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Sample records for closed suction drainage

  1. Closed suction drainage versus closed simple drainage in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the outcome of modified radical mastectomy wounds managed by closed wound drainage with suction and without suction. Methods: A prospective randomized trial was conducted at the University College Hospital Ibadan and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria. Fifty women who ...

  2. Optimizing the closed suction surgical drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Katherine H; Eisemann, Bradley S; Lamp, Susan; Kocak, Ergun

    2013-01-01

    Closed suction drains are indicated in a wide array of postoperative settings, with many distinct drainage systems available to the surgeon. The purpose of this study was to compare the suction gradients achieved using 2 different sizes of suction reservoirs and 2 different techniques for generating negative pressure. Drainage reservoirs of 100 and 400 ml were chosen to evaluate their ability to achieve suction. Suction was established in both sizes of drains by pressing the sides of the reservoir together or by pushing the bottom of the reservoir toward the top. Negative pressures were recorded with the reservoir empty, and after every 10-ml addition of saline. Averages were graphed to illustrate the applied suction over a range of drain volumes. The 100-ml drainage system reached a peak suction of -117.6 mmHg, while the 400-ml drainage system reached only a peak suction of -71.4 mmHg. Both of the maximum suction readings were achieved using the full-squeeze technique. The bottom-pushed-in technique did not result in any sustained measurable levels of suction using either of the reservoir volumes. Smaller drain reservoirs are more successful in generating a high initial suction than larger reservoirs, especially when the volume of fluid in the drain is relatively low. In all sizes of drains, compressing the sides of the reservoir is a far better technique for establishing negative pressure than pressing the bottom of the drain up toward the top.

  3. Effectiveness of closed suction drainage tip culture in hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jai Hyung; Shon, Hyun Chul; Kim, Ji Wan; Park, Se Jin; Ko, Taeg Su; Park, Jong Hyon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between bacterial growth in closed suction drainage tip culture and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Retrospective review included 256 patients who had undergone hip arthroplasty in which the closed suction drainage tip was cultured. Follow-up periods were longer than a year. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated in order to determine the significance of closed suction drainage tip culture in early diagnosis of infection. Patients with positive culture test were monitored to determine the effect of change in antibiotics on treatment of early infection. Eight of the 13 infections showed positive results from closed suction drainage tip culture. Eleven of the 243 non-infectious cases showed positive results after closed suction drainage tip culture (psuction drainage tip culture was 61.5%, with a specificity of 95.5%. Positive and negative predictive values were 42.1% and 97.9%, respectively. Systemic antibiotics were administered according to in vitro sensitivity of bacteria cultured from closed suction drainage tip in 13 of 19 positive culture cases. No statistically significant difference in infection risk was observed between the antibiotics group and the group to which antibiotics were not administered (p=0.51). Closed suction drainage tip culture can aid in the early detection of infection.

  4. Closed suction drainage versus closed simple drainage in the management of modified radical mastectomy wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeome, E R; Adebamowo, C A

    2008-09-01

    To compare the outcomes of modified radical mastectomy wounds managed by closed wound drainage with suction and without suction. A prospective randomised trial was conducted at the University College Hospital in Ibadan, and the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital in Enugu. Fifty women who required modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer were randomised to have closed wound drainage with suction (26 patients) and closed wound drainage without suction (24 patients). There was no significant difference in the intraoperative and postoperative variables. Suction drainage drained less volume of fluid and stayed for a shorter time in the wound, but the differences were not significant. There was no difference in the length of hospital stay, time to stitch removal, and number of dressing changes. More haematomas and wound infections occurred in the simple drain group while more seromas occurred in the suction drain group, but these were not significant. The suction drain was more difficult to manage and the cost was 15 times higher than the simple drainage system. Closed simple drains are not inferior to suction drains in mastectomy wounds and, considering the cost saving and simplicity of postoperative care, they are preferable to suction drains.

  5. Closed suction drainage using Lichtenstein technique in preventing wound complications following inguinal hernioplasty: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Hemmati

    2015-03-01

    Results: No adverse event including hematoma, seroma or wound infection occurred in either group with or without closed suction drainage in the first 10 days after surgery. Only one patient carried wound infection during days 10 to 15 following operation who was in the group with closed drainage (P=1.00. Conclusion: In this study, Seroma and hematoma was not observed in patients with and without closed suction drainage. To avoid drains' complications, indiscriminate use of antibiotics, prolonged hospital stay, we do not recommend the use of drains in this type of surgery.

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of closed suction drainage versus non-drainage in primary hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Enda G

    2014-03-01

    The routine use of drains in surgery has been dogmatically instituted in some disciplines. Orthopaedic surgery is one such sub-speciality. The use of postoperative closed suction drainage in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become increasingly controversial with multiple randomised control trials performed to assess the benefit to outcome in THA. The hypothesis of this systematic review is that closed suction drainage does not infer a benefit and increase transfusion requirements of primary total hip arthroplasty patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted adhering to the PRISMA guidelines. A search of the available literature was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (OVID) and EMBASE using a combination of MeSH terms and Boolean operators. All data analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration\\'s Review Manager 5.1. Sixteen studies (n=2705) were included in the analysis. Post-operative closed suction drainage was found to increase total blood loss and blood transfusion requirements (p<0.05). Surgical site infection demonstrated no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.82). No significant difference in haematoma formation between groups (p=0.19) was elicited. The routine use of closed suction drainage systems post primary hip arthroplasty is not supported by this meta-analysis. However, the heterogeneity between studies does limit the accuracy of the meta-analysis.

  7. Comparison between autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

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    Hong, Kun-Hao; Pan, Jian-Ke; Yang, Wei-Yi; Luo, Ming-Hui; Xu, Shu-Chai; Liu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Autologous blood transfusion (ABT) drainage system is a new unwashed salvaged blood retransfusion system for total knee replacement (TKA). However, whether to use ABT drainage, closed-suction (CS) drainage or no drainage in TKA surgery remains controversial. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the clinical efficiency, safety and potential advantages regarding the use of ABT drains compared with closed-suction/no drainage. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched in March 2015. Fifteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified and pooled for statistical analysis. The primary outcome evaluated was homologous blood transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections after TKA surgery. The pooled data included 1,721 patients and showed that patients in the ABT drainage group might benefit from lower blood transfusion rates (16.59 % and 37.47 %, OR: 0.28 [0.14, 0.55]; 13.05 % and 16.91 %, OR: 0.73 [0.47,1.13], respectively). Autologous blood transfusion drainage and closed-suction drainage/no drainage have similar clinical efficacy and safety with regard to post-operative haemoglobin on days 3-5, length of hospital stay and wound infections. Autologous blood transfusion drainage offers a safe and efficient alternative to CS/no drainage with a lower blood transfusion rate. Future large-volume high-quality RCTs with extensive follow-up will affirm and update this system review.

  8. Closed Suction Drainage Is Not Necessary for Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Study on Simultaneous Bilateral Surgeries of a Mean Follow-Up of 5.5 Years.

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    Watanabe, Toshifumi; Muneta, Takeshi; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Closed suction drainage has been widely used for orthopedic surgeries including total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to prevent fluid collections at the operative site such as blood around the wound. However, it is still controversial whether suction drainage is necessary for TKA. The present study aimed to clarify the need for suction drainage by assessing short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of simultaneous bilateral TKA. Our subjects were 63 patients (126 knees) who underwent simultaneous bilateral TKA using a cemented posterior stabilized prosthesis, classified into 3 groups: 20 patients with a closed suction drain on both sides (bilateral group), 22 patients with a closed suction drain on one side and no drain on the other side (unilateral group), and 21 patients with no drain (no-drainage group). Short- and long-term clinical outcomes were evaluated. Mean hemoglobin drop on the day after surgery was significantly greater in the bilateral group (2.2 g/dL, P = .038) and unilateral group (2.2 g/dL, P = .045) compared with the no-drainage group (1.5 g/dL). The incidence of short-term and long-term complications was not significantly different between knees with drainage and those without drainage. In side-to-side comparisons, no significant differences were found in knee extension, flexion, or circumference in the unilateral group. In group comparisons, we found no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the bilateral group and no-drainage group, either. These findings suggest closed suction drainage is not necessary after TKA with cemented posterior-stabilized prostheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Closed suction system versus open suction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elmansoury, Ahmed; Said, Hedya

    Background: Catheter suction is used to remove tracheal secretions through the endotracheal tube in mechanically ventilated patients, which may be either closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) or open one...

  10. Closed suction drain with bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000039.htm Closed suction drain with bulb To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A closed suction drain is used to remove fluids that build ...

  11. [Is suction drainage necessary in elective total hip arthroplasty?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Tibor; Bikov, András; Holnapy, Gergely; Bejek, Zoltán; Bakos, Bernadett; Szendrői, Miklós; Skaliczki, Gábor

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been published which questioned the use of suction drain during elective hip arthroplasty. In this prospective study the authors examined how the use of suction drainage affected complications related to perioperative blood loss and hemorrhage in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Eighty-six patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty were divided into two groups. In 54 patients ("drain" group) suction drains were used during operation, whereas in 32 patients no suction drain was applied. Perioperative blood loss, use of tranexamic acid, method of thrombosis prophylaxis, transfusion requirement, incidental postoperative hemorrhage, septic complications, and all other postoperative complications were recorded. Perioperative blood loss was affected with the use of tranexamic acid but not with the use of drainage (p = 0.94). Patients without the use of drain showed a tendency of lower transfusion requirement (p = 0.08). There was no correlation between any complications and the use of drainage. In accordance with published results the authors conclude that the routine use of suction drainage during elective hip arthroplasty is not definitely necessary. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(29), 1171-1176.

  12. [The effect evaluation of suction drainage to prevent fistula after superficial parotidectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin; Jia, Mu-yun; Cai, Zhen; Yuan, Rong-tao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Kui; Bu, Ling-xue

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of suction drainage to prevent fistula after parotidectomy, and seek the best opportunity to remove the drainage according to the draining output and duration. One hundred and ninety-four patients with parotid diseases after superficial parotidectomy were assigned into pressure dressing group and suction drainage group. Pressure dressing was used after suction drainage tube was removed in the pressure group, while suction drainage tube was fixed through the process in the suction group. Postoperative salivary fistula occurrence between the 2 groups was analyzed with Pearson chi-square test, and the contribution of the output and duration resulting in salivary fistula was analyzed by Fisher's exact test with SPSS 19.0 software package. The occurrence of salivary fistula in the pressure dressing group and suction group was 11.6% and 15.5%, respectively in the suction group. No significance difference was found between the 2 groups (P>0.05). In the suction drainage group, significant correlation of the draining duration and salivary fistula was not found (P>0.05). However, the draining output less than 20 mL resulted in lower salivary fistula rate compared with the draining output of 20-30 mL. According to our findings, suction drainage can be used as a substitute for pressure dressing after parotidectomy in preventing salivary fistula, and the best timing of drainage extubation is when the draining output is less than 20 mL within 24 hours.

  13. Continuous high-pressure negative suction drain: new powerful tool for closed wound management: clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Jun; Han, DaeHee; Song, Hyunsuk; Jang, Yu Jin; Park, Dong Ha; Park, Myong Chul

    2014-07-01

    Although various reconstructive flap surgeries have been successfully performed, there still are difficult wound complications, such as seroma formation, wound margin necrosis, delayed wound healing, and even flap failures. The negative-pressure wound therapy has been described in detail in the literature to assist open chronic/complex wound closure in reconstructive surgery. However, the negative-pressure wound therapy was difficult to be applied under the incisional closed wounds. A total of 23 patients underwent the various reconstructive flap surgeries with continuous high-pressure negative suction drain. Instead of using regular suction units, Barovac (50-90 mm Hg, Sewoon Medical, Seoul, Republic of Korea) drainage tubes were connected to the wall suction unit, providing continuous high-powered negative pressure. In addition, continuous subatmospheric suction pressure (100-300 mm Hg) was applied. Outcome of the measures was obtained from the incidence of seroma, volume of postoperative drainage, hospitalization period, and incidence of other typical wound complications. Dead space was evaluated postoperatively with ultrasonography. Using continuous high-pressure negative suction drain, successful management of seroma was obtained without any major complication such as wound infection, flap loss, and wound margin necrosis, except for only 1 case of seroma after discharge from the hospital. The indwelling time of the drain in the latissimus dorsi donor site was significantly reduced in comparison with the authors' previous data (P = 0.047). The volume of drainage and hospitalization period were also reduced; however, these were not statistically significant. The dead space with continuous high-pressure negative suction drain was more reduced than in the control group in the immediate postoperative period and confirmed with ultrasonography. Continuous high-pressure negative suction drain might be the simple and powerful solution in the management of challenging

  14. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. Methods 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2 and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2 groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Results

  15. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

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    Kavit Amin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment.

  16. Suction-irrigation drainage: an underestimated therapeutic option for surgical treatment of deep sternal wound infections†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vöhringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. METHODS Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. RESULTS The success rate—defined as single, uncomplicated procedure—of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. CONCLUSIONS Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:23529753

  17. Suction-irrigation drainage: an underestimated therapeutic option for surgical treatment of deep sternal wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschka, Heinz; Erler, Stefan; El-Ayoubi, Lemir; Vogel, Cordula; Vöhringer, Luise; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Deep sternal wound infections are significant and severe complications following cardiac surgery and substantially influence perioperative morbidity and mortality. We present the experience of our department using two different surgical treatments over a three-year period. Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 3274 cardiac procedures with complete median sternotomy were performed in our department. In 94 patients (3%), a deep sternal wound infection occurred, including sternal instability with consecutive surgical treatment. The patients either received wound debridement with sternum refixation and suction-irrigation drainage (SID; n = 72) or sternum refixation only (RF; n = 22) if there was sternal instability with limited signs of infection. SID was routinely installed for 7 days: the irrigation solution contained neomycin. In all cases, swabs were taken and analysed. The different methods were evaluated in respect of their clinical outcomes. The success rate-defined as single, uncomplicated procedure-of the SID treatment was 74%, compared with 59% of the isolated sternum refixation. Complications included continuous infection, recurrence of sternal instability and wound necrosis. Eighty-eight percent of the swabs in the SID group were positive, compared with 32% in the sternal refixation only group. The dominating pathogenic germs were coagulase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus. Mortality was 10% for the SID group and 5% for the RF group. Contrary to accepted opinion, the suction-irrigation drainage is an appropriate therapy for deep sternal wound infections. Nevertheless, deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery remain severe complications and are related to increased morbidity and mortality.

  18. Effects of open and closed suction systems on the haemodynamic parameters in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özden, Dilek; Görgülü, Refia S

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of open and closed suction systems on haemodynamic parameters of the patients who underwent open heart surgery. Nurses should work meticulously and carefully as many complications may develop if the method used to perform suctioning is not appropriate. The quasi-experimental study design was used. The study sample comprised 120 patients who underwent open heart surgery in the cardiovascular surgery intensive care unit of a state hospital in Turkey. Haemodynamic parameters were determined just before, right after, at the 5th and 15th minute after suctioning. The data were evaluated with the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for Repeated Measures, independent t-test and Bonferroni's test for further analysis (post hoc). The difference between heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure, mean PaO2 and PaCO2 , SaO2 and pH values measured before, right after and at the 5th and 15th minute after suctioning was found to be significant in patients who underwent the open suctioning procedure. It was determined that the difference between mean PaO2 values was not significant and that SaO2 versus SpO2 values increased in patients who underwent the closed suctioning procedure. When the open and closed suction systems were compared, statistically significant difference was determined in terms of MAP, SpO2 . It was determined that HR, arterial blood pressure and arterial blood gases of the patients who underwent open heart surgery were negatively affected by the open suction system but did not increase significantly as soon as suctioning was over during the closed suctioning procedure. The data obtained indicate that closed system suctioning, compared with open system suctioning, can be used safely on this patient group. The closed suction system is recommended since it contributes to the enhancement of patient safety and the quality of nursing care. © 2014 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care published by John Wiley & Sons

  19. Comparison of open and closed suction on safety, efficacy and nursing time in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janine; Syddall, Sophie; Butt, Warwick; Kinney, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common procedures performed in the paediatric intensive care. The two methods of endotracheal suctioning used are known as open and closed suction, but neither method has been shown to be the superior suction method in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). The primary purpose was to compare open and closed suction methods from a physiological, safety and staff resource perspective. All paediatric intensive care patients with an endotracheal tube were included. Between June and September 2011 alternative months were nominated as open or closed suction months. Data were prospectively collected including suction events, staff involved, time taken, use of saline, and change from pre-suction baseline in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and oxygen saturation (SpO2). Blocked or dislodged ETTs were recorded as adverse events. Closed suction was performed more often per day (7.2 vs 6.0, psuction (5 vs 3, psuction group (18% vs 40%). Open suction demonstrated a greater reduction in SpO2 and nearly three times the incidence of increases in HR and MAP compared to closed suction. Reductions in MAP or HR were comparable across the two methods. In conclusion, CS could be performed with less staffing time and number of nurses, less physiological disturbances to our patients and no significant increases in adverse events. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Use of Peritoneal Suction Drainage to Reduce Shoulder Pain Caused by Gynecological Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Ameneh; Chaichian, Shahla; Ghahremani, Mehran; Nooriardebili, Shahla; Akbaian, Abdolrasool; Moazzami, Bahram

    2016-03-01

    To compare the outcomes of patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic gynecologic procedures with and without drainage, and investigate the effects of drainage on postoperative shoulder pain, hospital stay and analgesic medications. In this randomized clinical trial, 92 patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic gynecologic procedures at Pars Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between April 2012 and July 2014 entered the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: one group received a drain at the end of operation, whereas the second group didn't receive a drain. For patients closed with drainage, Hemovac plastic passive drains were inserted without negative pressure. Severity of the patients' postoperative shoulder pain was evaluated at rest using the 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after surgery. There was no difference between the two groups regarding age, weight, height, BMI, the cause of surgery and the blood loss during the surgery. At 12 h and 24 h after surgery, the shoulder pain was statistically lower in the group with drainage (P shoulder pain among patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgeries and decrease the need for pain medication. Further studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and cost effectiveness of using this method for reducing the postoperative shoulder pain.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drains for the prevention of incisional surgical site infection after colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Makoto; Akikazu, Yago; Suwa, Yusuke; Suwa, Hirokazu; Momiyama, Masashi; Ishibe, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Masui, Hidenobu; Nagahori, Kaoru

    2017-03-01

    The effects of subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drain for preventing incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) after colorectal surgery have never been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Thus, we performed a RCT to evaluate the clinical benefits of using a subcutaneous closed-suction Blake drain in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Consecutive patients who underwent colorectal surgery were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to the subcutaneous closed-suction drainage arm or the control (no subcutaneous drainage) arm. The primary endpoint was incidence rate of incisional SSIs. And, we performed logistic regression analysis to detect predictive factors for incisional SSIs after colorectal surgery. From November 2012 to September 2014, a total of 240 patients were enrolled in this study. One-hundred-seventeen patients who were treated by the control arm and 112 patients by the subcutaneous drainage arm were judged to be eligible for analysis. The incidence of incisional SSIs rate was 8.7 % in the overall patients. The incidence of incisional SSIs rate was 12.8 % in the control arm and 4.5 % in the subcutaneous drainage arm. There was significantly reduction of the incidence in the subcutaneous drainage arm than in the control arm (p = 0.025). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that thickness of subcutaneous fat >3.0 cm, forced expiratory volume in 1 s as percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1.0 %) >70 %, and subcutaneous drain were independent predictors of postoperative incisional SSIs (p = 0.008, p = 0.004, and p = 0.017, respectively). The results of our RCT suggest that a subcutaneous Blake drain is beneficial for preventing incisional SSIs in patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

  2. The effects of closed tracheal suctioning plus volume guarantee on cerebral hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, JR; Gauss, CH; Williams, DK

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of open tracheal suctioning (OS) plus intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) vs closed tracheal suctioning (CS) plus volume guarantee ventilation (VG) on changes in mean cerebral blood-flow velocity (CBFv) of ventilated very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design A total of 75 normotensive, ventilated VLBW infants (with normal cranial ultrasounds) had monitoring of mean CBFv, PCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) before, during and after 220 tracheal suctioning sessions during the first week of life. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the factor(s) influencing the magnitude of relative changes from baseline in mean CBFv after suctioning. Result In all, 49 VLBW infants receiving IMV had monitoring during 124 OS sessions between July 2002 and May 2005; 26 VLBW infants receiving VG had monitoring during 96 CS sessions between January 2006 and July 2007. The average magnitude of relative changes in mean CBFv was significantly less with CS + VG, and was associated with the magnitude of relative changes in PCO2 and suctioning-ventilator group. Conclusion The average magnitude of relative changes in mean CBFv was reduced in VLBW infants with CS + VG vs OS + IMV. PMID:21330995

  3. Comparing two levels of closed system suction pressure in ICU patients: Evaluating the relative safety of higher values of suction pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmad R.; Haghighat, Somayeh; Saghaei, Mahmoud; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is one of the most common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU). ETS may be associated with complications including hypoxia and tachycardia. Closed system suctioning (CSS) decreases the rate of cardiorespiratory complication mainly due to continuation of ventilatory support and oxygenation during procedure. CSS has questionable efficacy, therefore higher values of negative pressure has been recommended to enhance the efficacy of CSS. This study was designed to evaluate the effects on gas exchange of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure compared with 100 mmHg in CSS. Materials and Methods: Fifty mechanically ventilated (MV) ICU patients were selected for the study. Two consecutive ten seconds CSS using suction pressures of 100 and 200 mmHg, in random order applied in each subject with the two hours wash out period. Effects of two levels of suction pressure on gas exchange were measured by recording the SPo2 values at 4 times. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance didn't show any significant difference between two levels of pressure (P = 0.315), but within each groups (100 and 200 mmHg) SPO2 changes was significant (P = 0.000). There was a mild but significant and transient increase in heart rate following both suction pressures, but no significant difference between two groups. Conclusion: The results show that CSS with suction pressure 200 mmHg has no detrimental effect on cardiorespiratory function of MV ICU patients. Since the safety of 200 mmHg suctioning pressure was approved, using 200 mmHg suction pressures is recommended for ETS of MV patients. PMID:23983740

  4. Effect of closed endotracheal tube suction method, catheter size, and post-suction recruitment during high-frequency jet ventilation in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepponstall, J Michele; Tingay, David G; Bhatia, Risha; Loughnan, Peter M; Copnell, Beverley

    2012-08-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) is often used to treat infants with pathologies associated with gas trapping and abnormal lung mechanics, who are sensitive to the adverse effects of suction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of closed suction (CS), catheter size, and the use of active post-suction sighs on tracheal pressure (P(trach)), and global and regional end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during HFJV. Six anaesthetized and muscle-relaxed adult rabbits were stabilized on HFJV. CS was performed using all permutations of three CS methods (Continual negative pressure, negative pressure applied during Withdrawal, and HFJV in Standby) and 6 French gauge (6 FG) and 8 French gauge (8 FG) catheter, randomly assigned. The sequence was repeated using post-suction sighs. P(trach), absolute (respiratory inductive plethysmography) and regional (electrical impedance tomography; expressed as percentage of vital capacity for the defined region of interest, %Z(VCroi) ) EELV were measured before, during and 60 sec post-suction. CS methods exerted no difference on ΔP(trach), ΔEELV(RIP), or Δ%Z(VCroi) . 8FG catheter resulted in a mean (95%CI) 20.0 (17.9,22.2) cm H(2)O greater loss of P(trach) during suction compared to 6FG (Bonferroni post-test). Mean (± SD) ΔEELV(RIP) was -6(±3) and -2(±1) ml/kg with the 8 and 6 FG catheters (P suction recruitment required to restore EELV. In this animal model receiving HFJV, ΔP(trach), ΔEELV, and need for post-suction recruitment during CS were most influenced by catheter size. Volume changes within the lung were uniform. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical experience and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia using closed versus open suction-system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerman, Eva; Larsson, Catharina; Ersson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown a decreasing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence after prophylactic interventions bundles. The use of closed suction systems (CSS) has been suggested beneficial as a prophylactic measure. To investigate the effects of a CSS on VAP incidence, suction circuit contamination and adverse events (AEs) compared to an open suction system (OSS) approach in a general mixed intensive care unit (ICU). Adult patients on mechanical ventilation were consecutively included. Data were collected during four 1-month periods where CSS and OSS were used on an alternating basis. Airway cultures were obtained at intubation, after 72 h and every Monday. After changing CSS and at extubation, the catheter tip was cultured. AEs and desaturation events during suction were monitored. Descriptive analysis and differences between the groups were analysed using comparative methods. No differences in airway colonization at admission between the groups were detected (Table 2). The CSS group had a higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) III and also a non-significant increase in VAP incidence. Positive cultures were obtained in 50% of all the retrieved CSS catheters. There was no inter-patient contamination in either group. Six AEs versus one (CSS/OSS) related to tube-occlusion and secretion clogging was seen. Desaturations at suctioning were rare in both groups. No beneficial effects were seen on VAP incidence or inter-patient contamination compared to OSS. A high frequency of circuit contamination in the CSS group paralleled with experienced secretions clearance problems seem unfavourable and in concordance with previous studies. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  6. The use of postoperative suction drainage in total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Mark

    2014-07-16

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials is to assess the effectiveness of no drainage when compared to drainage in total knee arthroplasty, in terms of recovery of knee flexion, reduction in swelling, length of hospital stay and haemoglobin levels following TKA.

  7. Effect of closed endotracheal suction in high-frequency ventilated premature infants measured with electrical impedance tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, M.B.; Miedema, M.; de Jongh, F.H.C.; van der Lee, J.H.; Frerichs, I.; van Kaam, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the global and regional changes in lung volume during and after closed endotracheal tube (ETT) suction in high-frequency ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Design: Prospective observational clinical study. Setting: Neonatal intensive care

  8. Is a closed-suction drain advantageous for penile implant surgery? The debate continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andrew; Goldmark, Ellen; Greenfield, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The debate about leaving a closed-suction drain during penile implant surgery remains unsolved. What is the current thinking about the pros and cons of leaving a scrotal drain for inflatable penile implant (IPP) surgery? The aim of this study is to explore the fund of existing information, and formulate a point and counterpoint debate analyzing the drain issue for implant surgery. Two differing points of view are given to answer the question of benefit vs. risk drains in implant patients. To facilitate the debate about a longstanding urologic question. There are two conflicting points presented in this manuscript, one supporting drain placement, the other opposing it in light of the risks and benefits. Without prospective randomized controlled trials specifically looking at drain placement following IPP, it is unclear whether or not this intervention is beneficial. Until a study of this type is performed, leaving a drain will largely remain a surgeon preference. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Effect of closed endotracheal suction in high-frequency ventilated premature infants measured with electrical impedance tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Mariëtte B.; Miedema, Martijn; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Frerichs, Inez; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the global and regional changes in lung volume during and after closed endotracheal tube (ETT) suction in high-frequency ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Prospective observational clinical study. Neonatal intensive care unit. Eleven non-muscle relaxed

  10. Management of chronic subdural haematoma: burr hole drainage, replacement with Hartmann's solution, and closed-system drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung; Wong; Mo; Tsang

    1999-12-01

    Although the treatment of chronic subdural haematoma by burr hole drainage has been performed in the past with or without using a closed drainage system, the problem of intracranial air entrapment still persists and can cause a deterioration in the level of consciousness or seizures in the postoperative period. Cerebral infarction may also develop a few days after surgery because of the intracranial hypotension that occurs during the drainage procedure. In an attempt to minimise these complications and to prevent cerebral infarction and its attendant morbidity, we have developed a technique of treating chronic subdural haematoma-namely, performing burr hole drainage, irrigation and replacement of the haematoma with Hartmann's solution, and closed-system drainage of the subdural space with a silicone catheter. The blood pressure is closely monitored and maintained by the infusion of fluids throughout the procedure. An illustrative case using this technique is presented in this paper.

