selected using Fuzzy, TOPSIS, LINMAP and Shannon’s entropy decision making methods. Triple objective evolutionary approach applied to the proposed model gives power output, thermal efficiency, ecological function as (53.89 kW, 0.1611, −142 kW which are 29.78%, 25.86% and 21.13% lower in comparison with reversible system. Furthermore, the present study reflects the effect of various heat capacitance rates and component efficiencies on triple objectives in graphical custom. Finally, with the aim of error investigation, average and maximum errors of obtained results are computed.

  17. Profit Analysis and Supply Chain Planning Model for Closed-Loop Supply Chain in Fashion Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Oh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, due to market growth and use of synthetic fiber, the fashion industry faces a rapid increase of CO2 emission throughout the production cycle and raises environmental issues in recovery processing. This study proposes a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC structure in fashion industry and develops its planning model as multi-objective mixed integer linear programming to find an optimal trade-off between CLSC profit and CO2 emission. The planning model is associated with the profit analysis of each member in CLSC to find the optimal price of products on CLSC network. The model determines optimal production, transportation, and inventory quantities on CLSC network. The proposed models are validated using numerical experiments and sensitivity analyses, and from the results some managerial insights are addressed.

  18. A theory of how active behavior stabilises neural activity: Neural gain modulation by closed-loop environmental feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Buckley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input. We support this theory with modeling and data analysis in two vertebrate systems. First, in a model of rodent whisking we show that negative feedback mediated by whisking vibrissa can suppress coherent neural fluctuations and neural responses to sensory input in the barrel cortex. We argue this suppression provides an appealing account of a brain state transition (a marked change in global brain activity coincident with the onset of whisking in rodents. Moreover, this mechanism suggests a novel signal detection mechanism that selectively accentuates active, rather than passive, whisker touch signals. This mechanism is consistent with a predictive coding strategy that is sensitive to the consequences of motor actions rather than the difference between the predicted and actual sensory input. We further support the theory by re-analysing previously published two-photon data recorded in zebrafish larvae performing closed-loop optomotor behaviour in a virtual swim simulator. We show, as predicted by this theory, that the degree to which each cell contributes in linking sensory and motor signals well explains how much its neural fluctuations are suppressed by closed-loop optomotor behaviour. More generally we argue that our results

  19. A theory of how active behavior stabilises neural activity: Neural gain modulation by closed-loop environmental feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Christopher L; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2018-01-01

    During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input. We support this theory with modeling and data analysis in two vertebrate systems. First, in a model of rodent whisking we show that negative feedback mediated by whisking vibrissa can suppress coherent neural fluctuations and neural responses to sensory input in the barrel cortex. We argue this suppression provides an appealing account of a brain state transition (a marked change in global brain activity) coincident with the onset of whisking in rodents. Moreover, this mechanism suggests a novel signal detection mechanism that selectively accentuates active, rather than passive, whisker touch signals. This mechanism is consistent with a predictive coding strategy that is sensitive to the consequences of motor actions rather than the difference between the predicted and actual sensory input. We further support the theory by re-analysing previously published two-photon data recorded in zebrafish larvae performing closed-loop optomotor behaviour in a virtual swim simulator. We show, as predicted by this theory, that the degree to which each cell contributes in linking sensory and motor signals well explains how much its neural fluctuations are suppressed by closed-loop optomotor behaviour. More generally we argue that our results demonstrate the dependence

  20. Beyond Waste Reduction: Creating Value with Information Systems in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Koppius (Otto); O. Ozdemir (Oznur); E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of information systems in enabling closed-loop supply chains. Past research in green IS and closed-loop supply chains has shown that it can result in substantial cost savings and waste reduction. We complement this research by showing that the effects are more than

  1. Closed-loop Identification for Control of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    , closed- loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can...

  2. The parametric open-plus-closed-loop control of chaotic maps and its robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric open-plus-closed-loop control approach to controlling chaos. The logistic map is treated as an example to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach. It is proved that the approach is robust to the model error. Its relations to the open-plus-closed-loop control and the parametric entrainment control are discussed

  3. Finite time exergy analysis and multi-objective ecological optimization of a regenerative Brayton cycle considering the impact of flow rate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Defining a dimensionless parameter includes the finite-time and size concepts. • Inserting the concept of exergy of fluid streams into finite-time thermodynamics. • Defining, drawing and modifying of maximum ecological function curve. • Suggesting the appropriate performance zone, according to maximum ecological curve. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative Brayton cycle is sought through power and then ecological function maximization using finite-time thermodynamic concept and finite-size components. Multi-objective optimization is used for maximizing the ecological function. Optimizations are performed using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the finite-time and finite-size concepts in current problem, a dimensionless mass-flow parameter is introduced deploying time variations. The variations of output power, total exergy destruction of the system, and decision variables for the optimum state (maximum ecological function state) are compared to the maximum power state using the dimensionless parameter. The modified ecological function in optimum state is obtained and plotted relating to the dimensionless mass-flow parameter. One can see that the modified ecological function study results in a better performance than that obtained with the maximum power state. Finally, the appropriate performance zone of the heat engine will be obtained

  4. Initial estimates of the economical attractiveness of a nuclear closed Brayton combined cycle operating with firebrick resistance-heated energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chavagnat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES concept developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology aims to enhance profitability of the nuclear power industry in the next decades. Studies carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology already provide estimates of the potential revenue from FIRES system when it is applied to industrial heat supply, the likely first application. Here, we investigate the possibility of operating a power plant (PP with a fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor and a closed Brayton cycle. This variant offers features such as enhanced nuclear safety as well as flexibility in design of the PP but also radically changes the way of operating the PP. This exploratory study provides estimates of the revenue generated by FIRES in addition to the nominal revenue of the stand-alone fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor, which are useful for defining an initial design. The electricity price data is based on the day-ahead markets of Germany/Austria and the United States (Iowa. The proposed method derives from the equation of revenue introduced in this study and involves simple computations using MatLab to compute the estimates. Results show variable economic potential depending on the host grid but stress a high profitability in both regions. Keywords: Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage, Nuclear Power Plant, Revenue Estimate, Storage System

  5. Fundamental study of key issues related to advanced sCO2 Brayton cycle: Prototypic HX development and cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Devesh [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Diffusion bonded heat exchangers are the leading candidates for the sCO2 Brayton cycles in next generation nuclear power plants. Commercially available diffusion bonded heat exchangers utilize set of continuous semi-circular zigzag micro channels to increase the heat transfer area and enhance heat transfer through increased turbulence production. Such heat exchangers can lead to excessive pressure drop as well as flow maldistribution in the case of poorly designed flow distribution headers. The goal of the current project is to fabricate and test potential discontinuous fin patterns for diffusion bonded heat exchangers; which can achieve desired thermal performance at lower pressure drops. Prototypic discontinuous offset rectangular and Airfoil fin surface geometries were chemically etched on to 316 stainless steel plate and sealed against an un-etched flat pate using O-ring seal emulating diffusion bonded heat exchangers. Thermal-hydraulic performance of these prototypic discontinuous fin geometries was experimentally evaluated and compared to the existing data for the continuous zigzag channels. The data generated from this project will serve as the database for future testing and validation of numerical models.

  6. Pump integrated closed loop control. The intelligent actuator pump - state of the art and perspectives; Pumpenintegrierte Prozessregelung. Der intelligente Aktor Pumpe - Stand und Moeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Thomas; Schullerer, Joachim; Oesterle, Manfred [KSB AG, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In many areas of industrial automation, centrifugal pumps and systems of centrifugal pumps are important actuators of a process und therefore a fundamental part of the entire plant. In contrary to the controlled valves, located behind the pump in the pipework system, the functions of the intelligent actuator pump or system of pumps are rarely used and noticed. With regard to the reduction of life cycle costs of the asset pump, pump integrated closed loop control of the fluid transport task has advantages over central closed loop control e.g. in a process control system. This article contains a survey of the intelligent actuator pump, its structure and functions with regard to the solution of the fluid transport task and according pump integrated closed loop control. (orig.)

  7. Review article: closed-loop systems in anesthesia: is there a potential for closed-loop fluid management and hemodynamic optimization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Joseph; Liu, Ngai; Alexander, Brenton; Cannesson, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    Closed-loop (automated) controllers are encountered in all aspects of modern life in applications ranging from air-conditioning to spaceflight. Although these systems are virtually ubiquitous, they are infrequently used in anesthesiology because of the complexity of physiologic systems and the difficulty in obtaining reliable and valid feedback data from the patient. Despite these challenges, closed-loop systems are being increasingly studied and improved for medical use. Two recent developments have made fluid administration a candidate for closed-loop control. First, the further description and development of dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness provides a strong parameter for use as a control variable to guide fluid administration. Second, rapid advances in noninvasive monitoring of cardiac output and other hemodynamic variables make goal-directed therapy applicable for a wide range of patients in a variety of clinical care settings. In this article, we review the history of closed-loop controllers in clinical care, discuss the current understanding and limitations of the dynamic predictors of fluid responsiveness, and examine how these variables might be incorporated into a closed-loop fluid administration system.

  8. Revisiting the Closed-Loop Pneumatic Drive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D. Efremova

    2017-01-01

    state process under its constant temperature, pressure, and volume and also in the absolute or partial absence of heat exchange with the surrounding medium. The inconstancy of the compressed air mass during filling in and discharging of pneumatic cavities of variable volume causes non-stationary thermodynamic processes in the pneumatic actuators and requires their specifying in conditions of heat and mass exchange.The pneumatic actuator piston speed is related to the peculiarities of the working medium movement through the narrow slits of distribution and control devices of pneumatic automation due to dependency of the flow on the outflow parameter, which in turn is related to the criticality of the outflow process (the ratio of the pressure at the outlet of the throttling device and at its inlet.It is shown that when calculating and designing the pneumatic drives, including closed-loop ones, as well as for evaluating their dynamic characteristics, a system solution of the equations determining the processes of filling and discharging the cavities of the pneumatic cylinder is required, taking into account the peculiarities of compressed air movement through the narrow slits of pneumatic automation devices.The outflow parameter available in the equations of the pneumatic drive dynamics and determined by the outflow process criticality and by the heat exchange conditions (a poly-tropic index requires their numerical solution.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Combined Well and Open-Closed Loops Geothermal (CWG) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu-Chul

    2016-04-01

    Open-loop geothermal heat pump (GHP) system and closed-loop heat pump systems have been used in Korea to reduce emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). The GHP systems have the pros and cons, for example, the open-loop GHP system is good energy-efficient and the closed-loop GHP system requires minimum maintenance costs. The open-loop GHP system can be used practically only with large amount of groundwater supply. The closed-loop GHP system can be used with high costs of initial installation. The performance and efficiency of the GHP system depend on the characteristics of the GHP system itself in addition to the geologic conditions. To overcome the cons of open-loop or closed-loop GHP system, the combined well and open-closed loops geothermal (CWG) system was designed. The open-loop GHP system is surrounded with closed-loop GHP systems in the CWG system. The geothermal energy in closed-loop GHP systems is supplied by the groundwater pumped by the open-loop GHP system. In this study, 2 different types of the CWG systems (small aperture hybrid CWG system and large aperture CWG system) are estimated using numerical simulation models in the aspect of energy efficiency. This work was supported by the New & Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea. (No.20153030111120).

  10. Chained learning architectures in a simple closed-loop behavioural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Porr, Bernd; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2007-01-01

    are very simple and consist of single learning unit. The current study is trying to solve this problem focusing on chained learning architectures in a simple closed-loop behavioural context. METHODS: We applied temporal sequence learning (Porr B and Wörgötter F 2006) in a closed-loop behavioural system...... where a driving robot learns to follow a line. Here for the first time we introduced two types of chained learning architectures named linear chain and honeycomb chain. We analyzed such architectures in an open and closed-loop context and compared them to the simple learning unit. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Behavioral analysis of differential Hebbian learning in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulvicius, Tomas; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Tamosiunaite, Minija

    2010-01-01

    Understanding closed loop behavioral systems is a non-trivial problem, especially when they change during learning. Descriptions of closed loop systems in terms of information theory date back to the 1950s, however, there have been only a few attempts which take into account learning, mostly...... measuring information of inputs. In this study we analyze a specific type of closed loop system by looking at the input as well as the output space. For this, we investigate simulated agents that perform differential Hebbian learning (STDP). In the first part we show that analytical solutions can be found...

  12. Managing a closed-loop supply chain inventory system with learning effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad; Dwicahyani, Anindya Rachma; Hendaryani, Oktiviandri; Kurdhi, Nughthoh Arfawi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a closed-loop supply chain model consisting of a retailer and a manufacturer. We intend to investigate the impact of learning in regular production, remanufacturing and reworking. The customer demand is assumed deterministic and will be satisfied from both regular production and remanufacturing process. The return rate of used items depends on quality. We propose a mathematical model with the objective is to maximize the joint total profit by simultaneously determining the length of ordering cycle for the retailer and the number of regular production and remanufacturing cycle. The algorithm is suggested for finding the optimal solution. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the application of using a proposed model. The results show that the integrated model performs better in reducing total cost compared to the independent model. The total cost is most affected by the changes in the values of unit production cost and acceptable quality level. In addition, the changes in the defective items proportion and the fraction of holding costs significantly influence the retailer's ordering period.

  13. State space model extraction of thermohydraulic systems – Part II: A linear graph approach applied to a Brayton cycle-based power conversion unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uren, Kenneth Richard; Schoor, George van

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in a two part series presents the application of a developed state space model extraction methodology applied to a Brayton cycle-based PCU (power conversion unit) of a PBMR (pebble bed modular reactor). The goal is to investigate if the state space extraction methodology can cope with larger and more complex thermohydraulic systems. In Part I the state space model extraction methodology for the purpose of control was described in detail and a state space representation was extracted for a U-tube system to illustrate the concept. In this paper a 25th order nonlinear state space representation in terms of the different energy domains is extracted. This state space representation is solved and the responses of a number of important states are compared with results obtained from a PBMR PCU Flownex ® model. Flownex ® is a validated thermo fluid simulation software package. The results show that the state space model closely resembles the dynamics of the PBMR PCU. This kind of model may be used for nonlinear MIMO (multi-input, multi-output) type of control strategies. However, there is still a need for linear state space models since many control system design and analysis techniques require a linear state space model. This issue is also addressed in this paper by showing how a linear state space model can be derived from the extracted nonlinear state space model. The linearised state space model is also validated by comparing the state space model to an existing linear Simulink ® model of the PBMR PCU system. - Highlights: • State space model extraction of a pebble bed modular reactor PCU (power conversion unit). • A 25th order nonlinear time varying state space model is obtained. • Linearisation of a nonlinear state space model for use in power output control. • Non-minimum phase characteristic that is challenging in terms of control. • Models derived are useful for MIMO control strategies

  14. Closed-Loop Pure Oxygen Static Feed Fuel Cell for Lunar Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to address the NASA lunar mission, DESC proposes to develop a proton exchange membrane (PEM) closed-loop pure oxygen fuel cell for application to lunar...

  15. Approximate Models for Closed-Loop Trajectory Tracking in Underactuated Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Control of robotic systems, as a field, spans both traditional closed-loop feedback techniques and modern machine learning strategies, which are primarily open-loop....

  16. Failure Analysis of Network Based Accessible Pedestrian Signals in Closed-Loop Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The potential failure modes of a network based accessible pedestrian system were analyzed to determine the limitations and benefits of closed-loop operation. The vulnerabilities of the system are accessed using the industry standard process known as ...

  17. Closed-Loop Resuscitation of Hemorrhagic Shock: Novel Solutions Infused to Hypotensive and Normotensive Endpoints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, George C

    2007-01-01

    .... Our long-term goal is to develop efficient and efficacious resuscitation regimens for combat casualty care and to develop a microprocessor controlled closed-loop resuscitation system that will...

  18. Closed-Loop, Non-Venting Thermal Control for Mars EVA Suits, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks new thermal control technology for EVA suits on Mars. The system must be closed-loop and non-venting, have negligible impact on the Martian environment,...

  19. Closed-loop multiple antenna aided wireless communications using limited feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Du

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the design of closed-loop multiple antenna aided wireless communications relying on limited feedback. Multiple antennas may be employed either/both at the transmitter or/and at the receiver, here the latter periodically feeds back some information about the time-varying wireless channel using a limited number of bits. Furthermore, the transmitter then pre-processes the signals to be transmitted according to the received feedback information. This closed-loop...

  20. Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    predicts forces and moments for the class of flapping wing fliers that makes up most insects and hummingbirds. Large bird and butterfly “clap- and...Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles DISSERTATION Garrison J. Lindholm, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENY-DS-14-M-02 DEPARTMENT...States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT-ENY-DS-14-M-02 Closed-Loop Control of Constrained Flapping Wing Micro Air

  1. Design, Prototyping, and Assessment of a Wastewater Closed-Loop Recovery and Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to decrease the water use within industry are mandatory to pursue product and process sustainability. Particularly, the European Union (EU is at the top level for water consumption in industry, while some sectors, such as the food and beverage (F&B, are highly water-intensive with hundreds of liters per hour of consumed and, then, drained water. This article provides a systematic overview of the most innovative insights coming from an EU Eco-Innovation project dealing with greening the F&B industry through the design, prototyping, technical, economic, and environmental assessment of a wastewater closed-loop recovery and purification system. The system, tailored for a standard mid-size F&B company using 2–3 billion L/year of raw water, collects, purifies and recirculates the key produced wastewater streams with an overall recovery efficiency of about 56%. The proposed purification technology comes from the most efficient combination of membrane-based filtration methods, reverse osmosis (RO, and ultraviolet modules. Evidence from the technical design, full-scale on-site technology prototyping, net-present-value (NPV analysis and system life-cycle-assessment (LCA are presented concluding about the convenience of adopting the proposed solution to reduce costs and impacts on the environment.

  2. An optimal open/closed-loop control method with application to a pre-stressed thin duralumin plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimpalli, Sruthi Raju

    The excessive vibrations of a pre-stressed duralumin plate, suppressed by a combination of open-loop and closed-loop controls, also known as open/closed-loop control, is studied in this thesis. The two primary steps involved in this process are: Step (I) with an assumption that the closed-loop control law is proportional, obtain the optimal open-loop control by direct minimization of the performance measure consisting of energy at terminal time and a penalty on open-loop control force via calculus of variations. If the performance measure also involves a penalty on closed-loop control effort then a Fourier based method is utilized. Step (II) the energy at terminal time is minimized numerically to obtain optimal values of feedback gains. The optimal closed-loop control gains obtained are used to describe the displacement and the velocity of open-loop, closed-loop and open/closed-loop controlled duralumin plate.

  3. Development of a plant dynamics computer code for analysis of a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle energy converter coupled to a natural circulation lead-cooled fast reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2007-03-08

    STAR-LM is a lead-cooled pool-type fast reactor concept operating under natural circulation of the coolant. The reactor core power is 400 MWt. The open-lattice core consists of fuel pins attached to the core support plate, (the does not consist of removable fuel assemblies). The coolant flows outside of the fuel pins. The fuel is transuranic nitride, fabricated from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. The cladding material is HT-9 stainless steel; the steady-state peak cladding temperature is 650 C. The coolant is single-phase liquid lead under atmospheric pressure; the core inlet and outlet temperatures are 438 C and 578 C, respectively. (The Pb coolant freezing and boiling temperatures are 327 C and 1749 C, respectively). The coolant is contained inside of a reactor vessel. The vessel material is Type 316 stainless steel. The reactor is autonomous meaning that the reactor power is self-regulated based on inherent reactivity feedbacks and no external power control (through control rods) is utilized. The shutdown (scram) control rods are used for startup and shutdown and to stop the fission reaction in case of an emergency. The heat from the reactor is transferred to the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle in in-reactor heat exchangers (IRHX) located inside the reactor vessel. The IRHXs are shell-and-tube type heat exchangers with lead flowing downwards on the shell side and CO{sub 2} flowing upwards on the tube side. No intermediate circuit is utilized. The guard vessel surrounds the reactor vessel to contain the coolant, in the very unlikely event of reactor vessel failure. The Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) implementing the natural circulation of air flowing upwards over the guard vessel is used to cool the reactor, in the case of loss of normal heat removal through the IRHXs. The RVACS is always in operation. The gap between the vessels is filled with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) to enhance the heat removal by air by significantly reducing the thermal

  4. Closed loop problems in biomechanics. Part II--an optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, C L; Hay, J G; Andrews, J G

    1982-01-01

    A closed loop problem in biomechanics may be defined as a problem in which there are one or more closed loops formed by the human body in contact with itself or with an external system. Under certain conditions the problem is indeterminate--the unknown forces and torques outnumber the equations. Force transducing devices, which would help solve this problem, have serious drawbacks, and existing methods are inaccurate and non-general. The purposes of the present paper are (1) to develop a general procedure for solving closed loop problems; (2) to illustrate the application of the procedure; and (3) to examine the validity of the procedure. A mathematical optimization approach is applied to the solution of three different closed loop problems--walking up stairs, vertical jumping and cartwheeling. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) the method described is reasonably successful for predicting horizontal and vertical reaction forces at the distal segments although problems exist for predicting the points of application of these forces; (2) the results provide some support for the notion that the human neuromuscular mechanism attempts to minimize the joint torques and thus, to a certain degree, the amount of muscular effort; (3) in the validation procedure it is desirable to have a force device for each of the distal segments in contact with a fixed external system; and (4) the method is sufficiently general to be applied to all classes of closed loop problems.

  5. Irradiation Testing Vehicles for Fast Reactors from Open Test Assemblies to Closed Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.

  6. Dynamic simulation of perturbation responses in a closed-loop virtual arm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yu-Fan; He, Xin; Lan, Ning

    2010-01-01

    A closed-loop virtual arm (VA) model has been developed in SIMULINK environment by adding spinal reflex circuits and propriospinal neural networks to the open-loop VA model developed in early study [1]. An improved virtual muscle model (VM4.0) is used to speed up simulation and to generate more precise recruitment of muscle force at low levels of muscle activation. Time delays in the reflex loops are determined by their synaptic connections and afferent transmission back to the spinal cord. Reflex gains are properly selected so that closed-loop responses are stable. With the closed-loop VA model, we are developing an approach to evaluate system behaviors by dynamic simulation of perturbation responses. Joint stiffness is calculated based on simulated perturbation responses by a least-squares algorithm in MATLAB. This method of dynamic simulation will be essential for further evaluation of feedforward and reflex control of arm movement and position.

  7. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  8. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  9. A review of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Soleimani, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Today, the task of developing reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chains in both developed and developing industries is accepted as a vital need in our societies. The growing interest in reverse issues can be clearly seen in the large number of publications, especially the ones that consider...... case studies in various industries. Based on its missions, Journal of Cleaner Production (JCP) is one of the most active journals in this field. Therefore, a comprehensive review is undertaken of the publications in the field of reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chains; the selection process...... December 2014 have been selected and reviewed. The selected papers are then analyzed based on their content and the appropriate developed categories. The results clarify the main trends in reverse logistics and closed-loop supply chain subjects for the Journal of Cleaner Production and the evaluations...

  10. Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Kulahci, Murat; Vanhatalo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop....... Instead, closed-loop control systems will actively attempt to minimize the impact of process disturbances. However, we argue that an implicit assumption in most experimental investigations is that the studied system is open loop, allowing the experimental factors to freely affect the important system...... responses. This scenario is typically not found in process industries. The purpose of this article is therefore to explore issues of experimental design and analysis in processes operating under closed-loop control and to illustrate how Design of Experiments can help in improving and optimizing...