  11. Investigation into the effect of closed-system suctioning on the frequency of pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brenda M; Mowzer, Rukaiya; Pitcher, Richard; Argent, Andrew C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of closed-system vs. open endotracheal suctioning on the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia and outcome in a pediatric intensive care unit in a developing country. Prospective observational and nonrandomized controlled clinical study. A 20-bed pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary pediatric hospital. Infants and children mechanically ventilated for >24 hrs. : Pediatric intensive care unit suctioning systems were alternated monthly. An 8-month interim analysis was planned with a priori efficacy and futility study termination boundaries set at p .52, respectively. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were prospectively recorded. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed using the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, and the results were confirmed retrospectively using Centers for Disease Control criteria. A total of 250 patients (median [interquartile range] age of 3.8 [1.2-15.0] months) in 263 pediatric intensive care unit admissions were included. Fifty-nine admissions developed ventilator-associated pneumonia, with a calculated rate of 45.1 infections per 1000 ventilated days. There was no difference in characteristics or outcome between patients on closed-system suctioning (n = 83) and those on open endotracheal suctioning (n = 180). The frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonia for patients on closed-system suctioning and open endotracheal suctioning were 20.5% and 23.3%, respectively (p = .6), reaching the a priori set limit of futility. Patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia spent a median (interquartile range) of 22 (13-37) and 11 (8-16) days in the hospital and pediatric intensive care unit, respectively, compared to 14.5 (10-24) and 6 (4-8) days for those without ventilator-associated pneumonia (p < .001). A 22% proportion of patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia died compared to 11.3% of those without ventilator-associated pneumonia (p = .03). Risk factors for

  12. Endotracheal Suction a Reopened Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Almgren, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    During mechanical ventilation, patients are connected to the ventilator by an endotracheal tube. The tube needs to be cleaned from mucus by suction, which can cause negative effects such as lung collapse, hypoxemia and desaturation. These can be avoided by preoxygenation, change of ventilator settings, use of closed suction systems and recruitment manoeuvres. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endotracheal suction during different ventilator settings and by different sucti...

  13. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bastawesy, M.; Ramadan Ali, R.; Faid, A.; El Osta, M.

    2013-04-01

    This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases), which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins) and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and seepage water can be

  14. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  15. Use of closed suction devices and other drains in spinal surgery: results of an online, Germany-wide questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eckardstein, Kajetan L; Dohmes, Jaqueline E; Rohde, Veit

    2016-03-01

    The risks of drains in spine surgery (e.g., increasing venous plexus bleeding, maintaining CSF leakage, and infections) must be balanced with their benefits (e.g., reduced rate of postoperative hematoma and seroma formation). Little is known about factors that influence surgeons' decision to employ a drain. We conducted a survey among German spine surgeons regarding their use of drains. Neurosurgical and orthopedic departments along with privately practicing neurosurgeons were invited to complete an online questionnaire featuring general and case-specific questions with regard to drain placement. We received 163 questionnaires (private practice and small-volume centers 36.1%, medium- and large-volume centers 43.6%, university centers 20.2%). Factors influencing the decision to use a drain include size of wound, type of procedure, hemostasis at the end of the procedure, and coagulopathies; factors found to be less important include overall blood loss, body mass index, and implants. 31% of surgeons will use drains for microdiskectomies. For other pathologies, percentages are as follows: anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion, 58%; cervical laminoplasty, 62%; hemilaminectomy for bisegmental lumbar stenosis, 69%; transpedicular instrumentation, 88%; vertebral body replacement for metastasis, 94%. Over half of those who usually employ a drain will not use a drain in cases of unintentional durotomy. In terms of indication, duration, and safety measures, use of drains in spinal surgery is heterogeneous. The majority of surgeons prefer drains to suction in most cases, except for microdiskectomies, for which only 31% will use a drain. Nearly all colleagues discontinue drains by day 4.

  16. Suction Buckets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, T.

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with bucket foundations and their applicability for offshore wind turbines. The main concern is the establishment of an analytical model for frictional materials, combined with simulations of buckets with varying geometry. An analytical model is proposed, consisting...... of different parts describing the penetration resistance during installation, the phenomenon critical suction and calculation methods for determination of the pullout force, respectively the response under combined loading, equivalent to ship impact, wave actions etc. A series of experimental tests conducted...... of simulating the change in size and shape of the failure locus in the H-M/D space, as revealed in the laboratory. An economic comparison between different foundation concepts is made. The advantages and disadvantages using bucket foundation are outlined. Concluding a design chart is proposed, based...

  17. [Ultrasonic aspirator with controllable suction system--variable action suction adapter and clinical experience with it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, S; Shimano, H; Kuroiwa, T

    2000-12-01

    While the ultrasonic aspirator (UA) has been widely used as one of the indispensable tools in the field of neurosurgery, a potential risk when using the present UA is injury to the neurovascular structures due to ultrasonic pulverization and constant forceful suction power. We have devised a small variable action suction adapter that can be used in a similar manner to conventional surgical suction tubes. The UA control unit and the handpiece used in this study were the Sonopet UST-2000 and HA-01, respectively (M & M Corporation Tokyo, Japan). The handpiece is slim, with the mid-portion diameter of 13 mm, and it weighs 100 grams. A variable action suction adapter was made from polycarbonate of 15 x 12 x 13 mm in size. The adapter was connected to the suction tube using a Y-shaped connector (Fig. 2 A), which was integrated into the handpiece. The suction power is regulated by variably closing the oval-shaped hole. The adapter can be variously placed on and rotated around the handpiece (Fig. 2 B and C) so that either the right or left hand handles it in a similar fashion to conventional suction tubes. We used this UA in surgery for 8 patients with large brain tumors (meningioma in 5 cases, metastatic brain tumor in 2 cases and glioma in one case). It reduced the risk of suction-related injury to the neurovascular structures and was handled in a similar manner to conventional suction tubes. This adapter ensures the complete control of suction power, which will reduce the risk of suction injury.

  18. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  19. Efficacy of Closed Continuous Lumbar Drainage on the Treatment of Postcraniotomy Meningitis: A Retrospective Analysis of 1062 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanming; Liu, Xuesong; You, Chao; Zhang, Yuekang; Du, Liang; Hui, Xuhui; Liu, Wenke; Ma, Lu; Liu, Jiagang

    2017-10-01

    Postcraniotomy meningitis is a severe complication in neurosurgery, and can result in high morbidity and mortality. Closed continuous lumbar drainage (CCLD) as an adjuvant method for treating postcraniotomy meningitis in adults is rarely assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CCLD in the treatment of postcraniotomy meningitis. A total of 1062 patients older than 16 years with postcraniotomy meningitis were included, between January 2000 and December 2015. Of these, 474 received intravenous antibiotic therapy, steroid administration and adjuvant CCLD (experimental Group). The remaining 588 patients only received intravenous antibiotic and steroid therapies (control Group). Data were extracted from medical records. In the experimental group, meningitis-related mortality was 2.7%, and 77.4% individuals achieved a Glasgow Outcome Scale of 4-5. In the control group, meningitis-related mortality reached 11.6%, with only 61.1% of patients achieving a GOS of 4-5. The time to negative cerebrospinal fluid laboratory test and the duration of meningitis-related symptoms were significantly shorter in the experimental group compared with controls (P meningitis after craniotomy. Laboratory results negative for cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis-related symptom relief occurred faster in the experimental group. Intravenous antibiotic and steroid therapies combined with CCLD appear to be an effective and safe treatment for postcraniotomy meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of peripheral blood and abdominal fluid variables as predictors of intestinal surgical site failure in dogs with septic peritonitis following celiotomy and the placement of closed-suction abdominal drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieu, Liz-Valérie S; Bersenas, Alexa M; Brisson, Brigitte A; Holowaychuk, Marie K; Ammersbach, Melanie A; Beaufrère, Hugues; Fujita, Hiroshi; Weese, J Scott

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate peripheral blood and abdominal fluid variables as predictors of intestinal surgical site failure in dogs with septic peritonitis following celiotomy and closed-suction abdominal drain (CSAD) placement. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 26 dogs with septic peritonitis that underwent celiotomy and CSAD placement. PROCEDURES Abdominal fluid and blood samples were collected prior to surgery and daily thereafter until CSAD removal. Abdominal fluid was collected through the CSAD. Analysis of all samples included pH, PCO2, PO2, PCV, WBC count, and total solids, glucose, lactate, and electrolyte concentrations. Abdominal fluid samples also underwent cytologic evaluation and bacterial culture, and the volume of fluid removed through the drain was recorded daily. The blood-to-fluid glucose and lactate differences, fluid-to-blood lactate ratio and blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios were determined daily. Dogs were categorized into 2 groups on the basis of whether they had an uneventful recovery (UR) or developed postoperative septic peritonitis (POSP). RESULTS 23 dogs had a UR and 3 developed POSP. On the third day after surgery, the abdominal fluid WBC count was significantly lower and the blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios were significantly higher for dogs in the POSP group, compared with those for dogs in the UR group. None of the other blood and abdominal fluid variables assessed differed significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results failed to identify any objective predictive indicators for POSP in dogs with CSADs. Use of blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios as predictive indicators for POSP requires further investigation.

  1. Dynamic behaviour of suction caissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    Offshore wind energy is a promising source of energy in the near future, and is rapidly becoming competitive with other power generating technologies. The continuous improvement in wind turbine technology means that the wind turbines have increased tremendously in both size and performance during the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close to the excitation frequencies of the rotor system, it is of outmost importance to be able to evaluate the resonance frequencies of the wind turbine structure accurately as the wind turbines increase in size. In order to achieve reliable responses of the wind turbine structure during working loads it is necessary to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included in a composite structure-foundation system. The work has been focused on one particular foundation type; the suction caisson. The frequency dependent stiffness (impedance) of the suction caisson has been investigated by means of a three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model, where the soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequencydependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the

  2. Pelvic drainage during removal of dialysis catheter decreases the risk of subsequent intra-abdominal complications in refractory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Kai; Huang, Chien-Wei; Chou, Nan-Hua; Lee, Po-Tsang; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Chen, Chien-Liang

    2015-11-01

    Some patients with refractory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis continue to develop intra-abdominal complications despite removal of the peritoneal catheter. Repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy is often required, and mortality is not uncommon. The benefits of pelvic drainage placement during catheter removal in decreasing these complications and interventions remain unproven. Forty-six patients with refractory peritonitis who underwent removal of a Tenckhoff catheter between 1991 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Twelve patients had pelvic drainage using closed active suction devices during catheter removal (drainage group). The remaining 34 patients underwent catheter removal without drainage (non-drainage group). The outcomes measured were the development of intra-abdominal complications and the requirement for repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy within 90 days after the catheter removal. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of a higher median number of previous peritonitis episodes in the drainage group compared with the non-drainage group (2 vs 0, P = 0.02). During the follow-up period, intra-abdominal complications occurred in 15 (44%) of 34 patients in the non-drainage group, compared with one (8%) of 12 patients in the drainage group (P = 0.03). Twelve (35%) patients in the non-drainage group required repeated percutaneous drainage or open laparotomy for management, compared with zero (0%) patients in the drainage group (P = 0.02). Drain tubes were removed at a median of 6 days (inter-quartile range: 5-10) without complications. In the management of refractory peritonitis, pelvic drainage during removal of dialysis catheter decreases the risk of subsequent intra-abdominal complications and invasive interventions. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  3. An evaluation of the osmotic method of controlling suction

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Experimental techniques of testing the mechanical properties of unsaturated soils are complex and difficult to conduct. As a consequence, complete sets of parameters that characterise the behaviour of unsaturated soils remain scarce and necessary. In this context, it has been found useful to gather the information obtained after some years of practice of the osmotic technique of controlling suction. As compared to the more documented axis-translation technique, the osmotic technique has its own advantages and drawbacks that are discussed in this paper, together with some potential future developments. The osmotic method has been developed by soil scientists in the 1960s and adapted to geotechnical testing in the early 1970s. This paper presents the osmotic technique and comments on its advantages (including suction condition close to reality and higher suctions easily attained) and drawbacks (including some concern with the membrane resistance and some membrane effects in the suction/concentration calibration...

  4. Dynamic stiffness of horizontally vibrating suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara; Cisternino, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The promising potential for offshore wind market is on developing wind farms in deeper waters with bigger turbines. In deeper waters the design foundation configuration may consist of jacket structures supported by floating piles or by suction caissons. Taking the soil-structure interaction effects...... of this type of foundation using the finite element method (FEM) to account for the interaction with the soil. 3D numerical models for both the soil and the suction caisson are formulated in a frequency domain. The response of the soil surrounding the foundation is considered linear viscoelastic...... with hysteretic type damping. In addition, non-reflective boundaries are included in the model. Two different soil profiles are presented, one when the rigid bedrock is set close to the seabed and the other one when it is far away. The dynamic impedances at the top of the foundation are determined and compared...

  5. Effect of Suction Cycles and Suction Gradients on the Water Retention Properties of a Hard Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Liufeng Chen; Hua Peng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of suction cycles and suction gradients on a hard clay is investigated. The cylindrical samples of the hard clay are prepared to carry out the hydration and dehydration tests with different suction gradient and suction cycles. The results show that the suction gradient has little effect on the suction-water content relation, while the suction cycle has great effect on it, particularly the first cycle of hydration and dehydration. The apparent moisture diffusion coefficient of the h...

  6. A comprehensive review of pediatric endotracheal suctioning: Effects, indications, and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brenda M; Argent, Andrew C

    2008-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive, evidence-based review of pediatric endotracheal suctioning: effects, indications, and clinical practice. PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) electronic databases were searched for English language articles, published between 1962 and June 2007. Owing to the paucity of objective pediatric data, all reports dealing with this topic were examined, including adult and neonatal studies. One hundred eighteen references were included in the final review. Despite the widespread use of endotracheal suctioning, very little high-level evidence dealing with pediatric endotracheal suctioning exists. Studies of mechanically ventilated neonatal, pediatric, and adult patients have shown that suctioning causes a range of potentially serious complications. Current practice guidelines are not based on evidence from controlled clinical trials. There is no clear evidence that endotracheal suctioning improves respiratory mechanics, with most studies pointing to the detrimental effect it has on lung mechanics. Suctioning should be performed when obstructive secretions are present rather than routinely. There is no clear evidence for the superiority of closed- or open-system suctioning, nor is there clear evidence for appropriate vacuum pressures and suction catheter size. Sterility does not seem to be necessary when suctioning. Preoxygenation has short-term benefits, but the longer-term impact is unknown. Routine saline instillation before suctioning should not be performed. Recruitment maneuvers performed after suctioning have not been shown to be useful as standard practice. Endotracheal suctioning is a procedure used regularly in the pediatric intensive care unit. Despite this, good evidence supporting its practice is limited. Further, controlled clinical studies are needed to develop evidence-based protocols for endotracheal suctioning of infants and children, and to examine the

  7. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear...... viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three...

  8. Atraumatic suction tip for microsurgery: technical note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Vries, J. de

    2004-01-01

    During microneurosurgery, frequent suction is essential for a successful operative course. A new self-made disposable suction tip is described which facilitates atraumatic suction, even near vital anatomical structures. The efficacy of this suction tip was confirmed in selected operative procedures.

  9. Routine oro/nasopharyngeal suction versus no suction at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jann P; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2017-04-18

    Oro/nasopharyngeal suction is a method used to clear secretions from the oropharynx and nasopharynx through the application of negative pressure via a suction catheter or bulb syringe. Traditionally, airway oro/nasopharyngeal suction at birth has been used routinely to remove fluid rapidly from the oropharynx and nasopharynx in vigorous and non-vigorous infants at birth. Concerns relating to the reported adverse effects of oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning led to a practice review and routine oro/nasopharyngeal suctioning is no longer recommended for vigorous infants. However, it is important to know whether there is any clear benefit or harm for infants whose oro/nasopharyngeal airway is suctioned compared to infants who are not suctioned. To evaluate the effect of routine oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal suction compared to no suction on mortality and morbidity in newly born infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to April 18, 2016), Embase (1980 to April 18, 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to April 18, 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised, quasi-randomised controlled trials and cluster randomised trials that evaluated the effect of routine oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal suction compared to no suction on mortality and morbidity in newly born infants with and without meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The review authors extracted from the reports of the clinical trials, data regarding clinical outcomes including mortality, need for resuscitation, admission to neonatal intensive care, five minute Apgar score, episodes of apnoea and length of hospital stay. Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). Five studies

  10. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  11. Haneş and Valea Vinului (Romania) closed mines Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs)--actual condition and passive treatment remediation proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Măicăneanu, Andrada; Bedelean, Horea; Ardelean, Marius; Burcă, Silvia; Stanca, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs) from Haneş and Valea Vinului (Romania) closed mines were considered for characterization and treatment using a local zeolitic volcanic tuff, ZVT, (Măcicaş, Cluj County, Romania). Water samples were collected from two locations, before and after discharging point in case of Haneş mine, and on three horizons in case of Valea Vinului mine. Physico-chemical (pH, total solid, heavy metal ions concentration) analyses showed that the environment is strongly affected by these AMD discharges even if the mines were closed years ago. Iron, manganese and zinc were the main pollutants identified in Haneş mine AMD, while zinc is the one mainly present in case of Valea Vinului AMD. A batch technique (no stirring) in which the ZVT was put in contact with the AMD sample was proposed as a passive remediation technique. ZVT successfully remove heavy metal ion from AMD. According to heavy metal ion concentrations, removal efficiencies are reaching 100%, varying as follows, Fe(2+)>Zn(2+)>Mn(2+). When the ZVT was compared with two cationic resins (strong, SAR and weak acid, WAR) the following series was depicted, SAR>ZVT>WAR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The syringe suction drain - A unique improvisation in rural plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Closed suction drains are often needed in surgical practice. However, they are luxury in rural plastic surgery practice. This study highlights how syringes have become a reliable substitute. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study of the surgical outcome of patient who had various plastic surgical ...

  13. Negative pleural suction in thoracic trauma patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Carlos H; Mejía, Camila; Roldan, Luis Alberto; Saldarriaga, Maria Fernanda; Duque, Andres Felipe

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to establish the benefits of using chest tubes with negative pleural suction against trapped water in patients with penetrating or blunt chest trauma who underwent tube thoracostomy, in terms of the incidence of complications, such as persistent air leak, clotted hemothorax, empyema, and duration of stay. Patients who underwent tube thoracostomy because of traumatic pneumothorax, hemothorax, or hemopneumothorax were randomly assigned into one of two groups: in Group 1, the three-bottle drainage system was connected to a negative suction; in Group 2, no suction was given. Patients who required mechanical ventilation or emergency surgery (thoracotomy or thoracoscopy) either at the time of admission to the institution or immediately after the tube thoracostomy, patients who had histories of thoracic procedures or chronic pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse interstitial lung disease), and patients with multiple injuries with severe traumatic brain injury and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 8 of 15 were excluded from the study. Hospital stay, duration of tube thoracostomy, prolonged fistula, and other clinical variables were compared. One hundred ten patients were included, 56 in the group with suction and 54 in the group without suction. There were no differences in the demographic characteristics of each group. There were no differences between the groups in terms of hospital stay (p = 0.22), duration of tube thoracostomy (p = 0.35) (3 days in each group), or complications. However, the probability of air leak presence in time was greater for the Group 1 patients with negative suction versus the Group 2 patients (p = 0.023). The use of negative pleural suction did not demonstrate advantages over the three-bottle chest drainage system without suction in patients with uncomplicated traumatic pneumothorax, hemothorax, or hemopneumothorax. Therapeutic study, level II.

  14. Tube Suction Test for Evaluating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  15. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures contribute to negative pressures in a mechanical lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakstad, Espen Rostrup; Opdahl, Helge; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Borchsenius, Fredrik; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2017-01-01

    Removal of pulmonary secretions in mechanically ventilated patients usually requires suction with closed catheter systems or flexible bronchoscopes. Manual ventilation is occasionally performed during such procedures if clinicians suspect inadequate ventilation. Suctioning can also be performed with the ventilator entirely disconnected from the endotracheal tube (ETT). The aim of this study was to investigate if these two procedures generate negative airway pressures, which may contribute to atelectasis. The effects of device insertion and suctioning in ETTs were examined in a mechanical lung model with a pressure transducer inserted distal to ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm internal diameter (ID). A 16 Fr bronchoscope and 12, 14 and 16 Fr suction catheters were used at two different vacuum levels during manual ventilation and with the ETTs disconnected. During manual ventilation with ETTs of 9 mm, 8 mm and 7 mm ID, and bronchoscopic suctioning at moderate suction level, peak pressure (PPEAK) dropped from 23, 22 and 24.5 cm H2O to 16, 16 and 15 cm H2O, respectively. Maximum suction reduced PPEAK to 20, 17 and 11 cm H2O, respectively, and the end-expiratory pressure fell from 5, 5.5 and 4.5 cm H2O to -2, -6 and -17 cm H2O. Suctioning through disconnected ETTs (open suction procedure) gave negative model airway pressures throughout the duration of the procedures. Manual ventilation and open suction procedures induce negative end-expiratory pressure during endotracheal suctioning, which may have clinical implications in patients who need high PEEP (positive end-expiratory pressure).

  16. Abdominoplasty with suction undermining and plication of the superficial fascia without drains: a report of 113 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Stepniak, Jennifer; Eisenhut, Natalie; Lentz, Carl W

    2011-10-01

    Postoperative abdominoplasty seromas are a problem. Although drains are still commonly used during the initial postoperative period, this article has demonstrated that the combination of an extended incision, suction undermining, and progressive tension sutures can produce superior results without the need for suction drains. A retrospective review of 113 consecutive abdominoplasty patients operated on between April of 2004 and May of 2010 was carried out and complications were reviewed. There were 109 women and four men, with ages spanning 23 to 76 years (average, 50 years). Complications of the surgery included hematoma (2.7 percent), with one requiring drain placement (0.9 percent) and two treated with needle aspiration (1.8 percent); seroma (8.8 percent), with four requiring closed suction drainage (3.5 percent) and six minimally treated with needle aspiration (5.3 percent); infection (2.7 percent), with one requiring intravenous antibiotics (0.9 percent) and two with minimal local erythema (1.8 percent); and minimal marginal skin necrosis with spontaneous healing (3.5 percent). The technique of abdominoplasty with the addition of an extended incision, liposuction undermining of the deep fatty tissue between the superficial and abdominal muscle fascia, and the use of progressive tension sutures results in a better abdominal wall and waist contour. This decreases the need for dissection of the abdominal panniculus above the umbilicus except for a small tunnel to allow for the suturing of the rectus abdominis muscles. This allows for preservation of the arterial and lymphatic vessels, improving blood flow to the superior flap and decreasing seroma formation to the point where operative drains are not required. Therapeutic, IV.

  17. External suction versus water seal after selective pulmonary resection for lung neoplasm: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Qiu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether external suction is more advantageous than water seal in patients undergoing selective pulmonary resection (SPR for lung neoplasm. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Whether external suction should be routinely applied in postoperative chest drainage is still unclear, particularly for lung neoplasm patients. To most surgeons, the decision is based on their clinical experience. METHODS: Randomized control trials were selected. The participants were patients undergoing SPR with lung neoplasm. Lung volume reduction surgery and pneumothorax were excluded. Suction versus non-suction for the intervention. The primary outcome was the incidence of persistent air leak (PAL. The definition of PAL was air leak for more than 3-7 days. The secondary outcomes included air leak duration, time of drainage, postoperative hospital stay and the incidence of postoperative pneumothorax. Studies were identified from literature collections through screening. Bias was analyzed and meta-analysis was used. RESULTS: From the 1824 potentially relevant trials, 6 randomized control trials involving 676 patients were included. There was no difference between external suction and water seal in decreasing the incidence of PAL [95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-2.16; z = 1.10; P = 0.27]. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no differences in time of drainage (95% CI-0.36-1.56, P = 0.22, postoperative hospital stay (95% CI -.31-.54, P = 0.87 or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax (95% CI 0.18-.02, P = 0.05 between external suction and water seal. CONCLUSIONS: For participants, no differences are identified in terms of PAL incidence, drainage time, length of postoperative hospital stay or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax between external suction and water seal. The bias analysis should be emphasized. To the limitations of the bias and methodological differences among the included studies, we have no recommendation on

  18. External Suction versus Water Seal after Selective Pulmonary Resection for Lung Neoplasm: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tong; Shen, Yi; Wang, Ming-zhao; Wang, Yao-peng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zi-zong; Jin, Xiang-feng; Wei, Yu-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether external suction is more advantageous than water seal in patients undergoing selective pulmonary resection (SPR) for lung neoplasm. Summary of Background Data Whether external suction should be routinely applied in postoperative chest drainage is still unclear, particularly for lung neoplasm patients. To most surgeons, the decision is based on their clinical experience. Methods Randomized control trials were selected. The participants were patients undergoing SPR with lung neoplasm. Lung volume reduction surgery and pneumothorax were excluded. Suction versus non-suction for the intervention. The primary outcome was the incidence of persistent air leak (PAL). The definition of PAL was air leak for more than 3–7 days. The secondary outcomes included air leak duration, time of drainage, postoperative hospital stay and the incidence of postoperative pneumothorax. Studies were identified from literature collections through screening. Bias was analyzed and meta-analysis was used. Results From the 1824 potentially relevant trials, 6 randomized control trials involving 676 patients were included. There was no difference between external suction and water seal in decreasing the incidence of PAL [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81−2.16; z = 1.10; P = 0.27]. Regarding secondary outcomes, there were no differences in time of drainage (95% CI−0.36−1.56, P = 0.22), postoperative hospital stay (95% CI -.31−.54, P = 0.87) or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax (95% CI 0.18−.02, P = 0.05) between external suction and water seal. Conclusions For participants, no differences are identified in terms of PAL incidence, drainage time, length of postoperative hospital stay or incidence of postoperative pneumothorax between external suction and water seal. The bias analysis should be emphasized. To the limitations of the bias and methodological differences among the included studies, we have no recommendation on whether

  19. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars

    This report concerns the dynamic soil-structure interaction of steel suction caissons applied as foundations for offshore wind turbines. An emphasis is put on torsional vibrations and coupled sliding/rocking motion, and the influence of the foundation geometry and the properties of the surrounding...... soil is examined. The soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material and the dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequency-dependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients...... for the skirted foundation are evaluated by means of a three-dimensional coupled boundary element/finite element model. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been...

  20. Impedance of flexible suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines is affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigations include evaluation of the vertical...... and coupled sliding-rocking vibrations, influence of the foundation geometry and examination on the properties of the surrounding soil. The soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material and the dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequency...... behaviours of the foundation are predicted accurately using the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio of the subsoil and the ratio of the soil stiffness to the skirt stiffness....

  1. Impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica: revisão de literatura Impact of the open and closed tracheal suctioning system on the incidence of mechanical ventilation associated pneumonia: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maia Lopes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é a infecção nosocomial mais comum em unidades de terapia intensiva, sendo a ventilação mecânica um fator fortemente associado ao seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever o impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed para identificar tentativas controladas aleatórias, publicadas no período de 1990 a novembro de 2008. Nove estudos foram incluídos. Dos estudos revisados, sete não observaram redução significante da incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica com o uso do sistema fechado comparado ao aberto, sendo que dois destes verificaram que o uso do sistema fechado resulta em incremento nas taxas de colonização sem incrementar sua incidência e um observou que o uso do sistema fechado não incrementa a colonização do trato respiratório e reduz a expansão de infecção resultando em redução nas taxas de sepse. Apenas dois estudos verificaram redução na incidência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica com o uso do sistema fechado, e um destes revelou um risco 3.5 vezes maior de desenvolvimento desta infecção com o sistema aberto. Os resultados sugerem que o impacto do sistema de aspiração traqueal aberto e fechado é semelhante para o desenvolvimento da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica, assim a escolha do tipo de sistema de aspiração traqueal deve ser baseada em outros parâmetros. Entretanto, o sistema fechado aumenta o risco de colonização do trato respiratório, mas apresenta como vantagens a manutenção da ventilação mecânica e o menor prejuízo hemodinâmico.Pneumonia is the most common nosocominal infection in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation is a significant factor associated to its development. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of the open and closed tracheal suction

  2. Estimating soil suction from electrical resistivity

    OpenAIRE

    Piegari, E.; R. Maio

    2013-01-01

    Soil suction and resistivity strongly depend on the degree of soil saturation and, therefore, both are used for estimating water content variations. The main difference between them is that soil suction is measured using tensiometers, which give point information, while resistivity is obtained by tomography surveys, which provide distributions of resistivity values in large volumes, although with less accuracy. In this paper, we have related soil suction to electrical resistivity with the aim...

  3. Advanced Capabilities Medical Suction Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A compact microgravity and hypogravity compatible vacuum device is proposed to provide medical suction and containment of extracted fluids. The proposed aspirator...

  4. Endotracheal suctioning versus minimally invasive airway suctioning in intubated patients : a prospective randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Leur, JP; Zwaveling, JH; Loef, BG; Van der Schans, CP

    Study objective: Endotracheal suctioning in intubated patients is routinely applied in most ICUs but may have negative side effects. We hypothesised that on-demand minimally invasive suctioning would have fewer side effects than routine deep endotracheal suctioning, and would be comparable in

  5. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  6. Subsurface drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Der Merwe, CJ

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available and long term behavior were evaluated. Laboratory tests for geotextile selection are recommended and tentative criteria given. The use of fin drains was evaluated in the laboratory and a field study to monitor the efficacy of drainage systems was started...

  7. Routine versus selective postoperative nasogastric suction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nasogastric suction is a common routine postoperative procedure in abdominal surgery. Yet there is little scientific justification for it. This paper reports a comparision of routine with selective postoperative nasogastric tube suction in evaluating patients undergoing laparotomy. Methods: This was a prospective ...

  8. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  9. Routine versus Selective Postoperative Nasogastric Suction In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2005-12-02

    Dec 2, 2005 ... Background: Nasogastric suction is a common routine postoperative procedure in abdominal surgery. Yet there is little scientific justification for it. This paper reports a comparision of routine with selective postoperative nasogastric tube suction in evaluating patients undergoing laparotomy. Methods: This ...

  10. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  11. Estimating soil suction from electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegari, E.; Di Maio, R.

    2013-09-01

    Soil suction and resistivity strongly depend on the degree of soil saturation and, therefore, both are used for estimating water content variations. The main difference between them is that soil suction is measured using tensiometers, which give point information, while resistivity is obtained by tomography surveys, which provide distributions of resistivity values in large volumes, although with less accuracy. In this paper, we have related soil suction to electrical resistivity with the aim of obtaining information about soil suction changes in large volumes, and not only for small areas around soil suction probes. We derived analytical relationships between soil matric suction and electrical resistivity by combining the empirical laws of van Genuchten and Archie. The obtained relationships were used to evaluate maps of soil suction values in different ashy layers originating in the explosive activity of the Mt Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy). Our findings provided a further example of the high potential of geophysical methods in contributing to more effective monitoring of soil stress conditions; this is of primary importance in areas where rainfall-induced landslides occur periodically.

  12. Estimating soil suction from electrical resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Piegari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil suction and resistivity strongly depend on the degree of soil saturation and, therefore, both are used for estimating water content variations. The main difference between them is that soil suction is measured using tensiometers, which give point information, while resistivity is obtained by tomography surveys, which provide distributions of resistivity values in large volumes, although with less accuracy. In this paper, we have related soil suction to electrical resistivity with the aim of obtaining information about soil suction changes in large volumes, and not only for small areas around soil suction probes. We derived analytical relationships between soil matric suction and electrical resistivity by combining the empirical laws of van Genuchten and Archie. The obtained relationships were used to evaluate maps of soil suction values in different ashy layers originating in the explosive activity of the Mt Somma-Vesuvius volcano (southern Italy. Our findings provided a further example of the high potential of geophysical methods in contributing to more effective monitoring of soil stress conditions; this is of primary importance in areas where rainfall-induced landslides occur periodically.

  13. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device consisting of a knife, suction device, and tourniquet used for first-aid treatment of snakebites by removing...

  14. Tissue holding device for use during surgical procedure, has contact body with suction foot and suction mouth that is surrounded by rim, and suction pipe connected to suction chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonck, D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Flipsen, S.F.J.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Van der Putten, E.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The device has a locking ring (5), a connector (6), and a contact body (1) with a suction foot and a suction mouth (8), where the mouth is surrounded by a rim (10), which is substantially located in a plane of the suction foot. A suction chamber (9) has a sieve-shaped inner wall (2) and a

  15. Reduction of the suction losses through reed valves in hermetic reciprocating compressors using a magnet coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfgartner, J.; Posch, S.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Krischan, K.; Stangl, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reed valves are widely used in hermetic reciprocating compressors and are responsible for a large part of the thermodynamic losses. Especially, the suction valve, which is opened nearly during the whole suction stroke, has a big potential for improvement. Usually, suction valves are opened only by vacuum created by the moving piston and should be closed before the compression stroke starts to avoid a reversed mass-flow through the valve. Therefore, the valves are prestressed, which results on the other hand in a higher flow resistance. In this work, a suction valve is investigated, which is not closed by the preload of the valve but by an electromagnetic coil located in the suction muffler neck. Shortly before the piston reaches its bottom dead centre, voltage is applied to the coil and a magnetic force is generated which pulls the valve shut. Thereby, the flow resistance through the valve can be reduced by changing the preload on the reed valve because it is no longer needed to close the valve. The investigation of this adapted valve and the electromagnetic coil is firstly done by numerical simulations including fluid structure interactions of the reed valves of a reciprocating compressor and secondly by experiments made on a calorimeter test bench.

  16. Absence of suction feeding ichthyosaurs and its implications for triassic mesopelagic paleoecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motani

    Full Text Available Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were 'ram-feeders', without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the

  17. Absence of suction feeding ichthyosaurs and its implications for triassic mesopelagic paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Ji, Cheng; Tomita, Taketeru; Kelley, Neil; Maxwell, Erin; Jiang, Da-yong; Sander, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were 'ram-feeders', without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the establishment of modern

  18. Absence of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs and Its Implications for Triassic Mesopelagic Paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motani, Ryosuke; Ji, Cheng; Tomita, Taketeru; Kelley, Neil; Maxwell, Erin; Jiang, Da-yong; Sander, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were ‘ram-feeders’, without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the establishment of modern

  19. Dynamic lateral response of suction caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    Deeper water installations of offshore wind turbines may be supported by jacket structures. This study investigates the dynamic response of suction caissons for jackets by analysing 3D finite element models in the frequency domain. The numerical modelling was firstly validated by analytical...... solutions for pile foundations. Groups of crucial dimensionless parameters related to the soil profile and the foundation geometry are identified and their effects on the response of suction caissons are studied. Static stiffness coefficients are presented in a form of mathematical formulas obtained...... by fitting the numerical results, pertaining foundations with different slenderness ratios and embedded in different soil profiles. Sensitivity of the dynamic impedances of suction caissons on the skirt length was showed in this study. Moreover, the results for the suction caissons indicated that the overall...

  20. Tissue holding device for use during surgical procedure, has contact body with suction foot and suction mouth that is surrounded by rim, and suction pipe connected to suction chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Vonck, D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Flipsen, S.F.J.; Jakimowicz, J. J.; Van der Putten, E.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The device has a locking ring (5), a connector (6), and a contact body (1) with a suction foot and a suction mouth (8), where the mouth is surrounded by a rim (10), which is substantially located in a plane of the suction foot. A suction chamber (9) has a sieve-shaped inner wall (2) and a transparent side wall, and a suction pipe (11) is connected to the chamber.

  1. Discharge of thoracic patients on portable digital suction: Is it cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Dawn; Pullinger, Diane; Loggos, Spiros; Kumari, Nelam; Lengyel, Emma; Morgan, Ian; Yiu, Patrick; Nandi, Jayanta; Luckraz, Heyman

    2015-09-01

    A portable suction drainage device for patients undergoing thoracic surgical procedures was introduced into our service in January 2010. Patients who met strict discharge criteria were allowed to continue their treatment at home with the device. They were monitored in a designated follow-up clinic. Data were collected to identify the impact of this service in relation to the duration of follow-up required, bed-days saved, and potential cost/benefits. All patients who underwent a thoracic procedure from March 2012 to April 2014 and required suction postoperatively for air leak were included in the study. Patients were identified as suitable according to the discharge criteria. Data regarding patient demographics were collected prospectively on the thoracic database, and data on the drainage device were logged in a specific data sheet. Visits to the follow-up clinic were also recorded. During the study period, 50 patients stayed a total 1125 days on the portable suction system. Twenty were discharged home, equating to 772 bed-days saved (GBP 270,000 cost-saving). Clinic attendance totalled 162 visits (GBP 24,300 cost reimbursement for attendance). Six (30%) patients were readmitted on 9 occasions due to device malfunction or inability to cope at home. Careful identification of patients suitable for discharge with a portable suction device achieved a significant cost-saving and freed hospital beds, thus allowing increased surgical activity. Patients were also able to be cared for within their home environment and maintain their quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Mechanical suction for clot evacuation: experience with "suction bridge" for safe and effective clot removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Apul; Dalela, Diwakar

    2015-05-01

    To present the experience with the use of a "suction bridge" for removal of bladder clots. In all patients presenting with bladder clots, mechanical suction was done using a "suction bridge". This bridge has a luer lock that is fixed to the cystoscope sheath, and the other end is connected to suction tube. The suction pressure was started at 250 mmHg and was increased up to 400 mmHg if needed. Twenty patients with a mean age of 59.4 years were included. The etiologies of bladder clots included bladder tumor in nine, benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in two, BPH with bladder stone in one, hematochyluria in three, and post-transurethral prostate resection in 10. Eighteen patients presented in clot retention. The estimated clot size ranged from 50 mL to more than 1 L. The mean duration for clot removal was 15 min (range 5-60). The procedure was successful in all patients. There was no bladder injury. The limitations include the small number of recruits, the non-randomized nature of study, and no control group for comparison. Mechanical suction is another safe, fast, and effective option of clot removal from the urinary bladder. The suction bridge is useful while using this method.

  3. Suction evacuation of hemothorax: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Stephanie A; Cibulas, George A; Ward, Tyler A; Davis, Corinne A; Croce, Martin A; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2016-07-01

    Although tube thoracostomy is a common procedure after thoracic trauma, incomplete evacuation of fluid places the patient at risk for retained hemothorax. As little as 300 to 500 cm of blood may result in the need for an additional thoracostomy tube or, in more severe cases, lung entrapment and empyema. We hypothesized that suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity before tube placement would decrease the incidence of late complications. Patients requiring tube thoracostomy within 96 hours of admission were prospectively identified and underwent suction evacuation of the pleural space (SEPS) before tube placement. These patients were compared to historical controls without suction evacuation. Demographics, admission vital signs, laboratory values, details of chest tube placement, and outcomes were collected on all patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare outcomes between groups. A total of 199 patients were identified, consisting of 100 retrospective controls and 99 SEPS patients. There were no differences in age, sex, admission injury severity score or chest abbreviated injury score, admission laboratory values or vital signs, or hospital length of stay. Mean (SD) volume of hemothorax in SEPS patients was 220 (297) cm; with only 48% having a volume greater than 100 cm at the time of tube placement. Three patients developed empyema, and 19 demonstrated retained blood; there was no difference between SEPS and control patients. Suction evacuation of the pleural space was significantly protective against recurrent pneumothorax after chest tube removal (odds ratio, 0.332; 95% confidence interval, 0.148-0.745). Preemptive suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity did not have a significant impact on subsequent development of retained hemothorax or empyema. Suction evacuation of the pleural space significantly decreased incidence of recurrent pneumothorax after thoracostomy removal. Although the mechanism is unclear, such a benefit may make this

  4. Assessment of Feasibility of Suction Pile/Anchor Installation and Pullout Testing through Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suction pile anchors are large cylindrical (inverted bucket type structure open at the bottom and closed at the top and largely used for mooring of offshore platforms, exploratory vessels etc. Prediction of the mooring capacity of suction piles is a critical issue faced by the design engineers and rational methods are required to produce reliable designs. Tests have been conducted in an existing natural pond within NIOT campus with the objective of developing methodology of deployment, design and logistics for suction pile installation and testing of mooring capacity under static pullout. Small size suction piles with varying diameters and lengths have been used in the tests. The tests have been carried out in the natural pond with constant water depth of 1.5 m with the top 1.5 m layer of bed comprising soft marine clay. It is found that pile geometry, aspect ratio and angle of pullout have a significant influence on the response to pullout. As angle of mooring load application changes from vertical to horizontal the reaction offered by the suction pile changes from skin friction to passive soil resistance. Resistance offered by the internal plug of soil is found to vary according to dimension of the anchor piles.

  5. Suction, Ram, and Biting: Deviations and Limitations to the Capture of Aquatic Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Lara A; Paig-Tran, E Misty; Gibb, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    When feeding, most aquatic organisms generate suction that draws prey into the mouth. The papers in this volume are a demonstration of this fact. However, under what circumstances is suction ineffective as a feeding mechanism? Here we consider the interplay between suction, ram, and biting, and analyze the contribution of each to the capture of prey by a wide variety of species of fish. We find, not surprisingly, that ram is the dominant contributor to feeding because suction, and biting, are only effective when very close to the prey. As species utilize more strongly ram-dominated modes of feeding, they may be released from the morphological and behavioral constraints associated with the need to direct a current of water into the head. Morphological and behavioral changes that facilitate larger gapes and stronger jaws are explored here, including predators that lack a protrusile upper jaw, predators with elongate jaws, predators that rely on suspension feeding, and predators that bite. Interestingly, while the mobility of the jaws and the shape of the opening of the mouth are modified in species that have departed from a primary reliance on suction feeding, the anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion persists. This wave may be greatly slowed in ram and biting species, but its retention suggests a fundamental importance to aquatic feeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 21 CFR 868.6810 - Tracheobronchial suction catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheobronchial suction catheter. 868.6810... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6810 Tracheobronchial suction catheter. (a) Identification. A tracheobronchial suction catheter is a device used to aspirate liquids or...

  7. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a) Identification. A suction antichoke device is a device intended to be used in an emergency situation to remove...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction....4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control is a device which provides the vacuum and control for a cardiotomy return sucker...

  9. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction lipoplasty system. 878.5040 Section 878...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5040 Suction lipoplasty system. (a) Identification. A suction lipoplasty system is a device intended for aesthetic body contouring...

  10. 21 CFR 870.5050 - Patient care suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care suction apparatus. 870.5050 Section 870.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an...

  11. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered suction pump. 878.4780 Section 878.4780...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a) Identification. A powered suction pump is a portable, AC-powered or compressed air-powered device intended to be...

  12. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No problems were encountered with the use ofsuction curettage in the presence ofuterine sepsis. In an era where blood transfusions should be kept to an absolute minimum, suction curettage will help to save blood in several ways. S Air Med J 1993; 83: 13-15. Evacuation of the uterus for incomplete abortion is one of the ...

  13. Evaluation of hypopharyngeal suction to eliminate aspiration: the Retro-Esophageal Suction (REScue) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belafsky, Peter C; Mehdizadeh, O B; Ledgerwood, L; Kuhn, M

    2015-02-01

    Profound oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) is common and costly. Treatment options are limited. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of hypopharyngeal suction at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) to eliminate aspiration. Five different catheters were passed retrograde up the esophagus and positioned at the UES in a cadaver model of profound OPD. Suction was affixed to each catheter. 10 cc of barium was administered into the pyriform sinus, and videofluoroscopy was utilized to evaluate the presence of aspiration. 6 trials were administered per catheter and for a no catheter control. The outcome measures were the incidence of aspiration, the NIH Swallow Safety Scale (NIH-SSS), and UES opening. Control trials with no suction resulted in an aspiration rate of 100 % (6/6 trials). Negative pressure through 16, 18, 24, and 30 Fr catheter resulted in an aspiration rate of 0 % (0/24 trials; p suction through a 12-Fr catheter resulted in an aspiration rate of 33 % (2/6 trials; p > 0.05). The mean NIH-SSS improved from 7.0 (±0.0) in the control to 0 (±0.0) with hypopharyngeal suction (18 Fr nasogastric catheter; p suction catheters (>12 Fr) at the level of the UES reduced aspiration by 100 % and significantly increased UES opening in a cadaveric model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  14. Dynamic Behaviour of Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten

    the last 25 years. In order to reduce the costs, the overall weight of the wind turbine components is minimized, which means that the wind turbine structures become more flexible and thus more sensitive to dynamic excitation. Since the first resonance frequency of the modern offshore wind turbines is close...... to account for the possibilities of dynamic effects of the soil-structure interaction. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of foundations for offshore wind turbines, with the intention that the dynamic properties of the foundation can be properly included...... to the excitation frequencies of the rotor system, it is of outmost importance to be able to evaluate the resonance frequencies of the wind turbine structure accurately as the wind turbines increase in size. In order to achieve reliable responses of the wind turbine structure during working loads it is necessary...

  15. Kinematics of benthic suction feeding in Callichthyidae and Mochokidae, with functional implications for the evolution of food scraping in catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Lieben, Tim; Herrel, Anthony; Huysentruyt, Frank; Geerinckx, Tom; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Food scraping has independently evolved twice from suction feeding in the evolution of catfishes: within neotropical Loricarioidea and paleotropical Mochokidae. To gain insight in the evolutionary transitions associated with the evolution towards scraping, we analyzed prey capture kinematics in two species of benthic suction feeders which belong to taxa that are closely related to the scraper lineages (respectively, Corydoras splendens and Synodontis multipunctatus), and compared it to prey capture in a more distantly related, generalist suction feeder (Clarias gariepinus). Simultaneous ventral and lateral view high-speed videos were recorded to quantify the movements of the lower jaw, hyoid, pectoral girdle and neurocranium. Additionally, ellipse modeling was applied to relate head shape differences to buccal expansion kinematics. Similarly to what has been observed in scrapers, rotations of the neurocranium are minimal in the benthic suction feeders, and may consequently have facilitated the evolution of a scraping feeding mechanism. The hypothesis that fish with a more laterally compressed head rely more heavily on lateral expansion of the buccal cavity to generate suction, was confirmed in our sample of catfish species. Since an important contribution of lateral expansion of the head to suction may avoid the need for a strong, ventral depression of the mouth floor during feeding, we hypothesized that this may have allowed a closer association with the substrate in the ancestors of scrapers. However, our hypothesis was not supported by an ancestral state reconstruction, which suggests that scraping probably evolved from sub-terminal mouthed ancestors with dorsoventrally flattened heads.

  16. Stormwater Drainage Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information for identifying stormwater drainage wells, learn how to comply with regulations for storm water drainage wells, and how to reduce the threat to ground water from stormwater injection wells.

  17. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  18. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  19. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)

  20. Numerical analysis and optimization of boundary layer suction on airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yayun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical approach of hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC is investigated for the suction hole with a width between 0.5 mm and 7 mm. The accuracy of Menter and Langtry’s transition model applied for simulating the flow with boundary layer suction is validated. The experiment data are compared with the computational results. The solutions show that this transition model can predict the transition position with suction control accurately. A well designed laminar airfoil is selected in the present research. For suction control with a single hole, the physical mechanism of suction control, including the impact of suction coefficient and the width and position of the suction hole on control results, is analyzed. The single hole simulation results indicate that it is favorable for transition delay and drag reduction to increase the suction coefficient and set the hole position closer to the trailing edge properly. The modified radial basis function (RBF neural network and the modified differential evolution algorithm are used to optimize the design for suction control with three holes. The design variables are suction coefficient, hole width, hole position and hole spacing. The optimization target is to obtain the minimum drag coefficient. After optimization, the transition delay can be up to 17% and the aerodynamic drag coefficient can decrease by 12.1%.

  1. Comparison of cytologic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration using needle suction versus no suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kassem; Maroun, Rabih; Attwood, Kristopher; Chalhoub, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a relatively new procedure initially used for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and re-staging and extended to benign diseases such as sarcoidosis and other mediastinal lesions. Previously, multiple studies evaluated the use of needle biopsy with no aspiration that did not change the diagnostic accuracy compared with needle biopsy aspiration. Materials and Methods: All adult subjects who were scheduled to undergo EBUS-TBNA to sample mediastinal lesions were eligible. We evaluated two methods of sampling mediastinal lesions. The first method was the application of negative pressure syringe for needle suction aspiration. The second was with no suction. For every patient and every biopsy site in the same patient, we had two samples using each method. Results: Among the 26 participants, 24 patients had adequate tissue using both methods (92.3%, P = 1.00). Among the 24 patients with adequate tissue using both methods, 14 patients (58.3%) had benign pathology using both methods, whereas ten patients (41.7%) had malignant pathology using both methods (P = 1.00). Among the 32 sites that were sampled, 30 sites had adequate tissue using both methods (93.8%, P = 1.00). Among the thirty sites with adequate tissue using both methods, 17 (56.7%) had benign pathology using both methods; 12 (40.0%) had malignant pathology using both methods; and one site (3.3%) had malignant pathology using suction, but benign pathology using no suction (P = 1.00). Conclusion: In patients undergoing EBUS-TBNA to sample mediastinal lesions, the diagnostic yield with the application of suction to needle biopsy was not statistically significant compared to no suction. PMID:26020045

  2. Preliminary Analysis on Matric Suction for Barren Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Fazlina, M. I. S.; Aziman, M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Azman, K.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Most research conducted on slope failures can broadly be attributed to the convergence of three factors, i.e. rainfall, steepness of slope, and soil geological profile. The mechanism of the failures is mainly due to the loss of matric suction of soils by rainwater. When rainwater infiltrates into the slopes, it will start to saturate the soil, i.e., reduce the matric suction. A good understanding of landslide mechanisms and the characteristics of unsaturated soil and rock in tropical areas is crucial in landslide hazard formulation. Most of the slope failures in unsaturated tropical residual soil in Malaysia are mainly due to infiltration, especially during intense and prolonged rainfall, which reduces the soil matric suction and hence decreases the stability of the slope. Therefore, the aim of this research is to determine the matric suction for barren soil and to model an unsaturated slope with natural rainfall to evaluate the effects of matric suction on rainfall intensity. A field test was carried out using the Watermark Soil Moisture Sensor to determine the matric suction. The sensor was connected to a program called SpecWare 9 Basic which also used Data Logging Rain gauge Watermark 1120 to measure the intensity and duration of rainfall. This study was conducted at the Research Centre for Soft Soil which is a new Research and Development (R & D) initiative by Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja. Field observation showed that the highest daily suction was recorded during noon while the lowest suction was obtained at night and early morning. The highest matric suction for loose condition was 31.0 kPa while the highest matric suction for compacted condition was 32.4 kPa. The results implied that the field suction variation was not only governed by the rainfall, but also the cyclic evaporation process. The findings clearly indicated that the changes in soil suction distribution patterns occurred due to different weather conditions.

  3. A retrospective study of the use of active suction wound drains in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P C; Halfacree, Z J; Baines, S J

    2015-05-01

    To report indications for use and complications associated with commonly used closed active suction wound drains in a large number of clinical cases. Retrospective review of medical case records (from 2004 to 2010) for dogs and cats that had a closed active suction drain placed into a wound. Only the four most common drain types were included: Mini Redovac®, Redovac®, Jackson Pratt® and Wound Evac®. Two hundred and fifty-three drains were placed in 33 cats and 195 dogs. Mini Redovac drains were used most frequently in cats (76 · 5%) and Redovac drains in dogs (54 · 3%). The infection rate for clean surgeries in dogs was 15 · 6% (unattainable in cats). Major complications occurred in four dogs; minor complications occurred in 12 drains in cats (35 · 3%), and in 74 drains in dogs (33 · 8%). There was no statistically significant association between the type of drain and complication rate for either species. Although closed active suction drains can be used with low risk of major complications, they lead to a high rate of infection in clean surgeries in dogs. It is recommended that such drains are kept in place for the shortest time possible and that strict asepsis is adhered to both during placement and management. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  5. Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Day, Steven W; Hernández, L Patricia; Higham, Timothy E; Skorczewski, Tyler

    2015-05-07

    To expand the buccal cavity, many suction-feeding fishes rely on a considerable contribution from dorsal rotation of the dorsal part of the head including the brains, eyes, and several bones forming the braincase and skull roof (jointly referred to as the neurocranium). As the neurocranium takes up a large part of the total mass of the head, this rotation may incur a considerable inertial cost. If so, this would suggest a significant selective pressure on the kinematics and mass distribution of the neurocranium of suction feeders. Here, an inverse dynamic model is formulated to calculate the instantaneous power required to rotate the neurocranium, approximated by a quarter ellipsoid volume of homogeneous density, as well as to calculate the instantaneous suction power based on intra-oral pressure and head volume quantifications. We applied this model to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and found that the power required to rotate the neurocranium accounts for only about 4% of the power required to suck water into the mouth. Furthermore, recovery of kinetic energy from the rotating neurocranium converted into suction work may be possible during the phase of neurocranial deceleration. Thus, we suggest that only a negligible proportion of the power output of the feeding muscles is lost as inertial costs in the largemouth bass. Consequently, the feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to our model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion. This suggests that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Roberts, Thomas J; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-07-14

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes.

  7. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients undergoing suction curettage had a significantly lower intra-operative blood loss (P < 0,0001) and a significantly higher mean ...

  8. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175 Section 884.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial...

  9. Suction Cup Induced Palatal Fistula: Surgical Closure by Palatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Construction of complete denture with adequate retention is a complex procedure. Use of suction cup in a maxillary denture is one of the techniques to improve retention. Palatal Suction cup, which provides high retention by inducing negative pressure on the mucosal surface, is not being recommended because of its ...

  10. [Ascites drainage at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutjeboer, J.; Erkel, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.J.M. van der; Meer, R.W. van der

    2015-01-01

    Ascites can lead to many symptoms, and often occurs in patients with an end-stage malignancy such as ovarian, pancreatic, colonic, or gastric cancer. Intermittent ascites drainage is applied in these patients as a palliative measure. As frequent drainage is necessary, a subcutaneously tunnelled

  11. Reliable suction detection for patients with rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, David G; Hilton, Andrew K; Salamonsen, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    All rotary blood pumps (RBPs) are prone to the harmful effects of ventricular collapse or "suction events" because of over-pumping, because they are inherently preload insensitive devices, yet RBP controllers do not comprise a clinically reliable suction detector. We therefore investigated the clinical performance of seven expertly selected time domain indices of suction based on the observed positive spike induced in the RBP impeller speed waveform. Using expert panel classifications, a balanced set of 404 five-second speed snapshots of normal and suction events was created from the impeller speed 25 Hz data in 12 VentrAssist implant patients. Initially, suction index threshold levels were set differently for each patient, giving best sensitivity 95% and specificity 99%. However, analysis of paired combinations of suction indices with fixed thresholds identified one pair giving an acceptable sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity 97.5%; the low number of high speed data samples relative to the speed snapshot mean and maximum OR the largest increase in successive speed maxima. The additional precondition of RBP speed amplitude exceeding a low threshold level allows its more general application to patients with low cardiac contractility. This gives a suction detector with high clinical utility; requiring three index threshold settings only.