  11. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices

  12. Bidirectional neural interface: Closed-loop feedback control for hybrid neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Zane; Lim, Jeffrey; Brown, Sophie; Keller, Melissa; Bugbee, Joseph; Broccard, Frédéric D; Khraiche, Massoud L; Silva, Gabriel A; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Closed-loop neural prostheses enable bidirectional communication between the biological and artificial components of a hybrid system. However, a major challenge in this field is the limited understanding of how these components, the two separate neural networks, interact with each other. In this paper, we propose an in vitro model of a closed-loop system that allows for easy experimental testing and modification of both biological and artificial network parameters. The interface closes the system loop in real time by stimulating each network based on recorded activity of the other network, within preset parameters. As a proof of concept we demonstrate that the bidirectional interface is able to establish and control network properties, such as synchrony, in a hybrid system of two neural networks more significantly more effectively than the same system without the interface or with unidirectional alternatives. This success holds promise for the application of closed-loop systems in neural prostheses, brain-machine interfaces, and drug testing.

  13. In situ closed-loop bioremediation: Rapid closure in a northern climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymann, D.F.; Hammerbeck, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    In situ closed-loop bioremediation was employed to achieve site closure at a former railyard in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Soil and groundwater were contaminated with gasoline. The closed-loop remediation system design incorporated three downgradient groundwater recovery wells and a low-pressure pipe infiltration gallery. Aboveground treatment of recovered groundwater was provided by a fixed-film bioreactor. The total reported benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)-removal efficiency of the bioreactor ranged from 98.8% to 100%. Concentrations of BTEX components in groundwater wells were reduced by 45% to 98%. The cleanup goals set by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency were met within the first 6 months of treatment, and the remediation system was shut down after 20 months of operation. This project further demonstrates the effectiveness of reactor-based, closed-loop in situ bioremediation at sites with favorable conditions

  14. An investigation into closed-loop treatment of neurological disorders based on sensing mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott D; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Tye, Susannah J; Bennet, Kevin E; Berk, Michael

    2018-02-13

    Dynamic feedback based closed-loop medical devices offer a number of advantages for treatment of heterogeneous neurological conditions. Closed-loop devices integrate a level of neurobiological feedback, which allows for real-time adjustments to be made with the overarching aim of improving treatment efficacy and minimizing risks for adverse events. One target which has not been extensively explored as a potential feedback component in closed-loop therapies is mitochondrial function. Several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson's disease, Major Depressive disorder and Bipolar disorder have been linked to perturbations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This paper investigates the potential to monitor this mitochondrial function as a method of feedback for closed-loop neuromodulation treatments. A generic model of the closed-loop treatment is developed to describe the high-level functions of any system designed to control neural function based on mitochondrial response to stimulation, simplifying comparison and future meta-analysis. This model has four key functional components including: a sensor, signal manipulator, controller and effector. Each of these components are described and several potential technologies for each are investigated. While some of these candidate technologies are quite mature, there are still technological gaps remaining. The field of closed-loop medical devices is rapidly evolving, and whilst there is a lot of interest in this area, widespread adoption has not yet been achieved due to several remaining technological hurdles. However, the significant therapeutic benefits offered by this technology mean that this will be an active area for research for years to come.

  15. Closed-loop Supply Chain as an Agent of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-San Gan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has recently become an important issue which received growing attentions from government, society, industries as well as academia. There have been concerns on relatively rapid growth in population and increased quality of life despite limited natural resources and landfill capacity. Closed-loop Supply Chain (CLSC is one of many approaches to mitigate the abovementioned disproportion. This article aims to study closed-loop supply chain by explaining the definition, description, pros and contras, relevance, case studies from literature, and potential research; such that its role as an agent of sustainable development can be recognized.

  16. Detector design for active fault diagnosis in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekunda, André Krabdrup; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2018-01-01

    Fault diagnosis of closed-loop systems is extremely relevant for high-precision equipment and safety critical systems. Fault diagnosis is usually divided into 2 schemes: active and passive fault diagnosis. Recent studies have highlighted some advantages of active fault diagnosis based on dual Youla......-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameters. In this paper, a method for closed-loop active fault diagnosis based on statistical detectors is given using dual Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera parameters. The goal of this paper is 2-fold. First, the authors introduce a method for measuring a residual signal subject to white noise. Second...

  17. Transformations to diagonal bases in closed-loop quantum learning control experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoza, David; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos; Langhojer, Florian; Rabitz, Herschel; Weinacht, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses transformations between bases used in closed-loop learning control experiments. The goal is to transform to a basis in which the number of control parameters is minimized and in which the parameters act independently. We demonstrate a simple procedure for testing whether a unitary linear transformation (i.e., a rotation amongst the control variables) is sufficient to reduce the search problem to a set of globally independent variables. This concept is demonstrated with closed-loop molecular fragmentation experiments utilizing shaped, ultrafast laser pulses

  18. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kaiser Calautit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014 [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  19. A novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope with closed-loop Faraday modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiancheng; Wan, Shuangai; Qin, Jie; Zhang, Chen; Quan, Wei; Yuan, Heng; Dong, Haifeng

    2013-08-01

    We report a novel Cs-(129)Xe atomic spin gyroscope (ASG) with closed-loop Faraday modulation method. This ASG requires approximately 30 min to start-up and 110 °C to operate. A closed-loop Faraday modulation method for measurement of the optical rotation was used in this ASG. This method uses an additional Faraday modulator to suppress the laser intensity fluctuation and Faraday modulator thermal induced fluctuation. We theoretically and experimentally validate this method in the Cs-(129)Xe ASG and achieved a bias stability of approximately 3.25 °∕h.

  20. Effect of closed loop cooling water transit time on containment cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.P.; Vossahlik, J.E.; Goodwin, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Long term containment cooling analyses in nuclear plant systems are usually conducted assuming a quasi steady-state process, that is, a steady state evaluation of the cooling system is completed for each calculational step. In reality, fluid transport in the system, and heat addition to system components may affect the heat removal rate of the system. Transient effects occurring during system startup may affect the maximum temperatures experienced in the system. It is important to ensure that such transient effects do not affect operation of the system (e.g., cause a high temperature trip). To evaluate the effect of fluid transit delays, a closed loop cooling water system model has been developed that incorporates the fluid transport times when determining the closed loop cooling system performance. This paper describes the closed loop cooling system model as implemented in the CONTEMPT-LT/028 code. The evaluation of the transient temperature response of the closed loop cooling system using the model is described. The paper also describes the effect of fluid transit time on the overall containment cooling performance

  1. Simulation of cortico-basal ganglia oscillations and their suppression by closed loop deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peadar F; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-07-01

    A new model of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presented that integrates volume conduction effects with a neural model of pathological beta-band oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network. The model is used to test the clinical hypothesis that closed-loop control of the amplitude of DBS may be possible, based on the average rectified value of beta-band oscillations in the local field potential. Simulation of closed-loop high-frequency DBS was shown to yield energy savings, with the magnitude of the energy saved dependent on the strength of coupling between the subthalamic nucleus and the remainder of the cortico-basal ganglia network. When closed-loop DBS was applied to a strongly coupled cortico-basal ganglia network, the stimulation energy delivered over a 480 s period was reduced by up to 42%. Greater energy reductions were observed for weakly coupled networks, as the stimulation amplitude reduced to zero once the initial desynchronization had occurred. The results provide support for the application of closed-loop high-frequency DBS based on electrophysiological biomarkers.

  2. Effects of Load and Speed Variations in a Modified Closed Loop V/F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the eects of load and reference speed variations in a modied closed loopv=f induction motor drive. A modied approach, involving the addition of a low frequency boostvoltage, is developed and adopted as an enhancement to the conventional closed loop v=f speedcontrol of a three phase squirrel ...

  3. Three-dimensional closed-loop control of self-propelled microjets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Schmidt, Oliver S.; Sanchez, Samuel; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate precise closed-loop control of microjets under the influence of the magnetic fields in three-dimensional (3D) space. For this purpose, we design a magnetic-based control system that directs the field lines towards reference positions. Microjets align along the controlled field lines

  4. Closed-loop spray drying solutions for energy efficient powder production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Visser, Q.; Bitter, J.H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a closed-loop dryer system to reduce the energy consumption for milk powder production. The system is based on a monodisperse droplet atomizer which reduces the amount of fines in the exhaust air, and allows dehumidification and recirculation of the air over the dryer. In this

  5. A Compact Closed-Loop Optogenetics System Based on Artifact-Free Transparent Graphene Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiology is a decades-old technique widely used for monitoring activity of individual neurons and local field potentials. Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience studies by offering selective and fast control of targeted neurons and neuron populations. The combination of these two techniques is crucial for causal investigation of neural circuits and understanding their functional connectivity. However, electrical artifacts generated by light stimulation interfere with neural recordings and hinder the development of compact closed-loop systems for precise control of neural activity. Here, we demonstrate that transparent graphene micro-electrodes fabricated on a clear polyethylene terephthalate film eliminate the light-induced artifact problem and allow development of a compact battery-powered closed-loop optogenetics system. We extensively investigate light-induced artifacts for graphene electrodes in comparison to metal control electrodes. We then design optical stimulation module using micro-LED chips coupled to optical fibers to deliver light to intended depth for optogenetic stimulation. For artifact-free integration of graphene micro-electrode recordings with optogenetic stimulation, we design and develop a compact closed-loop system and validate it for different frequencies of interest for neural recordings. This compact closed-loop optogenetics system can be used for various applications involving optogenetic stimulation and electrophysiological recordings.

  6. Optimal closed-loop identification test design for internal model control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, optimal closed-loop test design for control is studied. Simple design formulas are derived based on the asymptotic theory of Ljung. The control scheme used is internal model control (IMC) and the design constraint is the power of the process output or that of the reference signal. The

  7. Closed loop control of sedation for colonoscopy using the Bispectral Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, K.; Absalom, A.; Kenny, G. N. C.

    Sixteen patients undergoing colonoscopy were sedated with propofol using a closed-loop control system guided by the Bispectral Index (BIS). Propofol administration, via a target-controlled infusion, was controlled by a proportional-integral-differential control algorithm. The median (range) propofol

  8. Collection effort and reverse channel choices in a closed-loop supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Liu, Liwen; Wang, Zongjun

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the pricing and reverse channel choice decision issues in a closed-loop supply chain, within which the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sells the new and remanufactured products through a retailer, while collects used products (cores) via dual recycling channels. We consider...

  9. Reverse and closed loop supply chain coordination by considering government role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydari, Jafar; Govindan, Kannan; Jafari, Amin

    2017-01-01

    consumption by increasing customers’ willingness to return used products through offering a discount or a direct fee in exchange for bringing back EOL products. Afterward, the model is extended to consider a closed loop supply chain (CLSC). Quantity discounts and increasing fee contracts are proposed...

  10. Neocortical electrical stimulation for epilepsy : Closed-loop versus open-loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Albena; van Blooijs, Dorien; Leijten, Frans; Huiskamp, Geertjan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate whether open-loop or closed-loop neocortical electrical stimulation should be the preferred approach to manage seizures in intractable epilepsy. Twenty cases of open-loop neocortical stimulation with an implanted device have been reported, in 5 case studies.

  11. Closed loop control of a flap exposed to harmonic aerodynamic actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel testing of a two-dimensional aerofoil with a load reducing flap has been conducted under the influence of a closed-loop controller (PID). Upstream synthetic perturbations for well-defined testing of the controller were generated by instrumenting the wind tunnel with two fast turning...

  12. Nanometer range closed-loop control of a stepper micro-motor for data storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patrascu, M.; Stramigioli, Stefano; de Boer, Meint J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a nanometer range, closed-loop control study for MEMS stepper actuators. Although generically applicable to other types of stepper motors, the control design presented here was particularly intended for one dimensional shuffle actuators fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The

  13. From closed-loop to sustainable suplly chains: the WEEE case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quariguasi Frota Neto, J.; Walther, G.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Nunen, van J.A.E.E.; Spengler, T.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of closed-loop supply chains (CLSC) is to improve the maximum economic benefit from end-of-use products. Nevertheless, the literature within this stream of research advocates that closing the loop also helps to mitigate the undesirable environmental footprint of supply chains.

  14. Numerical static state feedback laws for closed-loop singular optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de S.C.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Singular and non-singular control trajectories of agricultural and (bio) chemical processes may need to be recalculated from time to time for use in closed-loop optimal control, because of unforeseen changes in state values and noise. This is time consuming. As an alternative, in this paper,

  15. A framework for closed-loop supply chains of reusable articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Carrasco-Gallego (Ruth); E. Ponce-Cueto (Eva); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractReuse practices contribute to the environmental and economical sustainability of production and distribution systems. Surprisingly, reuse closed-loop supply chains (CLSC) have not been widely researched for the moment. In this paper, we explore the scientific literature on reuse and we

  16. Integrating Closed-loop Supply Chains and Spare Parts Management at IBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fleischmann (Moritz); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); B. Graeve

    2002-01-01

    textabstractEver more companies are recognizing the benefits of closed-loop supply chains that integrate product returns into business operations. IBM has been among the pioneers seeking to unlock the value dormant in these resources. We report on a project exploiting product returns as a source of

  17. Model Optimization Identification Method Based on Closed-loop Operation Data and Process Characteristics Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang GENG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Output noise is strongly related to input in closed-loop control system, which makes model identification of closed-loop difficult, even unidentified in practice. The forward channel model is chosen to isolate disturbance from the output noise to input, and identified by optimization the dynamic characteristics of the process based on closed-loop operation data. The characteristics parameters of the process, such as dead time and time constant, are calculated and estimated based on the PI/PID controller parameters and closed-loop process input/output data. And those characteristics parameters are adopted to define the search space of the optimization identification algorithm. PSO-SQP optimization algorithm is applied to integrate the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SQP to identify the model parameters of forward channel. The validity of proposed method has been verified by the simulation. The practicability is checked with the PI/PID controller parameter turning based on identified forward channel model.

  18. Demonstration of a vectorial optical field generator with adaptive close loop control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Kong, Lingjiang; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a vectorial optical field generator (VOF-Gen) with an adaptive close loop control. The close loop control capability is illustrated with the calibration of polarization modulation of the system. To calibrate the polarization ratio modulation, we generate 45° linearly polarized beam and make it propagate through a linear analyzer whose transmission axis is orthogonal to the incident beam. For the retardation calibration, circularly polarized beam is employed and a circular polarization analyzer with the opposite chirality is placed in front of the CCD as the detector. In both cases, the close loop control automatically changes the value of the corresponding calibration parameters in the pre-set ranges to generate the phase patterns applied to the spatial light modulators and records the intensity distribution of the output beam by the CCD camera. The optimized calibration parameters are determined corresponding to the minimum total intensity in each case. Several typical kinds of vectorial optical beams are created with and without the obtained calibration parameters, and the full Stokes parameter measurements are carried out to quantitatively analyze the polarization distribution of the generated beams. The comparisons among these results clearly show that the obtained calibration parameters could remarkably improve the accuracy of the polarization modulation of the VOF-Gen, especially for generating elliptically polarized beam with large ellipticity, indicating the significance of the presented close loop in enhancing the performance of the VOF-Gen.

  19. Closed loop obstructions of the small bowel: role of Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiera, F.; Ciraulo, R.; Cusma', S.

    1999-01-01

    Small bowel obstructions can be distinguished into more simple and closed loop obstructions. The latter is a more severe condition which is often complicated by strangulation with vascular impairment, edema and intramural and mesenteric hemorrhage. Consequent arterial insufficiency rapidly leads to ischemia, infarction and necrosis. The radiologist plays a role in the early recognition of the closed loop obstruction and of any sign of strangulation. The role of CT in the diagnosis and workup of patients with suspected intestinal occlusion has been analyzed in the literature with reported 63% sensitivity, 78% specificity and 66% accuracy. CT is also capable of revealing the causes of occlusion in 73-95% of cases. The above CT signs allow to identify closed loop obstruction and also small bowel strangulation, thus supplying a valuable contribution to diagnosis and accurate preoperative evaluation. The conclusion is that CT can accurately demonstrate the presence of closed loop obstruction and can be the technique of choice in patients in whom obstruction is associated with clinical signs suggestive of strangulation [it

  20. Challenges and Recent Progress in the Development of a Closed-loop Artificial Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bequette, B Wayne

    2012-12-01

    Pursuit of a closed-loop artificial pancreas that automatically controls the blood glucose of individuals with type 1 diabetes has intensified during the past six years. Here we discuss the recent progress and challenges in the major steps towards a closed-loop system. Continuous insulin infusion pumps have been widely available for over two decades, but "smart pump" technology has made the devices easier to use and more powerful. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has improved and the devices are more widely available. A number of approaches are currently under study for fully closed-loop systems; most manipulate only insulin, while others manipulate insulin and glucagon. Algorithms include on-off (for prevention of overnight hypoglycemia), proportional-integral-derivative (PID), model predictive control (MPC) and fuzzy logic based learning control. Meals cause a major "disturbance" to blood glucose, and we discuss techniques that our group has developed to predict when a meal is likely to be consumed and its effect. We further examine both physiology and device-related challenges, including insulin infusion set failure and sensor signal attenuation. Finally, we discuss the next steps required to make a closed-loop artificial pancreas a commercial reality.

  1. Tool for the Integrated Dynamic Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS)/Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA ver2) is a control design tool thatenables preliminary estimation of transient performance for models without requiring a full nonlinear controller to bedesigned. The program is compatible with subsonic engine models implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink (TheMathworks, Inc.) environment and Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. At a specified flightcondition, TTECTrA will design a closed-loop controller meeting user-defined requirements in a semi or fully automatedfashion. Multiple specifications may be provided, in which case TTECTrA will design one controller for each, producing acollection of controllers in a single run. Each resulting controller contains a setpoint map, a schedule of setpointcontroller gains, and limiters; all contributing to transient characteristics. The goal of the program is to providesteady-state engine designers with more immediate feedback on the transient engine performance earlier in the design cycle.

  2. Effect of closed-loop order processing on the time to initial antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosh, Nicole; Rew, Richardd; Sharpe, Michelle

    2012-08-15

    The results of a study comparing the average time to initiation of i.v. antimicrobial therapy with closed-versus open-loop order entry and processing are reported. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare order-to-administration times for initial doses of i.v. antimicrobials before and after a closed-loop order-processing system including computerized prescriber order entry (CPOE) was implemented at a large medical center. A total of 741 i.v. antimicrobial administrations to adult patients during designated five-month preimplementation and postimplementation study periods were assessed. Drug-use reports generated by the pharmacy database were used to identify order-entry times, and medication administration records were reviewed to determine times of i.v. antimicrobial administration. The mean ± S.D. order-to-administration times before and after the implementation of the CPOE system and closed-loop order processing were 3.18 ± 2.60 and 2.00 ± 1.89 hours, respectively, a reduction of 1.18 hours (p Closed-loop order processing was associated with significant reductions in the average time to initiation of i.v. therapy in all patient care areas evaluated (cardiology, general medicine, and oncology). The study results suggest that CPOE-based closed-loop order processing can play an important role in achieving compliance with current practice guidelines calling for increased efforts to ensure the prompt initiation of i.v. antimicrobials for severe infections (e.g., sepsis, meningitis). Implementation of a closed-loop order-processing system resulted in a significant decrease in order-to-administration times for i.v. antimicrobial therapy.

  3. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  4. Falcon: a highly flexible open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Davide; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. To facilitate a wide range of closed-loop experiments, we created an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data. Approach. We wrote Falcon, a C++ multi-threaded software in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node of a Falcon graph is mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers. The framework allows for easy implementation of new processing nodes and data types. Falcon was tested both on a 32-core and a 4-core workstation. Streaming data was read from either a commercial acquisition system (Neuralynx) or the open-source Open Ephys hardware, while closed-loop TTL pulses were generated with a USB module for digital output. We characterized the round-trip latency of our Falcon-based closed-loop system, as well as the specific latency contribution of the software architecture, by testing processing graphs with up to 32 parallel pipelines and eight serial stages. We finally deployed Falcon in a task of real-time detection of population bursts recorded live from the hippocampus of a freely moving rat. Main results. On Neuralynx hardware, round-trip latency was well below 1 ms and stable for at least 1 h, while on Open Ephys hardware latencies were below 15 ms. The latency contribution of the software was below 0.5 ms. Round-trip and software latencies were similar on both 32- and 4-core workstations. Falcon was used successfully to detect population bursts online with ~40 ms average latency. Significance. Falcon is a novel open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience. It has sub-millisecond intrinsic latency and gives the experimenter direct control of CPU resources. We envisage Falcon to be a useful tool to the neuroscientific community for implementing a wide variety of closed-loop experiments, including those

  5. Falcon: a highly flexible open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciliberti, Davide; Kloosterman, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. To facilitate a wide range of closed-loop experiments, we created an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data. We wrote Falcon, a C++ multi-threaded software in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node of a Falcon graph is mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers. The framework allows for easy implementation of new processing nodes and data types. Falcon was tested both on a 32-core and a 4-core workstation. Streaming data was read from either a commercial acquisition system (Neuralynx) or the open-source Open Ephys hardware, while closed-loop TTL pulses were generated with a USB module for digital output. We characterized the round-trip latency of our Falcon-based closed-loop system, as well as the specific latency contribution of the software architecture, by testing processing graphs with up to 32 parallel pipelines and eight serial stages. We finally deployed Falcon in a task of real-time detection of population bursts recorded live from the hippocampus of a freely moving rat. On Neuralynx hardware, round-trip latency was well below 1 ms and stable for at least 1 h, while on Open Ephys hardware latencies were below 15 ms. The latency contribution of the software was below 0.5 ms. Round-trip and software latencies were similar on both 32- and 4-core workstations. Falcon was used successfully to detect population bursts online with ~40 ms average latency. Falcon is a novel open-source software for closed-loop neuroscience. It has sub-millisecond intrinsic latency and gives the experimenter direct control of CPU resources. We envisage Falcon to be a useful tool to the neuroscientific community for implementing a wide variety of closed-loop experiments, including those requiring use of complex data structures and real

  6. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  7. Implementation of Close Loop Speed Control with VVVF Control and Slip Regulation on LIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aditya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Open loop VVVF control has the disadvantage of low output torque when working at low frequency and poor speed precision at different load conditions.Various performance-improving schemes have been proposed for the basic VVVF control by compensating slips occurring in the low frequency range and slips caused by changing loads. Numerous papers have been published on the close loop speed control of rotary induction motor. In this paper a close loop speed control with VVVF control and slip regulation has been implemented for LIM based conveyor belt test Rig which compensates the disadvantages of traditional Volts/Hz control. SIMULINK results are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  8. Closed-loop control with a coupling factor using an AO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y-S; Baik, S-H; Park, S-K; Hong, S-K; Lim, C; Kim, C-J

    2008-01-01

    To stabilize a closed-loop control for a wavefront correction of a distorted laser beam, the instrumentation of an adaptive optics system and the closed-loop wavefront correction algorithms were investigated. We proposed a new control algorithm using a coupling factor from the zonal and the modal ideas. Compensating for an arbitrary wavefront distortion of a laser beam in the real-time, the wavefront correction speed was 5 Hz using the proposed methods of a zonal control with a coupling factor. Although the correction speed is slower in the new algorithm, the correction accuracy is more stable. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is appropriate for the wavefront correction of a low frequency fluctuation

  9. A Location-Inventory Problem in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Secondary Market Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available To design sustainable supply chain systems in today’s business environment, this paper studies a location-inventory problem in a closed-loop supply chain by considering the sales of new and used products in the primary and secondary markets, respectively. This problem is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear program to optimize facility location and inventory management decisions jointly, and the logistics flows between the two markets are modeled dynamically. To solve this problem efficiently, a new heuristic approach is also developed by introducing an effective adaptive mechanism into differential evolution. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to validate the solution approach and provide valuable managerial insight. This paper makes a meaningful contribution to the literature by incorporating the secondary market into the study of closed-loop supply chains, and practically, it is also greatly beneficial to improve the sustainability and efficiency of modern supply chains.