  12. Portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risavi, Brian L; Sabotchick, K J; Heile, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Portable suction units used by EMS personnel are utilized infrequently and often are powered by batteries. Lack of use and inspection often results in failure of the device when it is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of portable suction unit failure in a rural EMS system and to identify the reasons for failures. A convenience sample was obtained through both random inspections by the staff of a regional EMS council and data from twice monthly checks reported by respective EMS agencies following a standard protocol for each unit. A standard protocol was used, including checking the vacuum level on each suction unit and inspecting the tubing, canister, and battery. Each inspector assessed whether the unit was capable of achieving 300 mmHg of suction within four seconds. Also, the unit was inspected for any signs of misalignment or dry rot of the gasket, kinking of suction hose, damage to the suction canister, weak/dead battery, or defective pump. Findings were recorded. Over a two-year period, 9,631 suction unit inspections were completed. There were 233 failures (2.4%) noted. The majority (126, 54.1%) were due to battery failure. Seventy-three units failed due to other reasons (not recorded, switch failure, battery not seated). Ten inspections failed due to incorrect assembly. Nineteen inspections failed due to defects with the suction canister. Five inspections failed due to kinked/disconnected suction tubing. Only a relatively small percentage of inspections of suction units revealed failures (4.6% Advanced Life Support, 8.6% Basic Life Support) using the above-stated criteria. However, given the importance of airway management and potential complications associated with airway compromise, including aspiration pneumonia, hypoxia, and hemodynamic instability, this is of concern relative to the morbidity and mortality that could be related to airway failure. Due to the relative infrequency of use and the nature of portable suction units

  13. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  14. Dismal Swamp Drainage Patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The natural hydrolics of the Chesapeake Drainage Basin, which has its inception at the crest of the Appalachian mountain range, the waters flowing across the surface...

  15. Percutaneous Abscess Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How is the procedure performed? Image-guided, minimally invasive procedures such as percutaneous abscess drainage are most ...

  16. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  17. Development of Cutting and Suction Device with Twist Blade Screw for Minimally Invasive Surgery: Evaluation of Suction Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Suzuki, Takashi; Tamura, Manabu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to develop a narrow-diameter and long-bore device for minimally invasive surgery that achieves the simultaneous cutting and suction of body tissue such as the diseased part of an organ. In this paper, we propose a screw made of a thin metal plate, and we developed a prototype device using this screw. For smooth operation, the suction performance must be superior to the cutting performance. Therefore, we performed experiments and evaluated the suction performance of the developed device assuming the crushed tissue pieces correspond to a highly viscous fluid. From the results, we confirmed that the suction volume is almost proportional to the rotation speed of the screw in the low speed range, and the device has an upper limit of suction volume at a certain rotation speed. Considering practical use, its proportional speed range is suitable for the device controllability of cutting and suction volume, and the size of the device tip needs to be 1 mm or more. Based on these conditions, we are planning to examine the shape of the cutting edge for realizing efficient cutting and suction and we will complete the device.

  18. Statistical characteristics of suction pressure signals for a centrifugal pump under cavitating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Yu, Benxu; Ji, Yucheng; Lu, Jiaxin; Yuan, Shouqi

    2017-02-01

    Centrifugal pumps are often used in operating conditions where they can be susceptible to premature failure. The cavitation phenomenon is a common fault in centrifugal pumps and is associated with undesired effects. Among the numerous cavitation detection methods, the measurement of suction pressure fluctuation is one of the most used methods to detect or diagnose the degree of cavitation in a centrifugal pump. In this paper, a closed loop was established to investigate the pump cavitation phenomenon, the statistical parameters for PDF (Probability Density Function), Variance and RMS (Root Mean Square) were used to analyze the relationship between the cavitation performance and the suction pressure signals during the development of cavitation. It is found that the statistical parameters used in this research are able to capture critical cavitation condition and cavitation breakdown condition, whereas difficult for the detection of incipient cavitation in the pump. At part-load conditions, the pressure fluctuations at the impeller inlet show more complexity than the best efficiency point (BEP). Amplitude of PDF values of suction pressure increased steeply when the flow rate dropped to 40 m3/h (the design flow rate was 60 m3/h). One possible reason is that the flow structure in the impeller channel promotes an increase of the cavitation intensity when the flow rate is reduced to a certain degree. This shows that it is necessary to find the relationship between the cavitation instabilities and flow instabilities when centrifugal pumps operate under part-load flow rates.

  19. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  20. Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L.; Roberts, Thomas J.; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and may not be able to produce enough power for suction expansion. The axial swimming muscles of these fishes also attach to the feeding apparatus and have the potential to generate mouth expansion. Because of their large size, these axial muscles could contribute substantial power to suction feeding. To determine whether suction feeding is powered primarily by axial muscles, we measured the power required for suction expansion in largemouth bass and compared it to the power capacities of the axial and cranial muscles. Using X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we generated 3D animations of the mouth skeleton and created a dynamic digital endocast to measure the rate of mouth volume expansion. This time-resolved expansion rate was combined with intraoral pressure recordings to calculate the instantaneous power required for suction feeding. Peak expansion powers for all but the weakest strikes far exceeded the maximum power capacity of the cranial muscles. The axial muscles did not merely contribute but were the primary source of suction expansion power and generated up to 95% of peak expansion power. The recruitment of axial muscle power may have been crucial for the evolution of high-power suction feeding in ray-finned fishes. PMID:26100863

  1. Incidence and management of suction loss in refractive lenticule extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Wai; Chan, Cordelia; Tan, Donald; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-12-01

    To describe the incidence, management, and outcomes of suction loss in refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx). Tertiary eye hospital. Retrospective case series. All patients who experienced suction loss during refractive lenticule extraction from March 9, 2010, to August 5, 2013, were evaluated preoperatively, including slitlamp biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, corneal topography, ultrasound pachymetry, manifest and cycloplegic refractions, and measurement of uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities. Patients were followed at predetermined timepoints. At each follow-up visit, the UDVA and CDVA were measured and slitlamp biomicroscopy was performed. Manifest refraction was measured 1 and 3 months postoperatively. During the study period, 340 refractive lenticule extractions were performed. The overall cumulative incidence of suction loss was 3.2%. The incidence of suction loss was 4.3% (2/46) for femtosecond lenticule extraction, 4.4% (8/183) for small-incision lenticule extraction, and 0.9% (1/109) for pseudo small-incision lenticule extraction. Of the 11 eyes in which suction loss occurred, 8 (72.7%) had a UDVA of 20/30 or better and 9 (81.8%) had a spherical equivalent within ± 0.5 diopter of emmetropia at 3 months. Suction loss occurred in 4 eyes during the posterior lenticule cut, in 5 eyes during the anterior lenticule cut, and in 2 eyes during the lamellar flap cut. In 9 of these (81.8%), suction was reapplied and the procedure was completed without further complications. The incidence of suction loss during refractive lenticule extraction was relatively low. Good visual outcomes were achieved with appropriate management. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Feeding and Suction on Gastric Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Nohra E; Sánchez-Miranda, Gustavo; Sacristan, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    A specific device and system has been developed and tested for clinical monitoring of gastric mucosal reactance in the critically ill as an early warning of splanchnic hypoperfusion associated with shock and sepsis. This device has been proven effective in clinical trials and is expected to become commercially available next year. The system uses a combination nasogastric tube and impedance spectroscopy probe as a single catheter. Because this device has a double function, the question is: Does enteral feeding or suction affect the gastric reactance measurements? This study was designed to evaluate the effect of feeding and suction on the measurement of gastric impedance spectroscopy in healthy volunteers. Impedance spectra were obtained from the gastric wall epithelia of 18 subjects. The spectra were measured for each of the following conditions: postinsertion of gastric probe, during active suction, postactive suction, and during enteral feeding (236 ml of nutritional supplement). Impedance spectra were reproducible in all volunteers under all conditions tested. There was a slight increase in impedance parameters after suction, and a decrease in impedance after feeding; however, these observed differences were insignificant compared to patient-to-patient variability, and truly negligible compared with previously observed changes associated with splanchnic ischemia in critically ill patients. Our results demonstrate that suction or feeding when using the impedance spectro-metry probe/nasogastric tube does not significantly interfere with gastric impedance spectrometer measurements.

  3. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected. PMID:26465249

  4. Glaucoma Drainage Device Erosion Following Ptosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Steven S; Campbell, Robert J

    2017-09-01

    To highlight the potential risk of glaucoma drainage device erosion following ptosis surgery. Case report. A 71-year-old man underwent uncomplicated superotemporal Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in the left eye in 2008. Approximately 8 years later, the patient underwent bilateral ptosis repair, which successfully raised the upper eyelid position. Three months postoperatively, the patient's glaucoma drainage implant tube eroded through the corneal graft tissue and overlying conjunctiva to become exposed. A graft revision surgery was successfully performed with no further complications. Caution and conservative lid elevation may be warranted when performing ptosis repair in patients with a glaucoma drainage implant, and patients with a glaucoma implant undergoing ptosis surgery should be followed closely for signs of tube erosion.

  5. Origins, Innovations, and Diversification of Suction Feeding in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Peter C; McGee, Matthew D; Longo, Sarah J; Hernandez, L Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We review the origins, prominent innovations, and major patterns of diversification in suction feeding by vertebrates. Non-vertebrate chordates and larval lamprey suspension-feed by capturing small particles in pharyngeal mucous. In most of these lineages the gentle flows that transport particles are generated by buccal cilia, although larval lamprey and thaliacean urochordates have independently evolved a weak buccal pump to generate an oscillating flow of water that is powered by elastic recovery of the pharynx following compression by buccal muscles. The evolution of jaws and the hyoid facilitated powerful buccal expansion and high-performance suction feeding as found today throughout aquatic vertebrates. We highlight three major innovations in suction feeding. Most vertebrate suction feeders have mechanisms that occlude the corners of the open mouth during feeding. This produces a planar opening that is often nearly circular in shape. Both features contribute to efficient flow of water into the mouth and help direct the flow to the area directly in front of the mouth's aperture. Among several functions that have been identified for protrusion of the upper jaw, is an increase in the hydrodynamic forces that suction feeders exert on their prey. Protrusion of the upper jaw has evolved five times in ray-finned fishes, including in two of the most successful teleost radiations, cypriniforms and acanthomorphs, and is found in about 60% of living teleost species. Diversification of the mechanisms of suction feeding and of feeding behavior reveals that suction feeders with high capacity for suction rarely approach their prey rapidly, while slender-bodied predators with low capacity for suction show the full range of attack speeds. We hypothesize that a dominant axis of diversification among suction feeders involves a trade-off between the forces that are exerted on prey and the volume of water that is ingested. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  6. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  7. Ear drainage culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day ... Medical findings based on ear anatomy Ear drainage culture ... PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  8. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-05-13

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  9. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  10. Scaling of suction feeding performance in the catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in the absolute dimensions of the cranial system together with changes in kinematics during prey capture can cause differences in the spatiotemporal patterns of water flow generated during suction feeding. Because the velocity of this water flow determines the force that pulls prey toward and into the mouth cavity, this can affect suction feeding performance. In this study, size-related changes in the suction-induced flow patterns are determined. To do so, a mathematical suction model is applied to video recordings of prey capturing Clarias gariepinus ranging in total length from 111 to 923 mm. Although large C. gariepinus could be expected to have increasing peak velocities of water flow compared with small individuals, the results from the hydrodynamic model show that this is not the case. Yet, when C. gariepinus becomes larger, the expansive phase is prolonged, resulting in a longer sustained flow. This flow also reaches farther in front of the mouth almost proportionally with head size. Forward dynamical simulations with spherical prey that are subjected to the calculated water flows indicate that the absolute distance from which a given prey can be sucked into the mouth as well as the maximal prey diameter increase substantially with increasing head size. Consequently, the range of potential prey that can be captured through suction feeding will become broader during growth of C. gariepinus. This appears to be reflected in the natural diet of this species, where both the size and the number of evasive prey increase with increasing predator size.

  11. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A What's in this article? ... Have Questions What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  12. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (Psuction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces cannot be adequately

  13. Suction cup/contact lens complications following penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, H J; Perry, H D; Epstein, A B; Donnenfeld, E D; Gwin, T D; Carlson, A N; Moadel, K; Mariani, R E

    1998-01-01

    Rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses facilitate visual rehabilitation in cases of high or irregular corneal astigmatism following penetrating keratoplasty. A variety of plunger-like suction cup devices are available to assist in the removal of these lenses. We report three patients with serious complications associated with the use of a suction cup device for contact lens removal following penetrating keratoplasty. Two patients suffered corneal wound dehiscence following contact lens removal; one contact lens was removed by the patient's spouse and the other was removed by a trained technician. A third patient triggered a graft rejection, and ultimately, graft failure, after a vigorous attempt at lens removal. Forces generated by suction cup devices during removal of RGP contact lenses are sufficient to cause significant trauma. Contact lenses with an apical clearance fit may augment these forces, with the potential for complications following penetrating keratoplasty.

  14. Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at the inlet thereof. An open end of the sleeve is approximately aligned with the suction line's inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining a plurality of distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels is at least approximately three feet in length. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith.

  15. Effect of air exposure and suction on blood cell activation and hemolysis in an in vitro cardiotomy suction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed M; Toomasian, Cory J; Toomasian, John M; Ulysse, Guerlain; Major, Terry; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits a systemic inflammatory response. The cause may include surface-induced leukocyte activation and hemolysis. A study was designed to describe the effects of both suction and an air-blood interface independently and in combination on leukocyte and platelet activation, and hemolysis in an in vitro model. Fresh human blood was drawn and tested in four different conditions including control (A), 10 minutes of -600 mm Hg suction (B), 10 minutes of blood exposure to room air at 100 ml/min (C), and 10 minutes of simultaneous suction and air flow (D). Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry (platelets and leukocytes) and plasma-free hemoglobin (PFHb). Leukocyte CD11b expression and platelet P-selectin (CD62P) were analyzed by flow cytometry. In comparison with baseline, granulocytes were significantly activated by air (group C, p = 0.0029) and combination (group D, p = 0.0123) but not by suction alone (group B). Monocytes and platelets were not significantly activated in any group. The PFHb increased significantly in group C (p suction.

  16. Liver suction-mediated transfection in mice using a pressure-controlled computer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Zhang, Guangyuan; Kawakami, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Yota; Hayashi, Kouji; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We previously developed an in vivo tissue suction-mediated transfection method (denoted as the tissue suction method) for naked nucleic acids, such as plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA), in mice. However, it remains unclear whether the suction pressure conditions affect the results of this method. Therefore, in the present study, we assembled a computer system to control the suction pressure and investigate the effects of the suction pressure conditions on the efficiency of the liver suction transfection of naked pDNA that encodes luciferase in mice. Using the developed system, we examined the effects of the minimum magnitude of the suction pressure, suction pressure waveform, and suction times of the luciferase expression level in mice livers. We determined that the liver suction method at 5 kPa was not only effective but also caused the lowest hepatic toxicity in mice. Additionally, the results indicated that the suction pressure waveform affects the luciferase expression levels, and a single period of suction on the targeted portion of the liver is sufficient for transfection. Thus, the developed system is useful for performing the tissue suction method with high accuracy and safety.

  17. Successful femtosecond LASIK flap creation despite multiple suction losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Zeba A.; Melki, Samir A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We present a case of successful completion of a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedure despite 5 episodes of suction loss during femtosecond flap creation in a 30-year-old man with no risk factors. The patient had an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes at his 2-month follow-up visit. Our experience in this case shows that multiple suction losses during femtosecond LASIK flap creation do not preclude completion of a successful procedure with excellent visual outcomes. Caution and technique modification are advised if multiple laser passes are applied to avoid creating multiplanar flaps. PMID:25097457

  18. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  19. Modeling the increase in aerodynamic efficiency for a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in vortex cells with allowance for the compressibility effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, S. A.; Baranov, P. A.; Sudakov, A. G.; Ermakov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Reynolds equations closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow lines have been numerically solved using multiblock computational technologies. The obtained solution has been used to analyze subsonic flow past a thick (37.5% chord) airfoil with slot suction in circular vortex cells intended for the Ecology and Progress (Ekologiya i Progress, EKIP) aircraft project in comparison to a distributed (from the central body surface) suction at fixed values of the total volume flow rate (0.02121) and Reynolds number (105) in a range of Mach numbers from 0 to 0.4. This analysis revealed a significant (up to tenfold) decrease in the bow drag (determined with allowance for the energy losses) and a large (by an order of magnitude) increase in the aerodynamic efficiency of the thick airfoil containing vortex cells with slot suction, which reached up to 160.

  20. How propeller suction is the dominant factor for ship accidents at shallow water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    control. Additionally the second water drainage from the shallow ridge area by the propeller's left-directed suction created a shallower environment. Similar situation for example collision of two ships during their side by side forward motions; their positions will be approached and listed to each other more same as downslope movement because of the shared area's water level collapse occur more by two propeller's suction.

  1. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-01-01

    Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS) Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local bio...

  2. A new instrument for rectal suction biopsy in the diagnosis of Hirschsprung′s disease: Triple rectal suction biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlas Meral

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new instrument for suction rectal biopsy in infants suspected of having Hirschsprung′s disease is described that can be completely dismantled, physically cleaned, lubricated, and heat sterilised. Triple rectal suction biopsy instrument with the patent application, which involves (0.5 cm diameter suction of mucosa and sub-mucosa and provides taking three different biopsies within a 2 cm distant from each other with a single shot, instead of only one or taking a full layer biopsy under general anesthesia for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. As a preliminary study, in the 36 and 12 biopsy materials taken from the rabbits and children, respectively, it was found that mucosa and sub-mucosa were sufficient and in all of the cross sections, parasympathetic nerve fibers, and ganglion cells were existed. A successful biopsy was usually achieved and no complications occurred.

  3. Patient recollection of airway suctioning in the ICU : routine versus a minimally invasive procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Leur, JP; Zwaveling, JH; Loef, BG; Van der Schans, CP

    Objective: Many patients have an unpleasant recollection of routine endotracheal suctioning after discharge from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We hypothesized that through minimally invasive airway suctioning discomfort and stress may be prevented, resulting in less recollection. Design: A

  4. [Construction and mode of action of a suction apparatus based on the vacuum cleaner principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, D

    1975-03-01

    Design and mode of action of a suction apparatus worked on the vacuum cleaner principle. A suction apparatus worked on the vacuum cleaner principle is presented as a part of a modern work-place conception.

  5. 46 CFR 134.180 - Piping for fire-main suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for fire-main suction. 134.180 Section 134.180... FOR LIFTBOATS § 134.180 Piping for fire-main suction. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, suction lines must comply with § 132.110 of this subchapter. (b) Suction lines that extend below...

  6. Numerical Buckling Analysis of Large Suction Caissons for Wind Turbines on Deep Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    the suction caisson is loaded by external pressure (internal suction) due to evacuation of water inside the bucket and vertical forces due to gravity. The risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter suction caissons is addressed using numerical methods. Initial imperfect geometries...

  7. New approach to the suction force at the leading edge of a profile with zero thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparenberg, JA; de Jager, EM

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the suction force at the leading edge of a profile with zero thickness in an incompressible and inviscid fluid flow. The theory is linear, and the approach to the suction force is from the innerside of the profile. It is shown that the suction force can be considered as an

  8. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  9. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction....4680 Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus is a device that consists of a manually operated plastic, disposable...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or sample...

  11. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (FT/ : W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moistur...

  12. Radon Sub-slab Suctioning System Integrated in Insulating Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This poster presents a new radon sub-slab suctioning system. This system makes use of a grid of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground floor slab. For this purpose a new system of prefabricated lightweight elements is introduced...

  13. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  14. Circular directed suction technique for ablative laser treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Justinus A; Bodendorf, Marc O; Grunewald, Sonja; Simon, Jan C; Paasch, Uwe

    2013-08-01

    The use of ablative laser treatments is steadily increasing. A side-effect is plume, which can potentially transmit infectious material. Insufficient plume removal may lead to transmission of infectious diseases. To introduce a newly developed circular suction technique for ablative interventions. The new plume removal system consists of a circular master tube and four smaller suction tubes. This design guarantees plume removal around the whole treatment area. This system can be connected in principle to any common aspiration device. The suction system worked effectively with perfect satisfaction in daily routine. Its effect on skin surface temperature was evaluated using thermography and surface temperature measurements. The circular system removed the laser-associated plume much better than ordinary single-point plume-removal systems. Split-face investigations confirm additional benefits in terms of better skin surface cooling. The combination of providing a cool air flow during laser treatment and circular suction is a new approach for directed cooling air streams and streamed plume evacuation without obstructing the physician because of its architecture. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improved suction technique for the characterization of construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93 %). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water satur...

  16. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  17. Improvised Suction Apparatus for Closure of Large Soft Tissue Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Estillore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC is an established method that can be used in order to cover for soft tissue defects. This study focuses on the use of a modified suction machine in the form of an aquarium pump as an economical substitute for the VAC dressing. The improvised suction apparatus was a regular aquarium pump, which was altered in order to draw air in instead of expelling it. The patients were followed-up for a period of three weeks in the wards. METHODS: VAC was applied over the soft tissue defects. Sterilized foam was used and attached to a French 16 suction tube. A tight seal was ensured using a sterile adhesive covering. The tube was then attached to the modified vacuum machine, which maintained the negative pressure. CASE STUDIES: Three cases are presented in this study. The first and second cases involved pediatric patients who sustained degloving injuries of the foot. The third case involved a 23 year-old male who sustained an open patellar fracture due to a motorcycle accident. The dressing was changed every five days and the progress was documented using photographs. The patients were placed on VAC dressing for a period of two weeks. On the 14th day, good granulation was evident on the soft tissue defects hence; the patients were scheduled and subsequently underwent splitthickness skin grafting. DISCUSSION: The modified suction pump is an effective and economical alternative to the VAC machine for the purpose of providing constant negative pressure to promote tissue granulation and healing for large tissue defects. However, in order to establish the efficacy of the proposed intervention, the modified suction pump should be tested on more cases.

  18. Drainage of curd

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Cheese making starts with transformation of the liquid milk into a gel by proteolytic enzymes and/or acid producing bacteria. The gel is cut into pieces. The protein matrix contracts, by which whey is expelled from the pieces, this process is called syneresis. The process of whey expulsion is enhanced by stirring and usually heating. Finally fairly rigid curd grains and a large amount of whey are obtained. The subsequent separation of whey and curd grains is called drainage of curd. ...

  19. Investigation on creep behavior of geo-materials with suction control technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The compacted bentonite which has typical couple problem associated to thermal - hydration - mechanical – chemical (THMC consist of one component of engineered barrier. Recently, the couple THMC formulation modelling suggested by some researchers can be predicted basically phenomena for engineered barrier that approach to correct evaluate satisfied facilities. The compacted bentonite is essentially unsaturated condition, some behaviors for bentonite has similar or close with generally expansive unsaturated soils. Therefore, hydrations have given significant influence on deformation of compacted bentonite such as swelling. There are many researches for swelling behavior of compacted bentonite within soaking. Extended theoretical or experimental investigations for unsaturated soil mechanics are possible to describe the strength-deformation behavior of compacted bentonite with suction controlling principle. A new method of determining the failure phase such as great axis deformation and destructions like strip of surface in the laboratory is described and the creep behavior of compacted bentonite is considered under maintain of high relative humidity environment. The creep deformation measured using improved cyclic relative humidity control apparatus in terms of specific suction control technique.

  20. The Effect of Air Exposure and Suction on Blood Cell Activation & Hemolysis in an In-Vitro Cardiotomy Suction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed M; Toomasian, Cory J; Toomasian, John M; Ulysse, Guerlain; Major, Terry; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) elicits a systemic inflammatory response. The cause may include surface-induced leucocyte activation and hemolysis. An in-vitro study was designed to describe the effects of both suction and an air-blood interface independently, and in combination on leucocyte and platelet activation, and hemolysis in an in-vitro model. Fresh human blood was drawn and tested under 4 different conditions including: control (A), 10 minutes of − 600 mmHg suction (B), 10 minutes of blood exposure to room air at 100 ml/min (C), and 10 min of simultaneous suction and air flow (D). Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry (platelets and leucocytes) and plasma free hemoglobin (PFHb). Leucocyte CD11b expression and platelet P-selectin (CD62P) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Compared to baseline, granulocytes were significantly activated by air (Group C, p=0.0029), and combination (Group D, p=.0123) but not by suction alone (Group B). Monocytes and platelets were not significantly activated in any group. The PFHb increased significantly in Group C (psuction. PMID:23896771

  1. Thermokarst lakes, drainage, and drained basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, B.; Arp, C.; Shroder, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins are widespread in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost lowlands with ice-rich sediments. Thermokarst lake formation is a dominant mode of permafrost degradation and is linked to surface disturbance, subsequent melting of ground ice, surface subsidence, water impoundment, and positive feedbacks between lake growth and permafrost thaw, whereas lake drainage generally results in local permafrost aggradation. Thermokarst lakes characteristically have unique limnological, morphological, and biogeochemical characteristics that are closely tied to cold-climate conditions and permafrost properties. Thermokarst lakes also have a tendency toward complete or partial drainage through permafrost degradation and erosion. Thermokarst lake dynamics strongly affect the development of landscape geomorphology, hydrology, and the habitat characteristic of permafrost lowlands.

  2. Percutaneous drainage and ablation of orbital dermoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard P; Shiels, William E; Cahill, Kenneth V; Rogers, Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Vision-threatening intraorbital dermoid cysts have traditionally been treated by complete surgical resection. Such radical surgical intervention may pose serious risks to both vision acuity and cosmesis. We describe a novel, minimally invasive approach for the treatment of orbital dermoid cysts. This is an interventional retrospective case series. Two patients (17 and 4 years) presented with large intraorbital dermoid cysts. The first patient had a dumbbell-shaped lesion involving the temporalis fossa and superotemporal orbit. The second patient had a large, superior intraorbital lesion. Both patients presented with visual disturbance, globe displacement, and eyelid ptosis. A series of techniques were developed and implemented for percutaneous access, drainage, and catheter-based ablation (dual drug technique) of both orbital dermoid cysts. Initial access was gained with a 14-gauge angiocatheter needle system, followed by serial emulsification and drainage of the cyst contents. A 5-French catheter was coaxially placed for fluoroscopic contrast cyst definition and subsequent dual drug chemical ablation (sodium tetradecyl sulfate and ethanol). Suction drainage was maintained for 24 hours following ablation. Radiological and clinical evaluation demonstrated complete resolution of the dermoid cysts with no recurrence at 12-month follow-up in the first patient and 3 months in the second patient. Cosmetic results were excellent. Patients reported no pain and there were no neurologic, oculomotor, infectious, hemorrhagic, or other complications. Minimally invasive percutaneous drainage and ablation appears to be a promising treatment for large orbital dermoid cysts which would otherwise require extensive surgery to excise. Collaboration of an ophthalmologist and interventional radiologist is essential for evaluation, treatment, and follow-up.

  3. adequacy of drainage channels f drainage channels in a small

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    analysis, construction and maintenance of drainage c. Keywords: Keywords: Time of concentration, ... nwamba of Civil Engineering Department, University of Nigeria Nsuk. F DRAINAGE CHANNELS IN A SMALL URBAN .... The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and.

  4. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ device versus traditional airway suction in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, Demis N; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations.

  5. Sustainable Drainage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban water management has somewhat changed since the publication of The Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS Manual in 2007 [1], transforming from building traditional sewers to implementing SuDS, which are part of the best management practice techniques used in the USA and seen as contributing to water-sensitive urban design in Australia. Most SuDS, such as infiltration trenches, swales, green roofs, ponds, and wetlands, address water quality and quantity challenges, and enhance the local biodiversity while also being acceptable aesthetically to the public. Barriers to the implementation of SuDS include adoption problems, flood and diffuse pollution control challenges, negative public perception, and a lack of decision support tools addressing, particularly, the retrofitting of these systems while enhancing ecosystem services. [...

  6. Evaluating drilling and suctioning technique in a mastoidectomy simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Christopher; Morris, Dan; Blevins, Nikolas H; Barbagli, Federico; Salisbury, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents several new metrics related to bone removal and suctioning technique in the context of a mastoidectomy simulator. The expertise with which decisions as to which regions of bone to remove and which to leave intact is evaluated by building a Naïve Bayes classifier using training data from known experts and novices. Since the bone voxel mesh is very large, and many voxels are always either removed or not removed regardless of expertise, the mutual information was calculated for each voxel and only the most informative voxels used for the classifier. Leave-out-one cross validation showed a high correlation of calculated expert probabilities with scores assigned by instructors. Additional metrics described in this paper include those for assessing smoothness of drill strokes, proper drill burr selection, sufficiency of suctioning, two-handed tool coordination, and application of appropriate force and velocity magnitudes as functions of distance from critical structures.

  7. Modelling suction instabilities in soils at varying degrees of saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscarnera Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting paths imparted by the natural environment and/or human activities affect the state of soils in the near-surface, promoting transitions across different regimes of saturation. This paper discusses a set of techniques aimed at quantifying the role of hydrologic processes on the hydro-mechanical stability of soil specimens subjected to saturation events. Emphasis is given to the mechanical conditions leading to coupled flow/deformation instabilities. For this purpose, energy balance arguments for three-phase systems are used to derive second-order work expressions applicable to various regimes of saturation. Controllability analyses are then performed to relate such work input with constitutive singularities that reflect the loss of strength under coupled and/or uncoupled hydro-mechanical forcing. A suction-dependent plastic model is finally used to track the evolution of stability conditions in samples subjected to wetting, thus quantifying the growth of the potential for coupled failure modes upon increasing degree of saturation. These findings are eventually linked with the properties of the field equations that govern pore pressure transients, thus disclosing a conceptual link between the onset of coupled hydro-mechanical failures and the evolution of suction with time. Such results point out that mathematical instabilities caused by a non-linear suction dependent behaviour play an important role in the advanced constitutive and/or numerical tools that are commonly used for the analysis of geomechanical problems in the unsaturated zone, and further stress that the relation between suction transients and soil deformations is a key factor for the interpretation of runaway failures caused by intense saturation events.

  8. 3D CFD simulations of trailing suction hopper dredger plume mixing: comparison with field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Lynyrd; Talmon, A M; van Rhee, C

    2014-11-15

    A 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to simulate mixing of an overflow plume within 400 m from a trailing suction hopper dredger (TSHD). The simulations are compared with new field measurements. It is the first time simulations of overflow dredging plumes are compared in such detail to field measurements this close to a TSHD. Seven cases with a large variety in overflow flux and plume characteristics are used. Measured maximum suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) vary between 30 and 500 mg/l and fluxes vary between 0.7% and 20% of the total overflow flux; the CFD model has, subject to the limitations of the field data, been shown to reproduce this in a satisfactory way. The model gives better understanding of important near field processes, which helps to assess the frequency, duration and intensity of stresses like turbidity and sedimentation needed to find the environmental impact of dredging projects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Suction catheter for enhanced control and accuracy of transseptal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Berwick, Zachary C; Hermiller, James B; Navia, Jose A; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2016-12-20

    Percutaneous structural heart therapies, such as mitral value repair, require site-specific transseptal access (TSA). This can be challenging for interventional cardiologists. We describe a TSA catheter (TSAC) that utilises suction for enhanced control and puncture accuracy. Here, we aim to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the device. Ex vivo interatrial septum preparations were dissected from swine (n=8) and diseased human hearts (n=6) to quantify TSAC suction and needle puncture force. TSAC suction was 6.5-fold greater than the opposing needle puncture force, and thus provides sufficient stabilisation for punctures. The safety and efficacy of TSAC was evaluated in a chronic mitral regurgitation swine model (n=10) and compared to a conventional TSA device. MR was induced by disrupting one to three mitral chordae tendineae, and the progression of heart disease was followed for three weeks. During device testing, procedure time and fluoroscopy exposure were not statistically different between devices. TSAC reduced septal displacement from 8.7±0.30 mm to 3.60±0.19 mm (p<0.05) and improved puncture accuracy 1.75-fold. TSAC provides controlled TSA and improves puncture accuracy, while maintaining procedure time and workflow. These findings provide a strong rationale for a first-in-man study to demonstrate the clinical utility of the device.

  10. Reliable site for suction blister induction and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmisha Chandrashekar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suction blister grafting is a useful modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. However, there have been no detailed studies to find out the best donor site for blister formation. Methods: The study was conducted between the period of October 2004 and February 2005 in the dermatology department at a tertiary care center. Nine patients with vitiligo (focal vitiligo, 3; mucosal vitiligo, 2; acrofacial vitiligo, 2; vitiligo vulgaris, 1; and segmental vitiligo, 1 were selected for blister harvesting and grafting. The blisters were raised using the method described by Gupta et al. Results: Suction blisters were attempted to be raised at 52 sites, but only 38 blisters could be raised, 24 complete and 14 incomplete. Blisters were raised in all the three cases on the flexor aspect of the arm (100%, 15 of 17 cases (88.2% on the flexor aspect of the forearm, 4 of 5 cases (80% on the abdomen, 11 of 16 cases (68.7% on the anterolateral thigh, and less frequently over leg or foot. Complete blisters were formed in 13/15 cases (86.6% on the flexor aspect of the forearm, 6/11 cases (54.5% on the anterolateral thigh, and in all cases over leg. Conclusion: The flexor aspect of the forearm is a good site for suction blister harvesting.

  11. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  12. Comparing the Effectiveness of a Novel Suction Set-up Using an Adult Endotracheal Tube Connected to a Meconium Aspirator vs. a Traditional Yankauer Suction Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, Jonathan; Mebust, Donald P

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that an adult 8.0 endotracheal tube (ETT) connected to a neonatal meconium aspirator would improve suctioning during emergent endotracheal intubation compared to the Yankauer suction instrument, the standard tool used by emergency physicians. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of a Yankauer vs. an ETT-meconium aspirator set-up in suctioning liquids of different viscosities. The Yankauer and ETT-meconium aspirator device underwent a head-to-head timed comparison, suctioning 250 mL of three different fluids, varying in viscosity. The first comparison test used tap water to represent simple oral secretions. The second comparison test used porcine whole blood as a proxy for human blood. The third comparison test used a coarsely blended mixture of a hamburger, French fries, and a soda to simulate emesis from a recently ingested meal. Five separate time trials were conducted for each liquid and for each suction device. The ETT-meconium aspirator device compared to the Yankauer suctioned faster in both the water comparison test (mean = 2.6 s vs. 3.4 s; p suction an average of 90 mL prior to clogging. Compared to the Yankauer, an adult 8.0 ETT connected to a meconium aspirator was superior in suctioning liquids of varying viscosities and should be considered when encountering a difficult airway due to copious secretions, blood, or emesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of renal transfection using a renal suction-mediated transfection method in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yota; Kawakami, Shigeru; Fuchigami, Yuki; Oyama, Natsuko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a suction-mediated transfection method in mice. The purpose of this study was to optimize the suction-mediated transfection conditions using a pressure-controlled computer system for efficient and safe kidney-targeted gene delivery in mice. Naked pCMV-Luc was injected into the tail vein in mice, and then the right kidney was suctioned by a device of the suction pressure-controlled system. The effects of renal transfection conditions, such as the suction pressure degree, suction pressure waveform and device area were evaluated by measuring luciferase expression. In addition, renal injury was examined. The renal suction-mediated transfection method at -30 kPa showed high transgene expression. The renal suction waveform did not affect the transfection activity. Under the optimized conditions, the high transgene expression was mostly observed at the renal suctioned site. The transfection conditions used did not induce histological defects or increases in two renal injury biomarkers (Kidney injury molecule-1 mRNA and Clusterin mRNA). We have clarified the transfection conditions for efficient and safe transfection in the kidney using the suction-mediated transfection method in mice.

  14. The value of mastectomy flap fixation in reducing fluid drainage and seroma formation in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakkary Mostafa A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged and excessive drainage of serous fluid and seroma formation constitute the most common complications after mastectomy for breast carcinoma. Seroma formation delays wound healing, increases susceptibility to infection, skin flap necrosis, persistent pain and prolongs convalescence. For this, several techniques have been investigated to improve primary healing and minimize seroma formation. Materials and methods Between June 2009 and July 2010 forty patients with breast carcinoma, scheduled for modified radical mastectomy, were randomly divided into 2 groups, the study group (20 and the control group (20. In the study group; the mastectomy flaps were fixed to the underlying muscles in raws, at various parts of the flap and at the wound edge using fine absorbable sutures. In the control group; the wound was closed in the conventional method at the edges. Closed suction drains were used in both groups. Patients, tumor characteristics and operative related factors were recorded. The amount and color of drained fluid were recorded daily. The drains were removed when the amount become less than 50 cc. The total amount and duration of drained fluid and the formation of seroma were recorded and the results were compared between the two groups. Results In the flap fixation group, the drain was removed in significantly shorter time compared to the control group (p Conclusions The mastectomy flap fixation technique is a valuable procedure that significantly decreases the incidence of seroma formation, and reduces the duration and amount of drained fluid. However, it should be tried on a much wider scale to prove its validity.

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 175 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is a safe, effective and palliative means of treatment in biliary obstruction, especially in cases with malignant obstruction which are inoperable. 175 cases of transhepatic biliary drainage were performed on 119 patients with biliary obstruction from January 1985 to June 1989 at Kyung-pook National University Hospital. The causes of obstructive jaundice were 110 malignant diseases and 9 benign diseases. The most common indication for drainage was palliative intervention of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 89 cases. 86 cases of external drainage were performed including 3 cases of left duct approach, 29 cases of external-internal drainage and 60 cases of endoprosthesis. In external and external-internal drainages, immediate major complications (11.9%) occurred, including not restricted to, but sepsis, bile peritonitis and hemobilia. Delayed major complications (42.9%) were mainly catheter related. The delayed major complication of endoprosthesis resulted from obstruction of the internal stent. The mean time period to reobstruction of the internal stent was about 12 weeks. To improve management status, regular follow-up is required, as is education of both patients and their families as to when immediate clinical attention is mandated. Close communication amongst the varying medical specialities involved will be necessary to provide optional treatment for each patient.

  16. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  17. A Low Cost Calibration Method for Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    . The reduction coefficient is found on basis of a combination of a urban drainage model (MOUSE) and a set of simple switches located in a combined sewer overflow (CSO) structure. By calibrating the model with only the duration of the CSO, it was possible to calculate a hydrological reduction coefficient close...

  18. An Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Refrigerant Flow Inside the Suction Muffler of Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    OpenAIRE

    Sarioglu, Dr. Kemal; Ozdemir, Ahmet Refik; Oguz, Emre; KAYA, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    In this study, detailed temperature and pressure measurements were performed at the inlet, outlet and outer boundaries of the suction muffler of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. The measurements were conducted without effecting real phenomena. After experimental studies, detailed computational fluid dynamic analysis of the refrigerant flow (isobutane) in the suction muffler was performed. Experimental pressure and temperature values at the inlet, outlet and outer boundaries of the suction...

  19. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR AUGUSTO BROSKA JÚNIOR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. Results: there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1% and drained in the emergency room (80.8%. Most of the patients (66.2% had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients, most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%. The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. Conclusion: the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries.

  20. Numerical Investigation on Aerodynamic Force of Streamlined Box Girder with Uniform Air Suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Ke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the flow around a streamlined box girder with uniform air suction has been investigated numerically. Two-dimensional incompressible unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS equations are solved in conjunction with the SST k −ω turbulence model in simulations. Taking the Great Belt Bridge girder as an example, cases of different suction positions on the girder section were discussed. The effect of the suction ratio and the angle of attack (AOA of wind also were investigated. The result showed that the aerodynamic drag force was influenced by the uniform suction through either upper surface or lower surface of the box girder. The larger the suction ratio was, the more the drag-reducing could be. The suction position and AOA had a comprehensive effect on the drag force. The vortex shedding frequency was also affected by air suction. For the aerodynamic lift force and moment, air suction showed no obvious influence. If necessary, using a combined suction scheme to reduce the aerodynamic drag force or to control the flow wake would be more efficient in engineering design.

  1. Feeding Kinematics, Suction, and Hydraulic Jetting Performance of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; Psuction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; PSuction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic, generalized feeding ecology and concomitant breadth of diet. PMID:24475170

  2. Lung recruitment and endotracheal suction in ventilated preterm infants measured with electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Judith L; Shearman, Andrew D; Liley, Helen; Grant, Caroline A; Schibler, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Although suctioning is a standard airway maintenance procedure, there are significant associated risks, such as loss of lung volume due to high negative suction pressures. This study aims to assess the extent and duration of change in end-expiratory level (EEL) resulting from endotracheal tube (ETT) suction and to examine the relationship between EEL and regional lung ventilation in ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. A prospective observational clinical study of the effect of ETT suction on 20 non-muscle-relaxed preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on conventional mechanical ventilation was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit. Ventilation distribution was measured with regional impedance amplitudes and EEL using electrical impedance tomography. ETT suction resulted in a significant increase in EEL post-suction (P suction, suggesting heterogeneity. Tidal volume was significantly lower in volume-guarantee ventilation compared with pressure-controlled ventilation (P = 0.04). ETT suction in non-muscle-relaxed and ventilated preterm infants with RDS results in significant lung volume increase that is maintained for at least 90 min. Regional differences in distribution of ventilation with ETT suction suggest that the behaviour of the lung is heterogeneous in nature. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  3. Boundary layer suction through rectangular orifices: effects of aspect ratio and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, T.; Smits, A. J.; Amitay, M.

    2017-07-01

    The flow field generated by suction through a rectangular orifice within a laminar boundary layer is investigated using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. For orifice aspect ratios of 6, 12, and 18, the impact of suction on the surrounding flow field appears to be self-similar, scaling with aspect ratio and suction velocity. Changing the orifice pitch angle had almost no impact on the surrounding boundary layer, but, as expected, changing the skew angle significantly altered the extent of the suction impact on the flow field.

  4. Modification of Flow Structure Over a Van Model By Suction Flow Control to Reduce Aerodynamics Drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinaldi Harinaldi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Automobile aerodynamic studies are typically undertaken to improve safety and increase fuel efficiency as well as to  find new innovation in automobile technology to deal with the problem of energy crisis and global warming. Some car companies have the objective to develop control solutions that enable to reduce the aerodynamic drag of vehicle and  significant modification progress is still possible by reducing the mass, rolling friction or aerodynamic drag. Some flow  control method provides the possibility to modify the flow separation to reduce the development of the swirling structures around the vehicle. In this study, a family van is modeled with a modified form of Ahmed's body by changing the orientation of the flow from its original form (modified/reversed Ahmed body. This model is equipped with a suction on the rear side to comprehensively examine the pressure field modifications that occur. The investigation combines computational and experimental work. Computational approach used  a commercial software with standard k-epsilon flow turbulence model, and the objectives was  to determine the characteristics of the flow field and aerodynamic drag reduction that occurred in the test model. Experimental approach used load cell in order to validate the aerodynamic drag reduction obtained by computational approach. The results show that the application of a suction in the rear part of the van model give the effect of reducing the wake and the vortex formation. Futhermore, aerodynamic drag reduction close to 13.86% for the computational approach and 16.32% for the experimental have been obtained.

  5. Works close to gate B

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    In connection to the TRAM project, drainage works will be carried out close to gate B until the end of next week. In order to avoid access problems, if arriving by car, please use gates A and E. Department of General Infrastructure Services (GS) GS-SE Group

  6. A Novel Mediastinal Drainage Tube for Mediastinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Yhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinitis is a life-threatening disease, and effective drainage is needed to treat mediastinitis with abscess formation. We recommend an alternative drainage method using chest tube binding with a Silastic Penrose drainage tube. The use of a Silastic Penrose drainage tube may help to manage mediastinitis with abscess formation. This method facilitates effective draining and prevents tissue adhesion.

  7. The Effects of Endotracheal Suctioning with Manual Hyperventilation on Cerebrovascular Status of Closed Head Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-02

    in HR related to increased ICP ( Grof & Rossi, 1978; Parsons & Shogan, 1984, McQuillan, 1986). An increase in HR is expected during a procedure such as...intracranial pressure, mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow in patients with severe head injury. Acta Neurochirurgica, 32, 13-24. Grof , C.J

  8. Effect of suction pipe leaning angle and water level on the internal flow of pump sump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.-M.; Lee, Y.-B.; Kim, K.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-D.

    2016-11-01

    The pump sump, which connects forebay and intake of pump station, supplies good flow condition for the intake of the pump. If suction sumps are improperly shaped or sized, air entraining vortices or submerged vortices may develop. This may greatly affect pump operation if vortices grow to an appreciable extent. Moreover, the noise and vibration of the pump can be increased by the remaining of vortices in the pump flow passage. Therefore, the vortices in the pump flow passage have to be reduced for a good performance of pump sump station. In this study, the effect of suction pipe leaning angle on the pump sump internal flow with different water level has been investigated by CFD analysis. Moreover, an elbow type pipe was also investigated. There are 3 leaning angles with 0°, 45° and 90° for the suction pipe. The suction pipe inlet centre is kept same for all the cases. In addition, the three different water levels of H/D=1.85, 1.54, and 1.31, is applied to different suction pipe types. The result shows that the amount of air sucked into the suction pipe increases with increasing the suction pipe leaning angle. Especially for the horizontal suction pipe, there is maximum air sucked into the suction pipe. However, there is certain effect of the elbow type bell mouth installation in the horizontal suction pipe on suppressing the amount of air sucked into the pipe. Moreover, vertical suction pipe plays an effective role on reducing the free surface vortex intake area.

  9. Experimental investigation of a counter-rotating compressor with boundary layer suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the aspirated modification of a dual-stage counter-rotating compressor which contains inlet guide vanes (IGVs, two counter-rotating rotors (R1, R2, and outlet guide vanes (OGVs. Uniform circular holes are circumferentially distributed over the rotors’ tips on the shroud casing which are designed to remove the low-energy fluid near the shroud casing. OGVs are hollow blades with two slots designed on the suction side which can better control the flow on the suction surface through boundary layer suction. Related works about the experiments have been carried out since June 2012 and the effect of flow suction on the performance of the compressor is investigated in detail. Characteristic lines at a 70% corrected rotating speed are tested and those with higher rotating speeds will be studied in the near future. Experimental results indicate that boundary layer suction can improve the compressor characteristics and the best suction methodology varies along the operating line. At the near stall condition, suction from the R2 tip region can obviously increase the efficiency and the total pressure ratio, as well as improve the flow capacity. Isentropic efficiency can be maximally increased by 4.24% with an increase of 1.94% in massflow under a suction flow of 160 m3/h. Suction at the R1 position with a suction rate below 0.35% in a high flow situation can make the performance of the compressor better than others. Around the peak efficiency point, boundary layer suction from the slots of OGVs is the best choice in improving the efficiency, but it causes a 0.1% loss in the total pressure ratio.

  10. Role of vacuum assisted suction drainage in management of deep sternal wound infection: Experience in one center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Allah Ibrahim Badr

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of DSWI was similar in our center to that in other cardiothoracic centers. Various risk factors were found to be associated with DSWI. The DSWI pathogens in our center are similar to those in other reports most of our patients were treated successfully with this technique with excellent wound healing. So, vacuum therapy is safe and effective method for treating DSWI.

  11. The impact of soil suction variation on earthquake intensity indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglari Mahnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil properties can completely change the ground motion characteristics as they travel from the bedrock to the surface because, soil as a low-pass filter, may amplify or deamplify seismic motions in some frequencies on the wave travelling path. Recent studies about the advanced unsaturated soil mechanics clearly shows that dynamic properties of soils, including small-strain shear modulus (Gmax, shear modulus reduction (G/Gmax, and damping ratio (D curves are affected by changes in the soil suction level. The current study present nonlinear time-dependent analysis of three different unsaturated soils available in the literature with different ranges of nonlinear behaviour that earlier have been studied on unsaturated dynamic models. Since, the earthquake intensity parameters can be used to describe the damage potential of an earthquake, the focus of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the suction variation on the engineering ground motion parameters, including peak values of strong motion, Vmax/Amax, root-mean-square acceleration, Arias intensity, characteristic intensity, cumulative absolute velocity, acceleration spectrum intensity, effective design acceleration, A95 parameter and predominant period separately under the near-field and the far-field seismicity categories.

  12. Temperature measurement in WTE boilers using suction pyrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-11-15

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  13. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty.

  14. Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - torsion, sliding and rocking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars

    2006-12-15

    This report concerns the dynamic soil-structure interaction of steel suction caissons applied as foundations for offshore wind turbines. An emphasis is put on torsional vibrations and coupled sliding/rocking motion, and the influence of the foundation geometry and the properties of the surrounding soil is examined. The soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material and the dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequency-dependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the skirted foundation are evaluated by means of a three-dimensional coupled boundary element/finite element model. Comparisons with known analytical and numerical solutions indicate that the static and dynamic behaviour of the foundation are predicted accurately with the applied model. The analysis has been carried out for different combinations of the skirt length and the Poisson's ratio of the subsoil. Finally, the high-frequency impedance has been determined for future use in lumped-parameter models of wind turbine foundations in aero-elastic codes. (au)

  15. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. PMID:24248279

  16. Bacterial contamination of suction catheter tips during aortic valve replacement surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Johanna; Sutherland, Sofia; Söderström, Åsa; Roman-Emanuel, Christine; Jeppsson, Anders; Olofsson, Elisabeth Hansson; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mediastinitis is a severe complication after open heart surgery. The infection causes prolonged hospitalization and an increased mortality risk. Observations from orthopaedic surgery showed that the suction catheter used during surgery is commonly contaminated with bacteria. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of suction catheter contamination in cardiac surgery and to study if suction time influences the contamination risk. Fifty suction catheter tips were collected during 25 aortic valve replacement operations. The suction tip was exchanged once during the operation (after aortotomy closure). The tips were subjected to bacterial contamination analysis. In 20 of the 25 investigated cases (80%), bacterial contamination was detected on one or both tips. The tip used during the beginning of the operation showed bacterial contamination in 13/25 cases (52%) and the second tip in 12/25 (48%). In 5/25 cases (20%) both tips were contaminated. There was no association between bacterial contamination and suction time. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus was the most commonly detected microorganism. The suction device should be considered as a potential source of bacterial contamination in cardiac surgery. The results suggest that the suction catheter should be replaced before key moments like valve implantation and sternal closure.

  17. Two simple devices for microneurosurgery: automatic drip irrigating needle and a suction retractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J D; Fukushima, T

    1993-05-01

    During microneurosurgical procedures, frequent intermittent irrigation and/or suction are often necessary. We describe two simple devices: the automatic drip irrigating needle and the suction retractor. We have confirmed their usefulness through our routine use of these simple devices since 1982.

  18. Real-time imaging of suction blistering in human skin using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana C.O.; Palero, Jonathan A.; Jurna, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Separation of skin epidermis from the dermis by suction blistering has been used with high success rate for autologous skin epidermal grafting in burns, chronic wounds and vitiligo transplantation treatment. Although commercial products that achieve epidermal grafting by suction blistering are presently available, there is still limited knowledge and understanding on the dynamic process of epidermal-dermal separation during suction blistering. In this report we integrated a suction system to an Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) which allowed for the first time, real-time imaging of the suction blistering process in human skin. We describe in this report the evolution of a suction blister where the growth is modeled with a Boltzmann sigmoid function. We further investigated the relationship between onset and steady-state blister times, blister growth rate, applied suction pressure and applied local skin temperature. Our results show that while the blister time is inversely proportional to the applied suction pressure, the relationship between the blister time and the applied temperature is described by an exponential decay. PMID:26713194

  19. Daily Suction Provided by External Volume Expansion Inducing Regeneration of Grafted Fat in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yuan; Liao, Yunjun; Lu, Feng; Gao, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    Fat grafting has variable and sometimes poor outcomes, and therefore new methods are needed. Multiple studies have demonstrated the excellent performance of external volume expansion and focused only on preexpansion with emphasis on the recipient. Two mouse models (a suction model and a fat-exchange transplantation model) were established to investigate changes in the origins and biological behaviors of regeneration-related cells in grafted fat under daily suction provided by external volume expansion. Blood supply increased from new host-derived capillaries or macrophage infiltration under suction. CD34-positive cells showed increased migration from the host into the grafts under suction. At week 12, nearly half of the mature adipocytes regenerated in the grafts in the suction group were derived from the host. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression of the suction group was significantly higher than that of controls at weeks 2 and 4 during adipogenesis. The normalized sample weight of the grafted fat was significantly greater than that of controls at 1 (0.081 ± 0.001 versus 0.072 ± 0.005; p suction provided by external volume expansion favors the regeneration of grafted fat and improves retention by promoting the migration of regeneration-related cells and the differentiation of adipocytes. Thus, more mature fat tissue with a well-organized structure was formed under suction.

  20. A Technique for Controlling Matric Suction on Filter Papers Used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moist filter papers are widely usedfor seed gennination tests but their water confent and matric suction are not usually controlled. A technique for controlling filter paper matric suction is described and usedfor germination studies involving fresh and aged sorghum seed (Sorghummcolor (L) Moench). Filter papers wetted to ...

  1. 78 FR 20316 - Final Issuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Small Suction Dredges in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Final Issuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Small Suction Dredges in Idaho AGENCY... placer mining operations in Idaho for small suction dredges (intake nozzle size of 5 inches in diameter...

  2. A Technique for Controlling Matric Suction on Filter Papers . GroWth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Abstract. Moist filter papers are widely usedfor seed gennination tests but their water confent and matric suction are not usually controlled. A technique for controlling filter paper matric suction is described and usedfor germination studies involving fresh and aged sorghum seed (Sorghummcolor (L) Moench). Filter papers ...

  3. The suction pouch for management of simple or complex enterocutaneous fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Containing effluent from an enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires expertise, critical thinking skills, and creativity. Using a combination of products readily available to WOC nurses practicing in the United States, I have designed a suction pouch that reliably contains fistula output. A standard ostomy pouch can be converted into a suction pouch by adding a large, single-lumen catheter into the pouch, sealing it, and connecting the assembly to low continuous suction. The resulting pouch can be used by itself to drain effluent from an ECF or it can be used in combination with wound dressings, or a negative pressure wound therapy system. Application of a suction pouch extends the integrity of the appliance and diverts succus away from the wound bed or the newly applied skin graft with increased reliability. This article describes the technique used to create a suction pouch, followed by 4 brief case descriptions that demonstrate feasibility of its use for the management of ECFs.

  4. Audit of Endotracheal Tube Suction in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kylie; Bulsara, Max K; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Monterosso, Leanne

    2017-02-01

    We report outcomes of a clinical audit examining criteria used in clinical practice to rationalize endotracheal tube (ETT) suction, and the extent these matched criteria in the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool(ESAT)©. A retrospective audit of patient notes ( N = 292) and analyses of criteria documented by pediatric intensive care nurses to rationalize ETT suction were undertaken. The median number of documented respiratory and ventilation status criteria per ETT suction event that matched the ESAT© criteria was 2 [Interquartile Range (IQR) 1-6]. All criteria listed within the ESAT© were documented within the reviewed notes. A direct link was established between criteria used for current clinical practice of ETT suction and the ESAT©. The ESAT©, therefore, reflects documented clinical decision making and could be used as both a clinical and educational guide for inexperienced pediatric critical care nurses. Modification to the ESAT © requires "preparation for extubation" to be added.