  10. Closed Loop Control of Penetration Depth during CO2 Laser Lap Welding Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ancona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a novel spectroscopic closed loop control system capable of stabilizing the penetration depth during laser welding processes by controlling the laser power. Our novel approach is to analyze the optical emission from the laser generated plasma plume above the keyhole, to calculate its electron temperature as a process-monitoring signal. Laser power has been controlled by using a quantitative relationship between the penetration depth and the plasma electron temperature. The sensor is able to correlate in real time the difference between the measured electron temperature and its reference value for the requested penetration depth. Accordingly the closed loop system adjusts the power, thus maintaining the penetration depth.

  11. Design of a Bioelectronics Hybrid System in Real Time and in Closed Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Renaud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hynets, for Hybrid (living-artificial Networks, are an efficient and adaptable experimental support to explore the dynamics and the adaptation process of biological systems. We present in this paper an innovative platform performing a real-time closed-loop between a cultured network (e.g. neurons and an artificial processing (e.g. software processing or a robotic interface. The system gathers bioware, hardware, and software components and ensures the closed-loop data processing in less than 50 µs. We describe also a methodology that may help to standardize the description of some experiments. This method is associated to a full custom Graphical User Interface. We detail here the system choices, components, and performances.

  12. System dynamics research of remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain dominated by the third party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shidi; Wang, Tengfei; Chen, Deyun

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of the electronic information industry in recent years, electronic products are being updated faster and faster, and e-waste recycling has become a common problem around the world. Firstly, this article contrasts recycling at home and abroad using the predicament of Midea Corp. Based on a closed-loop supply chain with the system dynamics method, a model is constructed and simulated. In this model, the collection point coverage rate is introduced to adjust the e-waste recycling rate dynamically. Aiming at a recycling mode dominated by the third party of the closed-loop supply chain, the article mainly discusses the impact on the sales rate and market share of the recycling model by third-party enterprises and compares the total revenue of all supply chains. Simulation results show that the model is more effective and optimal than the traditional recycling model.

  13. Closed-loop analysis and control of a non-inverting buck-boost converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengshi; Hu, Jiangang; Gao, Wenzhong

    2010-11-01

    In this article, a cascade controller is designed and analysed for a non-inverting buck-boost converter. The fast inner current loop uses sliding mode control. The slow outer voltage loop uses the proportional-integral (PI) control. Stability analysis and selection of PI gains are based on the nonlinear closed-loop error dynamics incorporating both the inner and outer loop controllers. The closed-loop system is proven to have a nonminimum phase structure. The voltage transient due to step changes of input voltage or resistance is predictable. The operating range of the reference voltage is discussed. The controller is validated by a simulation circuit. The simulation results show that the reference output voltage is well-tracked under system uncertainties or disturbances, confirming the validity of the proposed controller.

  14. Parameter Estimation of a Closed Loop Coupled Tank Time Varying System using Recursive Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basir, Siti Nora; Yussof, Hanafiah; Shamsuddin, Syamimi; Selamat, Hazlina; Zahari, Nur Ismarrubie

    2013-01-01

    This project investigates the direct identification of closed loop plant using discrete-time approach. The uses of Recursive Least Squares (RLS), Recursive Instrumental Variable (RIV) and Recursive Instrumental Variable with Centre-Of-Triangle (RIV + COT) in the parameter estimation of closed loop time varying system have been considered. The algorithms were applied in a coupled tank system that employs covariance resetting technique where the time of parameter changes occur is unknown. The performances of all the parameter estimation methods, RLS, RIV and RIV + COT were compared. The estimation of the system whose output was corrupted with white and coloured noises were investigated. Covariance resetting technique successfully executed when the parameters change. RIV + COT gives better estimates than RLS and RIV in terms of convergence and maximum overshoot

  15. Enhancing the effectiveness of human-robot teaming with a closed-loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Grace; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Matthews, Gerald; Szalma, James; Jentsch, Florian; Hancock, Peter

    2018-02-01

    With technological developments in robotics and their increasing deployment, human-robot teams are set to be a mainstay in the future. To develop robots that possess teaming capabilities, such as being able to communicate implicitly, the present study implemented a closed-loop system. This system enabled the robot to provide adaptive aid without the need for explicit commands from the human teammate, through the use of multiple physiological workload measures. Such measures of workload vary in sensitivity and there is large inter-individual variability in physiological responses to imposed taskload. Workload models enacted via closed-loop system should accommodate such individual variability. The present research investigated the effects of the adaptive robot aid vs. imposed aid on performance and workload. Results showed that adaptive robot aid driven by an individualized workload model for physiological response resulted in greater improvements in performance compared to aid that was simply imposed by the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Survey on Security and Privacy in Emerging Sensor Networks: From Viewpoint of Close-Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Zhang, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, as the next generation sensor networks, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) refer to the complex networked systems that have both physical subsystems and cyber components, and the information flow between different subsystems and components is across a communication network, which forms a closed-loop. New generation sensor networks are found in a growing number of applications and have received increasing attention from many inter-disciplines. Opportunities and challenges in the design, analysis, verification and validation of sensor networks co-exists, among which security and privacy are two important ingredients. This paper presents a survey on some recent results in the security and privacy aspects of emerging sensor networks from the viewpoint of the closed-loop. This paper also discusses several future research directions under these two umbrellas. PMID:27023559

  17. Closed Loop In-Reactor Assembly (CLIRA): a fast flux test facility test vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Closed Loop In-Reactor Assembly (CLIRA) is a test vehicle for in-core material and fuel experiments in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF is a fast flux nuclear test reactor operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by Westinghouse Hanford Company in Richland, Washington. The CLIRA is a removable/replaceable part of the Closed Loop System (CLS) which is a sodium coolant system providing flow and temperature control independent of the reactor coolant system. The primary purpose of the CLIRA is to provide a test vehicle which will permit testing of nuclear fuels and materials at conditions more severe than exist in the FTR core, and to isolate these materials from the reactor core

  18. A review of control strategies in closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wright

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improved performance of tasks, better usability and greater embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. However the interdisciplinary work on neuroprosthetic systems can lead to miscommunication due to similarities in well established nomenclature in different fields. Here we present a review of control strategies in existing experimental, investigational and clinical neuroprosthetic systems in order to establish a baseline and promote a common understanding of different feedback modes and closed-loop controllers. The first section provides a brief discussion of feedback control and control theory. The second section reviews the control strategies of recent Brain Machine Interfaces, neuromodulatory implants, neuroprosthetic systems and assistive neurorobotic devices. The final section examines the different approaches to feedback in current neuroprosthetic and neurorobotic systems.

  19. Design strategies for dynamic closed-loop optogenetic neurocontrol in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, M. F.; Willats, A. A.; Whitmire, C. J.; Rozell, C. J.; Stanley, G. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event. Here, we describe and demonstrate a design approach for precise optogenetic control of neuronal firing rate modulation using feedback to guide stimulation continuously. Approach. Using the rodent somatosensory thalamus as an experimental testbed for realizing desired time-varying patterns of firing rate modulation, we utilized a moving average exponential filter to estimate firing rate online from single-unit spiking measured extracellularly. This estimate of instantaneous rate served as feedback for a proportional integral (PI) controller, which was designed during the experiment based on a linear-nonlinear Poisson (LNP) model of the neuronal response to light. Main results. The LNP model fit during the experiment enabled robust closed-loop control, resulting in good tracking of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal targets, and rejection of unmeasured disturbances. Closed-loop control also enabled manipulation of trial-to-trial variability. Significance. Because neuroscientists are faced with the challenge of dissecting the functions of circuit components, the ability to maintain control of a region of interest in spite of changes in ongoing neural activity will be important for disambiguating function within networks. Closed-loop stimulation strategies are ideal for control that is robust to such changes

  20. Facility of Laboratories for Sustainable Habitation - an Initial Design of a Closed-Loop Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Quantius, Dominik; Schubert, Daniel; Maiwald, Volker; Parìs Lopéz, Rosa; Hauslage, Jens; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Doule, Ondrej; Schlacht, Irene Lia; Ransom, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    An effective and self-sustainable artificial habitat design is essential for human spaceflight and expansion of mankind into orbit or towards other celestial bodies. Besides the necessity to create an artificial habitat for the extreme environments of space, development of a self-sustainable habitat can also enable more effective exploration of extreme environments on Earth. One major application of the habitat’s closed-loop capabilities can also be in enabling ecological habitation of human ...

  1. An Experimental Research on Closed Loop Supply Chain Management with Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    PAKSOY, Turan; KARAOĞLAN, İsmail; GÖKÇEN, Hadi; PARDALOS, Panos M.; TORĞUL, Belkıs

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Closed loop supply chain (CLSC) optimization is integration of forward and reverse logistics activities. The importance of CLSC management is increasing by legal regulations, limited energy resources and environmental- financial problems that growing in recent years. However, reverse logistics part of the CLSC is a flow type which is more difficult to made predictions, planning and controls by reason contained uncertainties. This stage, Internet of Things system reduces related unce...

  2. Possible precursors of ball lightning. Observation of closed loops in high voltage discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeff, I.; Rader, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several hundred photographs of ultrahigh voltage discharges have been obtained that show closed current loops. These closed current loops may be precursors of ball lightning. One feature of these discharges may explain why observations of ball lightning may be infrequent; that is, there is a distinct threshold in voltage and/or current below which the closed loops do not occur. This threshold current fits other experimental data but is well above the usually observed currents in natural lightning. 10 refs., 3 figs

  3. Removal of CO2 in closed loop off-gas treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, M.K.; Nelson, P.A.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    A closed loop test system has been installed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to demonstrate off-gas treatment, absorption, and purification systems to be used for incineration and vitrification of hazardous and mixed waste. Closed loop systems can virtually eliminate the potential for release of hazardous or toxic materials to the atmosphere during both normal and upset conditions. In initial tests, a 250,000 Btu/h (75 kW thermal) combustor was operated in an open loop to produce a combustion product gas. The CO 2 in these tests was removed by reaction with a fluidized bed of time to produce CaCO 3 . Subsequently, recirculation system was installed to allow closed loop operation with the addition of oxygen to the recycle stream to support combustion. Commercially marketed technologies for removal of CO 2 can be adapted for use on closed loop incineration systems. The paper also describes the Absorbent Solution Treatment (AST) process, based on modifications to commercially demonstrated gas purification technologies. In this process, a side loop system is added to the main loop for removing CO 2 in scrubbing towers using aqueous-based CO 2 absorbents. The remaining gas is returned to the incinerator with oxygen addition. The absorbent is regenerated by driving off the CO 2 and water vapor, which are released to the atmosphere. Contaminants are either recycled for further treatment or form precipitates which are removed during the purification and regeneration process. There are no direct releases of gases or particulates to the environment. The CO 2 and water vapor go through two changes of state before release, effectively separating these combustion products from contaminants released during incineration. The AST process can accept a wide range of waste streams. The system may be retrofitted to existing Facilities or included in the designs for new installations

  4. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  5. Smart Braid Feedback for the Closed-Loop Control of Soft Robotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Wyatt; Chin, Khai Yi; Remy, C David

    2017-09-01

    This article experimentally investigates the potential of using flexible, inductance-based contraction sensors in the closed-loop motion control of soft robots. Accurate motion control remains a highly challenging task for soft robotic systems. Precise models of the actuation dynamics and environmental interactions are often unavailable. This renders open-loop control impossible, while closed-loop control suffers from a lack of suitable feedback. Conventional motion sensors, such as linear or rotary encoders, are difficult to adapt to robots that lack discrete mechanical joints. The rigid nature of these sensors runs contrary to the aspirational benefits of soft systems. As truly soft sensor solutions are still in their infancy, motion control of soft robots has so far relied on laboratory-based sensing systems such as motion capture, electromagnetic (EM) tracking, or Fiber Bragg Gratings. In this article, we used embedded flexible sensors known as Smart Braids to sense the contraction of McKibben muscles through changes in inductance. We evaluated closed-loop control on two systems: a revolute joint and a planar, one degree of freedom continuum manipulator. In the revolute joint, our proposed controller compensated for elasticity in the actuator connections. The Smart Braid feedback allowed motion control with a steady-state root-mean-square (RMS) error of [1.5]°. In the continuum manipulator, Smart Braid feedback enabled tracking of the desired tip angle with a steady-state RMS error of [1.25]°. This work demonstrates that Smart Braid sensors can provide accurate position feedback in closed-loop motion control suitable for field applications of soft robotic systems.

  6. Different Subsidies’ Impact on equilibrium decision-making of closed-loop supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liurui Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An electronic product recycling not only needs the waste treatment company, but also involves recycler and remanufacturer. It is significance for increasing subsidy modes and promoting waste recycling to research the effect of government subsidies for recycler and remanufacturer on the equilibrium of closed-loop supply chain. Approach: In view of service competition, we build a Stackelberg model which contains an original manufacturer, a recycler and remanufacturer and further obtain the equilibrium decision of closed-loop supply chain. Based on this strategy model, we analyze how two different subsidies to utilization rate of raw materials, the service level and the demand of product affect on the terminal decision. Findings: We compared the two different subsidy ways in closed-loop supply chain. Subsidy to utilization rate of raw materials has no effect on the whole market demand for electronic product; and subsidy on utilization rate of raw materials has no effect on the whole market demand for electronic product. Research implications: Under the conditions in which government can observe the information of raw material utility and remanufacturing service level, if government decides to expand the market size, it could subsidize remanufacturer for different service level; Under the conditions in which government can observe the information of raw material utility and remanufacturing service level, if government want to improve utilization rate of raw materials, stimulate sustainable development of industries of electronic product, it can subsidizes recycler based on different utilization rate of raw materials. Value: We analyzed the closed-loop supply chain equilibrium, compared the effects on it under different subsidy mechanism and offered some advises in order to provide scientific support to promote electronic products recycling.

  7. Artificial Pancreas Device Systems for the Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Sara; Simpson, Sue; Wood, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Closed-loop artificial pancreas device (APD) systems are externally worn medical devices that are being developed to enable people with type 1 diabetes to regulate their blood glucose levels in a more automated way. The innovative concept of this emerging technology is that hands-free, continuous, glycemic control can be achieved by using digital communication technology and advanced computer algorithms. Methods: A horizon scanning review of this field was conducted using online sources of intelligence to identify systems in development. The systems were classified into subtypes according to their level of automation, the hormonal and glycemic control approaches used, and their research setting. Results: Eighteen closed-loop APD systems were identified. All were being tested in clinical trials prior to potential commercialization. Six were being studied in the home setting, 5 in outpatient settings, and 7 in inpatient settings. It is estimated that 2 systems may become commercially available in the EU by the end of 2016, 1 during 2017, and 2 more in 2018. Conclusions: There are around 18 closed-loop APD systems progressing through early stages of clinical development. Only a few of these are currently in phase 3 trials and in settings that replicate real life. PMID:26589628

  8. Surface EEG-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Closed-Loop System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Carvalho, Sandra; Thibaut, Aurore; Doruk, Deniz; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Schachter, Steven C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols rely on applying electrical current at a fixed intensity and duration without using surrogate markers to direct the interventions. This has led to some mixed results; especially because tDCS induced effects may vary depending on the ongoing level of brain activity. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility of an EEG-triggered tDCS system based on EEG online analysis of its frequency bands. Six healthy volunteers were randomized to participate in a double-blind sham-controlled crossover design to receive a single session of 10[Formula: see text]min 2[Formula: see text]mA cathodal and sham tDCS. tDCS trigger controller was based upon an algorithm designed to detect an increase in the relative beta power of more than 200%, accompanied by a decrease of 50% or more in the relative alpha power, based on baseline EEG recordings. EEG-tDCS closed-loop-system was able to detect the predefined EEG magnitude deviation and successfully triggered the stimulation in all participants. This preliminary study represents a proof-of-concept for the development of an EEG-tDCS closed-loop system in humans. We discuss and review here different methods of closed loop system that can be considered and potential clinical applications of such system.

  9. Closed-loop brain-machine-body interfaces for noninvasive rehabilitation of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccard, Frédéric D; Mullen, Tim; Chi, Yu Mike; Peterson, David; Iversen, John R; Arnold, Mike; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Makeig, Scott; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Traditional approaches for neurological rehabilitation of patients affected with movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and essential tremor (ET) consist mainly of oral medication, physical therapy, and botulinum toxin injections. Recently, the more invasive method of deep brain stimulation (DBS) showed significant improvement of the physical symptoms associated with these disorders. In the past several years, the adoption of feedback control theory helped DBS protocols to take into account the progressive and dynamic nature of these neurological movement disorders that had largely been ignored so far. As a result, a more efficient and effective management of PD cardinal symptoms has emerged. In this paper, we review closed-loop systems for rehabilitation of movement disorders, focusing on PD, for which several invasive and noninvasive methods have been developed during the last decade, reducing the complications and side effects associated with traditional rehabilitation approaches and paving the way for tailored individual therapeutics. We then present a novel, transformative, noninvasive closed-loop framework based on force neurofeedback and discuss several future developments of closed-loop systems that might bring us closer to individualized solutions for neurological rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  10. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  11. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current.

  12. Disturbance rejection performance analyses of closed loop control systems by reference to disturbance ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagoz, Baris Baykant; Deniz, Furkan Nur; Keles, Cemal; Tan, Nusret

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems by means of reference to disturbance ratio (RDR). The RDR analysis calculates the ratio of reference signal energy to disturbance signal energy at the system output and provides a quantitative evaluation of disturbance rejection performance of control systems on the bases of communication channel limitations. Essentially, RDR provides a straightforward analytical method for the comparison and improvement of implicit disturbance rejection capacity of closed loop control systems. Theoretical analyses demonstrate us that RDR of the negative feedback closed loop control systems are determined by energy spectral density of controller transfer function. In this manner, authors derived design criteria for specifications of disturbance rejection performances of PID and fractional order PID (FOPID) controller structures. RDR spectra are calculated for investigation of frequency dependence of disturbance rejection capacity and spectral RDR analyses are carried out for PID and FOPID controllers. For the validation of theoretical results, simulation examples are presented. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical crosstalk-coupling measurement and analysis for digital closed loop fibre optic gyro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Jin; Hai-Ting, Tian; Xiong, Pan; Ning-Fang, Song

    2010-01-01

    The phase modulation and the closed-loop controller can generate electrical crosstalk-coupling in digital closed-loop fibre optic gyro. Four electrical cross-coupling paths are verified by the open-loop testing approach. It is found the variation of ramp amplitude will lead to the alternation of gyro bias. The amplitude and the phase parameters of the electrical crosstalk signal are measured by lock-in amplifier, and the variation of gyro bias is confirmed to be caused by the alternation of phase according to the amplitude of the ramp. A digital closed-loop fibre optic gyro electrical crosstalk-coupling model is built by approximating the electrical cross-coupling paths as a proportion and integration segment. The results of simulation and experiment show that the modulation signal electrical crosstalk-coupling can cause the dead zone of the gyro when a small angular velocity is inputted, and it could also lead to a periodic vibration of the bias error of the gyro when a large angular velocity is inputted

  14. Double closed-loop cascade control for lower limb exoskeleton with elastic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanhe; Zheng, Tianjiao; Jin, Hongzhe; Yang, Jixing; Zhao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Unlike traditional rigid actuators, the significant features of Series Elastic Actuator (SEA) are stable torque control, lower output impedance, impact resistance and energy storage. Recently, SEA has been applied in many exoskeletons. In such applications, a key issue is how to realize the human-exoskeleton movement coordination. In this paper, double closed-loop cascade control for lower limb exoskeleton with SEA is proposed. This control method consists of inner SEA torque loop and outer contact force loop. Utilizing the SEA torque control with a motor velocity loop, actuation performances of SEA are analyzed. An integrated exoskeleton control system is designed, in which joint angles are calculated by internal encoders and resolvers and contact forces are gathered by external pressure sensors. The double closed-loop cascade control model is established based on the feedback signals of internal and external sensor. Movement experiments are accomplished in our prototype of lower limb exoskeleton. Preliminary results indicate the exoskeleton movements with pilot can be realized stably by utilizing this double closed-loop cascade control method. Feasibility of the SEA in our exoskeleton robot and effectiveness of the control method are verified.

  15. Closed-loop, multichannel experimentation using the open-source NeuroRighter electrophysiology platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Paul Newman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  16. Self-organized critical noise amplification in human closed loop control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Patzelt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available When humans perform closed loop control tasks like in upright standing or while balancing a stick, their behavior exhibits non-Gaussian fluctuations with long-tailed distributions. The origin of these fluctuations is not known. Here, we investigate if they are caused by selforganized critical noise amplification which emerges in control systems when an unstable dynamics becomes stabilized by an adaptive controller that has finite memory. Starting from this theory, we formulate a realistic model of adaptive closed loop control by including constraints on memory and delays. To test this model, we performed psychophysical experiments where humans balanced an unstable target on a screen. It turned out that the model reproduces the long tails of the distributions together with other characteristic features of the human control dynamics. Fine-tuning the model to match the experimental dynamics identifies parameters characterizing a subject’s control system which can be independently tested. Our results suggest that the nervous system involved in closed loop motor control nearly optimally estimates system parameters on-line from very short epochs of past observations.

  17. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  18. Closed-Loop Process Control for Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication and Deposition Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor); Martin, Richard E. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A closed-loop control method for an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) process includes detecting a feature of interest during the process using a sensor(s), continuously evaluating the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein, and automatically modifying control parameters to control the EBF(sup 3) process. An apparatus provides closed-loop control method of the process, and includes an electron gun for generating an electron beam, a wire feeder for feeding a wire toward a substrate, wherein the wire is melted and progressively deposited in layers onto the substrate, a sensor(s), and a host machine. The sensor(s) measure the feature of interest during the process, and the host machine continuously evaluates the feature of interest to determine, in real time, a change occurring therein. The host machine automatically modifies control parameters to the EBF(sup 3) apparatus to control the EBF(sup 3) process in a closed-loop manner.

  19. Gen2 RFID-Based System Framework for Resource Circulation in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-woo Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Product recycling has become a mandatory activity under extended producer responsibility. Therefore, it is important to operate a closed-loop supply chain that integrates sourcing, production, delivery, and recycling to achieve not only environmental sustainability, but also economic benefits. However, this goal is affected by chronic problems caused by uncertainties relating to the return timing, quantity, and quality of returned items. Many studies proved that information visibility could solve these problems. In this context, a system framework for closed-loop supply chain management is proposed that gathers real-time information within a supply chain and product lifecycle by using the Internet-of-Things, including radio frequency identification (RFID. Specifically, the most recent Gen2 RFID protocol, which provides new features to create new positive effects, is considered. Additionally, an information system is designed, including RFID tag encoding, which supports the operation of the proposed system. Finally, the lifecycle benefits are examined, such as counterfeit prevention, real-time monitoring and maintenance in the middle-of-life phase, and reverse process streamlining. The ultimate aim is to design a system that facilitates the profitable and environmentally friendly operation of the closed-loop supply chain.

  20. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  1. Garrett solar Brayton engine/generator status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, B.

    1982-07-01

    The solar advanced gas turbine (SAGT-1) is being developed by the Garrett Turbine Engine Company, for use in a Brayton cycle power conversion module. The engine is derived from the advanced gas turbine (AGT101) now being developd by Garrett and Ford Motor Company for automotive use. The SAGT Program is presently funded for the design, fabrication and test of one engine at Garrett's Phoenix facility. The engine when mated with a solar receiver is called a power conversion module (PCU). The PCU is scheduled to be tested on JPL's test bed concentrator under a follow on phase of the program. Approximately 20 kw of electrical power will be generated.