  5. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  6. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  7. Subdural drainage versus subperiosteal drainage in burr-hole trepanation for symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellut, David; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kockro, Ralf Alfons; Bertalanffy, Helmut; Krayenbühl, Niklaus

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (scSDH) is one of the most frequent diseases in neurosurgical practice, and its incidence is increasing. However, treatment modalities are still controversial. The aim of this retrospective single-center study is to compare for the first time two surgical methods in the treatment of subdural hematoma that have been proven to be efficient in previous studies in a direct comparison. We analyzed the data of 143 scSDHs in 113 patients undergoing surgery for subdural hematoma with placement of subperiosteal or subdural drainage after double burr-hole trepanation for hematoma evacuation. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences regarding general patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative symptoms, postoperative hematoma remnant, rates of recurrences, mortality, complications, and outcome at discharge and at 3-month follow up between the groups. There was a close to significant tendency of lower mortality after placement of subperiosteal drainage system and a tendency towards lower rate of recurrent hematoma after placement of subdural drainage system. Our study shows for the first time a direct comparison of two mainly used surgical techniques in the treatment of scSDH. Both methods proved to be highly effective, and general patient data, complications, outcome and mortality of both groups are equal or superior compared with previously published series. Because there is a clear tendency to less mortality and fewer serious complications, treatment with double burr-hole trepanation, irrigation, and placement of subperiosteal drainage is our treatment of choice in patients with predictable high risk of complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does the usage of digital chest drainage systems reduce pleural inflammation and volume of pleural effusion following oncologic pulmonary resection?-A prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Michèle; Agzarian, John; Hanna, Waël C; Schieman, Colin; Finley, Christian J; Macri, Joseph; Schneider, Laura; Schnurr, Terri; Farrokhyar, Forough; Radford, Katherine; Nair, Parameswaran; Shargall, Yaron

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged air leak and high-volume pleural drainage are the most common causes for delays in chest tube removal following lung resection. While digital pleural drainage systems have been successfully used in the management of post-operative air leak, their effect on pleural drainage and inflammation has not been studied before. We hypothesized that digital drainage systems (as compared to traditional analog continuous suction), using intermittent balanced suction, are associated with decreased pleural inflammation and postoperative drainage volumes, thus leading to earlier chest tube removal. One hundred and three [103] patients were enrolled and randomized to either analog (n=50) or digital (n=53) drainage systems following oncologic lung resection. Chest tubes were removed according to standardized, pre-defined protocol. Inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1B (IL-1B), 6, 8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)] in pleural fluid and serum were measured and analysed. The primary outcome of interest was the difference in total volume of postoperative fluid drainage. Secondary outcome measures included duration of chest tube in-situ, prolonged air-leak incidence, length of hospital stay and the correlation between pleural effusion formation, degree of inflammation and type of drainage system used. There was no significant difference in total amount of fluid drained or length of hospital stay between the two groups. A trend for shorter chest tube duration was found with the digital system when compared to the analog (P=0.055). Comparison of inflammatory mediator levels revealed no significant differences between digital and analog drainage systems. The incidence of prolonged post-operative air leak was significantly higher when using the analog system (9 versus 2 patients; P=0.025). Lobectomy was associated with longer chest tube duration (P=0.001) and increased fluid drainage when compared to sub-lobar resection (Pdigital drainage does not appear to decrease pleural

  9. Suction blister grafting - Modifications for easy harvesting and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suction blister grafting is a simple modality of treatment of patients with resistant and stable vitiligo. But raising the blisters may be time consuming and transferring to the recipient site may be difficult as the graft is ultrathin. By doing some modifications we can make the technique simpler and easier. We can decrease the blister induction time by intradermal injection of saline, exposure to Wood′s lamp, intrablister injection of saline. By these methods we can decrease the blister induction time from 2-3 hrs to 45-90 minutes. After harvesting the graft, it can be transferred to the recipient area by taking the graft on a sterile glass slide, on the gloved finger, rolling the graft over a sterile syringe and then spreading on the recipient area, or taking on the sterile wrapper of paraffin dressing and then placing over the recipient area.

  10. Study on analysis of flow field in ejector suction pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Noh Hyeong [GS Caltex Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An ejector is a fluid transportation device that operates based on the principle that a high pressure fluid is spouted through a driving pipe and the pressure of a low pressure fluid is increased through exchange of momentum with a low pressure gas. Steam steam ejectors have been widely used for suction, mixture, and dehydration. They can be easily used in places where fluid moves and expenses are reasonable. In addition, such ejectors are a semi permanent fluid device that requires little maintenance. In this study, we present an optimized design by analyzing what cannot be obtained through experiments in order to improve the device performance, analyze general contents of a flow by acquiring exact test data on specific and interpretative areas using more advanced experimental techniques, and identify the flow characteristics of a branch pipe by examining the validity of experiments using computer hydrodynamics simulations.

  11. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... saturated ceramic disc or membrane. The pressure corresponding to a certain relative humidity level is established and moisture is expelled from the samples until moisture equilibrium is reached. This paper presents two adjustments to this method and their applicability. The first adjustment is a new...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (refered to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...

  12. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a multisite study of suctioning practices within NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brenda; Sweet, Michele; Knupp, Amy M; Buck, Jacalyn; Chipps, Esther

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this multisite study was to describe suctioning techniques of registered nurses (RNs) and respiratory therapists (RTs) caring for neonates requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The care practices investigated included suctioning frequency, assessment parameters, and techniques used to suction. A convenience sample of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) RNs and practicing RTs at 8 Midwestern hospitals in the United States caring for neonates on nasal CPAP in a level II or III NICU were included. Eighty-five percent of respondents were RNs of which almost 89% (88.6%) were staff RNs, 63% were bachelor prepared, and 33% of the RNs had greater than 20 years of neonatal nursing experience. A cross-sectional descriptive comparative design was used for this study. An investigator-developed Web-based survey pertaining to current practice concerns was developed by the research team. The 31-item survey tool consisted of 4 sections. The first section addressed the frequency of suctioning. The second section addressed assessment parameters used to determine the need for suctioning. The third section addressed the technique used to suction, including gloving techniques, hyperoxygenation, and the use of catheters in nares and mouth and suctioning devices. Demographic data, including staff position, level of education, years of nursing, and NICU experience and certification, were collected in the fourth section. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize demographics and each item of the survey. Chi-square statistics (Pearson chi-square and Fisher Exact text) were used to compare RNs' and RTs' nasal CPAP suctioning practices. The results of this study indicated that decision making related to the need to suction was variable. In addition, the frequency of suctioning and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal suctioning techniques were highly variable for neonates requiring nasal CPAP. Despite the treatment of respiratory distress with nasal

  13. Suction Filter in Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoli, Matteo; Marucci, Gianluca; Milanese, Laura; Bonfatti, Rocco; Sturiale, Carmelo; Ernesto, Pasquini; Frank, Giorgio; Mazzatenta, Diego

    2016-11-01

    The collection of the greatest possible amount of pathologic tissue is of paramount importance in neurosurgery to achieve the most accurate histopathologic diagnosis, to perform all of the necessary biomolecular tests on the pathologic specimen, and to collect biological material for basic or translational science studies. This problem is particularly relevant in pituitary surgery because of the possible small size and soft consistency of tumors, which make them suitable for removal through suction, reducing the amount of available pathologic tissue. To solve this issue, we adopted a filter connected to the suction tube, which allows the surgeon to collect all of the tissue aspirated during surgery. Our experience of 1734 endoscopic endonasal procedures, performed adopting this device since 1998 to December 2015, has been revised to assess its advantages and limitations. This system is easy-to-use, does not impair the surgical maneuvers, and does not add any relevant cost to the surgery. The tissue collected through the filter proved useful for diagnostic histologic and biomolecular analyses and for research purposes, without any relevant artifacts as a result of this method of collection. The use of a filter has allowed us to obtain the greatest amount possible of pathologic tissue at each surgery. This surgical material has revealed to be helpful both for diagnostic and basic science purposes. The use of the filter has proven to be of particular importance for microadenomas, soft tumors, and supradiaphragmatic or skull base lesions with heterogeneous features, improving the accuracy of histopathologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  15. Effects of Lavender Inhalant on the Pain during Endotracheal Suctioning in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri Rezgh Abadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Patients undergoing artificial ventilation require tracheal tube suction because of inability to clear their effective airways, which is usually a painful process for the patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of spike lavender’s inhalant on pain during tracheal tube suctioning in ICU intubated patients. Materials & Methods: In this double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 60 intubated patients hospitalized in ICU of Shahid Modarres Hospital of Kashmar City, Iran, in 2017 were selected by available and simple sampling method, and were randomly divided into 2 control and case groups (each 30 individuals. Before the standard suctioning process, the test group patients received inhalant of 2% spike lavender for 5 minutes and the control group received inhalant of distilled water. The level of pain was recorded before and during tracheal tube suctioning. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T, paired T, Fisher and Mann-Whitney U tests. Findings: There was no significant difference in pain score before tracheal tube suction between 2 groups (p>0.05. However, there were significant differences between the level of pain during tracheal tube suctioning and the pain was increased in both groups, but this increase was significantly higher in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Spike lavender’s inhalant is effective on pain reduction during suctioning process of ICU intubated patients.

  16. Bench-top testing of suction forces generated through endoscopic ultrasound-guided aspiration needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanuma, Akio; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Yasuda, Ichiro; Kin, Toshifumi; Yane, Kei; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Hajime; Sano, Itsuki; Minami, Ryuki; Manabu, Sen-yo; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Osanai, Manabu; Takahashi, Kuniyuki

    2015-05-01

    Adequate needle size and tissue acquisition techniques for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) need further elucidation. Moreover, the actual negative pressure and suction forces of FNA needles remain unknown. We evaluated the suction forces of 19-gauge, 22-gauge, and 25-gauge conventional FNA needles and side hole aspiration needles using conventional negative pressure and the slow pull technique. Using a manometer, we determined the mean (SD) negative pressure and suction force for needle gauge, aspiration volume, and aspiration technique. We also evaluated the time to reach the maximum negative pressure. Suction force was comparatively higher in the 19-gauge needle when 50 ml of negative pressure was applied. Suction force using the slow pull method was very weak at 5% of pressure found with conventional methods. With the use of a 20-ml syringe, the time to reach the maximum negative pressure was 4 s in the 19-gauge needle, 11 s in the 22-gauge needle, and 80 s in the 25-gauge needle. Bench-top testing showed that suction force increases with a larger gauge needle and larger aspiration volume. The slow pull method produces a very weak suction force. The time to reach the maximum negative pressure was longest in the 25-gauge needle. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. An Association Between Pain and American Association of Respiratory Care 2010 Guidelines During Tracheal Suctioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Alberto; Canesi, Marta; Robustelli, Gaia; Fumagalli, Roberto; Bambi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal suctioning is recalled by mechanically ventilated patients as the most painful procedure during their stay in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the implementation of American Association of Respiratory Care suction guidelines positively affects the levels of patients' pain. This is a prospective observational study on adult patients admitted to 2 general intensive care units. Pain levels in sedated mechanically ventilated patients were recorded before, during, and after tracheal suctioning, using the Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT). Forty-seven patients were enrolled, with a mean age of 61.72 (±18.46) years. Median CPOT value was 0 (quartile 1 [Q1] [25%], 0; quartile 3 [Q3] [75%], 0; min, 0; max, 2) during the procedure. The Critical Care Pain Observation Tool reached a median value of 3, while 5 minutes after suctioning. Postprocedural CPOT median score was 0 (Q1 [25%], 0; Q3 [75%], 0; min, 0; max, 2). The median number of passes during suctioning was 1 (Q1, 1; Q3, 2). The sizes of suction catheters used in the recorded procedures were as follows: 12F in 27 cases (57%), 14F in 18 cases (38%), and 10F in 2 cases (5%). The median size of the endotracheal tube was 7.5 mm (Q1, 7.5; Q3, 8). The correct ratio between endotracheal tube diameter and suction catheter was used in 24 procedures (51%). Despite the low number of patients, this study showed that the implementation of the American Association of Respiratory Care 2010 endotracheal suctioning guidelines into practice helps to reduce procedural-induced pain. Therefore, training and continuing education are important for clinical staff performing tracheal suctioning.

  18. Reliability and Criterion-Related Validity Testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K; Bulsara, M; Ramelet, A S; Monteroso, L

    2018-01-18

    To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide 'inexperienced' paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse 'experts' developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. 'Experienced' (n=12) and 'inexperienced' (n=14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the 'experts' (n=9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with 'experienced' and 'inexperienced' PIC nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by 'experts' (n=9), 'inexperienced' (n=14) and 'experienced' (n=12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the 'inexperienced' nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube suction. This article is protected by copyright

  19. Review of Suction Water Content Relationship of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures Considering Temperature Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Abhishek; Zhi Lang, Lin; Baille, Wiebke

    2015-04-01

    Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the candidate sealing/ buffer material for landfills, hazardous and high level radioactive waste repository. The long term satisfactory performance of bentonite sand mixture in terms of load bearing function, sealing function and buffer function is governed by hydro-mechanical response of material under elevated temperature conditions. The suction-water content relationship is one of the key parameter, which govern the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixture. This paper presents brief review of suction water content relationships of bentonite-sand mixture considering temperature effects. Numerous parametric models or equations have been developed for representing the soil water characteristics curve i.e. SWCC for isothermal conditions. The most frequently used equations for representing the SWCC are the van Genuchten (1980) and Fredlund and Xing (1994) SWCC equations. Various researchers (Romero et al. 2000; Villar and Lloret, 2004; Tang and Cui, 2005; Agus, 2005; Arifin, 2008) have reported the temperature effect on the water retention behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures. The testing program, results and major conclusions made by above mentioned researchers were discussed in this paper. The changes in hydro-mechanical behavior due to elevated temperature are also discussed based on the suction components of soil which are influenced by temperature. As a general conclusion, total suction of the bentonite-sand mixtures is a function of mixture water content and mixture bentonite content or collectively a function of bentonite water content both at room temperature and at elevated temperature. At a constant temperature, different techniques for measuring suction results in different values of suction depending on accuracy of the sensor and calibration technique used as founded earlier by Agus (2005). The change in total suction due to change in temperature lower than 100 degree C is reversible

  20. A Water Hammer Protection Method for Mine Drainage System Based on Velocity Adjustment of Hydraulic Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer analysis is a fundamental work of pipeline systems design process for water distribution networks. The main characteristics for mine drainage system are the limited space and high cost of equipment and pipeline changing. In order to solve the protection problem of valve-closing water hammer for mine drainage system, a water hammer protection method for mine drainage system based on velocity adjustment of HCV (Hydraulic Control Valve is proposed in this paper. The mathematic model of water hammer fluctuations is established based on the characteristic line method. Then, boundary conditions of water hammer controlling for mine drainage system are determined and its simplex model is established. The optimization adjustment strategy is solved from the mathematic model of multistage valve-closing. Taking a mine drainage system as an example, compared results between simulations and experiments show that the proposed method and the optimized valve-closing strategy are effective.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.610 - Drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage systems. 3280.610 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Plumbing Systems § 3280.610 Drainage systems. (a) General. (1) Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be installed with a...

  2. A compliant underactuated hand with suction flow for underwater mobile manipulation

    KAUST Repository

    Stuart, Hannah S.

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Fingertip suction is investigated using a compliant, underactuated, tendon-driven hand designed for underwater mobile manipulation. Tendon routing and joint stiffnesses are designed to provide ease of closure while maintaining finger rigidity, allowing the hand to pinch small objects, as well as secure large objects, without diminishing strength. While the hand is designed to grasp a range of objects, the addition of light suction flow to the fingertips is especially effective for small, low-friction (slippery) objects. Numerical simulations confirm that changing suction parameters can increase the object acquisition region, providing guidelines for future versions of the hand.

  3. Suction on chest drains following lung resection: evidence and practice are not aligned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Peter; Manickavasagar, Menaka; Burdett, Clare; Treasure, Tom; Fiorentino, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    A best evidence topic in Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (2006) looked at application of suction to chest drains following pulmonary lobectomy. After screening 391 papers, the authors analysed six studies (five randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) and found no evidence in favour of postoperative suction in terms of air leak duration, time to chest drain removal or length of stay. Indeed, suction was found to be detrimental in four studies. We sought to determine whether clinical practice is consistent with published evidence by surveying thoracic units nationally and performing a meta-analysis of current best evidence. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for RCTs, comparing outcomes with and without application of suction to chest drains after lung surgery. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan(©) software. A questionnaire concerning chest drain management and suction use was emailed to a clinical representative in every thoracic unit. Eight RCTs, published 2001-13, with 31-500 participants, were suitable for meta-analysis. Suction prolonged length of stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] 1.74 days; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.30), chest tube duration (WMD 1.77 days; 95% CI 1.47-2.07) and air leak duration (WMD 1.47 days; 95% CI 1.45-2.03). There was no difference in occurrence of prolonged air leak. Suction was associated with fewer instances of postoperative pneumothorax. Twenty-five of 39 thoracic units responded to the national survey. Suction is routinely used by all surgeons in 11 units, not by any surgeon in 5 and by some surgeons in 9. Of the 91 surgeons represented, 62 (68%) routinely used suction. Electronic drains are used in 15 units, 10 of which use them routinely. Application of suction to chest drains following non-pneumonectomy lung resection is common practice. Suction has an effect in hastening the removal of air and fluid in clinical experience but a policy of suction after lung resection has not

  4. Development of a suction-pump-assisted thermal and electrical hybrid adsorption heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Yasuki; Sugiyama, Yukiteru; Kubota, Mitsuhiro [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusaku, Nagoya City, Aichi ken 464-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Fujio; Hasatani, Masanobu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yagusa-cho 470-0392 (Japan); Kobayashi, Noriyuki [Department of Ecotopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kanamori, Mitihito [Energy Applications Research and Development Center, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    In Japan, a tremendous amount of heat energy below 373 K is discharged into the atmosphere as waste heat, accounting for approximately 80% of the heat loss. The widespread utilization of such low-temperature heat energy leads to the establishment of a highly efficient energy utilization system. A closed adsorption heat pump (adsorption heat pump) is desirable for achieving the above mentioned system because it can generate cooling power below 283 K for air conditioning by utilizing the low-temperature heat energy as the regeneration heat source of the adsorbent. However, the cooling power and coefficient of performance of the conventional thermally operated adsorption heat pump significantly decrease with the regeneration temperature. We have proposed a suction-pump-assisted thermal and electrical hybrid adsorption heat pump. In this pump, a mechanical booster pump (MBP) is incorporated into the thermally operated silica gel-water-type adsorption heat pump for promoting water vapor transportation between an adsorber and an evaporator/condenser. We have experimentally studied the effect of the MBP power on the heat output performance of the adsorption heat pump. It has been demonstrated that the proposed pump can achieve a heat output performance 1.6 times that of the thermally operated adsorption heat pump. (author)

  5. Nutrient behaviour in urban drainages

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, David Kam Wai

    2017-01-01

    Urbanisation has altered the natural landscape, removing features that previously acted to retain, transform and process nitrogen and phosphorus within catchments. In Melbourne the past legacy of traditional urban design aimed at efficient drainage of stormwater has resulted in higher stormwater volumes with high pollutant concentrations. Excessive concentrations of such nutrients in urban runoff can have an adverse impact on the ecological health of receiving waters. The aims of this stu...

  6. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  7. Regulation of drainage canals on the groundwater level in a typical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Mou, Xia; Cui, Baoshan; Ping, Fan

    2017-12-01

    Activities related to reclamation alter wetland hydrological regimes and inevitably cause changes to groundwater level, which can result in the ecological degradation of coastal wetlands. Decreasing the groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals is an approach that has been widely used to control levels of root zone soil salinity as well as to protect freshwater wetlands or to expand agricultural land area in coastal wetlands. In this study, we assessed the influences of different drainage canal designs on the groundwater level using the Visual MODFLOW (VMOD) interface. We also provided an optimized drainage canal design suitable for the Yellow River Delta (YRD). Results showed that: (i) the groundwater level decreased in areas close to drainage canals, while only negligible effects were found on the groundwater level in areas with no drainage canals; (ii) the influence of drainage canals on the groundwater level decreased as distance increased; and (iii) a drainage canal network design of a depth of 5 m, with canal configuration of north-south direction and canal spacing of 1000 m was more effective in reducing the groundwater level in the study area. Our findings indicated that changes in groundwater level by the construction of drainage canals could help in our understanding of how groundwater influences freshwater wetlands and also aid in maintaining the integrity of coastal wetlands.

  8. Exploring Agricultural Drainage's Influence on Wetland and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial agricultural drainage (i.e. surface ditches or subsurface tile) is an important agricultural management tool. Artificial drainage allows for timely fieldwork and adequate root aeration, resulting in greater crop yields for farmers. This practice is widespread throughout many regions of the United States and the network of artificial drainage is especially extensive in flat, poorly-drained regions like the glaciated Midwest. While beneficial for crop yields, agricultural drains often empty into streams within the natural drainage system. The increased network connectivity may lead to greater contributing area for watersheds, altered hydrology and increased conveyance of pollutants into natural water bodies. While studies and models at broader scales have implicated artificial drainage as an important driver of hydrological shifts and eutrophication, the actual spatial extent of artificial drainage is poorly known. Consequently, metrics of wetland and watershed connectivity within agricultural regions often fail to explicitly include artificial drainage. We use recent agricultural census data, soil drainage data, and land cover data to create estimates of potential agricultural drainage across the United States. We estimate that agricultural drainage in the US is greater than 31 million hectares and is concentrated in the upper Midwest Corn Belt, covering greater than 50% of available land for 114 counties. Estimated drainage values for numerous countie

  9. Cervical pregnancy: 13 cases treated with suction curettage and balloon tamponade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fylstra, Donald L

    2014-01-01

    With no single regimen recognized as the standard for the treatment of first trimester cervical pregnancy, this report offers a successful treatment option with suction curettage and balloon tamponade...

  10. Sensorless Suction Recognition in the Self-Regulating Cleveland Clinic Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, David; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Byram, Nicole; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard; Moazami, Nader; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart passively regulates itself in regard to the relative performance of systemic and pulmonary pumps. The system incorporates real-time monitoring to detect any indication of incipient left or right suction as input for automatic controller response. To recognize suction, the external controller compares the waveforms of modulating speed input and power feedback. Deviations in periodic waveforms indicate sudden changes to flow impedance, which are characteristic of suction events as the pump speed is modulating. Incipient suction is indicated within three seconds of being detected in the power wave form, allowing timely controller response before mean flow is affected. This article describes the results obtained from subjecting the system to severe hemodynamic manipulation during an acute study in a calf. PMID:26102177

  11. Effect of suction hysteresis on resilient modulus of fine-grained cohesionless soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    The mechanical behavior of subgrade soil is influenced by the seasonal variations in moisture content. To better understand this behavior, it is crucial to study the relationship between soil moisture content and matric suction known as the Soil Wate...

  12. Suction removal of sediment from between armour blocks. Part 2. Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Figen Hatipoglu; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    When a stone/armor layer on a sand bed is exposed to flow, the sand underneath will be agitated by the flow turbulence. When the flow velocity reaches a critical value, the sand will be sucked (winnowed out) from between the armor blocks. In a previous investigation, we studied suction removal...... of sediment in steady currents. The present study is an extension of our previous investigation to waves. The critical condition for the onset of suction is determined. It is found that the onset of suction is governed by three parameters: (1) the sediment mobility number (based on the sediment size); (2......) the ratio of sediment size to stone size, d/D; and (3) the Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number, based on the armor block/stone size. The variation of the critical mobility number for suction as a function of d/D and KC is determined for the ranges of the parameters 0.001

  13. Endotracheal suctioning of the adult intubated patient--what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten M; Rosendahl-Nielsen, Mette; Hjermind, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    bleeding, infection, atelectasis, hypoxemia, cardiovascular instability, elevated intracranial pressure, and may also cause lesions in the tracheal mucosa. The aim of this article was to review the available literature regarding endotracheal suctioning of adult intubated intensive care patients...

  14. Use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VLAD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed on the south-eastern side of Almãjului Mountains, Eşelniţa drainage basin neighbours upon the following basins: upon S – SV with Mala, upon SV - V with Mraconia, upon V - NV with Berzasca, upon NV - NNE with Nera and on the NNE – SE direction with Cerna. The basin has a surface of 77 km2 and present a 5th degree hydrographic network according to Horton-Strahler ranking system, tributary to Danube by means of Eşelniţa main collector. Among surfaces belonging to various categories of use of land located within Eselnita drainage basin, there may be noticed the high share of forest and secondary grazing lands, although the latter have a smaller surface in comparison to the first ones. Therefore, the types of use of land located within the drainage basin are distinguished by the high share of surfaces of forests to the detriment of predominant agricultural land proven by using of some quantitative indexes defining the character of the Eselnita drainage basin as belonging to forestry type. Also the impact of human activities and number of inhabitants do not have a very damaging influence on the land corresponding to the basin, therefore it has a naturality index indicating an ecological equilibrium closed to the natural one.

  15. In vitro hemodynamic evaluation of ventricular suction conditions of the EVAHEART ventricular assist pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Antonio L; Yu, Yih-Choung; Arnold, Dorian K; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Grashow, Jonathan; Kitano, Tomoya; Borzelleca, David; Antaki, James F

    2012-04-30

    Mismatches between pump output and venous return in a continuous-flow ventricular assist device may elicit episodes of ventricular suction. This research describes a series of in vitro experiments to characterize the operating conditions under which the EVAHEART centrifugal blood pump (Sun Medical Technology Research Corp., Nagano, Japan) can be operated with minimal concern regarding left ventricular (LV) suction. The pump was interposed into a pneumatically driven pulsatile mock circulatory system (MCS) in the ventricular apex to aorta configuration. Under varying conditions of preload, afterload, and systolic pressure, the speed of the pump was increased step-wise until suction was observed. Identification of suction was based on pump inlet pressure. In the case of reduced LV systolic pressure, reduced preload (=10 mmHg), and afterload (=60 mmHg), suction was observed for speeds=2,200 rpm. However, suction did not occur at any speed (up to a maximum speed of 2,400 rpm) when preload was kept within 10-14 mmHg and afterload=80 mmHg. Although in vitro experiments cannot replace in vivo models, the results indicated that ventricular suction can be avoided if sufficient preload and afterload are maintained. Conditions of hypovolemia and/or hypotension may increase the risk of suction at the highest speeds, irrespective of the native ventricular systolic pressure. However, in vitro guidelines are not directly transferrable to the clinical situation; therefore, patient-specific evaluation is recommended, which can be aided by ultrasonography at various points in the course of support.

  16. Suction Drain Tip Culture after Spine Surgery: Can It Predict a Surgical Site Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jae-Sung; Lee, Ho-Jin; Park, Eugene; Park, Il-Young; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective clinical study. Purpose To assess the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture in patients undergoing primary posterior spine surgery. Overview of Literature To date, the diagnostic value of suction drain tip culture for predicting surgical site infection (SSI) has not been firmly established in orthopedic or spinal surgery. Methods In total, 133 patients who underwent primary posterior spine surgery from January 2013 to April 2015 were included in this retrosp...

  17. Suction measurements on a natural unsaturated soil: A reappraisal of the filter paper method

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Castelblanco, J. A.; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Soil suction measurements on an unsaturated soil were performed using the filter paper method and a high capacity tensiometer so as to analyse the reliability of the filter paper technique. The results show that an alternative approach of the filter paper method based on using a previously wetted filter paper can fruitfully be used to measure suction provided an appropriated calibration curve is used. This method was compared to the standard filter paper method in whic...

  18. Suction measurements on a natural unsaturated soil: A reappraisal of the filter paper method

    OpenAIRE

    MUNOZ-CASTELBLANCO, JA; Pereira, JM; DELAGE, P; CUI, YJ

    2010-01-01

    Soil suction measurements on an unsaturated soil were performed using the filter paper method and a high capacity tensiometer so as to analyse the reliability of the filter paper technique. The results show that an alternative approach of the filter paper method based on using a previously wetted filter paper can fruitfully be used to measure suction provided an appropriated calibration curve is used. This method was compared to the standard filter paper method in which the paper is initially...

  19. Capacities and failure modes of suction bucket foundation with internal bulkheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhong; Ge, Borui; Wang, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Suction bucket foundations can be divided into four compartments by cruciform internal bulkheads, thereby yielding better capacity in certain conditions than those without internal bulkheads. As yet, no systematic study has been conducted regarding the effects of cruciform internal bulkheads on the capacities of suction bucket foundations. In this study, we established a large number of finite element models of suction bucket foundations with and without cruciform internal bulkheads and of solid embedded circular foundations. We found the uniaxial capacities and failure modes of suction bucket foundations with various depth ratios to remain basically unaffected by internal bulkheads in uniform clays. However, in inhomogeneous clay with high strength heterogeneity, we observed the uniaxial moment and horizontal capacities and corresponding failure modes of suction bucket foundations with a low depth ratio to be obviously affected by internal bulkheads. In this case, the uniaxial moment capacities, in particular, as well as the horizontal capacities of suction bucket foundations with cruciform internal bulkheads become obviously greater than those without internal bulkheads. Under combined loading, we found the failure envelopes of suction bucket foundations with and without cruciform internal bulkheads and of solid circular foundation to also be basically consistent in uniform clays. However, in inhomogeneous clay with high strength heterogeneity, cruciform internal bulkheads can obviously change the shapes of the failure envelopes of bucket foundations with a small depth ratio. We conclude that when the acting vertical load or foundation depth is relatively small, suction bucket foundations with cruciform internal bulkheads can be subjected to larger moment and horizontal loads in soft clays with high strength heterogeneity.

  20. In vitro analysis of cell salvage blood collection with a laparoscopic suction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarsheth, Nimesh P; Fenske, Suzanne Silverman; Shah, Apurva; Moshier, Erin; Stahl, Rosalyn; Shander, Aryeh

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether cell salvage blood collection with a laparoscopic suction device is inferior to use of a traditional Yankauer suction device. Prospective, in vitro study. Academic teaching hospital. Individual units of donated packed red blood cells were diluted with normal saline solution to a hematocrit level of 21%. The blood was divided into 2 equal parts and then suctioned with either a laparoscopic suction device or a Yankauer plastic suction catheter tip connected to double-lumen cell salvage tubing with a diluted heparin drip and a vacuum pressure of 100 mm Hg. Collected blood was processed with a cell salvage device. Red blood cell volume was calculated by multiplying the hematocrit level by the total volume of blood product at the time of testing. Mean hemolysis indexes were compared between the laparoscopic and Yankauer method of blood collection by use of a 2-sample t test. Assuming a clinically acceptable limit of loss to be 7%, percent loss in red blood cell volume was tested with a 95% one-sided confidence limit to assess noninferiority. The mean hemolysis index was 43.33 with laparoscopic suction method and 34.67 with the Yankauer suction method. The mean difference was 8.67 and was not considered significant (p = .074). The percent loss in red blood cell volume after collection and cell salvage processing was 33.2% with the laparoscopic suction method and 29.57% with the Yankauer method. The mean difference was 3.63% and was within the acceptable 7% loss limit for noninferiority (p = .0278). Laparoscopic blood collection is not inferior to the standard Yankauer method for cell salvage collection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Suction thrombectomy after balloon maceration for dural venous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Wei; Liu, Hon-Man; Chen, Ya-Fang; Lin, Yen-Heng; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2016-06-15

    To introduce the combination of suction thrombectomy (ST) and balloon maceration (BM) for the management of dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST). Ten consecutive patients (average age, 53±15years; range, 30 to 73years) with DVST treated by ST after BM were evaluated including location of DVST, imaging presentation, procedural findings, and 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS). All 10 patients had evidence of venous infarct on MR or CT. In addition, seven patients had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), one had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and one had both ICH and SAH. More than one sinus was involved in nine patients. ST after BM was technically successful in all patients, and angiographic relief of venous congestion and good outcome (3-month mRS 0 or 1) was achieved in eight patients (80%). The average procedural time was 73.5±24.7min. Two patients who were in coma status had negative outcomes, and one had a known chronic thrombotic segment refractory to treatment. No recurrent thrombosis of recanalized sinus was found on follow-up MR venography in six patients and CT venography in two patients. BM followed by ST is a promising technique for the treatment of acute DVST. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seepage Study for Suction Installation of Bucket Foundation in Different Soil Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2016-01-01

    Research has proven the bucket foundation to be a feasible and an attractive solution for offshore wind turbines. Its potential derives partly from the cost-effectiveness due to the suction-assisted installation. The suction applied under the bucket lid produces a downward driving force and addit......Research has proven the bucket foundation to be a feasible and an attractive solution for offshore wind turbines. Its potential derives partly from the cost-effectiveness due to the suction-assisted installation. The suction applied under the bucket lid produces a downward driving force...... and additionally reduces the soil penetration resistance. This installation process is the most effective in soil with high coefficient of permeability where the flow of pore water is easily induced. However, the technology is still under development and some issues require further investigation and reliable...... around the bucket skirt. The exceedance of critical suction might lead to installation failure due to formation of piping channels, which break the hydraulic seal between the skirt and soil. The excess pore pressure arising due to applied suction changes the effective stress, hence the penetration...

  3. Wall suction-assisted image-guided thoracentesis: a safe alternative to evacuated bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Shyn, P B; Wu, L; Levesque, V M; Khorasani, R; Silverman, S G

    2017-10-01

    To compare the safety of evacuated bottle-assisted thoracentesis with wall suction-assisted thoracentesis. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study of 161 consecutive patients who underwent 191 evacuated bottle-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2012 to 30 September 2012, and 188 consecutive patients who underwent 230 wall suction-assisted thoracenteses from 1 January 2013 to 30 September 2013 was conducted. All procedures used imaging guidance. Primary diagnosis, age, gender, total fluid volume removed, and adverse events (AE) up to 30 days post-procedure were recorded and graded using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 (CTCAE)2. Overall AE rates were 42.9% (82/191) for the evacuated bottle group and 19.6% (45/230) for the wall suction group (psuction group, [41.9% (80/191) and 18.3% (42/230)], respectively (psuction groups, respectively. No grade 4 or 5 AE occurred. Excluding transient chest pain and cough, there was no statistical difference in overall AE rate between the evacuated bottle and wall suction groups [11% (21/191) and 8.3% (19/230), p=0.4]. Image-guided thoracentesis performed with wall suction is safe when compared to evacuated bottles. The use of wall suction, in comparison to evacuated bottles, may decrease the incidence of transient chest pain or cough. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical study on dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yubao; Yin, Hang; Huang, Hongyan; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    Based on the sharp forward of shock train and taking the forthcoming unstart for a background, the dynamic characteristics for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot are investigated numerically using the dynamic mesh technique. Results indicate that the climbing path of shock train with the complex background waves exhibits a sharp and slow forward state at different time. The compression waves in the primary shock sweep the trailing edge of the separation bubble, and the recirculation within the shock train is communicated with the separation bubble, which reveals that the flow is in a critical state and is about to be unstart at the subsequent time. Furthermore, the dynamic pattern for sharp opening procedure of boundary-layer suction slot can be classified into four distinct stages, namely, the formation of the jet plume without suction mass loss, the formation of the barrier shock with suction mass loss characterized by gradient increase and subsequent two oscillations, the evolution of the barrier shock and jet plume with suction mass loss that ramps up via a series of discrete step increases, and the formation of the stable structure accompanied by the linear suction mass loss.

  5. [Evaluation of oxygenation, ventilation and respiratory mechanics before and after endotracheal suction in mechanically ventilated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Marta J; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Beppu, Oswaldo Shigueomi

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the effects of endotracheal suction in respiratory mechanics and oxigenation of patients with mechanical ventilation. 13 children were studied in the pediatric intensive care unit of Hospital São Paulo, age between 47 days and 5 years old, male and female, surgical and clinic pathology, intubated by cuffed endotracheal tube, sedated and paralyzed few minutes before measurements, under previous established suction routine without preventive maneuvers, followed by a continuous monitoring of oxygenation, ventilation and respiratory mechanics under identical ventilatory sets. The parameters analyzed was Heart rate; SpO2; ph arterial; PaO2; PaCO2; SaO2; inspiratory and expiratory tidal volume; minute volume; dynamic compliance, respiratory resistance; mean airway pressure; PEEP and PEEPi., and the measurements were made immediately before suction, immediately after, ten and twenty minutes after suction The results showed that the technique increase the CO2 arterial pressures (PaCO2) even after 20 minutes; decrease the oxygen saturation (SpO2) immediately after the procedure with regular recuperation after 10 minutes and decrease the lung compliance (Cdin.) immediately after with lower recuperation after 10 minutes. We concluded that intratracheal suction in front of compromise of oxygenation, ventilation or respiratory mechanic, applied as minimal as possible under preventive maneuvers. We need more studies to establish the real need of intratracheal suction and a practice guideline of intervention to avoid deleterious effects of that in pediatric patients.

  6. No trade-off between biting and suction feeding performance in clariid catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that biting performance trades off with suction performance in fish because both feeding types may place conflicting demands on the cranial musculo-skeletal system. However, the functional consequences of morphological adaptations enhancing biting on the mechanics and performance of suction feeding in fish remain obscure. In this study, suction feeding performance was compared between three clariid catfish species differing considerably in their biting capacity, by measuring the velocity of a standardized prey being sucked into the buccal cavity using high-speed cineradiography. In addition, buccal volume changes during prey capture were quantified by ellipse modelling. As all species were able to accelerate the prey to similar peak velocities, our results demonstrate the possibility for catfishes to increase bite performance considerably without compromising suction performance. The amount of buccal expansion in the ventral direction is approximately equal for all species. Consequently, the system generating expansion through ventral rotation of the lower jaw, hyoid and pectoral girdle is apparently not constrained (mechanically or architectonically) by the hypertrophy of the jaw adductors. As the effect of a reduced magnitude of lateral expansion (suspensorium abduction) on suction performance in Clariidae appears to be negligible (for example in Gymnallabes typus), these data demonstrate the dominant role of ventral expansion for producing suction in these fish.

  7. Effect of applying positive pressure with or without endotracheal suctioning during extubation: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Mauro F; Salvati, Iris G; Donnianni, Mariana C; Ibañez, Belén; Cotignola, Mariana; Bezzi, Marco

    2014-12-01

    During invasive mechanical ventilation, secretions accumulate in the subglottic space; consequently, there is a risk of aspiration of these secretions into the airway during cuff deflation and extubation. To minimize this risk, 2 extubation methods are used. The first consists of introducing a suction catheter into the endotracheal tube (ETT) and the trachea. After initiating suctioning, the cuff is deflated and the ETT is removed together with the suction catheter. The second technique involves applying positive pressure to the ETT using a resuscitation bag. Once the manual breath is delivered, the ETT cuff is deflated and the ETT is removed without suction. The aim of this laboratory study is to determine the existence and magnitude of differences in leak volume during cuff deflation and extubation using various combinations of positive pressure with or without endotracheal suctioning. An ETT connected to a ventilator was placed in a model trachea. Colored water was instilled in the space above the cuff. To measure the leak volume, a collection chamber was attached to the distal end of the model. Nine procedures were defined, based on the delivery of different positive pressure levels with or without endotracheal suctioning during extubation. The volume of leakage, in milliliters, was the unit of analysis. Procedures yielding values lower than 1 mL were assessed by the Friedman test, and a P value of less than .05 was considered significant. Post hoc comparisons were performed with a Wilcoxon test, followed by a Bonferroni correction. The application of CPAP 15, pressure support ventilation (PSV)15/10, and PSV 20/5 produced 0.4, 0.2, and 0.1 mL of leak volume, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between CPAP 15 and PSV 15/10 (P = .003) and between CPAP 15 and PSV 20/5 (P = .01), but not between PSV 15/10 and PSV 20/5 (P = .30). The addition of suctioning increased leak volume, with statistically significant differences between CPAP 15

  8. [Application of Digital Drainage System in Postoperative Refractory Prolonged Air Leaks after Pulmonary Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Donglai; Kadeer, Xiermaimaiti; Shi, Zhe; Jin, Yuxing; Chen, Chang

    2017-12-20

    Postoperative prolonged air leaks is one of the most common complications secondary to pulmonary resections. Digital drainage system (DDS) is considered as an accurate and objective device which has been found to be comfortable and well tolerated by patients, economical as well. The aim of this study is to explore the application of DDS in patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary surgery. Prolonged air leak (PAL) is defined as air leaks lasting for more than 5 d after video-assisted surgery or more than 7 d after thoracotomy. Postoperative refractory prolonged air leak is defined as a kind of air leak lasting for twice than PAL with grade 2 or 3 air leak, or air leak with severe complications such as subcutaneous or mediastinal emphysema in our study. A total of 8 patients who had postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection were treated with digital drainage system combined with pleurodesis from January to December in 2016 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. All the relevant clinical data of patients were collected for analysis. In our study, 6 patients accepted lobectomy, the other 2 patients underwent segmentectomy. The average air leak and chest tube duration of the patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection was (17.3±5.1) d. The average postoperative DDS duration was (5.6±3.7) d. The mean drainage volume of the patients was (2,615.6±1,741.2) mL and (935.0±242.7) mL before and after the application of DDS. The average length of hospital stay was (18.1±5.0) d. It is safe and feasible to apply digital drainage system to patients with postoperative refractory prolonged air leaks after pulmonary resection. Compared with the conventional drainage system, digital drainage system is more accurate and objective which can offer a larger suction pressure and promote lung recruitment maneuver for pleurodesis, shortening the drainage time

  9. Mine Drainage Generation and Control Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Rodak, Carolyn M; Zhang, Shicheng; Han, Yuexin; Wolfe, F Andrew

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a snapshot of papers published in 2015 relevant to the topic of mine drainage generation and control options. The review is broken into 3 sections: Generation, Prediction and Prevention, and Treatment Options. The first section, mine drainage generation, focuses on the characterization of mine drainage and the environmental impacts. As such, it is broken into three subsections focused on microbiological characterization, physiochemical characterization, and environmental impacts. The second section of the review is divided into two subsections focused on either the prediction or prevention of acid mine drainage. The final section focuses on treatment options for mine drainage and waste sludge. The third section contains subsections on passive treatment, biological treatment, physiochemical treatment, and a new subsection on beneficial uses for mine drainage and treatment wastes.

  10. Work Turbochargers under Reduced Pressure in the Suction Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Filippov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In case consumers have a significant need in the compressed air, the use of turbochargers is a promising direction. The turbocharger operation is largely defined by its running conditions, namely parameters of the intake air and cooling conditions.The paper presents the results of experimental studies of turbochargers type 4CI 425MX4 of series "CENTAC" manufactured by INGERSOL-RAND, which were performed under industrial conditions in a mountainous area with difficult climatic conditions. There were, essentially, no researches of running turbochargers in mountainous areas. The combination of low atmospheric pressure, high temperature of intake air, and specific cooling conditions causes abnormal mode of turbocharger operation. The results of theoretical studies of such modes are found only in N.M. Barannikov’s work while there is no mentioned empirical research at all.Experimental studies were conducted under industrial conditions in the form of passive experiment. All measurements were carried out using a standard measuring system included in the system of compressor monitor and control. During the experimental studies temperature regimes at the turbocharger stage were controlled, and turbocharger pressure ratio and weight output were determined.The results of the research can be formulated as follows:- highland conditions and seasonal variations of atmospheric air have a negative impact on the operation of the turbochargers;- specific work value as an indicator of the economical efficiency exceeds that of the nameplate by 12...21 % depending on the climatic conditions.The problem of functioning normalization of the turbochargers seems to be relevant not only for the considered type of compressor, but also for that of the less power. It is proposed to consider two ways:- installation of the fifth additional stage;- mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe by means of blowers of high power.To make final decision it is necessary to conduct

  11. Optimization analysis of the motor cooling method in semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Shen, Y. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Wang, J.

    2017-08-01

    Semi-closed single screw refrigeration compressors (SSRC) are widely used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems owing to the advantages of simple structure, balanced forces on the rotor, high volumetric efficiency and so on. In semi-closed SSRCs, motor is often cooled by suction gas or injected refrigerant liquid. Motor cooling method will changes the suction gas temperature, this to a certain extent, is an important factor influencing the thermal dynamic performance of a compressor. Thus the effects of motor cooling method on the performance of the compressor must be studied. In this paper mathematical models of motor cooling process by using these two methods were established. Influences of motor cooling parameters such as suction gas temperature, suction gas quantity, temperature of the injected refrigerant liquid and quantity of the injected refrigerant liquid on the thermal dynamic performance of the compressor were analyzed. The performances of the compressor using these two kinds of motor cooling methods were compared. The motor cooling capacity of the injected refrigerant liquid is proved to be better than the suction gas. All analysis results obtained can be useful for optimum design of the motor cooling process to improve the efficiency and the energy efficiency of the compressor.

  12. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasinia, M; Irajpour, A; Babaii, A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate...... (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were...

  13. A natural rubber drainage tube with antithrombogenic lumen surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, H P; Schunk, W; Merkmann, G; Giessmann, C; Knoll, H; Borgmann, S

    1993-12-15

    A drainage tube was made by radiation vulcanization of a high polymeric substance based on natural rubber elastomers. Pentosan polysulphate sodium bound to a carrier substance (synthetic type 4A or 13X zeolite) was incorporated in the drainage tube which was then tested for its anticoagulant properties during perfusion with Tris buffer solution, citrated plasma, and blood, resp. The amount of pentosan polysulphate sodium released from the tube walls during perfusion with human citrated plasma in an open circulatory system was sufficient to exert an anticoagulant effect on the streaming plasma. This effect was corroborated by prolonged thrombin times and by unclottability in case of recalcified plasma samples in thrombelastographic studies. The antithrombogenicity test according to Chandler in a closed circulatory system revealed thrombus formation times (TFT) of more than 24 h (control: TFT = 1-3 min in native blood).

  14. Composite fibrous glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapstova, A.; Horakova, J.; Shynkarenko, A.; Lukas, D.

    2017-10-01

    Glaucoma is a frequent reason of loss vision. It is usually caused by increased intraocular pressure leading to damage of optic nerve head. This work deals with the development of fibrous structure suitable for glaucoma drainage implants (GDI). Commercially produced metallic glaucoma implants are very effective in lowering intraocular pressure. However, these implants may cause adverse events such as damage to adjacent tissue, fibrosis, hypotony or many others [1]. The aim of this study is to reduce undesirable properties of currently produced drains and improve their properties by creating of the composite fibrous drain for achieve a normal intraocular pressure. Two types of electrospinning technologies were used for the production of very small tubular implants. First type was focused for production of outer part of tubular drain and the second type of electrospinning method made the inner part of shape follows the connections of both parts. Complete implant had a special properties suitable for drainage of fluid. Morphological parameters, liquid transport tests and in-vitro cell adhesion tests were detected.

  15. Drainage basin delineations for selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in Virginia (Drainage_Basin)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Drainage_Basin polygon feature class was created as a digital representation of drainage basins for more than 1,650 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations,...

  16. Development of normal-suction boundary control method based on inflow cannula pressure waveform for the undulation pump ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kohei; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Emiko, Nakano; Ono, Toshiya; Shi, Wei; Inoue, Yusuke; Abe, Yusuke

    2012-09-01

    It is desirable to obtain the maximum assist without suction in ventricular assist devices (VADs). However, high driving power of a VAD may cause severe ventricle suction that can induce arrhythmia, hemolysis, and pump damage. In this report, an appropriate VAD driving level that maximizes the assist effect without severe systolic suction was explored. The target driving level was set at the boundary between low driving power without suction and high driving power with frequent suction. In the boundary range, intermittent mild suction may occur. Driving power was regulated by the suction occurrence. The normal-suction boundary control method was evaluated in a female goat implanted with an undulation pump ventricular assist device (UPVAD). The UPVAD was driven in a semipulsatile mode with heartbeat synchronization control. Systolic driving power was adjusted using a normal-suction boundary control method developed for this study. We confirmed that driving power could be maintained in the boundary range. Occurrences of suction were evaluated using the suction ratio. We defined this ratio as the number of suction occurrences divided by the number of heartbeats. The suction ratio decreased by 70% when the normal-suction boundary control method was used. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Tracheotomy tubes with suction above the cuff reduce the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Levi G; Salgado, Moses D; Black, Hugh; Yoneda, Ken; Sievers, Ann; Belafsky, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of tracheotomy tubes that enable suction immediately above the cuff on the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients without preexisting pneumonia who required tracheotomy were randomly assigned to receive a tracheotomy tube with or without above-the-cuff suction. The suction tube provided 10 mm Hg of continuous wall suction while the tracheotomy tube cuff was inflated. Data regarding the development of VAP, time on the ventilator, and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) were recorded and compared between groups. Eighteen patients were randomized and prospectively evaluated. Nine patients received standard tracheotomy tubes, and 9 received suction-above-the-cuff tracheotomy tubes. The prevalences of VAP were 56% in the control group and 11% in the suction tracheotomy group (p = 0.02). The mean times on the ventilator were 18 +/- 14 days in the control group and 11 +/- 11 days in the suction group (p = 0.12). The mean lengths of ICU stay were 26 +/- 15 days in the control group and 18 +/- 15 days in the suction group (p = 0.14). Use of suction-above-the-cuff tracheotomy tubes significantly decreases the incidence of VAP in ICU patients. There were trends toward decreased time on the ventilator and decreased length of stay in the ICU.

  18. Direct dentin bonding technique sensitivity when using air/suction drying steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Mahallati, Ramin; Bazos, Panaghiotis; So, Woong-Seup

    2008-01-01

    Moisture control before and after application of the primer/adhesive components of etch-and-rinse dentin bonding agents is usually achieved using a stream of air delivered by an air syringe. Suction drying with a suction tip is a common alternative for moisture control, but data about the use of suction drying instead of the air syringe is scarce or nonexistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) using either the air syringe or the suction tip to control the amount of moisture. Fifteen freshly extracted human molars were divided randomly into three groups of five. A three-step etch-and-rinse dentin bonding agent (OptiBond FL) was used. Group 1 was the control group and utilized air drying alone (with an air syringe) during the placement of the dentin adhesive on the ground-flat occlusal dentin surface. Group 2 also used air drying alone, but teeth were prepared with a standardized MOD cavity. Group 3 utilized suction drying alone in the standardized MOD cavity. All teeth were restored with 1.5-mm-thick horizontal increments of composite resin (Filtek Z100). Specimens were stored in water for 24 hours, then prepared for a nontrimming MTBS test. Bond strength data were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test at p drying, flat dentin), 53.4 MPa (air-drying, MOD), and 49.2 MPa (suction drying, MOD). Microscopic evaluation of failure modes indicated that most failures were interfacial. Failed interfaces, when analyzed under SEM, appeared typically mixed with areas of failed adhesive resin and areas of cohesively failed dentin. There are no differences in MTBS to human dentin using either the air syringe or the suction tip to control the amount of moisture. The conventional three-step dentin bonding agent used in the present study not only proved insensitive to the moisture-control method but also to the effect of increased polymerization shrinkage stress (ground-flat versus MOD preparation). Although the effect of common

  19. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Håkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K̂ of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K̂=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-ρ), where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K̂. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for

  20. Effect of vortical structures on cavitation on impeller blades in pumps with suction chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlavaj, A.; Pavlin, R.

    2014-03-01

    A double-suction pump operating at relatively low suction head and with poorly designed suction chambers was analysed by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two impeller geometries were considered - one with thicker and one with thin layer of predicted vapour cavity on blades. Steady-state simulations (SSS) were performed with shear-stress- transport (SST) turbulence model with curvature correction (CC). Transient simulations were performed with scale-adaptive-simulation SST (SAS-SST) model with CC. For both analysed geometries, transient simulations predicted higher maximal thickness of cavities than SSS. In transient simulations it was observed that, because of poor design of suction chambers, near the rib of the suction chambers two stronger (non-cavitating) vortices appeared. Near the main vortical structures, vortices with smaller intensity appeared, with direction of rotation opposite to the main vortices. Depending on their position and direction of rotation, the vortices either decreased or increased the extent of cavitation. The most important adverse effect was to increase the size of the sheet cavity by local elongation and thickening. The local effect seemed to be more pronounced for impeller with smaller thickness of sheet cavity.

  1. Suppression of the secondary flow in a suction channel of a large centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, D.; Nagahara, T.; Okihara, T.

    2013-12-01

    The suction channel configuration of a large centrifugal pump with a 90-degree bend was studied in detail to suppress the secondary flow at the impeller inlet for improving suction performance. Design of experiments (DOE) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to evaluate the sensitivity of several primary design parameters of the suction channel. A DOE is a powerful tool to clarify the sensitivity of objective functions to design parameters with a minimum of trials. An L9 orthogonal array was adopted in this study and nine suction channels were designed, through which the flow was predicted by steady state calculation. The results indicate that a smaller bend radius with a longer straight nozzle, distributed between the bend and the impeller, suppresses the secondary flow at the impeller inlet. An optimum ratio of the cross sectional areas at the bend inlet and outlet was also confirmed in relationship to the contraction rate of the downstream straight nozzle. These findings were obtained by CFD and verified by experiments. The results will aid the design of large centrifugal pumps with better suction performance and higher reliability.

  2. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Flow Field Induced by a Symmetrical Suction Elbow at the Pump Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, S.; Bosioc, A. I.; Drăghici, I.; Anton, L. E.

    2016-11-01

    The paper investigates the hydrodynamic field generated by the symmetrical suction elbow at the pump impeller inlet. The full three-dimensional turbulent numerical investigation of the flow in the symmetrical suction elbow is performed using FLUENT then the flow non-uniformity generated by it is numerically computed. The numerical results on the annular cross section are qualitatively and quantitatively validated against LDV data. A good agreement between numerical results and experimental data is obtained on this cross section located downstream to the suction elbow and upstream to the pump impeller. The hydrodynamic flow structure with four vortices is identified plotting the vorticity field. The largest values of the vorticity magnitude are identified in the center of both vortices located behind the shaft. The vortex core location is plotted on four annular cross sections located along to the cylindrical part between the suction elbow and the pump inlet. Also, the three-dimensional distribution of the vortex core filaments is visualized and extracted. The shapes of vortex core filaments located behind the pump shaft agree well with its visualization performed on the test rig. As a result, the three-dimensional complex geometry of the suction elbow and the pump shaft are identified as the main sources of the flow non-uniformity at the pump inlet.

  3. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-Shan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  4. Improvement of wall condensation modeling with suction wall functions for containment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Jan, E-mail: j.lehmkuhl@fz-juelich.de [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Stephan, E-mail: s.kelm@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Bucci, Matteo [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Paris (France); Allelein, Hans-Josef [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of wall functions for single phase condensation models for large scale application. • Identification of modeling errors related to standard log-law due to buoyancy and wall normal mass transfer (suction). • Modeling of wall normal mass transfer by literature formulation (Sucec, 1999) and in-house approach (FIBULA). • Validation against isothermal Favre experimental data. • Comparison against reference fine grid solution for condensing conditions. - Abstract: To simulate wall condensation on containment scale with CFD methods at reasonable computational cost, a single phase approach has to be applied and wall functions have to be used. However, standard wall functions were derived for flows without heat and mass transfer and their fundamental simplifications are not appropriate to deal with condensation. This paper discusses the limitations of standard wall functions and proposes two wall functions for the momentum equation dealing with mass transfer normal to the sheared wall (suction). The first proposed suction wall function is an algebraic modification based on the standard wall function concept. The second proposed wall function is an in-house developed suction wall function with the potential to cover also heat and mass transfer effects by storing the complex solutions of the RANS-Equations in a lookup table. The wall function approaches are compared to experimental results for boundary layer flows with suction and to the reference results obtained using a refined grid in order to resolve the condensing boundary layer.

  5. Cylinder syringe suction: a simple and efficient technique for the evacuation of subcutaneous hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ayato; Matsuda, Norifumi; Horiguchi, Masatoshi; Matsumura, Takashi; Komoto, Masakazu; Natori, Yuhei; Komuro, Yuzo; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Subcutaneous hematoma is commonly caused by trauma or surgery. Proper treatment of the condition is needed to avoid severe complications. The present paper introduces a simple technique of hematoma evacuation, called cylinder syringe suction (CSS). Experiments were also performed to determine the detailed mechanism underlying its effectiveness. The CSS procedure was performed as follows. A cylindrical plastic cylinder syringe was used. Either a few stitches were removed or a very small incision was made on the site of the hematoma. The edge of the syringe was compressed to the skin, which was covered by a thin hydrocolloid dressing. Vacuum aspiration was enforced at the site of the wound or incision, and the hematoma was gradually aspirated.For the experiment, house rabbits were used. Hematoma evacuation was performed in 4 different ways, including needle aspiration alone (group 1), needle puncture followed by CSS (group 2), and creation of a small wound (5 mm) followed by needle aspiration (group 3) or CSS (group 4). The amount of evacuated hematoma and the suction pressure created by each of the 4 methods were compared. Group 4 showed the highest suction pressure and the greatest evacuated amount of hematoma. High suction pressure was also obtained in group 1; however, the amount of evacuated hematoma was small as the other 2 groups. The CSS technique becomes effective mainly by creating high suction pressure, and the opening of a small wound enables the viscous coagula to pass through the skin.