  2. Causal transfer function analysis to describe closed loop interactions between cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L; Porta, A; Cucino, R; Cerutti, S; Antolini, R; Nollo, G

    2004-06-01

    Although the concept of transfer function is intrinsically related to an input-output relationship, the traditional and widely used estimation method merges both feedback and feedforward interactions between the two analyzed signals. This limitation may endanger the reliability of transfer function analysis in biological systems characterized by closed loop interactions. In this study, a method for estimating the transfer function between closed loop interacting signals was proposed and validated in the field of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability. The two analyzed signals x and y were described by a bivariate autoregressive model, and the causal transfer function from x to y was estimated after imposing causality by setting to zero the model coefficients representative of the reverse effects from y to x. The method was tested in simulations reproducing linear open and closed loop interactions, showing a better adherence of the causal transfer function to the theoretical curves with respect to the traditional approach in presence of non-negligible reverse effects. It was then applied in ten healthy young subjects to characterize the transfer functions from respiration to heart period (RR interval) and to systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and from SAP to RR interval. In the first two cases, the causal and non-causal transfer function estimates were comparable, indicating that respiration, acting as exogenous signal, sets an open loop relationship upon SAP and RR interval. On the contrary, causal and traditional transfer functions from SAP to RR were significantly different, suggesting the presence of a considerable influence on the opposite causal direction. Thus, the proposed causal approach seems to be appropriate for the estimation of parameters, like the gain and the phase lag from SAP to RR interval, which have a large clinical and physiological relevance.

  3. Evaluating the Performance of a Novel Embedded Closed-loop System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarathna, Lalantha; Thabit, Hood; Allen, Janet M; Nodale, Marianna; Wilinska, Malgorzata E; Powell, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Evans, Mark L; Hovorka, Roman

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to assess the reliability of a novel automated closed-loop glucose control system developed within the AP@home consortium in adults with type 1 diabetes. Eight adults with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy (3 men; ages 40.5 ± 14.3 years; HbA1c 8.2 ± 0.8%) participated in an open-label, single-center, single-arm, 12-hour overnight study performed at the clinical research facility. A standardized evening meal (80 g CHO) accompanied by prandial insulin boluses were given at 19:00 followed by an optional snack of 15 g at 22:00 without insulin bolus. Automated closed-loop glucose control was started at 19:00 and continued until 07:00 the next day. Basal insulin delivery (Accu-Chek Spirit, Roche) was automatically adjusted by Cambridge model predictive control algorithm, running on a purpose-built embedded device, based on real-time continuous glucose monitor readings (Dexcom G4 Platinum). Closed-loop system was operational as intended over 99% of the time. Overnight plasma glucose levels (22:00 to 07:00) were within the target range (3.9 to 8.0 mmol/l) for 75.4% (37.5, 92.9) of the time without any time spent in hypoglycemia (system. The time spent in target glucose level overnight was comparable to results of previously published studies. Further developments to miniaturize the system for home studies are warranted. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. A closed-loop system for frequency tracking of piezoresistive cantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Zhang, Qing; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    A closed loop circuit capable of tracking resonant frequencies for MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilever resonators is developed in this work. The proposed closed-loop system is mainly based on a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. In order to lock onto the resonant frequency of the resonator, an actuation signal generated from a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is locked to the phase of the input reference signal of the cantilever sensor. In addition to the PLL component, an instrumentation amplifier and an active low pass filter (LPF) are connected to the system for gaining the amplitude and reducing the noise of the cantilever output signals. The LPF can transform a rectangular signal into a sinusoidal signal with voltage amplitudes ranging from 5 to 10 V which are sufficient for a piezoactuator input (i.e., maintaining a large output signal of the cantilever sensor). To demonstrate the functionality of the system, a self-sensing silicon cantilever resonator with a built-in piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge is fabricated and integrated with the circuit. A piezoactuator is utilized for actuating the cantilever into resonance. Implementation of this closed loop system is used to track the resonant frequency of a silicon cantilever-based sensor resonating at 9.4 kHz under a cross-sensitivity test of ambient temperature. The changes of the resonant frequency are interpreted using a frequency counter connected to the system. From the experimental results, the temperature sensitivity and coefficient of the employed sensor are 0.3 Hz/°C and 32.8 ppm/°C, respectively. The frequency stability of the system can reach up to 0.08 Hz. The development of this system will enable real-time nanoparticle monitoring systems and provide a miniaturization of the instrumentation modules for cantilever-based nanoparticle detectors.

  5. Effect of ambient pressure variation on closed loop gas system for India based Neutrino Observatory (INO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, B.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N. K.; Kalmani, S. D.; Shinde, R. R.; Joshi, A.

    2014-10-01

    Pilot unit of a closed loop gas mixing and distribution system for the INO project was designed and is being operated with 1.8meters × 1.9meters RPCs for about two years. A number of studies on controlling the flow and optimisation of the gas mixture through the RPC stack were carried out during this period. The gas system essentially measures and attempts to maintain absolute pressure inside the RPC gas volume. During typical Mumbai monsoon seasons, the barometric pressure changes rather rapidly, due to which the gas system fails to maintain the set differential pressure between the ambience and the RPC gas volume. As the safety bubblers on the RPC gas input lines are set to work on fixed pressure differentials, the ambient pressure changes lead to either venting out and thus wasting gas through safety bubblers or over pressuring the RPCs gas volume and thus degrading its performance. The above problem also leads to gas mixture contamination through minute leaks in gas gap. The problem stated above was solved by including the ambient barometric pressure as an input parameter in the closed loop. Using this, it is now possible to maintain any set differential pressure between the ambience and RPC gas volumes between 0 to 20mm of water column, thus always ensuring a positive pressure inside the RPC gas volume with respect to the ambience. This has resulted in improved performance of the gas system by maintaining the constant gas flow and reducing the gas toping up frequency. In this paper, we will highlight the design features and improvements of the closed loop gas system. We will present some of the performance studies and considerations for scaling up the system to be used with the engineering module and then followed by Iron Calorimeter detector (ICAL), which is designed to deploy about 30,000 RPCs of 1.8meters × 1.9 meters in area.

  6. A closed-loop model of the respiratory system: focus on hypercapnia and active expiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav I Molkov

    Full Text Available Breathing is a vital process providing the exchange of gases between the lungs and atmosphere. During quiet breathing, pumping air from the lungs is mostly performed by contraction of the diaphragm during inspiration, and muscle contraction during expiration does not play a significant role in ventilation. In contrast, during intense exercise or severe hypercapnia forced or active expiration occurs in which the abdominal "expiratory" muscles become actively involved in breathing. The mechanisms of this transition remain unknown. To study these mechanisms, we developed a computational model of the closed-loop respiratory system that describes the brainstem respiratory network controlling the pulmonary subsystem representing lung biomechanics and gas (O2 and CO2 exchange and transport. The lung subsystem provides two types of feedback to the neural subsystem: a mechanical one from pulmonary stretch receptors and a chemical one from central chemoreceptors. The neural component of the model simulates the respiratory network that includes several interacting respiratory neuron types within the Bötzinger and pre-Bötzinger complexes, as well as the retrotrapezoid nucleus/parafacial respiratory group (RTN/pFRG representing the central chemoreception module targeted by chemical feedback. The RTN/pFRG compartment contains an independent neural generator that is activated at an increased CO2 level and controls the abdominal motor output. The lung volume is controlled by two pumps, a major one driven by the diaphragm and an additional one activated by abdominal muscles and involved in active expiration. The model represents the first attempt to model the transition from quiet breathing to breathing with active expiration. The model suggests that the closed-loop respiratory control system switches to active expiration via a quantal acceleration of expiratory activity, when increases in breathing rate and phrenic amplitude no longer provide sufficient

  7. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed eEjaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioural outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviours may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly-robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell’s spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell’s signalling range, and (iii the cell’s gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations.Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell’s responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell’s sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous

  8. Closed-Loop Neuropharmacology For Epilepsy: Distant Dream Or Future Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicua-Rapun, Irene; Andre, Pascal; Novy, Jan

    2018-03-08

    Epilepsy is considered the most frequent severe neurological condition but most patients treated with medication become seizure free. The management of treatment however is highly empirical, mainly relying on observation. A closed-loop therapy for epilepsy would be very valuable for more efficient treatment regimens. Here we discuss monitoring treatment (therapeutic drug monitoring) and the potential developments in this field, as well as providing a review of potential biomarkers that could be used to monitor the disease activity. Finally, we consider the pharmacogenetic input in epilepsy treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. A digital closed loop control system for automatic phase locking of superconducting cavities of IUAC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, R.N.; Rai, A.; Pandey, A.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, P.; Karmakar, J.; Chaudhari, G.K.; Mathur, Y.; Ghosh, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2013-01-01

    A closed loop digital control system has been designed and tested to automate the tuning process of superconducting resonators of LINAC at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The mechanism controls the proportional valves of the He gas based pneumatic tuner in response to the phase and frequency errors of the cavity RF field. The main RF phase lock loop (PLL) is automatically closed once the resonant frequency is within locking range of the resonator PLL. The digital control scheme was successfully tested on few resonators of LINAC cryostat 1. A high stability of phase lock was observed. The details of the digital automation system are presented in the paper. (author)

  10. Strategic closed-loop facility location problem with carbon market trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diabat, A.; Abdallah, T.; Al-Refaie, A.

    2013-01-01

    and recovery of products in a closed-loop configuration. Remanufacturing is the basis of profit-oriented reverse logistics in which recovered products are restored to a marketable condition in order to be resold to the primary or secondary market. In this paper, we introduce a multiechelon multicommodity...... facility location problem with a trading price of carbon emissions and a cost of procurement. The company might either incur costs if the carbon cap, normally assigned by regulatory agencies, is lower than the total emissions, or gain profit if the carbon cap is higher than the total emissions. A numerical...

  11. Development of a Closed Loop Simulator for Poloidal Field Control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Leuer; M.L. Walker; D.A. Humphreys; J.R. Ferron; A. Nerem; B.G. Penaflor

    1999-01-01

    The design of a model-based simulator of the DIII-D poloidal field system is presented. The simulator is automatically configured to match a particular DIII-D discharge circuit. The simulator can be run in a data input mode, in which prior acquired DIII-D shot data is input to the simulator, or in a stand-alone predictive mode, in which the model operates in closed loop with the plasma control system. The simulator is used to design and validate a multi-input-multi-output controller which has been implemented on DIII-D to control plasma shape. Preliminary experimental controller results are presented

  12. Model-based closed-loop glucose control in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2013-01-01

    To improve type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) management, we developed a model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for closed-loop (CL) glucose control based on a linear second-order deterministic-stochastic model. The deterministic part of the model is specified by three patient-specific parameters......: insulin sensitivity factor, insulin action time, and basal insulin infusion rate. The stochastic part is identical for all patients but identified from data from a single patient. Results of the first clinical feasibility test of the algorithm are presented....

  13. Nonlinear analysis of a closed-loop tractor-semitrailer vehicle system with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoheng; Hu, Kun; Chung, Kwok-wai

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear analysis is performed on a closed-loop system of articulated heavy vehicles with driver steering control. The nonlinearity arises from the nonlinear cubic tire force model. An integration method is employed to derive an analytical periodic solution of the system in the neighbourhood of the critical speed. The results show that excellent accuracy can be achieved for the calculation of periodic solutions arising from Hopf bifurcation of the vehicle motion. A criterion is obtained for detecting the Bautin bifurcation which separates branches of supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. The integration method is compared to the incremental harmonic balance method in both supercritical and subcritical scenarios.

  14. Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows with Application to Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    to roppremon of disturbance» acting on the output of the closed loop Fatally. & can be interpreted as a feedforward function (Skngertad...aidividual coruroi I. be manuall ) «et by the incr The option» set by each mode are listed in Table 7 -f-.ttcmal Tngger" refer» to whether the timing...tnuurc vdocimevy wii the three -duncrruOBaJ charactowalioo of two-phawe tiowa’. .(eViomrirawn/ Srmice and r<raav>/cxi 13(51. 6«’ 694 IRL: Htp , J* dot

  15. Lag Synchronization Between Two Coupled Networks via Open-Plus-Closed-Loop and Adaptive Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong-Chun Hu; Yong-Qing Wu; Shi-Xing Li

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study lag synchronization between two coupled networks and apply two types of control schemes, including the open-plus-closed-loop (OPCL) and adaptive controls. We then design the corresponding control algorithms according to the OPCL and adaptive feedback schemes. With the designed controllers, we obtain two theorems on the lag synchronization based on Lyapunov stability theory and Barbalat's lemma. Finally we provide numerical examples to show the effectiveness of the obtained controllers and see that the adaptive control is stronger than the OPCL control when realizing the lag synchronization between two coupled networks with different coupling structures. (paper)

  16. Closed-loop conductance scanning tunneling spectroscopy: demonstrating the equivalence to the open-loop alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellenthal, Chris; Sotthewes, Kai; Siekman, Martin H; Kooij, E Stefan; Zandvliet, Harold J W

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the validity of using closed-loop z(V) conductance scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements for the determination of the effective tunneling barrier by comparing them to more conventional open-loop I(z) measurements. Through the development of a numerical model, the individual contributions to the effective tunneling barrier present in these experiments, such as the work function and the presence of an image charge, are determined quantitatively. This opens up the possibility of determining tunneling barriers of both vacuum and molecular systems in an alternative and more detailed manner.

  17. Product recovery optimization in closed-loop supply chain to improve sustainability in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Jha, P. C.; Garg, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    that emerge from that business’s economical, environmental and social dimensions. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective mixed integer mathematical problem for a generic closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) network to rationalise how a system’s product recovery helps to improve manufacturing sustainability....... The CLSC network proposed in this study consists of a hybrid manufacturing facility, warehouse, distribution centres, collection centres and a hybrid recovery facility (HRF). The proposed model determines the best location for the HRF and optimal flow of products, recovered parts and material...

  18. Revised Evaluation of Hemodilution Response in the Semi-Closed Loop Infusion System

    OpenAIRE

    Markevicius, Vytautas; Cincikas, Darius; Porvaneckas, Narunas; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Navikas, Dangirutis; Andriukaitis, Darius; Sipylaite, Jurate; Svediene, Saule; Uvarovas, Valentinas; Satkauskas, Igoris; Kvederas, Giedrius; Valinevicius, Algimantas; Zilys, Mindaugas; Andrijauskas, Audrius

    2017-01-01

    A mini volume loading test (mVLT) method is used for decision making in our prototype semi-closed loop infusion system (SCLIS). The mVLT fluid protocol consists of hemodilution response-guided mini fluid challenges. Each mini fluid challenge (MFC) consists of a 2.5 ml kg-1–5 ml kg-1 crystalloid bolus infused over 2 min–5 min and followed by a 5 min period with no fluids. Arterial plasma dilution efficacy (aPDE) of a MFC is calculated from invasively measured hemoglobin (aHb) before and after ...

  19. Model-Based, Closed-Loop Control of PZT Creep for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, A D; Ognibene, T J; Bench, G; Turteltaub, K W

    2014-09-01

    Cavity ring-down spectrometers typically employ a PZT stack to modulate the cavity transmission spectrum. While PZTs ease instrument complexity and aid measurement sensitivity, PZT hysteresis hinders the implementation of cavity-length-stabilized, data-acquisition routines. Once the cavity length is stabilized, the cavity's free spectral range imparts extreme linearity and precision to the measured spectrum's wavelength axis. Methods such as frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy have successfully mitigated PZT hysteresis, but their complexity limits commercial applications. Described herein is a single-laser, model-based, closed-loop method for cavity length control.

  20. Competitive closed-loop supply chain network design with price-dependent demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezapour, Shabnam; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Fahimnia, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a bi-level model for the strategic reverse network design (upper level) and tactical/operational planning (lower level) of a closed-loop single-period supply chain operating in a competitive environment with price-dependent market demand. An existing supply chain (SC...... for the supply of new and remanufactured products. The performance behaviors of both SCs are evaluated with specific focus placed on investigating the impacts of the strategic facility location decisions of the new SC on the tactical/operational transport and inventory decisions of the overall network. The bi...

  1. Incorporating risk measures in closed-loop supply chain network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, H.; Seyyed-Esfahani, M.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a location-allocation problem in a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with two extensions: first, demand and prices of new and return products are regarded as non-deterministic parameters and second, the objective function is developed from expected profit to three types of mean......-risk ones. Indeed, design and planning an integrated CLSC in real-world volatile markets is an important and necessary issue. Further, risk-neutral approaches, which are considered expected values, are not efficient for such uncertain conditions. Hence, this paper, copes with the design and planning problem...

  2. Design Research on Three-Phase PWM Rectifier Based on Double Closed Loop Control Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ya LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the high frequency of three-phase voltage source PWM rectifier, this paper established a mathematical model of three phase current inner ring and outer ring voltage, and put forward the setting method of three phase double closed loop control. Finally, it was verified through simulation. The experimental results show that Three-phase output of DC voltage is stable with the operation of regulating systems, the current flowing into the grid tends to be sinusoidal and power factor is close to 1, which greatly reduce the interference of harmonics on the grid, thus improve grid operation.

  3. Vision of the Arc for Quality Documentation and for Closed Loop Control of the Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Kristiansen, Ewa; Jensen, Casper Houmann

    2014-01-01

    For gas metal arc welding a vision system was developed, which was robust to monitor the position of the arc. The monitoring documents the welding quality indirectly and a closed loop fuzzy control was implemented to control an even excess penetration. For welding experiments on a butt......-joint with a V-groove with varying root gapthe system demonstrated increased welding quality compared to the system with no control. The system was implemented with a low cost vision system, which makes the system interesting to apply in industrial welding automation systems....

  4. Time Difference Amplifier with Robust Gain Using Closed-Loop Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakura, Toru; Mandai, Shingo; Ikeda, Makoto; Asada, Kunihiro

    This paper presents a Time Difference Amplifier (TDA) that amplifies the input time difference into the output time difference. Cross coupled chains of variable delay cells with the same number of stages are applicable for TDA, and the gain is adjusted via the closed-loop control. The TDA was fabricated using 65nm CMOS and the measurement results show that the time difference gain is 4.78 at a nominal power supply while the designed gain is 4.0. The gain is stable enough to be less than 1.4% gain shift under ±10% power supply voltage fluctuation.

  5. Continuous Drug Infusion for Diabetes Therapy: A Closed-Loop Control System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While a typical way for diabetes therapy is discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement, in this paper, we design a closed-loop control system for continuous drug infusion to improve the traditional discrete methods and make diabetes therapy automatic in practice. By exploring the accumulative function of drug to insulin, a continuous injection model is proposed. Based on this model, proportional-integral-derivative (PID and fuzzy logic controllers are designed to tackle a control problem of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. Even with serious disturbance of glucose, such as nutrition absorption at meal time, the proposed scheme can perform well in simulation experiments.

  6. Tool for Turbine Engine Closed-Loop Transient Analysis (TTECTrA) Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Zinnecker, Alicia M.

    2014-01-01

    The tool for turbine engine closed-loop transient analysis (TTECTrA) is a semi-automated control design tool for subsonic aircraft engine simulations. At a specific flight condition, TTECTrA produces a basic controller designed to meet user-defined goals and containing only the fundamental limiters that affect the transient performance of the engine. The purpose of this tool is to provide the user a preliminary estimate of the transient performance of an engine model without the need to design a full nonlinear controller.

  7. Closed-loop approach for situation awareness of medical devices and operating room infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Max

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, approaches for information and control integration in the digital operating room have emerged. A major step towards an intelligent operating room and a cooperative technical environment would be autonomous adaptation of medical devices and systems to the surgical workflow. The OR staff should be freed from information seeking and maintenance tasks. We propose a closed-loop concept integrating workflow monitoring, processing and (semi-automatic interaction to bridge the gap between OR integration of medical devices and workflow-related information management.

  8. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  9. Innovative hybrid pile oscillator technique in the Minerve reactor: open loop vs. closed loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslot Benoit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile oscillator techniques are powerful methods to measure small reactivity worth of isotopes of interest for nuclear data improvement. This kind of experiments has long been implemented in the Mineve experimental reactor, operated by CEA Cadarache. A hybrid technique, mixing reactivity worth estimation and measurement of small changes around test samples is presented here. It was made possible after the development of high sensitivity miniature fission chambers introduced next to the irradiation channel. A test campaign, called MAESTRO-SL, took place in 2015. Its objective was to assess the feasibility of the hybrid method and investigate the possibility to separate mixed neutron effects, such as fission/capture or scattering/capture. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper, which focus on comparing two measurements setups, one using a power control system (closed loop and another one where the power is free to drift (open loop. First, it is demonstrated that open loop is equivalent to closed loop. Uncertainty management and methods reproducibility are discussed. Second, results show that measuring the flux depression around oscillated samples provides valuable information regarding partial neutron cross sections. The technique is found to be very sensitive to the capture cross section at the expense of scattering, making it very useful to measure small capture effects of highly scattering samples.

  10. Distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feitian; Lagor, Francis D; Yeo, Derrick; Washington, Patrick; Paley, Derek A

    2015-10-23

    Flexibility plays an important role in fish behavior by enabling high maneuverability for predator avoidance and swimming in turbulent flow. This paper presents a novel flexible fish robot equipped with distributed pressure sensors for flow sensing. The body of the robot is molded from soft, hyperelastic material, which provides flexibility. Its Joukowski-foil shape is conducive to modeling the fluid analytically. A quasi-steady potential-flow model is adopted for real-time flow estimation, whereas a discrete-time vortex-shedding flow model is used for higher-fidelity simulation. The dynamics for the flexible fish robot yield a reduced model for one-dimensional swimming. A recursive Bayesian filter assimilates pressure measurements to estimate flow speed, angle of attack, and foil camber. The closed-loop speed-control strategy combines an inverse-mapping feedforward controller based on an average model derived for periodic actuation of angle-of-attack and a proportional-integral feedback controller utilizing the estimated flow information. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the estimation and control strategy. The paper provides a systematic approach to distributed flow sensing for closed-loop speed control of a flexible fish robot by regulating the flapping amplitude.

  11. Closed loop interactions between spiking neural network and robotic simulators based on MUSIC and ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Weidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC. This enables any robotic and neural simulators that implement the corresponding interfaces to be efficiently coupled, allowing real-time performance for a wide range of configurations. This work extends the toolset available for researchers in both neurorobotics and computational neuroscience, and creates the opportunity to perform closed-loop experiments of arbitrary complexity to address questions in multiple areas, including embodiment, agency, and reinforcement learning.

  12. Physiological closed-loop control in intelligent oxygen therapy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Olaby, Osama; Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Oxygen therapy has become a standard care for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other hypoxemic chronic lung diseases. In current systems, manually continuous adjustment of O 2 flow rate is a time-consuming task, often unsuccessful, that requires experienced staff. The primary aim of this systematic review is to collate and report on the principles, algorithms and accuracy of autonomous physiological close-loop controlled oxygen devices as well to present recommendations for future research and studies in this area. A literature search was performed on medical database MEDLINE, engineering database IEEE-Xplore and wide-raging scientific databases Scopus and Web of Science. A narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. A summary of the findings of this review suggests that when compared to the conventional manual practice, the closed-loop controllers maintain higher saturation levels, spend less time below the target saturation, and save oxygen resources. Nonetheless, despite of their potential, autonomous oxygen therapy devices are scarce in real clinical applications. Robustness of control algorithms, fail-safe mechanisms, limited reliability of sensors, usability issues and the need for standardized evaluating methods of assessing risks can be among the reasons for this lack of matureness and need to be addressed before the wide spreading of a new generation of automatic oxygen devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative hybrid pile oscillator technique in the Minerve reactor: open loop vs. closed loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslot, Benoit; Gruel, Adrien; Bréaud, Stéphane; Leconte, Pierre; Blaise, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Pile oscillator techniques are powerful methods to measure small reactivity worth of isotopes of interest for nuclear data improvement. This kind of experiments has long been implemented in the Mineve experimental reactor, operated by CEA Cadarache. A hybrid technique, mixing reactivity worth estimation and measurement of small changes around test samples is presented here. It was made possible after the development of high sensitivity miniature fission chambers introduced next to the irradiation channel. A test campaign, called MAESTRO-SL, took place in 2015. Its objective was to assess the feasibility of the hybrid method and investigate the possibility to separate mixed neutron effects, such as fission/capture or scattering/capture. Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper, which focus on comparing two measurements setups, one using a power control system (closed loop) and another one where the power is free to drift (open loop). First, it is demonstrated that open loop is equivalent to closed loop. Uncertainty management and methods reproducibility are discussed. Second, results show that measuring the flux depression around oscillated samples provides valuable information regarding partial neutron cross sections. The technique is found to be very sensitive to the capture cross section at the expense of scattering, making it very useful to measure small capture effects of highly scattering samples.

  14. Formulating adaptive radiation therapy (ART) treatment planning into a closed-loop control framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerda, Adam de la; Armbruster, Benjamin; Xing Lei

    2007-01-01

    While ART has been studied for years, the specific quantitative implementation details have not. In order for this new scheme of radiation therapy (RT) to reach its potential, an effective ART treatment planning strategy capable of taking into account the dose delivery history and the patient's on-treatment geometric model must be in place. This paper performs a theoretical study of dynamic closed-loop control algorithms for ART and compares their utility with data from phantom and clinical cases. We developed two classes of algorithms: those Adapting to Changing Geometry and those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. The former class takes into account organ deformations found just before treatment. The latter class optimizes the dose distribution accumulated over the entire course of treatment by adapting at each fraction, not only to the information just before treatment about organ deformations but also to the dose delivery history. We showcase two algorithms in the class of those Adapting to Geometry and Delivered Dose. A comparison of the approaches indicates that certain closed-loop ART algorithms may significantly improve the current practice. We anticipate that improvements in imaging, dose verification and reporting will further increase the importance of adaptive algorithms

  15. A Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Decision Mechanism in the Electronic Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a closed-loop supply chain for electronic products, the manufacturer’s priority is to enhance the residual value of the collected end-of-use product and decide whether to outsource this business to a retailer, a third-party service, or retain it exclusively. In this paper, we constructed three models to study the decision mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain, with different players selected to collect the used product. By comparing the three models, we characterized the conditions under which the manufacturer will benefit most, and we then aimed to determine the best choice for the manufacturer. Our findings show that, when the retailer and the third-party service provider provide equal performance in collecting the used product, the manufacturer will give priority to the third-party service provider if they choose to outsource this business. If the reverse flows managed by the retailer result in a higher payoff for the manufacturer, then the manufacturer will choose to outsource this business to the retailer who will also benefit.

  16. Ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic performance under closed-loop predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Jared R.; Guyon, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The discovery of the exoplanet Proxima b highlights the potential for the coming generation of giant segmented mirror telescopes (GSMTs) to characterize terrestrial-potentially habitable-planets orbiting nearby stars with direct imaging. This will require continued development and implementation of optimized adaptive optics systems feeding coronagraphs on the GSMTs. Such development should proceed with an understanding of the fundamental limits imposed by atmospheric turbulence. Here, we seek to address this question with a semianalytic framework for calculating the postcoronagraph contrast in a closed-loop adaptive optics system. We do this starting with the temporal power spectra of the Fourier basis calculated assuming frozen flow turbulence, and then apply closed-loop transfer functions. We include the benefits of a simple predictive controller, which we show could provide over a factor of 1400 gain in raw point spread function contrast at 1 λ/D on bright stars, and more than a factor of 30 gain on an I=7.5 mag star such as Proxima. More sophisticated predictive control can be expected to improve this even further. Assuming a photon-noise limited observing technique such as high-dispersion coronagraphy, these gains in raw contrast will decrease integration times by the same large factors. Predictive control of atmospheric turbulence should therefore be seen as one of the key technologies that will enable ground-based telescopes to characterize terrestrial planets.

  17. Closed-loop supply chain models with considering the environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Amir; Fallah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  18. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohajeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated.

  19. Beating of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a closed-loop interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sanghyun; Chang, Dong-In; Lee, Hu-Jong; Khym, Gyong Luck; Kang, Kicheon; Chung, Yunchul; Mahalu, Diana; Umansky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    One of the points at issue with closed-loop-type interferometers is beating in the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations. Recent observations suggest the possibility that the beating results from the Berry-phase pickup by the conducting electrons in materials with the strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI). In this study, we also observed beats in the AB oscillations in a gate-defined closed-loop interferometer fabricated on a GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As two-dimensional electron-gas heterostructure. Since this heterostructure has very small SOI, the picture of the Berry-phase pickup is ruled out. The observation of beats in this study, with the controllability of forming a single transverse subband mode in both arms of our gate-defined interferometer, also rules out the often-claimed multiple transverse subband effect. It is observed that nodes of the beats with an h/2e period exhibit a parabolic distribution for varying the side gate. These results are shown to be well interpreted, without resorting to the SOI effect, by the existence of two-dimensional multiple longitudinal modes in a single transverse subband. The Fourier spectrum of measured conductance, despite showing multiple h/e peaks with the magnetic-field dependence that are very similar to that from strong-SOI materials, can also be interpreted as the two-dimensional multiple-longitudinal-modes effect

  20. Evaluation and comparison of closed-loop wash-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, P.M.; Greer, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    Effluent from vehicle and equipment cleaning is known to contain a variety of potential pollutants, the most common being hydrocarbons and suspended solids. Proper treatment and discharge of this effluent is a growing concern as environmental awareness increases. In the United States, discharge of this effluent to municipal sewage treatment systems requires a permit from local authorities, discharge to surface waters requires a federal permit and, in most cases, discharge to the ground in prohibited. Furthermore, discharge to ground and surface waters can cause soil or groundwater contamination resulting in property devaluation, adverse impact on human health, fines from regulatory agencies, expensive cleanup and negative publicity. Effluent from vehicle washing typically does not meet the minimum pollutant levels allowed by regulatory agencies for discharge to surface waters or sewage treatment plants. Because of the liability associated with discharge to ground and surface waters and the difficulty in meeting municipal sewer discharge permit requirements, closed-loop wastewater treatment is an attractive alternative to discharge. Evaluation and comparison of systems from each category constitute the basis of this paper. Factors involved in selecting a system and available water-treatment technologies are discussed. The conclusion summarizes the results of the system comparison and makes recommendations for selecting and installing closed-loop water treatment systems for vehicle and equipment cleaning

  1. Static and Dynamic Pricing Strategies in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Reference Quality Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of returned products has been increasingly recognized in industries as an effective approach to face environmental responsibility, government regulations, and increased awareness of consumers. In this paper, we address a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC in which the manufacturer produces the brand-new products, as well as the remanufactured goods while the retailer sells these products to customers. We consider several different scenarios: the manufacturer and the retailer adopt a steady-state price or a dynamic price with reference quality effects in a centralized case; either, neither or both the manufacturer and the retailer price dynamically with reference quality effects, respectively, in a decentralized model. We solve the problem with the retailer recycling the sold copies and deduce the optimal pricing strategies while the manufacturer in charge of recovering the used items in such a CLSC. The result shows that dynamic pricing strategies are much more profitable for the supply chain and its members when compared with pricing statically; the dynamic pricing strategies with time-varying quality characterized by reference quality are more suited to a long-term and cooperative closed-loop supply chain. Moreover, the optimal recycling fraction relies on the recovery cost coefficient and proves to be uniform despite adopting a dynamic price and quality in all distinct cases.

  2. A wirelessly-powered homecage with animal behavior analysis and closed-loop power control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoyao Jia; Zheyuan Wang; Canales, Daniel; Tinkler, Morgan; Chia-Chun Hsu; Madsen, Teresa E; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new EnerCage-homecage system, EnerCage-HC2, for longitudinal electrophysiology data acquisition experiments on small freely moving animal subjects, such as rodents. EnerCage-HC2 is equipped with multi-coil wireless power transmission (WPT), closed-loop power control, bidirectional data communication via Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and Microsoft Kinect® based animal behavior tracking and analysis. The EnerCage-HC2 achieves a homogeneous power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 14% on average, with ~42 mW power delivered to the load (PDL) at a nominal height of 7 cm by the closed-loop power control mechanism. The Microsoft Kinect® behavioral analysis algorithm can not only track the animal position in real-time but also classify 5 different types of rodent behaviors: standstill, walking, grooming, rearing, and rotating. A proof-of-concept in vivo experiment was conducted on two awake freely behaving rats while successfully operating a one-channel stimulator and generating an ethogram.

  3. A hybrid solution approach for a multi-objective closed-loop logistics network under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Tu, Nan; Miao, Lixin

    2015-06-01

    The design of closed-loop logistics (forward and reverse logistics) has attracted growing attention with the stringent pressures of customer expectations, environmental concerns and economic factors. This paper considers a multi-product, multi-period and multi-objective closed-loop logistics network model with regard to facility expansion as a facility location-allocation problem, which more closely approximates real-world conditions. A multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming formulation is linearized by defining new variables and adding new constraints to the model. By considering the aforementioned model under uncertainty, this paper develops a hybrid solution approach by combining an interactive fuzzy goal programming approach and robust counterpart optimization based on three well-known robust counterpart optimization formulations. Finally, this paper compares the results of the three formulations using different test scenarios and parameter-sensitive analysis in terms of the quality of the final solution, CPU time, the level of conservatism, the degree of closeness to the ideal solution, the degree of balance involved in developing a compromise solution, and satisfaction degree.

  4. Closed-loop step response for tuning PID-fractional-order-filter controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoura, Karima; Mansouri, Rachid; Bettayeb, Maâmar; Al-Saggaf, Ubaid M

    2016-09-01

    Analytical methods are usually applied for tuning fractional controllers. The present paper proposes an empirical method for tuning a new type of fractional controller known as PID-Fractional-Order-Filter (FOF-PID). Indeed, the setpoint overshoot method, initially introduced by Shamsuzzoha and Skogestad, has been adapted for tuning FOF-PID controller. Based on simulations for a range of first order with time delay processes, correlations have been derived to obtain PID-FOF controller parameters similar to those obtained by the Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning rule. The setpoint overshoot method requires only one closed-loop step response experiment using a proportional controller (P-controller). To highlight the potential of this method, simulation results have been compared with those obtained with the IMC method as well as other pertinent techniques. Various case studies have also been considered. The comparison has revealed that the proposed tuning method performs as good as the IMC. Moreover, it might offer a number of advantages over the IMC tuning rule. For instance, the parameters of the fractional controller are directly obtained from the setpoint closed-loop response data without the need of any model of the plant to be controlled. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced ECCD based NTM control in closed-loop operation at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Matthias; Barrera-Orte, Laura; Behler, Karl; Bock, Alexander; Giannone, Louis; Maraschek, Marc; Poli, Emanuele; Rapson, Chris; Stober, Jörg; Treutterer, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    In high performance plasmas, Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs) are regularly observed at reactor-grade beta-values. They limit the achievable normalized beta, which is undesirable because fusion performance scales as beta squared. The method of choice for controlling and avoiding NTMs at AUG is the deposition of ECCD inside the magnetic island for stabilization in real-time (rt). Our approach to tackling such complex control problems using real-time diagnostics allows rigorous optimization of all subsystems. Recent progress in rt-equilibrium reconstruction (< 3.5 ms), rt-localization of NTMs (< 8 ms) and rt beam tracing (< 25 ms) allows closed-loop feedback operation using multiple movable mirrors as the ECCD deposition actuator. The rt-equilibrium uses function parametrization or a fast Grad-Shafranov solver with an option to include rt-MSE measurements. The island localization is based on a correlation of ECE and filtered Mirnov signals. The rt beam-tracing module provides deposition locations and their derivative versus actuator position of multiple gyrotrons. The ``MHD controller'' finally drives the actuators. Results utilizing closed-loop operation with multiple gyrotrons and their effect on NTMs are shown.

  6. Home-Based Risk of Falling Assessment Test Using a Closed-Loop Balance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayena, Johannes C; Zaibi, Helmi; Otis, Martin J-D; Menelas, Bob-Antoine J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to improve and facilitate the methods used to assess risk of falling at home among older people through the computation of a risk of falling in real time in daily activities. In order to increase a real time computation of the risk of falling, a closed-loop balance model is proposed and compared with One-Leg Standing Test (OLST). This balance model allows studying the postural response of a person having an unpredictable perturbation. Twenty-nine volunteers participated in this study for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system which includes seventeen elder participants: ten healthy elderly ( 68.4 ±5.5 years), seven Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects ( 66.28 ±8.9 years), and twelve healthy young adults ( 28.27 ±3.74 years). Our work suggests that there is a relationship between OLST score and the risk of falling based on center of pressure measurement with four low cost force sensors located inside an instrumented insole, which could be predicted using our suggested closed-loop balance model. For long term monitoring at home, this system could be included in a medical electronic record and could be useful as a diagnostic aid tool.

  7. Closed-loop helium circulation system for actuation of a continuously operating heart catheter pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegovic, Alen; Hinteregger, Markus; Janeczek, Christoph; Mohl, Werner; Gföhler, Margit

    2017-06-09

    Currently available, pneumatic-based medical devices are operated using closed-loop pulsatile or open continuous systems. Medical devices utilizing gases with a low atomic number in a continuous closed loop stream have not been documented to date. This work presents the construction of a portable helium circulation addressing the need for actuating a novel, pneumatically operated catheter pump. The design of its control system puts emphasis on the performance, safety and low running cost of the catheter pump. Static and dynamic characteristics of individual elements in the circulation are analyzed to ensure a proper operation of the system. The pneumatic circulation maximizes the working range of the drive unit inside the catheter pump while reducing the total size and noise production.Separate flow and pressure controllers position the turbine's working point into the stable region of the pressure creation element. A subsystem for rapid gas evacuation significantly decreases the duration of helium removal after a leak, reaching subatmospheric pressure in the intracorporeal catheter within several milliseconds. The system presented in the study offers an easy control of helium mass flow while ensuring stable behavior of its internal components.

  8. Closed Loop Sawtooth Period Control Using Variable Eccd Injection Angles on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennholm, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Turco, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Dumont, R.; Giruzzi, G.; Jung, M.; Lambert, R.; Magne, R.; Molina, D.; Moreau, P.; Rimini, F.; Segui, J.L.; Song, S.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-01-01

    Closed loop control of the period of fast ion stabilized sawtooth has been demonstrated for the first time on Tore Supra by varying the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) injection angles in real time. Fast ions generated by up to 4 MW of central ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) increased the sawtooth period from the ohmic value of 25 ms to 60 to 100 ms. This sawtooth period was reduced to 30 ms by the addition of only 300 kW of ECCD. In ICRH heated shots where the normalized minor radius of the ECCD absorption location was swept from 0.4 to 0.05 in 4 s, the sawtooth period showed an abrupt change from 70 to 30 ms when the ECCD deposition normalized minor radius reached ∼ 0.2. This short period was then maintained until the absorption location moved well inside the sawtooth inversion radius at which point it abruptly returned to 70 ins. A closed loop controller was implemented that allowed the sawtooth period to be switched in real time between short and long sawteeth with a response time of the order of 1 s. (authors)

  9. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnet Using a Closed-Loop Acid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Uemura, Ryohei

    2017-08-14

    There is considerable interest in extraction of rare earth elements from NdFeB magnets to enable recycling of these elements. In practical extraction methods using wet processes, the acid waste solution discharge is a problem that must be resolved to reduce the environmental impact of the process. Here, we present an encouraging demonstration of rare earth element extraction from a NdFeB magnet using a closed-loop hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based process. The extraction method is based on corrosion of the magnet in a pretreatment stage and a subsequent ionic liquid technique for Fe extraction from the HCl solution. The rare earth elements are then precipitated using oxalic acid. Triple extraction has been conducted and the recovery ratio of the rare earth elements from the solution is approximately 50% for each extraction process, as compared to almost 100% recovery when using a one-shot extraction process without the ionic liquid but with sufficient oxalic acid. Despite its reduced extraction efficiency, the proposed method with its small number of procedures at almost room temperature is still highly advantageous in terms of both cost and environmental friendliness. This study represents an initial step towards realization of a closed-loop acid process for recycling of rare earth elements.

  10. Wireless Magnetic-Based Closed-Loop Control of Self-Propelled Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Sanchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate closed-loop motion control of self-propelled microjets under the influence of external magnetic fields. We control the orientation of the microjets using external magnetic torque, whereas the linear motion towards a reference position is accomplished by the thrust and pulling magnetic forces generated by the ejecting oxygen bubbles and field gradients, respectively. The magnetic dipole moment of the microjets is characterized using the U-turn technique, and its average is calculated to be 1.310−10 A.m2 at magnetic field and linear velocity of 2 mT and 100 µm/s, respectively. The characterized magnetic dipole moment is used in the realization of the magnetic force-current map of the microjets. This map in turn is used for the design of a closed-loop control system that does not depend on the exact dynamical model of the microjets and the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the magnetic system. The motion control characteristics in the transient- and steady-states depend on the concentration of the surrounding fluid (hydrogen peroxide solution) and the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our control system allows us to position microjets at an average velocity of 115 m/s, and within an average region-of-convergence of 365 m. PMID:24505244

  11. Closed-Loop Control of Humidification for Artifact Reduction in Capacitive ECG Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Lennart; Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Weyer, Soren; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Recording biosignals without the need for direct skin contact offers new opportunities for ubiquitous health monitoring. Electrodes with capacitive coupling have been shown to be suitable for the monitoring of electrical potentials on the body surface, in particular ECG. However, due to triboelectric charge generation and motion artifacts, signal and thus diagnostic quality is inferior to galvanic coupling. Active closed-loop humidification of capacitive electrodes is proposed in this work as a new concept to improve signal quality. A capacitive ECG recording system integrated into a common car seat is presented. It can regulate the micro climate at the interface of electrode and patient by actively dispensing water vapour and monitoring humidity in a closed-loop approach. As a regenerative water reservoir, silica gel is used. The system was evaluated with respect to subjective and objective ECG signal quality. Active humidification was found to have a significant positive effect in case of previously poor quality. Also, it had no diminishing effect in case of already good signal quality.

  12. Closed-loop control of spinal cord stimulation to restore hand function after paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas B Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As yet, no cure exists for upper-limb paralysis resulting from the damage to motor pathways after spinal cord injury or stroke. Recently, neural activity from the motor cortex of paralyzed individuals has been used to control the movements of a robot arm but restoring function to patients’ actual limbs remains a considerable challenge. Previously we have shown that electrical stimulation of the cervical spinal cord in anesthetized monkeys can elicit functional upper-limb movements like reaching and grasping. Here we show that stimulation can be controlled using cortical activity in awake animals to bypass disruption of the corticospinal system, restoring their ability to perform a simple upper-limb task. Monkeys were trained to grasp and pull a spring-loaded handle. After temporary paralysis of the hand was induced by reversible inactivation of primary motor cortex using muscimol, grasp-related single-unit activity from the ventral premotor cortex was converted into stimulation patterns delivered in real-time to the cervical spinal grey matter. During periods of closed-loop stimulation, task-modulated electromyogram, movement amplitude and task success rate were improved relative to interleaved control periods without stimulation. In some sessions, single motor unit activity from weakly active muscles was also used successfully to control stimulation. These results are the first use of a neural prosthesis to improve the hand function of primates after motor cortex disruption, and demonstrate the potential for closed-loop cortical control of spinal cord stimulation to reanimate paralyzed limbs.

  13. Experimental evaluation of reactivity constraints for the closed-loop control of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Ray, A.

    1984-01-01

    General principles for the closed-loop, digital control of reactor power have been identified, quantitatively enumerated, and experimentally demonstrated on the 5 MWt Research Reactor, MITR-II. The basic concept is to restrict the net reactivity so that it is always possible to make the reactor period infinite at the desired termination point of a transient by reversing the direction of motion of whatever control mechanism is associated with the controller. This capability is formally referred to as ''feasibility of control''. A series of ten experiments have been conducted over a period of eighteen months to demonstrate the efficacy of this property for the automatic control of reactor power. It has been shown that a controller which possesses this property is capable of both raising and lowering power in a safe, efficient manner while using a control rod of varying differential worth, that the reactivity constraints are a sufficient condition for the automatic control of reactor power, and that the use of a controller based on reactivity constraints can prevent overshoots either due to attempts to control a transient with a control rod of insufficient differential worth or due to failure to properly estimate when to commence rod insertion. Details of several of the more significant tests are presented together with a discussion of the rationale for the development of closed-loop control in large commercial power systems. Specific consideration is given to the motivation for designing a controller based on feasibility of control and the associated licensing issues

  14. A general method for closed-loop inverse simulation of helicopter maneuver flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maneuverability is a key factor to determine whether a helicopter could finish certain flight missions successfully or not. Inverse simulation is commonly used to calculate the pilot controls of a helicopter to complete a certain kind of maneuver flight and to assess its maneuverability. A general method for inverse simulation of maneuver flight for helicopters with the flight control system online is developed in this paper. A general mathematical describing function is established to provide mathematical descriptions of different kinds of maneuvers. A comprehensive control solver based on the optimal linear quadratic regulator theory is developed to calculate the pilot controls of different maneuvers. The coupling problem between pilot controls and flight control system outputs is well solved by taking the flight control system model into the control solver. Inverse simulation of three different kinds of maneuvers with different agility requirements defined in the ADS-33E-PRF is implemented based on the developed method for a UH-60 helicopter. The results show that the method developed in this paper can solve the closed-loop inverse simulation problem of helicopter maneuver flight with high reliability as well as efficiency. Keywords: Closed-loop, Flying quality, Helicopters, Inverse simulation, Maneuver flight

  15. Closed-loop 15N measurement of N2O and its isotopomers for real-time greenhouse gas tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaets, Johanna; Mayr, Leopold; Heiling, Maria; Zaman, Mohammad; Resch, Christian; Weltin, Georg; Gruber, Roman; Dercon, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying sources of nitrous oxide is essential to improve understanding of the global N cycle and to develop climate-smart agriculture, as N2O has a global warming potential 300 times higher than CO2. The isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution (site preference) of 15N are powerful tools to trace N2O, but the application of these methods is limited as conventional methods cannot provide continuous and in situ data. Here we present a method for closed-loop, real time monitoring of the N2O flux, the isotopic signature and the intramolecular distribution of 15N by using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, Los Gatos Research). The developed method was applied to a fertilizer inhibitor experiment, in which N2O emissions were measured on undisturbed soil cores for three weeks. The treatments consisted of enriched urea-N (100 kg urea-N/ha), the same fertilizer combined with the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin (375 g/100 kg urea), and control cores. Monitoring the isotopic signature makes it possible to distinguish emissions from soil and fertilizer. Characterization of site preference could additionally provide a tool to identify different microbial processes leading to N2O emissions. Furthermore, the closed-loop approach enables direct measurement on site and does not require removal of CO2 and H2O. Results showed that 75% of total N2O emissions (total=11 346 μg N2O-N/m2) in the fertilized cores originated from fertilizer, while only 55% of total emissions (total=2 450 μg N2ON/m2) stemmed from fertilizer for the cores treated with nitrapyrin. In the controls, N2O derived from soil was only 40% of the size of the corresponding pool from the fertilized cores, pointing towards a priming effect on the microbial community from the fertilizer and demonstrating the bias that could be introduced by relying on non-treated cores to estimate soil emission rates, rather than using the isotopic signature. The site preference increased linearly

  16. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model for a Photovoltaic System Manufacturer with Internal and External Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songi Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV generation system has been widely used since the late 1990s. Considering its lifespan of 20 to 30 years, many end-of-life systems will emerge in the near future. This is why recycling PV systems will be beneficial (and may even be detrimental to both the environment and the economy. Through the recycling process, hazardous by-product substances such as cadmium and lead can be treated properly. Moreover, valuable materials including indium, gallium, and tellurium can be extracted and reused for manufacturing purposes. Even though many studies have dealt with issues related to the PV system and its recycling policy, they lack significant factors regarding the recycling policy. This study analyzes and compares three real cases of manufacturer’s recycling policy, including Deutsche Solar, First Solar, and PV Cycle, from the perspective of a closed-loop supply chain. Two mathematical models are developed to help PV system manufacturers establish supply chain planning and choose suitable recycling policies in consideration of different circumstances. Furthermore, an experimental example of these models will be used to validate and conclude the significance of the models. The results from this study will show that recycling CdTe PV systems is much more efficient than recycling c-Si PV systems and that, in the case of c-Si, it is better to outsource recycling end-of-life systems and dispose of all manufacturing scrap.

  17. Enhanced closed loop State of Charge estimator for lithium-ion batteries based on Extended Kalman Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Gustavo; Garmendia, Maitane; Reynaud, Jean François; Crego, Jon; Viscarret, Unai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on a general model valid in full range of SOC considering varied dynamics. • Integration of an accurate OCV model in EKF taking into account hysteresis effect. • Experimental validation with different current profiles: pulses, EV and lift. • Validated with specifically designed profile demanding accurate OCV modeling. - Abstract: The accurate State of Charge (SOC) estimation in a Li-ion battery requires a suitable model of the cell behavior. In this work an enhanced closed loop estimator based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed, considering a precise model of the cell dynamics valid for different current profiles and SOCs, and a complete model of the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) which takes into account the hysteresis influence. The employed model and proposed estimator are validated with experimental results obtained from the response of a 40 Ah NMC Li-ion cell to several current profiles. These tests include current pulses, FUDS driving cycles, residential lift profiles, and specially designed profiles which demand an accurate modeling of the transitions between OCV boundaries. In each case, it is demonstrated that the enhanced model can reduce the estimation error nearly by half compared to an estimator ignoring the hysteresis effect. Furthermore, the good performance of the cell dynamics model allows an accurate and stable estimation over different conditions

  18. Intraoperative stroke volume optimization using stroke volume, arterial pressure, and heart rate: closed-loop (learning intravenous resuscitator) versus anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Joseph; Chung, Elena; Canales, Cecilia; Cannesson, Maxime

    2012-10-01

    The authors compared the performance of a group of anesthesia providers to closed-loop (Learning Intravenous Resuscitator [LIR]) management in a simulated hemorrhage scenario using cardiac output monitoring. A prospective cohort study. In silico simulation. University hospital anesthesiologists and the LIR closed-loop fluid administration system. Using a patient simulator, a 90-minute simulated hemorrhage protocol was run, which included a 1,200-mL blood loss over 30 minutes. Twenty practicing anesthesiology providers were asked to manage this scenario by providing fluids and vasopressor medication at their discretion. The simulation program was also run 20 times with the LIR closed-loop algorithm managing fluids and an additional 20 times with no intervention. Simulated patient weight, height, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and cardiac output (CO) were similar at baseline. The mean stroke volume, the mean arterial pressure, CO, and the final CO were higher in the closed-loop group than in the practitioners group, and the coefficient of variance was lower. The closed-loop group received slightly more fluid (2.1 v 1.9 L, p closed-loop maintained more stable hemodynamics than the practitioners primarily because the fluid was given earlier in the protocol and CO optimized before the hemorrhage began, whereas practitioners tended to resuscitate well but only after significant hemodynamic change indicated the need. Overall, these data support the potential usefulness of this closed-loop algorithm in clinical settings in which dynamic predictors are not available or applicable. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  20. A Bi-Objective Green Closed Loop Supply Chain Design Problem with Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of e-commerce, competition among enterprises is becoming fiercer. Furthermore, environmental problems can no longer be ignored. To address these challenges, we devise a green closed loop supply chain (GCLSC with uncertain demand. In the problem, two conflict objectives and recycling the used products are considered. To solve this problem, a mathematical model is formulated with the chance constraint, and the ϵ -constraint method is adapted to obtain the true Pareto front for small sized problems. For larger sized problems, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II and the multi-objective simulated annealing method (MOSA are developed. Numerous computational experiments can help manufacturers make better production and sales plans to keep competitive advantage and protect the environment.

  1. Close loop gas recirculation and purification system for INO RPC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.V.; Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Close loop gas recirculation system (CLS) is designed to overcome problems. The present system is a pilot unit catering to about 12 RPC detectors of 2m ÃâĂŤ 2m size. The gas mixture is prepared in required concentration, in-situ, and circulated throughout the loop at controlled flow rates. The pressure band is adjusted to be within 20mm of water column. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) keeps track of pressure and flow rates, process sequence and safety conditions. The loss of gas is continuously monitored to assess effectiveness of CLS. The concentration of gas components in the mixtures is monitored by sampling through Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). The RPC performance parameters, such as leakage current, noise rate, efficiency and cross-talk are monitored vis-a-vis CLS parameters. It has been found that RPC parameters respond in coordination with CLS functioning. Room pressure and temperature also seem to have influence on both of them

  2. Development of closed-loop supply chain network in terms of corporate social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Ali; Pedram, Payam; Yusoff, Nukman Bin; Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rise in awareness of environmental issues and the depletion of virgin resources, many firms have attempted to increase the sustainability of their activities. One efficient way to elevate sustainability is the consideration of corporate social responsibility (CSR) by designing a closed loop supply chain (CLSC). This paper has developed a mathematical model to increase corporate social responsibility in terms of job creation. Moreover the model, in addition to increasing total CLSC profit, provides a range of strategic decision solutions for decision makers to select a best action plan for a CLSC. A proposed multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model was solved with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Fuzzy set theory was employed to select the best compromise solution from the Pareto-optimal solutions. A numerical example was used to validate the potential application of the proposed model. The results highlight the effect of CSR in the design of CLSC.

  3. The technology of waste, biofuels and global warming in viable closed loop, sustainable operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, W. R.

    2009-01-01

    This research set out to explore and develop a route relating the recycling of urban and industrial wastes to land to produce agricultural crops with energy crops in the rotation, using the green leaf to 'harvest' sunlight and to examine the sequestration of carbon dioxide and release of oxygen in a sustainable closed loop. Further, to establish if the pollution, particularly of nitrogen and phosphates (often associated with cultivations and use of mineral fertilisers) could be reduced or eliminated, so as to be able to develop systems which could contribute to the reversal of global warming. Finally, to probe whether practical operators on the ground could understand the technology, use it, and express what they were doing in a way acceptable to a wider society. (author)

  4. Seizure detection, seizure prediction, and closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Thome-Souza, Sigride; Jackson, Michele; Kadish, Navah Ester; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Klehm, Jacquelyn; Bosl, William; Reinsberger, Claus; Schachter, Steven; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2014-08-01

    Nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite optimal medication management. Systems employed to detect seizures may have the potential to improve outcomes in these patients by allowing more tailored therapies and might, additionally, have a role in accident and SUDEP prevention. Automated seizure detection and prediction require algorithms which employ feature computation and subsequent classification. Over the last few decades, methods have been developed to detect seizures utilizing scalp and intracranial EEG, electrocardiography, accelerometry and motion sensors, electrodermal activity, and audio/video captures. To date, it is unclear which combination of detection technologies yields the best results, and approaches may ultimately need to be individualized. This review presents an overview of seizure detection and related prediction methods and discusses their potential uses in closed-loop warning systems in epilepsy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. A double closed loop to enhance the quality of life of Parkinson's Disease patients: REMPARK system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samà, Albert; Pérez-López, Carlos; Rodríguez-Martín, Daniel; Moreno-Aróstegui, J Manuel; Rovira, Jordi; Ahlrichs, Claas; Castro, Rui; Cevada, João; Graça, Ricardo; Guimarães, Vânia; Pina, Bernardo; Counihan, Timothy; Lewy, Hadas; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Bayés, Angels; Rodríguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Cabestany, Joan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents REMPARK system, a novel approach to deal with Parkinson's Disease (PD). REMPARK system comprises two closed loops of actuation onto PD. The first loop consists in a wearable system that, based on a belt-worn movement sensor, detects movement alterations that activate an auditory cueing system controlled by a smartphone in order to improve patient's gait. The belt-worn sensor analyzes patient's movement through real-time learning algorithms that were developed on the basis of a database previously collected from 93 PD patients. The second loop consists in disease management based on the data collected during long periods and that enables neurologists to tailor medication of their PD patients and follow the disease evolution. REMPARK system is going to be tested in 40 PD patients in Spain, Ireland, Italy and Israel. This paper describes the approach followed to obtain this system, its components, functionalities and trials in which the system will be validated.

  6. A review of the MIT experiments on the closed-loop digital control of reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a review is provided of certain major experiments conducted from 1985 to 1988 as part of the MIT program on the development and demonstration of advanced technologies for the closed-loop digital control of nuclear reactors. Included are demonstrations of the supervisory control of neutronic power using an alternate formulation of the dynamic period equation, the use of the MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws for the time-optimal control of neutronic power, and the evaluation of predictive displays as an operator aid. The significance of each of these advances is discussed in terms of the overall development of a multi-tiered controller that includes supervisory algorithms, predictive control laws, and automated reasoning

  7. Feedforward control of a closed-loop piezoelectric translation stage for atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Bechhoefer, John

    2007-01-01

    Simple feedforward ideas are shown to lead to a nearly tenfold increase in the effective bandwidth of a closed-loop piezoelectric positioning stage used in scanning probe microscopy. If the desired control signal is known in advance, the feedforward filter can be acausal: the information about the future can be used to make the output of the stage have almost no phase lag with respect to the input. This keeps in register the images assembled from right and left scans. We discuss the design constraints imposed by the need for the feedforward filter to work robustly under a variety of circumstances. Because the feedforward needs only to modify the input signal, it can be added to any piezoelectric stage, whether closed or open loop.

  8. Closed-Loop Dynamic Parameter Identification of Robot Manipulators Using Modified Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiang Wu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of dynamic parameter identification of robot manipulators and proposes a closed-loop identification procedure using modified Fourier series (MFS as exciting trajectories. First, a static continuous friction model is involved to model joint friction for realizable friction compensation in controller design. Second, MFS satisfying the boundary conditions are firstly designed as periodic exciting trajectories. To minimize the sensitivity to measurement noise, the coefficients of MFS are optimized according to the condition number criterion. Moreover, to obtain accurate parameter estimates, the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method considering the influence of measurement noise is adopted. The proposed identification procedure has been implemented on the first three axes of the QIANJIANG-I 6-DOF robot manipulator. Experiment results verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and comparison between identification using MFS and that using finite Fourier series (FFS reveals that the proposed method achieves better identification accuracy.

  9. Pricing and collecting decisions in a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jie; Govindan, Kannan; Li, Yongjian

    2015-01-01

    . The optimal strategies in closed form are given under the decision scenarios with symmetric information; moreover, the first order conditions that the optimal retail price, optimal wholesale price, and optimal collection rate satisfy are given under the decision scenarios with asymmetric information......The optimal decision problem of a closed-loop supply chain with symmetric and asymmetric information structures is considered using game theory in this paper. The paper aims to explore how the manufacturer and the retailer make their own decisions about wholesale price, retail price, and collection...... rate under symmetric and asymmetric information conditions. Four game models are established, which allow one to examine the strategies of each firm and explore the role of the manufacturer and the retailer in four different game scenarios under symmetric and asymmetric information structures...

  10. Novel sensors to enable closed-loop active clearance control in gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisheimer, Jonathan; Holst, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Active clearance control within the turbine section of gas turbine engines presents and opportunity within aerospace and industrial applications to improve operating efficiencies and the life of downstream components. Open loop clearance control is currently employed during the development of all new large core aerospace engines; however, the ability to measure the gap between the blades and the case and close down the clearance further presents as opportunity to gain even greater efficiencies. The turbine area is one of the harshest environments for long term placement of a sensor in addition to the extreme accuracy requirements required to enable closed loop clearance control. This paper gives an overview of the challenges of clearance measurements within the turbine as well as discusses the latest developments of a microwave sensor designed for this application.

  11. Closed loop auto control system software for Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Masood; Qadir, Javed

    2009-01-01

    A closed loop auto control system has been developed and implemented at the Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2). For interfacing of the site signals with a computer, a data acquisition card was employed. The system utilizes nine signals and, on their basis, carries out continuous on-line analysis, maintaining safe operation. On-line reactivity measurement is included in this software. Also, it generates control signals for keeping the reactor at the desired power level in auto-mode round-the-clock without human intervention. In case of abnormal conditions for either power or temperature or radiation level, alarms are initiated and if their levels reach beyond prescribed safe operation regime, automatic shutdown sequence is initiated. The control system has been thoroughly tested for various postulated scenarios. The test results have been in good agreement with the expected response. (orig.)

  12. Efficacy determinants of subcutaneous microdose glucagon during closed-loop control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven J; El-Khatib, Firas H; Nathan, David M; Damiano, Edward R

    2010-11-01

    During a previous clinical trial of a closed-loop blood glucose (BG) control system that administered insulin and microdose glucagon subcutaneously, glucagon was not uniformly effective in preventing hypoglycemia (BGMicrodose glucagon administration was relatively ineffective in preventing hypoglycemia when plasma insulin levels exceeded the controller's online estimate by >60%. After the algorithm PK parameters were globally adjusted, insulin dosing was more conservative and microdose glucagon administration was very effective in reducing hypoglycemia while maintaining normal plasma glucagon levels. Improvements in the accuracy of the controller's online estimate of plasma insulin levels could be achieved if ultrarapid-acting insulin formulations could be developed with faster absorption and less intra- and intersubject variability than the current insulin analogs available today. © 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  14. A Comprehensive Approach in Assessing the Performance of an Automobile Closed-Loop Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezutah Udoncy Olugu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecological issues arising from manufacturing operations have led to the focus on environmental sustainability in manufacturing. This can be addressed adequately using a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC. To attain an effective and efficient CLSC, it is necessary to imbibe a holistic performance measurement approach. In order to achieve this, there is a need to adopt a specific approach for a particular product rather than being generic. Since sustainability has direct environmental footprints that involve organizational stakeholders, suppliers, customers and the society at large, complexities surrounding supply chain performance measurement have multiplied. In this study, a suitable approach has been proposed for CLSC performance measurement in the automotive industry, based on reviewed literature. It is believed that this approach will result in increased effectiveness and efficiency in CLSC performance measurement.

  15. Detection of no-model input-output pairs in closed-loop systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Alvarado, Christiam Segundo Morales; Garcia, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The detection of no-model input-output (IO) pairs is important because it can speed up the multivariable system identification process, since all the pairs with null transfer functions are previously discarded and it can also improve the identified model quality, thus improving the performance of model based controllers. In the available literature, the methods focus just on the open-loop case, since in this case there is not the effect of the controller forcing the main diagonal in the transfer matrix to one and all the other terms to zero. In this paper, a modification of a previous method able to detect no-model IO pairs in open-loop systems is presented, but adapted to perform this duty in closed-loop systems. Tests are performed by using the traditional methods and the proposed one to show its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Open and Closed Loop Parametric System Identification in Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Enrique Sanchez; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    By measuring the current through the coil of the actuators in the optical pick-up in a compact disk player, open loop parametric system identification can be performed. The parameters are identified by minimizing the least-squares loss function of the ARX model. The only parameter which cannot be...... be identified in open loop is the optical gain. This is therefore estimated in closed loop. Practical results are analyzed and show very accurate estimates of the real parameters.......By measuring the current through the coil of the actuators in the optical pick-up in a compact disk player, open loop parametric system identification can be performed. The parameters are identified by minimizing the least-squares loss function of the ARX model. The only parameter which cannot...

  17. A genetic algorithm approach for solving a closed loop supply chain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, G.; Sasikumar, P.; Kannan, Devika

    2010-01-01

    in reverse logistics is to take back the used products, either under warranty or at the end of use or at the end of lease, so that the products or its parts are appropriately disposed, recycled, reused or remanufactured. In order to overcome this issue, it is necessary to setup a logistics network...... for arising goods flow from end users to manufacturers. In this study, the optimum usage of secondary lead recovered from the spent lead-acid batteries for producing new battery is presented. The disposal in surface or sewage water or land of liquid content of the lead-acid batteries is strictly restricted....... Because of the need for environmental protection and the lack of considerable lead resources, the spent batteries treatment and lead recovery are becoming crucial now-a-days. The objective of this paper is to develop a multi echelon, multi period, multi product closed loop supply chain network model...

  18. Recovery of Dynamics and Function in Spiking Neural Networks with Closed-Loop Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Ioannis; Deniz, Taşkin; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in developing novel brain stimulation methods to control disease-related aberrant neural activity and to address basic neuroscience questions. Conventional methods for manipulating brain activity rely on open-loop approaches that usually lead to excessive stimulation and, crucially, do not restore the original computations performed by the network. Thus, they are often accompanied by undesired side-effects. Here, we introduce delayed feedback control (DFC), a conceptually simple but effective method, to control pathological oscillations in spiking neural networks (SNNs). Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations we show that DFC can restore a wide range of aberrant network dynamics either by suppressing or enhancing synchronous irregular activity. Importantly, DFC, besides steering the system back to a healthy state, also recovers the computations performed by the underlying network. Finally, using our theory we identify the role of single neuron and synapse properties in determining the stability of the closed-loop system.

  19. The Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The various elements of the Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Research Project (P/C CLLS) are described including both those currently funded and those planned for implementation at ARC and other participating NASA field centers. The plan addresses the entire range of regenerative life support for Space Exploration Initiative mission needs, and focuses initially on achieving technology readiness for the Initial Lunar Outpost by 1995-97. Project elements include water reclamation, air revitalization, solid waste management, thermal and systems control, and systems integration. Current analysis estimates that each occupant of a space habitat will require a total of 32 kg/day of supplies to live and operate comfortably, while an ideal P/C CLLS system capable of 100 percent reclamation of air and water, but excluding recycling of solid wastes or foods, will reduce this requirement to 3.4 kg/day.

  20. Closed-Loop Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Improves Spatial Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee E. Shimizu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12–15 Hz sleep spindle band. Our results show promise for the application of sleep-based interventions to drive improvement in real-world tasks.

  1. Autonomous Closed-Loop Tasking, Acquisition, Processing, and Evaluation for Situational Awareness Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Dan; Cappelaere, Pat

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the closed loop satellite autonomy methods used to connect users and the assets on Earth Orbiter- 1 (EO-1) and similar satellites. The base layer is a distributed architecture based on Goddard Mission Services Evolution Concept (GMSEC) thus each asset still under independent control. Situational awareness is provided by a middleware layer through common Application Programmer Interface (API) to GMSEC components developed at GSFC. Users setup their own tasking requests, receive views into immediate past acquisitions in their area of interest, and into future feasibilities for acquisition across all assets. Automated notifications via pubsub feeds are returned to users containing published links to image footprints, algorithm results, and full data sets. Theme-based algorithms are available on-demand for processing.

  2. Research on Open-Closed-Loop Iterative Learning Control with Variable Forgetting Factor of Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an iterative learning control algorithm (ILC that is developed using a variable forgetting factor to control a mobile robot. The proposed algorithm can be categorized as an open-closed-loop iterative learning control, which produces control instructions by using both previous and current data. However, introducing a variable forgetting factor can weaken the former control output and its variance in the control law while strengthening the robustness of the iterative learning control. If it is applied to the mobile robot, this will reduce position errors in robot trajectory tracking control effectively. In this work, we show that the proposed algorithm guarantees tracking error bound convergence to a small neighborhood of the origin under the condition of state disturbances, output measurement noises, and fluctuation of system dynamics. By using simulation, we demonstrate that the controller is effective in realizing the prefect tracking.

  3. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. P., E-mail: jplu@parc.com; Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M. [Palo Alto Research Center, Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  4. A statistical learning strategy for closed-loop control of fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéniat, Florimond; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    2016-12-01

    This work discusses a closed-loop control strategy for complex systems utilizing scarce and streaming data. A discrete embedding space is first built using hash functions applied to the sensor measurements from which a Markov process model is derived, approximating the complex system's dynamics. A control strategy is then learned using reinforcement learning once rewards relevant with respect to the control objective are identified. This method is designed for experimental configurations, requiring no computations nor prior knowledge of the system, and enjoys intrinsic robustness. It is illustrated on two systems: the control of the transitions of a Lorenz'63 dynamical system, and the control of the drag of a cylinder flow. The method is shown to perform well.

  5. Closed-Loop Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Improves Spatial Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Renee E; Connolly, Patrick M; Cellini, Nicola; Armstrong, Diana M; Hernandez, Lexus T; Estrada, Rolando; Aguilar, Mario; Weisend, Michael P; Mednick, Sara C; Simons, Stephen B

    2018-01-01

    Sounds associated with newly learned information that are replayed during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep can improve recall in simple tasks. The mechanism for this improvement is presumed to be reactivation of the newly learned memory during sleep when consolidation takes place. We have developed an EEG-based closed-loop system to precisely deliver sensory stimulation at the time of down-state to up-state transitions during NREM sleep. Here, we demonstrate that applying this technology to participants performing a realistic navigation task in virtual reality results in a significant improvement in navigation efficiency after sleep that is accompanied by increases in the spectral power especially in the fast (12-15 Hz) sleep spindle band. Our results show promise for the application of sleep-based interventions to drive improvement in real-world tasks.

  6. Retail Services and Pricing Decisions in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and social responsibilities have led many manufacturers to used products recovery. Meanwhile, many manufacturers nowadays sell products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. This paper models a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain to improve the sustainability of products. We apply the two-stage optimization technique and the Nash game to examine the impacts of the retail services and the degree of customer loyalty to the retail channel on the pricing of players in a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain. Our results show that the retail services have a great impact on the manufacturer and the retailer’s pricing strategies. We also compare the differences of pricing strategies between a centralized and a decentralized dual-channel supply chain and suggest the optimal retail services and pricing decisions for the players in the supply chain.

  7. Synthesis of high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalay, Osbert C; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-06-01

    We propose an approach to synthesizing high-complexity rhythmic signals for closed-loop electrical neuromodulation using cognitive rhythm generator (CRG) networks, wherein the CRG is a hybrid oscillator comprised of (1) a bank of neuronal modes, (2) a ring device (clock), and (3) a static output nonlinearity (mapper). Networks of coupled CRGs have been previously implemented to simulate the electrical activity of biological neural networks, including in silico models of epilepsy, producing outputs of similar waveform and complexity to the biological system. This has enabled CRG network models to be used as platforms for testing seizure control strategies. Presently, we take the application one step further, envisioning therapeutic CRG networks as rhythmic signal generators creating neuromimetic signals for stimulation purposes, motivated by recent research indicating that stimulus complexity and waveform characteristics influence neuromodulation efficacy. To demonstrate this concept, an epileptiform CRG network generating spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) was coupled to a therapeutic CRG network, forming a closed-loop neuromodulation system. SLEs are associated with low-complexity dynamics and high phase coherence in the network. The tuned therapeutic network generated a high-complexity, multi-banded rhythmic stimulation signal with prominent theta and gamma-frequency power that suppressed SLEs and increased dynamic complexity in the epileptiform network, as measured by a relative increase in the maximum Lyapunov exponent and decrease in phase coherence. CRG-based neuromodulation outperformed both low and high-frequency periodic pulse stimulation, suggesting that neuromodulation using complex, biomimetic signals may provide an improvement over conventional electrical stimulation techniques for treating neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Closed-loop control of renal perfusion pressure in physiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Delgado, D U; Bonilla, I; Rodríguez-Martínez, M; Sánchez-Briones, M E; Ruiz-Hernández, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the design, experimental modeling, and control of a pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system to implement precise and relatively fast RPP regulation in rats. The mechatronic system is a simple, low-cost, and reliable device to automate the RPP regulation process based on flow-mediated occlusion. Hence, the regulated signal is the RPP measured in the left femoral artery of the rat, and the manipulated variable is the voltage applied to a dc motor that controls the occlusion of the aorta. The control system is implemented in a PC through the LabView software, and a data acquisition board NI USB-6210. A simple first-order linear system is proposed to approximate the dynamics in the experiment. The parameters of the model are chosen to minimize the error between the predicted and experimental output averaged from eight input/output datasets at different RPP operating conditions. A closed-loop servocontrol system based on a pole-placement PD controller plus dead-zone compensation was proposed for this purpose. First, the feedback structure was validated in simulation by considering parameter uncertainty, and constant and time-varying references. Several experimental tests were also conducted to validate in real time the closed-loop performance for stepwise and fast switching references, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system to regulate the RPP in the rat, in a precise, accurate (mean error less than 2 mmHg) and relatively fast mode (10-15 s of response time).

  9. Improved process robustness by using closed loop control in deep drawing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthau, M.; Liewald, M.; Christian, Held

    2017-09-01

    The production of irregular shaped deep-drawing parts with high quality requirements, which are common in today’s automotive production, permanently challenges production processes. High requirements on lightweight construction of passenger car bodies following European regulations until 2020 have been massively increasing the use of high strength steels substantially for years and are also leading to bigger challenges in sheet metal part production. Of course, the more and more complex shapes of today’s car body shells also intensify the issue due to modern and future design criteria. The metal forming technology tries to meet these challenges by developing a highly sophisticated layout of deep drawing dies that consider part quality requirements, process robustness and controlled material flow during the deep or stretch drawing process phase. A new method for controlling material flow using a closed loop system was developed at the IFU Stuttgart. In contrast to previous approaches, this new method allows a control intervention during the deep-drawing stroke. The blank holder force around the outline of the drawn part is used as control variable. The closed loop is designed as trajectory follow up with feed forward control. The used command variable is the part-wall stress that is measured with a piezo-electric measuring pin. In this paper the used control loop will be described in detail. The experimental tool that was built for testing the new control approach is explained here with its features. A method for gaining the follow up trajectories from simulation will also be presented. Furthermore, experimental results considering the robustness of the deep drawing process and the gain in process performance with developed control loop will be shown. Finally, a new procedure for the industrial application of the new control method of deep drawing will be presented by using a new kind of active element to influence the local blank holder pressure onto part

  10. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jonas Grahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS.Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a smart neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and

  11. Detecting a cortical fingerprint of Parkinson’s disease for closed-loop neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eKern

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in Parkinson’s disease (PD mediates its clinical effects by modulating cortical oscillatory activity, presumably via a direct cortico-subthalamic connection. This observation might pave the way for novel closed-loop approaches comprising a cortical sensor. Enhanced beta oscillations (13-35 Hz have been linked to the pathophysiology of PD and may serve as such a candidate marker to localize a cortical area reliably modulated by DBS. However, beta-oscillations are widely distributed over the cortical surface, necessitating an additional signal source for spotting the cortical area linked to the pathologically synchronized cortico-subcortical motor network.In this context, both cortico-subthalamic coherence and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC have been studied in PD patients. Whereas the former requires invasive recordings, the latter allows for non-invasive detection, but displays a rather distributed cortical synchronization pattern in motor tasks. This distributed cortical representation may conflict with the goal of detecting a cortical localization with robust biomarker properties which is detectable on a single subject basis. We propose that this limitation could be overcome when recording CMC at rest. We hypothesized that – unlike healthy subjects – PD would show CMC at rest owing to the enhanced beta oscillations observed in PD. By performing source space analysis of beta CMC recorded during resting-state magnetoencephalography, we provide preliminary evidence in one patient for a cortical hot spot that is modulated most strongly by subthalamic DBS. Such a spot would provide a prominent target region either for direct neuromodulation or for placing a potential sensor in closed-loop DBS approaches, a proposal that requires investigation in a larger cohort of PD patients.

  12. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  13. Closed-Loop Control Without Meal Announcement in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Faye M; Ly, Trang T; Buckingham, Bruce A; Maahs, David M; Forlenza, Gregory P; Levy, Carol J; Lam, David; Clinton, Paula; Messer, Laurel H; Westfall, Emily; Levister, Camilla; Xie, Yan Yan; Baysal, Nihat; Howsmon, Daniel; Patek, Stephen D; Bequette, B Wayne

    2017-09-01

    A fully closed-loop insulin-only system was developed to provide glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes without requiring announcement of meals or activity. Our goal was to assess initial safety and efficacy of this system. The multiple model probabilistic controller (MMPPC) anticipates meals when the patient is awake. The controller used the subject's basal rates and total daily insulin dose for initialization. The system was tested at two sites on 10 patients in a 30-h inpatient study, followed by 15 subjects at three sites in a 54-h supervised hotel study, where the controller was challenged by exercise and unannounced meals. The system was implemented on the UVA DiAs system using a Roche Spirit Combo Insulin Pump and a Dexcom G4 Continuous Glucose Monitor. The mean overall (24-h basis) and nighttime (11 PM-7 AM) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) values were 142 and 125 mg/dL during the inpatient study. The hotel study used a different daytime tuning and manual announcement, instead of automatic detection, of sleep and wake periods. This resulted in mean overall (24-h basis) and nighttime CGM values of 152 and 139 mg/dL for the hotel study and there was also a reduction in hypoglycemia events from 1.6 to 0.91 events/patient/day. The MMPPC system achieved a mean glucose that would be particularly helpful for people with an elevated A1c as a result of frequent missed meal boluses. Current full closed loop has a higher risk for hypoglycemia when compared with algorithms using meal announcement.

  14. Modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique for repair of rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Xin; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Shaoqun; Liu, Gang; Ping, Ruiyue; Li, Yikai; Fu, Shijie

    2018-01-01

    Acromioclavicular dislocation (ACD) is a common injury. According to the Rockwood classification, ACD is classified into six types (type I–VI); however, for type III injuries, it remains controversial whether or not operative treatment should be applied. Numerous studies have advocated early surgical treatment to ensure early rehabilitation activities. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate a modified closed-loop double-endobutton technique (MCDT), that may be used to repair Rockwood type III ACD. In the current study, 61 patients with Rockwood type III ACD were enrolled during a period of 5 years at the Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University. Patients were divided into three groups according to the surgical method used, the MCDT group (n=20), the common closed-loop double-endobutton technique (CCDT) group (n=21), and the clavicular hook plate fixation (CHPF) group (n=20). Preoperative and intraoperative information were recorded. Furthermore, the functional scores of injured shoulder were evaluated prior to surgery and following surgery with a 1-year follow-up. Among the three groups, postoperative functional scores were significantly more improved compared with those prior to surgery (P0.05). Postoperative functional scores in the MCDT and CCDT groups were significantly more improved compared those in the CHPF group (P<0.05). In addition, the duration of surgery in the MCDT group was significantly shorter compared with that in the CCDT group (P<0.05). Furthermore, compared with the CHPF group, the incision length was significantly shorter with reduced hemorrhage in the MCDT group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that MCDT is more simple, convenient and efficient compared with CCDT, and is worth popularizing. PMID:29399102

  15. Sensor-integrated polymer actuators for closed-loop drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Wang, Chunlei; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Zoval, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2006-03-01

    This work presents manufacturing and testing of a closed-loop drug delivery system where drug release is achieved by an electrochemical actuation of an array of polymeric valves on a set of drug reservoirs. The valves are based on bi-layer structures made of polypyrrole/gold in the shape of a flap that is hinged on one side of a valve seat. Drugs stored in the underlying chambers are released by bending the bi-layer flaps back with a small applied bias. These polymeric valves simultaneously function as both drug release components and biological/chemical sensors responding to a specific biological or environmental stimulus. The sensors may send signals to the control module to realize closed-loop control of the drug release. In this study a glucose sensor has been integrated with the polymeric actuators through immobilization of glucose oxidase(GOx) within polypyrrole(PPy) valves. Sensitivities per unit area of the integrated glucose sensor have been measured and compared before and after the actuation of the sensor/actuator PPy/DBS/GOx film. Other sensing parameters such as linear range and response time were discussed as well. Using an array of these sensor/actuator cells, the amount of released drug, e.g. insulin, can be precisely controlled according to the surrounding glucose concentration detected by the glucose sensor. Activation of these reservoirs can be triggered either by the signal from the sensor, or by the signal from the operator. This approach also serves as the initial step to use the proposed system as an implantable drug delivery platform in the future.

  16. Thermodynamic design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium or neon Brayton refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Baik, Jong Hoon

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for the design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium (He) or neon (Ne) Brayton refrigerator. This effort is motivated by our immediate goal to develop a small-capacity (100 L/h) liquefier for domestic use in Korea. Eight different cycles are proposed and their thermodynamic performance is investigated in comparison with the existing liquefaction systems. The proposed cycles include the standard and modified versions of He Brayton refrigerators whose lowest temperature is below 20 K. The Brayton refrigerator is in direct thermal contact with the hydrogen flow at atmospheric pressure from ambient-temperature gas to cryogenic liquid. The Linde-Hampson system pre-cooled by a Ne Brayton refrigerator is also considered. Full cycle analysis is performed with the real properties of fluids to estimate the figure of merit (FOM) under an optimized operation condition. It is concluded that He Brayton refrigerators are feasible for this small-scale liquefaction, because a reasonably high efficiency can be achieved with simple and safe (low-pressure) operation. The complete cycles with He Brayton refrigerator are presented for the development of a prototype, including the ortho-to-para conversion.

  17. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-04-21

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation.

  18. Digital Simulation of Closed Loop Zvs-Zcs Bidirectional Dc-Dc Converter for Fuel Cell and Battery Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Subrahmanya Kumar Bhajana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A closed loop ZVS-ZCS bidirectional dc-dc converter is modeled and appropriate digital simulations are provided. With the ZVS-ZCS concept, the MATLAB simulation results of application to a fuel cell and battery application have been obtained whenever the input voltage exceeds the given 24V, at that time the load voltage will change from 180V to 230V. But due to this usage the load is disturbed and there is instability in the model. Using closed loop the output voltage is stabilized.

  19. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  20. On the significance of the noise model for the performance of a linear MPC in closed-loop operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Morten; Boiroux, Dimitri; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the noise model for the performance of a Model Predictive Controller when operating in closed-loop. The process model is parametrized as a continuous-time (CT) model and the relevant sampled-data filtering and control algorithms are developed. Using CT...... models typically means less parameters to identify. Systematic tuning of such controllers is discussed. Simulation studies are conducted for linear time-invariant systems showing that choosing a noise model of low order is beneficial for closed-loop performance. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation...

  1. Simulation in transient regime of a heat pump with closed-loop and on-off control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, J.V.C. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Parise, J.A.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1995-05-01

    The present work introduces a mathematical model for a heat pump with a variable-speed compressor, driven by a d.c. servomotor, operating either in closed loop by a power law control action or by the traditional on-off basis. The resulting differential and algebraic equations are integrated in time for a specified period of simulation in both designs. The results show that the closed-loop system presents significant savings in energy consumption when compared with the on-off system, under the same environmental conditions. (author)

  2. Multisession, noninvasive closed-loop neuroprosthetic control of grasping by upper limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, H A; Paek, A Y; Contreras-Vidal, J L

    2016-01-01

    Upper limb amputation results in a severe reduction in the quality of life of affected individuals due to their inability to easily perform activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that translate grasping intent from the brain's neural activity into prosthetic control may increase the level of natural control currently available in myoelectric prostheses. Current BMI techniques demonstrate accurate arm position and single degree-of-freedom grasp control but are invasive and require daily recalibration. In this study we tested if transradial amputees (A1 and A2) could control grasp preshaping in a prosthetic device using a noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG)-based closed-loop BMI system. Participants attempted to grasp presented objects by controlling two grasping synergies, in 12 sessions performed over 5 weeks. Prior to closed-loop control, the first six sessions included a decoder calibration phase using action observation by the participants; thereafter, the decoder was fixed to examine neuroprosthetic performance in the absence of decoder recalibration. Ability of participants to control the prosthetic was measured by the success rate of grasping; ie, the percentage of trials within a session in which presented objects were successfully grasped. Participant A1 maintained a steady success rate (63±3%) across sessions (significantly above chance [41±5%] for 11 sessions). Participant A2, who was under the influence of pharmacological treatment for depression, hormone imbalance, pain management (for phantom pain as well as shoulder joint inflammation), and drug dependence, achieved a success rate of 32±2% across sessions (significantly above chance [27±5%] in only two sessions). EEG signal quality was stable across sessions, but the decoders created during the first six sessions showed variation, indicating EEG features relevant to decoding at a smaller timescale (100ms) may not be stable. Overall, our results show that (a) an EEG

  3. Sensitivity analysis on the performances of a closed-loop Ground Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasso, Alessandro; Sethi, Rajandrea

    2014-05-01

    Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) permit to achieve a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and the margins for economic saving of this technology are strongly correlated to the long-term sustainability of the exploitation of the heat stored in the soil. The operation of a GSHP over its lifetime should be therefore modelled considering realistic conditions, and a thorough characterization of the physical properties of the soil is essential to avoid large errors of prediction. In this work, a BHE modelling procedure with the finite-element code FEFLOW is presented. Starting from the governing equations of the heat transport in the soil around a GSHP and inside the BHE, the most important parameters are individuated and the adopted program settings are explained. A sensitivity analysis is then carried on both the design parameters of the heat exchanger, in order to understand the margins of improvement of a careful design and installation, and the physical properties of the soil, with the aim of quantifying the uncertainty induced by their variability. The relative importance of each parameter is therefore assessed by comparing the statistical distributions of the fluid temperatures and estimating the energy consumption of the heat pump, and practical conclusions are from these results about the site characterization, the design and the installation of a BHE. References Casasso A., Sethi R., 2014 Efficiency of closed loop geothermal heat pumps: A sensitivity analysis, Renewable Energy 62 (2014), pp. 737-746 Chiasson A.C., Rees S.J., Spitler J.D., 2000, A preliminary assessment of the effects of groundwater flow on closed-loop ground-source heat pump systems, ASHRAE Transactions 106 (2000), pp. 380-393 Delaleux F., Py X., Olives R., Dominguez A., 2012, Enhancement of geothermal borehole heat exchangers performances by improvement of bentonite grouts conductivity, Applied Thermal Engineering 33-34, pp. 92-99 Diao N., Li Q., Fang Z., 2004, Heat transfer in

  4. Nuclear Bi-Brayton system for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the desirability of new system concept for nuclear aircraft propulsion utilizing the Bi-Brayton system concept, permits coupling of a gas cooled reactor to the power transmission and conversion system in a manner such as to fulfill the safety criteria while eliminating the need for a high temperature intermediate heat exchanger or shaft penetrations of the containment vessel. This system has been shown to minimize the component development required and to allow reduction in total propulsion system weight. This paper presents a description of the system concept and the results of the definition and evaluation studies to date. Parametric and reference system definition studies have been performed. The closed-cycle Bi-Brayton system and component configurations and weight estimates have been derived. Parametric evaluation and cycle variation studies have been performed and interpreted. 7 refs

  5. Finite Element Method-Based Kinematics and Closed-Loop Control of Soft, Continuum Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieze, Thor Morales; Largilliere, Frederick; Kruszewski, Alexandre; Zhang, Zhongkai; Merzouki, Rochdi; Duriez, Christian

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a modeling methodology and experimental validation for soft manipulators to obtain forward kinematic model (FKM) and inverse kinematic model (IKM) under quasi-static conditions (in the literature, these manipulators are usually classified as continuum robots. However, their main characteristic of interest in this article is that they create motion by deformation, as opposed to the classical use of articulations). It offers a way to obtain the kinematic characteristics of this type of soft robots that is suitable for offline path planning and position control. The modeling methodology presented relies on continuum mechanics, which does not provide analytic solutions in the general case. Our approach proposes a real-time numerical integration strategy based on finite element method with a numerical optimization based on Lagrange multipliers to obtain FKM and IKM. To reduce the dimension of the problem, at each step, a projection of the model to the constraint space (gathering actuators, sensors, and end-effector) is performed to obtain the smallest number possible of mathematical equations to be solved. This methodology is applied to obtain the kinematics of two different manipulators with complex structural geometry. An experimental comparison is also performed in one of the robots, between two other geometric approaches and the approach that is showcased in this article. A closed-loop controller based on a state estimator is proposed. The controller is experimentally validated and its robustness is evaluated using Lypunov stability method.

  6. SIMULATION MODELLING OF VITÓRIA-MINAS CLOSED-LOOP RAIL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Fernandes de FARIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a closed loop simulation model that represents the mining logistics chain of the Vitória Minas Railway (VMR, Brazil. The simulator includes the loading process, circulation of loaded trains, unloading of ores for external and internal markets and the distribution of empty trains for new loads. General cargo and passengers trains are also included in the model, which, along with the queues formed in the circulation and the preventive and corrective maintenance of rolling stock, tracks and equipment, interfere with the transportation of iron ore. The primary objective of the iron ore transport is to meet the daily loading and unloading schedules and minimize queues by maximizing the operations at the loading and unloading points. The VMR simulator developed uses macro-mesoscopic approach with Monte Carlo simulation. To validate the simulator, we used actual data of the railway and compared with reality. We obtained a very good adhesion to the value of 2.9% for the validation scenario (Scenario 1 and 3.4% for the scenario with reducing the number of lots of wagons (Scenario 2. We concluded with this simulation that it is possible to reduce the number of GDE wagons without reducing the current level of productivity of the rail system.

  7. Extending the Capabilities of Closed-loop Distributed Engine Control Simulations Using LAN Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Zinnecker, Alicia Mae; Culley, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Engine Control (DEC) is an enabling technology that has the potential to advance the state-of-the-art in gas turbine engine control. To analyze the capabilities that DEC offers, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) test bed is being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. This test bed will support a systems-level analysis of control capabilities in closed-loop engine simulations. The structure of the HIL emulates a virtual test cell by implementing the operator functions, control system, and engine on three separate computers. This implementation increases the flexibility and extensibility of the HIL. Here, a method is discussed for implementing these interfaces by connecting the three platforms over a dedicated Local Area Network (LAN). This approach is verified using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k), which is typically implemented on one computer. There are marginal differences between the results from simulation of the typical and the three-computer implementation. Additional analysis of the LAN network, including characterization of network load, packet drop, and latency, is presented. The three-computer setup supports the incorporation of complex control models and proprietary engine models into the HIL framework.

  8. Information Sharing in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Asymmetric Demand Forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of sharing demand forecast information in a closed-loop supply chain with the manufacturer collecting and remanufacturing. We investigate two scenarios: the “make-to-order” scenario, in which the manufacturer schedules production based on the realized demand, and the “make-to-stock” scenario, in which the manufacturer schedules production before the demand is known. For each scenario, we find that it is possible for the retailer to share his forecast without incentives when the collection efficiency of the manufacturer is high. When the efficiency is moderate, information sharing can be realized by a bargaining mechanism, and when the efficiency is low, non-information sharing is a unique equilibrium. Moreover, the possibility of information sharing in the make-to-stock scenario is higher than that in the make-to-order scenario. In addition, we analyze the impact of demand forecasts’ characteristics on the value of information sharing in both scenarios.

  9. WINCS Harmoni: Closed-loop dynamic neurochemical control of therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. Luis; Trevathan, James K.; Ross, Erika K.; Bartoletta, John J.; Park, Hyung Ook; Paek, Seungleal Brian; Nicolai, Evan N.; Lee, Jannifer H.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Kimble, Christopher J.; Blaha, Charles D.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2017-04-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding the role of neurotransmitters in normal and pathologic brain function. However, preclinical trials aimed at improving therapeutic interventions do not take advantage of real-time in vivo neurochemical changes in dynamic brain processes such as disease progression and response to pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, and neuromodulation therapies. This is due in part to a lack of flexible research tools that allow in vivo measurement of the dynamic changes in brain chemistry. Here, we present a research platform, WINCS Harmoni, which can measure in vivo neurochemical activity simultaneously across multiple anatomical targets to study normal and pathologic brain function. In addition, WINCS Harmoni can provide real-time neurochemical feedback for closed-loop control of neurochemical levels via its synchronized stimulation and neurochemical sensing capabilities. We demonstrate these and other key features of this platform in non-human primate, swine, and rodent models of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Ultimately, systems like the one described here will improve our understanding of the dynamics of brain physiology in the context of neurologic disease and therapeutic interventions, which may lead to the development of precision medicine and personalized therapies for optimal therapeutic efficacy.

  10. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake; Gong, Chen

    2017-08-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power.

  11. Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachghare, Pramod R.; Mahalle, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    The experimental result on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) is presented. The CLPHP is made of copper capillary tubes, having inner and outer diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.6 mm respectively. The working fluids employed are water, ethanol, methanol and acetone also binary mixture (1:1 by volume) of water-ethanol, water-methanol and water-acetone. For all experimentations, filling ratio (FR) 50%, two-turns and vertical bottom heat mode position was maintained. The lengths of evaporator, condenser and adiabatic section are selected as 42 mm, 50 mm and 170 mm, respectively. The transparent adiabatic section is partially made of glass tube having length 80 mm, for flow visualization. The CFD analysis by VOF model in Star CCM+ simulation is carried out to validate the experimental results. The result shows that the thermal resistance decreases smoothly up to 40W heat input, thereafter reasonably steady. In comparison with all working fluids, water-acetone binary working fluid has shown the best thermal performance over other working fluids used in CLPHPs.

  12. Closed Loop Two-Phase Thermosyphon of Small Dimensions: a Review of the Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Alessandro; Filippeschi, Sauro

    2012-06-01

    A bibliographical review on the heat and mass transfer in gravity assisted Closed Loop Two Phase Thermosyphons (CLTPT) with channels having a hydraulic diameter of the order of some millimetres and input power below 1 kW is proposed. The available experimental works in the literature are critically analysed in order to highlight the main results and the correlation between mass flow rate and heat input in natural circulation loops. A comparison of different experimental apparatuses and results is made. It is observed that the results are very different among them and in many cases the experimental data disagree with the conventional theory developed for an imposed flow rate. The paper analyses the main differences among the experimental devices and try to understand these disagreements. From the present analysis it is evident that further systematic studies are required to generate a meaningful body of knowledge of the heat and mass transport mechanism in these devices for practical applications in cooling devices or energy systems.

  13. A Closed-Loop Smart Control System Driving RGB Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saggaf, Abeer

    2015-05-01

    The demand for control systems that are highly capable of driving solid-state optoelectronic devices has significantly increased with the advancement of their efficiency and elevation of their current consumption. This work presents a closed-loop control system that is based on a microcontroller embedded system capable of driving high power optoelectronic devices. In this version of the system, the device in the center of control is a high-power red, green, and blue light emitting diode package. The system features a graphical user interface, namely an Android mobile phone application, in which the user can easily use to vary the light color and intensity of the light-emitting device wirelessly via Bluetooth. Included in the system is a feedback mechanism constituted by a red, green, and blue color sensor through which the user can use to observe feedback color information about the emitted light. The system has many commercial application including in-door lighting and research application including plant agriculture research fields.

  14. A Closed-Loop Smart Control System Driving RGB Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Saggaf, Abeer

    2015-01-01

    The demand for control systems that are highly capable of driving solid-state optoelectronic devices has significantly increased with the advancement of their efficiency and elevation of their current consumption. This work presents a closed-loop control system that is based on a microcontroller embedded system capable of driving high power optoelectronic devices. In this version of the system, the device in the center of control is a high-power red, green, and blue light emitting diode package. The system features a graphical user interface, namely an Android mobile phone application, in which the user can easily use to vary the light color and intensity of the light-emitting device wirelessly via Bluetooth. Included in the system is a feedback mechanism constituted by a red, green, and blue color sensor through which the user can use to observe feedback color information about the emitted light. The system has many commercial application including in-door lighting and research application including plant agriculture research fields.

  15. Experimental analysis of the natural convection system through a closed loop under transient regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrador, Marcelo de Bastos; Braga, Carlos Valois Maciel; Carajilescov, Pedro

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the experimental model used in the study of closed loop natural convection (thermosyphons). Details of the main circuit and information on the used instrumentation are also presented. The study aimed the circuit thermal performance, initially justifying the oscillatory behaviour of the time vs. temperature curves. As expected, the curves for the cold leg presented an oscillation amplitude lesser than those for hot leg since the 'peaks' which reveal high temperature spots disappear due to the heat transfer to the cooling water. Those curves were not influenced within the measured range, by the changes occurred in the cooling water flow (secondary circuit). Besides, when varying the power supplied by the hot source it was observed a variation directly proportional of the oscillation frequency, of the oscillation amplitude, and the difference between the hot and cold legs temperatures. Concerning to the forced power variations, it is observed that the oscillation is always restarted and the final results are related to the second applied power

  16. An Adaptive Impedance Matching Network with Closed Loop Control Algorithm for Inductive Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhidong; Liu, Dake

    2017-01-01

    For an inductive wireless power transfer (IWPT) system, maintaining a reasonable power transfer efficiency and a stable output power are two most challenging design issues, especially when coil distance varies. To solve these issues, this paper presents a novel adaptive impedance matching network (IMN) for IWPT system. In our adaptive IMN IWPT system, the IMN is automatically reconfigured to keep matching with the coils and to adjust the output power adapting to coil distance variation. A closed loop control algorithm is used to change the capacitors continually, which can compensate mismatches and adjust output power simultaneously. The proposed adaptive IMN IWPT system is working at 125 kHz for 2 W power delivered to load. Comparing with the series resonant IWPT system and fixed IMN IWPT system, the power transfer efficiency of our system increases up to 31.79% and 60% when the coupling coefficient varies in a large range from 0.05 to 0.8 for 2 W output power. PMID:28763011

  17. Closed-loop feedback control for microfluidic systems through automated capacitive fluid height sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenksen, L R; Kassis, T; Noh, M; Griffith, L G; Trumper, D L

    2018-03-13

    Precise fluid height sensing in open-channel microfluidics has long been a desirable feature for a wide range of applications. However, performing accurate measurements of the fluid level in small-scale reservoirs (sensor contact needs to be avoided. In particular, gravity-driven systems used in several microfluidic applications to establish pressure gradients and impose flow remain open-loop and largely unmonitored due to these sensing limitations. Here we present an optimized self-shielded coplanar capacitive sensor design and automated control system to provide submillimeter fluid-height resolution (∼250 μm) and control of small-scale open reservoirs without the need for direct fluid contact. Results from testing and validation of our optimized sensor and system also suggest that accurate fluid height information can be used to robustly characterize, calibrate and dynamically control a range of microfluidic systems with complex pumping mechanisms, even in cell culture conditions. Capacitive sensing technology provides a scalable and cost-effective way to enable continuous monitoring and closed-loop feedback control of fluid volumes in small-scale gravity-dominated wells in a variety of microfluidic applications.

  18. Studies on the closed-loop digital control of multi-modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Henry, A.F.; Lanning, D.D.; Meyer, J.E.

    1992-11-01

    This report describes the theoretical development and the evaluation via both experiment and simulation of digital methods for the closed-loop control of power, temperature, and steam generator level in multi-modular reactors. The major conclusion of the research reported here is that the technology is currently available to automate many aspects of the operation of multi-modular plants. This will in turn minimize the number of required personnel and thus contain both operating and personnel costs, allow each module to be operated at a different power level thereby staggering the times at which refuelings would be needed, and maintain the competitiveness of US industry relative to foreign vendors who are developing and applying advanced control concepts. The technology described in this report is appropriate to the proposed multi-modular reactor designs and to present-generation pressurized water reactors. Its extension to boiling water reactors is possible provided that the commitment is made to create a real-time model of a BWR. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and to the United States Department of Energy (Division of Industry and University Programs, Contract No. DE-FG07-90ER12930.)

  19. A Closed Loop Inverse Kinematics Solver Intended for Offline Calculation Optimized with GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dale Bjoerlykhaug

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple approach to building a robotic control system. Instead of a conventional control system which solves the inverse kinematics in real-time as the robot moves, an alternative approach where the inverse kinematics is calculated ahead of time is presented. This approach reduces the complexity and code necessary for the control system. Robot control systems are usually implemented in low level programming language. This new approach enables the use of high level programming for the complex inverse kinematics problem. For our approach, we implement a program to solve the inverse kinematics, called the Inverse Kinematics Solver (IKS, in Java, with a simple graphical user interface (GUI to load a file with desired end effector poses and edit the configuration of the robot using the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH convention. The program uses the closed-loop inverse kinematics (CLIK algorithm to solve the inverse kinematics problem. As an example, the IKS was set up to solve the kinematics for a custom built serial link robot. The kinematics for the custom robot is presented, and an example of input and output files is also presented. Additionally, the gain of the loop in the IKS is optimized using a GA, resulting in almost a 50% decrease in computational time.

  20. Closed-loop optimization of chromatography column sizing strategies in biopharmaceutical manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmendinger, Richard; Simaria, Ana S; Turner, Richard; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-10-01

    This paper considers a real-world optimization problem involving the identification of cost-effective equipment sizing strategies for the sequence of chromatography steps employed to purify biopharmaceuticals. Tackling this problem requires solving a combinatorial optimization problem subject to multiple constraints, uncertain parameters, and time-consuming fitness evaluations. An industrially-relevant case study is used to illustrate that evolutionary algorithms can identify chromatography sizing strategies with significant improvements in performance criteria related to process cost, time and product waste over the base case. The results demonstrate also that evolutionary algorithms perform best when infeasible solutions are repaired intelligently, the population size is set appropriately, and elitism is combined with a low number of Monte Carlo trials (needed to account for uncertainty). Adopting this setup turns out to be more important for scenarios where less time is available for the purification process. Finally, a data-visualization tool is employed to illustrate how user preferences can be accounted for when it comes to selecting a sizing strategy to be implemented in a real industrial setting. This work demonstrates that closed-loop evolutionary optimization, when tuned properly and combined with a detailed manufacturing cost model, acts as a powerful decisional tool for the identification of cost-effective purification strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Closed-loop fault detection for full-envelope flight vehicle with measurement delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaolei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A closed-loop fault detection problem is investigated for the full-envelope flight vehicle with measurement delays, where the flight dynamics are modeled as a switched system with delayed feedback signals. The mode-dependent observer-based fault detection filters and state estimation feedback controllers are derived by considering the delays’ impact on the control system and fault detection system simultaneously. Then, considering updating lags of the controllers/filters’ switching signals which are introduced by the delayed measurement of altitude and Mach number, an asynchronous H∞ analysis method is proposed and the system model is further augmented to be an asynchronously switched time-delay system. Also, the global stability and desired performance of the augmented system are guaranteed by combining the switched delay-dependent Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional method with the average dwell time method (ADT, and the delay-dependent existing conditions for the controllers and fault detection filters are obtained in the form of the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Finally, numerical example based on the hypersonic vehicles and highly maneuverable technology (HiMAT vehicle is given to demonstrate the merits of the proposed method.

  2. A Cross-Layer Approach for Maximizing Visual Entropy Using Closed-Loop Downlink MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkeuk Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive video transmission scheme to achieve unequal error protection in a closed loop multiple input multiple output (MIMO system for wavelet-based video coding. In this scheme, visual entropy is employed as a video quality metric in agreement with the human visual system (HVS, and the associated visual weight is used to obtain a set of optimal powers in the MIMO system for maximizing the visual quality of the reconstructed video. For ease of cross-layer optimization, the video sequence is divided into several streams, and the visual importance of each stream is quantified using the visual weight. Moreover, an adaptive load balance control, named equal termination scheduling (ETS, is proposed to improve the throughput of visually important data with higher priority. An optimal solution for power allocation is derived as a closed form using a Lagrangian relaxation method. In the simulation results, a highly improved visual quality is demonstrated in the reconstructed video via the cross-layer approach by means of visual entropy.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of a Closed-Loop System for High-Q MEMS Accelerometer Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yalin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-Q sensing element is desirable for high performance while makes the loop control a great challenge. This paper presents a closed-loop system for high-Q capacitive MEMS accelerometer which has achieved loop control effectively. The proportional-derivative(PDcontrol is developed in the system to improve the system stability. In addition, pulse width modulation (PWM electrostatic force feedback is designed in the loop to overcome the nonlinearity. Furthermore, a sigma-delta (ΣΔ modulator with noise shaping is built to realize digital output. System model is built in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results indicate that equivalent Q value is reduced to 1.5 to ensure stability and responsiveness of the system. The effective number of bits of system output is 14.7 bits. The system nonlinearity is less than 5‰. The equivalent linear model including main noise factors is built, and then a complete theory of noise and linearity analysis is established to contribute to common MEMS accelerometer research.

  4. Coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop plant production in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, James; Ling, Peter P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework for coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop analysis of plant production for NASA's program in advanced life support. Crop status may be monitored through non-destructive observations, while models may be independently applied to crop production planning and decision support. To achieve coupling, environmental variables and observations are linked to mode inputs and outputs, and monitoring results compared with model predictions of plant growth and development. The information thus provided may be useful in diagnosing problems with the plant growth system, or as a feedback to the model for evaluation of plant scheduling and potential yield. In this paper, we demonstrate this coupling using machine vision sensing of canopy height and top projected canopy area, and the CROPGRO crop growth model. Model simulations and scenarios are used for illustration. We also compare model predictions of the machine vision variables with data from soybean experiments conducted at New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Horticulture Greenhouse Facility, Rutgers University. Model simulations produce reasonable agreement with the available data, supporting our illustration.

  5. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  6. Closed Loop Fuzzy Logic Controlled PV Based Cascaded Boost Five-Level Inverter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revana, Guruswamy; Kota, Venkata Reddy

    2018-04-01

    Recent developments in intelligent control methods and power electronics have produced PV based DC to AC converters related to AC drives. Cascaded boost converter and inverter find their way in interconnecting PV and Induction Motor. This paper deals with digital simulation and implementation of closed loop controlled five-level inverter based Photo-Voltaic (PV) system. The objective of this work is to reduce the harmonics using Multi Level Inverter based system. The DC output from the PV panel is boosted using cascaded-boost-converters. The DC output of these cascaded boost converters is applied to the bridges of the cascaded inverter. The AC output voltage is obtained by the series cascading of the output voltage of the two inverters. The investigations are done with Induction motor load. Cascaded boost-converter is proposed in the present work to produce the required DC Voltage at the input of the bridge inverter. A simple FLC is applied to CBFLIIM system. The FLC is proposed to reduce the steady state error. The simulation results are compared with the hardware results. The results of the comparison are made to show the improvement in dynamic response in terms of settling time and steady state error. Design procedure and control strategy are presented in detail.

  7. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  8. Thermal performance of horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittidech, S.; Pipatpaiboon, N.; Thongdaeng, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the thermal performance of various horizontal closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe systems with check valves (HCLOHPs/CVs). Numerous test systems were constructed using copper capillary tubes with assorted inner diameters, evaporator lengths, and check valves. The test systems were evaluated under normal operating conditions using ethanol, R123, and distilled water as working fluids. The system's evaporator sections were heated by hot water from a hot bath, and the heat was removed from the condenser sections by cold water from a cool bath. The adiabatic sections were well insulated with foam insulators. The heat-transfer performance of the various systems was evaluated in terms of the rate of heat transferred to the cold water at the condenser. The results showed that the heat-transfer performance of an HCLOHP/CV system could be improved by decreasing the evaporator length. The highest performance of all tested systems was obtained when the maximum number of system check valves was 2. The maximum heat flux occurred with a 2 mm inner diameter tube, and R123 was determined to be the most suitable working fluid

  9. A case for closed-loop recycling of post-consumer PET for automotive foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Matthew; Brown, Matthew; Kiziltas, Alper; Mielewski, Deborah; Mukerjee, Shakti; Tabor, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Striving to utilize sustainable material sources, polyester polyols made via glycolysis and esterification of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) scrap were used to synthesize flexible polyurethane (PU) foams typically found in automotive interior applications. The objective of this endeavor was to ascertain if a closed-loop model could be established with the discarded PET feedstock. In five separate formulations, up to 50% of the total polyol content (traditionally derived from petroleum-based feedstock) was replaced with the afore-mentioned sustainable recycled polyols. These foams underwent mechanical, thermal, morphological, and physical characterization testing to determine feasibility for use in an automotive interior. Young's modulus, tensile stress at maximum load, tear resistance, and compression modulus all increased by combined averages of 121%, 67%, 32%, and 150% over the control petroleum-based formulation, respectively, in foams possessing 50% rPET polyol content. Thermal stability also increased with sustainable polyol content; thermogravimetric analysis showed that 50% mass loss temperature increased by an average of 20 °C in foams containing 30% recycled polyol. Properties of density and SAG factor remained within 5% of the control petroleum-based reference foams. After comparing these findings to traditional polyols, a compelling argument can be made for the use of post-consumer automotive and industrial feedstocks in developing high-performing interior automotive PU foams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce eBeverlin II

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris-Lecar model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control.

  11. Development of the closed-loop Joule-Thomson cryoablation device for long area cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheon Kyu; Park, Inn Yong; Yoo, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Sang Kwon [Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park Sang Woo [Konkuk University Hospital, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Cryoablation device is a surgical instrument to produce the cooling effect to destroy detrimental biological tissue by utilizing low temperature around 110 K. Usually, this device has the concentrated cooling region, so that it is suitable for concentrated and thick target. Accordingly, it is hard to apply this device for the target which is distributed and thin target. In this study, the design procedure of a closed-loop cryoablation device with multiple J-T expansion part is developed for the treatment of incompetent of great saphenous vein. The developed cyoablation device is designed with the analysis of 1-dimensional (1-D) bio-heat equation. The energy balance is considered to determine the minimum mass flow rate of refrigerant for consecutive flow boiling to develop the uniform cooling temperature. Azeotropic mixed refrigerant R410A and zeotropic mixed refrigerant (MR) of R22 (CHClF{sub 2}) and R23 (CHF{sub 3}) are utilized as operating fluids of the developed cryoablation device to form the sufficient temperature and to verify the quality of the inside of cryoablation probe. The experimental results of R410A and the zeotropic MR show the temperature non-uniformity over the range are 244.8K±2.7K and 239.8K±4.7K respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the probe experiences the consecutive flow boiling over the target range of 200 mm.

  12. A Marketing Strategy in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Loss-Averse Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-feng Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of remanufacturing system has been extensively investigated in recent years. Taking into account the consumer valuation uncertainty and the demand uncertainty, this paper addresses the issue of closed-loop supply chain with remanufacturing by game theory. We consider two types of consumers in the market: loss-neutral consumers and loss-averse consumers. The loss-neutral consumers are completely rational. The loss-averse consumers, on the other hand, are with losses being more painful than equal-sized gains being pleasant. When multichannel structure can be chosen, the manufacturer has three pricing strategies in direct market: (1 keeping the price high with a small discount, no customers choose the online store; (2 keeping the price high with a moderate discount, only the loss-neutral customers choose the online store; (3 keeping the price low with a big discount, all customers choose the online store. Consumers make up their decisive selections through comparing the price and channel attributes. We introduce utility function for analyzing the market demand and then identify the optimal pricing and channel strategy to maximize the manufacturer’s profit. Finally, the rationality and validities of the proposed model are illustrated by numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses of the parameters are also presented.

  13. A Concentric Tube Continuum Robot with Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Closed-Loop Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Rucker, D. Caleb; Webster, Robert J.; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental evaluation of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible concentric tube continuum robotic system. This system enables MRI-guided deployment of a precurved and steerable concentric tube continuum mechanism, and is suitable for clinical applications where a curved trajectory is needed. This compact 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic system is piezoelectrically-actuated, and allows simultaneous robot motion and imaging with no visually observable image artifact. The targeting accuracy is evaluated with optical tracking system and gelatin phantom under live MRI-guidance with Root Mean Square (RMS) errors of 1.94 and 2.17 mm respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the robot has kinematic redundancy to reach the same target through different paths. This was evaluated in both free space and MRI-guided gelatin phantom trails, with RMS errors of 0.48 and 0.59 mm respectively. As the first of its kind, MRI-guided targeted concentric tube needle placements with ex vivo porcine liver are demonstrated with 4.64 mm RMS error through closed-loop control of the piezoelectrically-actuated robot. PMID:26983842

  14. Thermo-hydrodynamics of closed loop pulsating heat pipe: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachghare, Pramod R. [Government College of Engineering, Amravati (India); Mahalle, Ashish [Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India)

    2014-08-15

    The experimental result on the thermal performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) is presented. The CLPHP is made of copper capillary tubes, having inner and outer diameters of 2.0 mm and 3.6 mm respectively. The working fluids employed are water, ethanol, methanol and acetone also binary mixture (1:1 by volume) of water-ethanol, water-methanol and water-acetone. For all experimentations, filling ratio (FR) 50%, two-turns and vertical bottom heat mode position was maintained. The lengths of evaporator, condenser and adiabatic section are selected as 42 mm, 50 mm and 170 mm, respectively. The transparent adiabatic section is partially made of glass tube having length 80 mm, for flow visualization. The CFD analysis by VOF model in Star CCM+ simulation is carried out to validate the experimental results. The result shows that the thermal resistance decreases smoothly up to 40W heat input, thereafter reasonably steady. In comparison with all working fluids, water-acetone binary working fluid has shown the best thermal performance over other working fluids used in CLPHPs.

  15. One Layer Nonlinear Economic Closed-Loop Generalized Predictive Control for a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham El bahja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main scope of this paper is the proposal of a new single layer Nonlinear Economic Closed-Loop Generalized Predictive Control (NECLGPC as an efficient advanced control technique for improving economics in the operation of nonlinear plants. Instead of the classic dual-mode MPC (model predictive controller schemes, where the terminal control law defined in the terminal region is obtained offline solving a linear quadratic regulator problem, here the terminal control law in the NECLGPC is determined online by an unconstrained Nonlinear Generalized Predictive Control (NGPC. In order to make the optimization problem more tractable two considerations have been made in the present work. Firstly, the prediction model consisting of a nonlinear phenomenological model of the plant is expressed with linear structure and state dependent matrices. Secondly, instead of including the nonlinear economic cost in the objective function, an approximation of the reduced gradient of the economic function is used. These assumptions allow us to design an economic unconstrained nonlinear GPC analytically and to state the NECLGPC allow for the design of an economic problem as a QP (Quadratic Programing problem each sampling time. Four controllers based on GPC that differ in designs and structures are compared with the proposed control technique in terms of process performance and energy costs. Particularly, the methodology is implemented in the N-Removal process of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP and the results prove the efficiency of the method and that it can be used profitably in practical cases.

  16. Extracellular pH monitoring for use in closed-loop vagus nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Simon C.; Eftekhar, Amir; Mirza, Khalid B.; Zuliani, Claudio; Nikolic, Konstantin; Gardiner, James V.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Toumazou, Christofer

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has shown potential benefits for obesity treatment; however, current devices lack physiological feedback, which limit their efficacy. Changes in extracellular pH (pHe) have shown to be correlated with neural activity, but have traditionally been measured with glass microelectrodes, which limit their in vivo applicability. Approach. Iridium oxide has previously been shown to be sensitive to fluctuations in pH and is biocompatible. Iridium oxide microelectrodes were inserted into the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve of anaesthetised rats. Introduction of the gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) or distension of the stomach was used to elicit vagal nerve activity. Main results. Iridium oxide microelectrodes have sufficient pH sensitivity to readily detect changes in pHe associated with both CCK and gastric distension. Furthermore, a custom-made Matlab script was able to use these changes in pHe to automatically trigger an implanted VNS device. Significance. This is the first study to show pHe changes in peripheral nerves in vivo. In addition, the demonstration that iridium oxide microelectrodes are sufficiently pH sensitive as to measure changes in pHe associated with physiological stimuli means they have the potential to be integrated into closed-loop neurostimulating devices.

  17. Efficient Closed-Loop Schemes for MIMO-OFDM-Based WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The single-input single-output (SISO orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM systems for wireless local area networks (WLAN defined by the IEEE 802.11a standard can support data rates up to 54 Mbps. In this paper, we consider deploying two transmit and two receive antennas to increase the data rate up to 108 Mbps. Applying our recent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver designs, that is, the geometric mean decomposition (GMD and the uniform channel decomposition (UCD schemes, we propose simple and efficient closed-loop MIMO-OFDM designs for much improved performance, compared to the standard singular value decomposition (SVD based schemes as well as the open-loop V-BLAST (vertical Bell Labs layered space-time based counterparts. In the explicit feedback mode, precoder feedback is needed for the proposed schemes. We show that the overhead of feedback can be made very moderate by using a vector quantization method. In the time-division duplex (TDD mode where the channel reciprocity is exploited, our schemes turn out to be robust against the mismatch between the uplink and downlink channels. The advantages of our schemes are demonstrated via extensive numerical examples.

  18. Quorum-Quenching Human Designer Cells for Closed-Loop Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Jaeger, Tina; Jenal, Urs; Fussenegger, Martin

    2017-08-09

    Current antibiotics gradually lose their efficacy against chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections due to development of increased resistance mediated by biofilm formation, as well as the large arsenal of microbial virulence factors that are coordinated by the cell density-dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing. Here, we address this issue by using synthetic biology principles to rationally engineer quorum-quencher cells with closed-loop control to autonomously dampen virulence and interfere with biofilm integrity. Pathogen-derived signals dynamically activate a synthetic mammalian autoinducer sensor driving downstream expression of next-generation anti-infectives. Engineered cells were able to sensitively score autoinducer levels from P. aeruginosa clinical isolates and mount a 2-fold defense consisting of an autoinducer-inactivating enzyme to silence bacterial quorum sensing and a bipartite antibiofilm effector to dissolve the biofilm matrix. The self-guided cellular device fully cleared autoinducers, potentiated bacterial antibiotic susceptibility, substantially reduced biofilms, and alleviated cytotoxicity to lung epithelial cells. We believe this strategy of dividing otherwise coordinated pathogens and breaking up their shielded stronghold represents a blueprint for cellular anti-infectives in the postantibiotic era.

  19. Advanced oxidation and reduction processes: Closed-loop applications for mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coogan, J.J.; Tennant, R.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos we are engaged in applying innovative oxidation and reduction technologies to the destruction of hazardous organics. Non thermal plasmas and relativistic electron-beams both involve the generation of free radicals and are applicable to a wide variety of mixed waste as closed-loop designs can be easily engineered. Silent discharge plasmas (SDP), long used for the generation of ozone, have been demonstrated in the laboratory to be effective in destroying hazardous organic compounds and offer an altemative to existing post-incineration and off-gas treatments. SDP generates very energetic electrons which efficiently create reactive free radicals, without adding the enthalpy associated with very high gas temperatures. A SDP cell has been used as a second stage to a LANL designed, packed-bed reactor (PBR) and has demonstrated DREs as high as 99.9999% for a variety of combustible liquid and gas-based waste streams containing scintillation fluids, nitrates, PCB surrogates, and both chlorinated and fluorinated solvents. Radiolytic treatment of waste using electron-beams and/or bremsstrahlung can be applied to a wide range of waste media (liquids, sludges, and solids). The efficacy and economy of these systems has been demonstrated for aqueous waste through both laboratory and pilot scale studies. We win present recent experimental and theoretical results for systems using stand alone SDP, combined PBR/SDP, and electron-beam treatment methods

  20. Double closed-loop resonant micro optic gyro using hybrid digital phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Jianjie; Wang, Linglan; Jin, Zhonghe

    2015-06-15

    It is well-known that the closed-loop operation in optical gyros offers wider dynamic range and better linearity. By adding a stair-like digital serrodyne wave to a phase modulator can be used as a frequency shifter. The width of one stair in this stair-like digital serrodyne wave should be set equal to the optical transmission time in the resonator, which is relaxed in the hybrid digital phase modulation (HDPM) scheme. The physical mechanism for this relaxation is firstly indicated in this paper. Detailed theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the HDPM. Simulation and experimental results show that the width of one stair is not restricted by the optical transmission time, however, it should be optimized according to the rise time of the output of the digital-to-analogue converter. Based on the optimum parameters of the HDPM, a bias stability of 0.05°/s for the integration time of 400 seconds in 1 h has been carried out in an RMOG with a waveguide ring resonator with a length of 7.9 cm and a diameter of 2.5 cm.