  6. Analysis of wound filter performance from DREF yarn spun at different suction pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragnya S. Kanade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wound filters are quite popular in the domestic water purification systems. The performance of these filters is based on the distinctive yarn and winding variables. Yarn used for filtration application is normally produced on DREF spinning system. Several researchers have reported the influence of DREF spinning variables on yarn properties. However none of them are in context of filtration application. Since elucidation of influence of winding parameters on the filter performance has already been reported; it thus becomes intriguing to explore the influence of spinning suction pressure on filtration behavior. Yarn spun at different suction pressures was used to produce wound filter cartridges, keeping winding variables unchanged. Filters wound using yarn spun at higher spinning suction pressure resulted in greater pressure drop but showed better micron rating. However the pressure drop encountered also affects the retention capacity of the wound filter. The outcome of this study helps in establishing the relation between spinning suction pressure and performance parameters of wound filters. Design expert® software was used to develop regression equations to predict performance of wound filter for the given spinning suction pressure which is of practical significance for yarn and filter manufacturers, without performing filter test.

  7. Salvage irrigation-suction in gracilis muscle repair of complex rectovaginal and rectourethral fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bing; Wang, You-Xin; Jiang, Hua; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Yu, Jun-Hui; Luo, Cheng-Hua

    2013-10-21

    To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs). Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery. The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P irrigation-suction-assisted healing group. Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs.

  8. A new adjustable glaucoma drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarin, Adan; Roy, Sylvain; Bigler, Stéphane; Stergiopulos, Nikos

    2014-03-25

    This work is focused on the testing of a new experimental noninvasively adjustable glaucoma drainage device (AGDD) that allows for the control of its outflow resistance to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP) in a customized fashion. Six AGDDs were directly connected to a pressure transducer and a perfusion system continuously delivering saline solution at rate of 2 μL/min. The steady-state pressure was measured and reported as a function of the angular position of the AGDD disk. Ex vivo experiments were conducted on six freshly enucleated rabbit eyes. The IOP was measured, and the flow rate was increased with a syringe pump to simulate elevated IOP associated with glaucoma. After insertion of the implant in the anterior chamber, the position of the disk was sequentially adjusted. The relation between the pressure drop and the angular position of the AGDD disk is nonlinear. The functional range lies between 80° and 130°, which allows for four or five different reproducible adjustment positions. Above 130° the implant is considered to be closed (no outflow), and below 80° it is considered to be open (minimum resistance to flow). The resistance to outflow of the experimental AGDD can be adjusted to keep IOP in the desired physiological range. This feature could be useful for addressing the risk of hypotony in the early postoperative stages and could provide a means to achieve optimal IOP under a wide range of postoperative conditions.

  9. Materials for subsurface land drainage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuyt, L.C.P.M.; Dierickx, W.; Martínez Beltrán, J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Paper is to provide this practical information to drainage engineers and contractors. The Paper is based on the current knowledge of water flow into drain pipes and envelopes, their properties and applicability. It also contains guidelines for the selection of drainage materials

  10. 24 CFR 3285.604 - Drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drainage system. 3285.604 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.604 Drainage system. (a) Crossovers. Multi-section homes with plumbing in more than one section...

  11. Flute handle for controlled suction in double cannula aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittyerah T

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, economical autoclavable hollow cylindrical stainless steel handle with openings at both ends and on one side is manufactured and used for many applications in closed cham-ber ocular surgeries especially extracapsular cataract surgery.

  12. A New Model for the Suction Pressure Under the Contact Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara; Ross, David; Holz, Emily

    2013-11-01

    We study the dynamics of the contact lens to better understand how the design of the lens can be optimized for patient comfort and ocular fit. When a contact lens is inserted on an eye, it is subjected to forces from both the tear film in which it is immersed and the blinking eyelid. In response, the lens bends and stretches. These forces center the lens, and they produce the suction pressure that keeps the lens on the cornea. In this presentation, we couple fluid and solid mechanics to determine the most prominent forces acting on the lens. We present a mathematical model that predicts the suction pressure. We explore the influence of contact lens properties on the suction pressure. This work is supported by the Economic Development Administration and Bausch + Lomb.

  13. Seepage Study for Suction Installation of Bucket Foundation in Different Soil Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2016-01-01

    and additionally reduces the soil penetration resistance. This installation process is the most effective in soil with high coefficient of permeability where the flow of pore water is easily induced. However, the technology is still under development and some issues require further investigation and reliable...... and different boundaries. The flow of pore water is studied for homogenous sand, sand overlaid by impermeable layer and sand situated above impermeable layer. In all three cases the seepage analysis gives the required information on the critical suction pressure and on the distribution of excess pore pressure...... around the bucket skirt. The exceedance of critical suction might lead to installation failure due to formation of piping channels, which break the hydraulic seal between the skirt and soil. The excess pore pressure arising due to applied suction changes the effective stress, hence the penetration...

  14. Seepage Study for Suction Installation of Bucket Foundation in Different Soil Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2016-01-01

    around the bucket skirt. The exceedance of critical suction might lead to installation failure due to formation of piping channels, which break the hydraulic seal between the skirt and soil. The excess pore pressure arising due to applied suction changes the effective stress, hence the penetration...... and additionally reduces the soil penetration resistance. This installation process is the most effective in soil with high coefficient of permeability where the flow of pore water is easily induced. However, the technology is still under development and some issues require further investigation and reliable...... resistance of soil. Therefore, both matters are important for the design. The results show that the appearance of the impermeable layer above or below sand affects the excess pore pressure in this layer. Moreover, it has been found that the appearance of impermeable layer increases the allowable suction...

  15. On the dynamic suction pumping of blood cells in tubular hearts

    CERN Document Server

    Battista, Nicholas A; Miller, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Around the third week after gestation in embryonic development, the human heart consists only of a valvless tube, unlike a fully developed adult heart, which is multi-chambered. At this stage in development, the heart valves have not formed and so net flow of blood through the heart must be driven by a different mechanism. It is hypothesized that there are two possible mechanisms that drive blood flow at this stage - Liebau pumping (dynamic suction pumping or valveless pumping) and peristaltic pumping. We implement the immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement (IBAMR) to numerically study the effect of hematocrit on the circulation around a valveless. Both peristalsis and dynamic suction pumping are considered. In the case of dynamic suction pumping, the heart and circulatory system is simplified as a flexible tube attached to a relatively rigid racetrack. For some Womersley number (Wo) regimes, there is significant net flow around the racetrack. We find that the addition of flexible blood cells ...

  16. Pressure-controlled dual irrigation-suction system for microneurosurgery: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshikazu; Kawamata, Takakazu; Kawashima, Akitsugu; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-09-01

    We designed a new irrigation-suction system consisting mainly of a pressure-resistant irrigation fluid container, dual irrigation and suction devices, and an intracontainer pressure regulator. The intracontainer pressure can be regulated from 0 to 0.02 MPa. This system is simple and can be operated simultaneously by both an operator and an assistant. It is powered by compressed air, which is available in regular operating rooms of any hospital. No complications including blood clots in the brain and vascular injuries related to this system were observed. The excellent and safe performance of this dual irrigation-suction system in clearing the operating field by an operator and/or an assistant has been proven in more than 300 neurosurgical operations.

  17. Present knowledge about Laboratory Testing of Axial Loading on Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads...... on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section......, an overview of phenomena related with the case of study is presented. Drained and undrained condition, liquefaction and suction are examined from the theoretical point of view for mechanisms related to the case of study....

  18. Functional morphology of suction discs and attachment performance of the Mediterranean medicinal leech (Hirudo verbana Carena)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Laura; Gallenmüller, Friederike; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal leeches use their suction discs for locomotion, adhesion to the host and, in the case of the anterior disc, also for blood ingestion. The biomechanics of their suction-based adhesion systems has been little understood until now. We investigated the functional morphology of the anterior and posterior suckers of Hirudo verbana by using light and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, we analysed the adhesion qualitatively and quantitatively by conducting behavioural and mechanical experiments. Our high-speed video analyses provide new insights into the attachment and detachment processes and we present a detailed description of the leech locomotion cycle. Pull-off force measurements of the anterior and posterior suction organs on seven different substrates under both aerial and water-submersed conditions reveal a significant influence of the surrounding medium, the substrate surface roughness and the tested organ on attachment forces and tenacities. PMID:27075001

  19. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Swab and Suction Drain Tip Cultures in 4573 Spinal Surgeries: Efficacy in Management of Surgical Site Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Atsuyuki; Sakai, Kenichiro; Sato, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Shinichi; Torigoe, Ichiro; Tomori, Masaki; Yuasa, Masato; Matsukura, Yu; Arai, Yoshiyasu

    2017-08-01

    A retrospective single-center study. To assess the diagnostic value of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal swab and suction drain tip cultures. The prognostic value of MRSA nasal swab and suction drain tip cultures has not been firmly established in spinal surgery. This study retrospectively included 4573 consecutive patients who underwent spinal surgery between January 2008 and December 2014. Patients diagnosed with infectious disease were excluded. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered intraoperatively and postoperatively for 48 h. MRSA nasal swab cultures were taken from all patients before surgery. Drains were removed when the volume of postoperative fluid drainage was less than 50 mL in the preceding 24 h and cultures were made. Surgical site infection (SSI) was defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. SSI was identified in 94 cases (2.1%) and bacteria were isolated in 87 cases (92.6%). Positive MRSA nasal swab cultures were identified in 49 cases (1.1%). There was no significant difference in the SSI positivity rate between the MRSA nasal swab culture (+) and (-) groups. Positive drain tip cultures were found in 382 cases (8.4%), 28 of which developed SSI. There was a significant difference in the SSI positivity rate between the drain tip culture (+) and (-) groups. The sensitivity of drain tip culture was 29.8% and the specificity was 92.1%. In 16 of the 28 patients in the SSI (+) group with positive drain cultures, the same bacteria were isolated from the surgical site, giving a bacteria matching rate of 57.1%. MRSA nasal swab and drain tip cultures were not useful for predicting SSI. However, drain tip culture had a high positivity rate in the SSI group and the coincidence rate for the causative pathogen was relatively high. 4.

  1. Critical Concavity of a Drainage Basin for Steady-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal profiles of natural streams are known to show concave forms. Saying A as drainage area, channel gradient S can be expressed as the power-law, S≈A-θ (Flint, 1974), which is one of the scale-invariant features of drainage basin. According to literature, θ of most natural streams falls into a narrow range (0.4 natural drainage basins?' To answer above questions, we analytically derive θ for a steady-state drainage basin following Lane's equilibrium (Lane, 1955) throughout the corridor and named this specific case as the 'critical concavity'. In the derivation, sediment transport capacity is estimated by unit stream power model (Yang, 1976), yielding a power function of upstream area. Stability of channel at a local point occurs when incoming flux equals outgoing flux at the point. Therefore, given the drainage at steady-state where all channel beds are stable, the exponent of the power function should be zero. From this, we can determine the critical concavity. Considering ranges of variables associated in this derivation, critical concavity cannot be resolved as a single definite value, rather a range of critical concavity is suggested. This range well agrees with the widely reported range of θ (0.4 natural streams. In this theoretical study, inter-relationships between power-laws such as hydraulic geometry (Leopold and Maddock, 1953), dominant discharge-drainage area (Knighton et al., 1999), and concavity, are coupled into the power-law framework of stream power sediment transport model. This allows us to explore close relationships between their power-law exponents: their relative roles and sensitivity. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Flint, J. J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude, and discharge, Water Resources Research, 10, 969-973. Knighton, A. D., 1999, Downstream variation in stream power, Geomorphology, 29, 293-306. Lane, E. W., 1955, The importance of fluvial morphology in hydraulic

  2. Minimally-Invasive Image-Guided Access for Drainage of Petrous Apex Lesions: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Ramya; Tsai, Betty S; Ramachandra, Tara; Noble, Jack H; Dawant, Benoit M; Labadie, Robert F; Bennett, Marc L

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this case report, we present a novel, minimally-invasive image-guided approach to drainage of a petrous apex lesion. Patient(s) A 34-year-old man diagnosed with a petrous apex lesion consistent with cholesterol granuloma. The granuloma was large and caused mild compression of the brainstem with associated neurologic symptoms and seizure-like activity. Interventions Based on the anatomical location of the lesion, it was determined that the treatment plan would be to surgically drain the lesion via two linear paths—one following an infralabyrinthine approach and the other a subarcuate approach. Customized microstereotactic frames that mount on bone-implanted markers and constrain the drill along the desired path were utilized to accurately drill these desired paths and avoid damage to surrounding critical structures. After a simple mastoidectomy, the petrous apex was successfully reached without damage to vital adjacent structures by drilling the two linear channels using two custom microstereotactic frames. Main Outcome Measures Viscous brown liquid and debris was recovered by irrigating through one of the channels and suctioning through the other. Results Drainage of the petrous apex was successfully performed via two linear channels without any complications. Custom microstereotactic frames were used to accurately drill those linear channels. Post-operative CT ensured no complications. Post-operative course of the patient was remarkable with normal hearing and normal facial nerve function. Conclusion We presented a successful implementation of an image-guided approach to drain petrous apex. PMID:24622019

  3. Laboratory Setup for Vertically Loaded Suction Caisson Foundation in Sand and Validation of Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    devices usually installed in farms, therefore many inexpensive foundations are needed. Suction Bucket foundations are a suitable option for this purpose, but for large scale utilization more research is required, especially for in-service performance. Size of offshore wind turbine has been increasing...... during the last years and, following this trend, design choice will turn into foundation composed of three or four suction bucket foundations, called respectively tripod and tetrapod. Overturning moment in tripod and tetrapod is carried by vertical loading; therefore vertical pull-out capacity is tested...

  4. Set-up and Test Procedure for Suction Installation and Uninstallation of Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna

    This technical report describes the set-up and the test procedures for installation and uninstallation of medium-scale model of bucket foundation that can be performed in the geotechnical part of laboratory in Aalborg University. The installation of bucket foundation can be tested with the use...... of suction under the bucket lid or by applying additional force through the hydraulic piston, forcing the bucket to penetrate into the soil. Tests for uninstallation are performed also with the use of water pressure, as a reverse process to the suction installation. Both installation and uninstallation tests...

  5. Preliminary study of efficacy of cup suction in the correction of typical pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Manuel; Patoir, Arnaud; Costes, Frederic; Varlet, François; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Tiffet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary qualitative study evaluates the efficacy of cup suction in the correction of pectus excavatum (PE), and examines the place of this system as a strategic treatment and as an alternative to surgery. Between October 2011 and June 2014, a total of 84 patients (children and adult) presenting with PE were treated by cup suction, in our chest wall deformities unit. On first consultation, the patients with typical PE and with at least partial correction during the first application of cup suction and a maximal suction pressure for correction of less than 300 mbar (millibars) were included in this study. 11 patients were excluded from the present study as they presented with a complex carinatum/excavatum. The remaining 73 patients were divided into two groups: Group I, adult patients ≥ 18 year old, 17 patients. The mean age was 22.8 years old. Group II, pediatric patients suction, strengthening exercises, and clinical follow-up every two to three months. The evaluation criteria during, and on the completion of the trial were: depth of the PE, morbidity and treatment compliance. Partial and final results were evaluated by the patients, their parents, and doctor, using a qualitative scoring scale. A total of 73 patients presenting typical PE (symmetric in 52 cases and asymmetric in 21 cases) were treated by cup suction. The mean depth of PE was 23 mm (9-44). Of the 73 patients, one adult abandoned treatment and three children abandoned follow-up. The mean time of use of the device was 4h daily. At six months of treatment, the mean depth of PE was 9 mm (0-30) across all patients. 23 patients completed the treatment and exhibited flattening of the sternum. These patients were considered to have an excellent aesthetic result. The mean treatment duration to normal reshape was achieved at 10 months (4-21). The remaining patients are improving under continuing active treatment. The mean depth of PE in this group was 12 mm (4-30), after a mean treatment duration

  6. Irrigation versus suction alone during laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Peter, Shawn D; Adibe, Obinna O; Iqbal, Corey W; Fike, Frankie B; Sharp, Susan W; Juang, David; Lanning, David; Murphy, J Patrick; Andrews, Walter S; Sharp, Ronald J; Snyder, Charles L; Holcomb, George W; Ostlie, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of irrigating the peritoneal cavity during appendectomy for perforated appendicitis has been debated extensively. To date, prospective comparative data are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing peritoneal irrigation to suction alone during laparoscopic appendectomy in children. Children younger than 18 years with perforated appendicitis were randomized to peritoneal irrigation with a minimum of 500 mL normal saline, or suction only during laparoscopic appendectomy. Perforation was defined as a hole in the appendix or fecalith in the abdomen. The primary outcome variable was postoperative abscess. Using a power of 0.8 and alpha of 0.05, a sample size of 220 patients was calculated. A battery-powered laparoscopic suction/irrigator was used in all cases. Pre- and postoperative management was controlled. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. A total of 220 patients were enrolled between December 2008 and July 2011. There were no differences in patient characteristics at presentation. There was no difference in abscess rate, which was 19.1% with suction only and 18.3% with irrigation (P = 1.0). Duration of hospitalization was 5.5 ± 3.0 with suction only and 5.4 ± 2.7 days with group (P = 0.93). Mean hospital charges was $48.1K in both groups (P = 0.97). Mean operative time was 38.7 ± 14.9 minutes with suction only and 42.8 ± 16.7 minutes with irrigation (P = 0.056). Irrigation was felt to be necessary in one case (0.9%) randomized to suction only. In the patients who developed an abscess, there was no difference in duration of hospitalization, days of intravenous antibiotics, duration of home health care, or abscess-related charges. There is no advantage to irrigation of the peritoneal cavity over suction alone during laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. The study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov at the inception of enrollment (NCT00981136).

  7. Rotating flow of a nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching surface with suction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Siti Nur Alwani; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md

    2017-08-01

    An analysis of the rotating nanofluid flow past an exponentially stretched surface with the presence of suction is studied in this work. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper, titania and alumina are considered. The system of ordinary differential equations is computed numerically using a shooting method in Maple software after being transformed from the partial differential equations. This transformation has considered the similarity transformations in exponential form. The physical effect of the rotation, suction and nanoparticle volume fraction parameters on the rotating flow and heat transfer phenomena is investigated and has been described in detail through graphs. The dual solutions are found to appear when the governing parameters reach a certain range.

  8. Comparison of numerical formulations for the modeling of tensile loaded suction buckets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed; Clausen, Johan Christian; Damkilde, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The tensile resistance of a suction bucket is investigated using three different numerical formulations. The first formulation utilizes the three-field u-p-U formulation accounting for solid and fluid displacements, u and U, as well as the pore-fluid pressure, p. The two other formulations comprise...... the simpler u-p formulation in its dynamic and quasi-static form, accounting only for solid displacement and pore-fluid pressure. As basis for comparison, the tensile resistance of a single suction bucket is investigated using a velocity-driven model for a wide range of velocities. It is found, that the quasi...

  9. Comparison between manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing and aspiration via a suction pump with a suction trap connection for performing bronchoalveolar lavage in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Katharine S; Defarges, Alice M N; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G; Dobson, Howard; Viel, Laurent; Brisson, Brigitte A; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic quality of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid acquired from healthy dogs by manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing (MAPT) and via suction pump aspiration (SPA) with a suction trap connection. 12 healthy adult Beagles. BAL was performed with bronchoscopic guidance in anesthetized dogs. The MAPT was performed with a 35-mL syringe attached to polyethylene tubing wedged in a bronchus via the bronchoscope's biopsy channel. The SPA was performed with 5 kPa of negative pressure applied to the bronchoscope's suction valve via a suction trap. The MAPT and SPA techniques were performed in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes of each dog. Two 1 mL/kg lavages were performed per site. Samples of BAL fluid were analyzed on the basis of a semiquantitative quality scale, percentage of retrieved fluid, and total nucleated and differential cell counts. Results were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Percentage of BAL fluid retrieved (median difference, 16.2%), surfactant score (median difference, 1), and neutrophil count (median difference, 74 cells/μL) were significantly higher for SPA than for MAPT. A higher BAL fluid epithelial cell score was obtained via MAPT, compared with that for samples obtained via SPA (median difference, 1). Results indicated that in healthy dogs, SPA provided a higher percentage of BAL fluid retrieval than did MAPT. The SPA technique may improve the rate of diagnostic success for BAL in dogs, compared with that for MAPT. Further evaluation of these aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required.

  10. 75 FR 65483 - Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Reissuance of General NPDES Permits (GP) for Alaskan Medium-Size Suction Dredging (Permit... general permit. SUMMARY: On October 7, 2010, the general permit regulating the activities of suction...

  11. Topology optimization of a suction muffler in a fluid machine to maximize energy efficiency and minimize broadband noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungjae; Wang, Semyung; Cho, Sungman

    2016-03-01

    A suction muffler used in a fluid machine has three functions: noise reduction; minimizing pressure drop and improving energy efficiency using acoustic effects. However, no method of suction muffler design considers all three of these functions concurrently. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to provide an integrated design method of a suction muffler in a fluid machine that considers all three functions. The topology optimization method for acoustic and fluid systems was applied to an integrated design. However, the interaction between fluid and acoustic was not considered. In addition, the acoustic input impedance of a suction muffler was used for a specific acoustical resonance frequency to improve the energy efficiency of a fluid machine. Finally, the sequential optimization method based on physical investigations was proposed to satisfy several design criteria. The proposed method was applied to the suction muffler in refrigerator's compressor.

  12. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  13. Evaluating lysimeter drainage against soil deep percolation modeled with profile soil moisture, field tracer propagation, and lab measured soil hydraulic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Vicente; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Iversen, Bo Vangsø

    them have been reported. To compare among methods, one year of four large-scale lysimeters drainage (D) was evaluated against modeled soil deep percolation using either profile soil moisture, bromide breakthrough curves from suction cups, or measured soil hydraulic properties in the laboratory...... model using field q, and 572 mm with the laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties. In conclusion, lysimeters presented the lowest D and can be considered as a lower bound for D; whereas either laboratory measured soil hydraulic properties or models calibrated with profile soil moisture yielded....... Measured volumetric soil water content (q) was 3-4% higher inside lysimeters than in the field probably due to a zero tension lower boundary condition inside lysimeters. D from soil hydraulic properties measured in the laboratory resulted in a 15% higher evapotranspiration and 12% lower drainage...

  14. Effects of manual hyperinflation and suctioning in respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jessica Siu-Ping; Jones, Alice Yee-Men

    2005-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia results from bacterial colonisation of the aerodigestive tract or aspiration of contaminated secretions into the lower airways. As a consequence of infection of the lung parenchyma and alveolitis, accumulation of inflammatory exudates and infiltration of airway mucosa can lead to unfavourable respiratory mechanics in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Tracheal suction is often employed by nursing staff in the management of mechanically ventilated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but this technique has the potential to increase respiratory resistance. Manual hyperinflation is used by physiotherapists to improve lung volume and mobilise secretions and has been shown to increase lung compliance. The effect of manual hyperinflation on airway resistance has not been studied. This study aims to demonstrate an additional mechanical benefit to the respiratory system when manual hyperinflation and suction techniques are combined, by comparing the application of manual hyperinflation and suction with suction alone on static lung compliance (C(L)) and inspiratory resistance (R(AW)) in mechanically ventilated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Fifteen adult patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia were recruited and acted as their own controls. Manual hyperinflation followed by suction (manual hyperinflation plus suction) and suction alone were applied consecutively, in random order, on two occasions, four hours apart. Respiratory variables, C(L) and R(AW), were measured five times and the averaged value documented. Data were recorded before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after each intervention protocol. C(L) increased by 22% and R(AW) decreased by 21%, up to 30 minutes after manual hyperinflation plus suction, but not after suction alone. This study suggests that manual hyperinflation in conjunction with suction induces beneficial changes in respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients with

  15. Effect of forest drainage on the carbon balance and greenhouse impact of Finnish peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Minkkinen, K.; Laiho, R. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to produce an estimate of the change in the biomass and peat carbon stores arising from the drainage of peatlands for forestry, and of the change of greenhouse impact of these ecosystems. The study shows that the subsidence of mire surfaces due to drainage has been relatively small, on average about 20 cm. The observed increase in bulk density after drainage is caused by the physical compression of peat and the post-drainage input of organic material in the form of litter production from the above and below ground parts of the tree layer. Oxidative decay of organic matter may have further increased the compaction of peat, especially in fertile sites. When the changes in peat and vegetation carbon stores are summed up, it seems that, within the site types studied, the total impact of drainage to the ecosystem carbon store is close to zero on the nutrient rich sites and clearly positive on the poorer types. Water level drawdown in peatlands after drainage for forestry appears to decrease the greenhouse impact at least for a few hundred years. The estimated changes in all three emission components (CH{sub 4} emissions, CO{sub 2} sink from peatland and CO{sub 2} sequestered in trees) reduce the radiative forcing by approximately similar amounts

  16. Chronology and alteration of cyclic drainage events for ice-dammed Lake Tiningnilik, Greenland, in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Eric Juergen; Furuya, Masato; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    climate change in Greenland. We take a close look at Lake Tiningnilik and previous studies to constrain the timing of the drainage events using historical air photos and satellite imagery starting in the 1940s and 1970s, respectively. Tiningnilik has been occasionally surveyed on the ground since the 1980...

  17. The lymphatic drainage of the cranial part of the sheep's uterus and its possible functional significance.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahim, S E; Bland, K P

    1985-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage of the cranial part of the uterus is described. Some of the uterine lymphatic vessels are closely associated with the ovarian arterial supply. It is proposed that the uterine lymphatics form part of the local pathway for the transfer of uterine prostaglandin F2 alpha to the ovary for luteolysis.

  18. Bacteremia during adenoidectomy: a comparison of suction diathermy adenoid ablation and adenoid curettage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casserly, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Transient bacteremia is induced by adenoidectomy when the integrity of the nasopharyngeal membrane is broken. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in patients undergoing adenoidectomy, to identify the causative organisms, and to compare the incidences of bacteremia between the two techniques suction diathermy and curettage.

  19. Dispersion of suspended material from an operating sand suction dredge in the Øresund (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of suspended material in the immediate vicinity of an operating sand suction dredge in the Oresund was 3-5000mg/l. Concentrations > 100 mg/l were restricted to a downstream distance of .apprx. 150m and ambient levels were reached within .apprx. 1 km of the dredge. The natural va...

  20. 75 FR 70112 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Non-Powered Suction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 878 Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery... Improper function of suction apparatus (e.g., reflux of waste exudate to wound, incorrect delivery of... wound selection, improper wound management, improper placement of dressing) Table 1--Risks to Health and...

  1. Endoscopic en bloc resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with suction excavation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-06-21

    Here, we report the first successful endoscopic resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using a novel perforation-free suction excavation technique. A 49-year-old woman presented for further management of a gastric subepithelial tumor on the lesser curvature of the lower body, originally detected via routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a 4-cm extraluminally protruding mass originating from the muscularis propria layer. The patient firmly refused surgical resection owing to potential cardiac problems, and informed consent was obtained for endoscopic removal. Careful dissection and suction of the tumor was repeated until successful extraction was achieved without serosal injury. We named this procedure the suction excavation technique. The tumor's dimensions were 3.5 cm × 2.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor was positive for C-KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical staining. The mitotic count was 6/50 high-power fields. The patient was followed for 5 years without tumor recurrence. This case demonstrated the use of endoscopic resection of an exophytic GIST using the suction excavation technique as a potential therapy without surgical resection.

  2. A film model for free convection over a vertical porous plate with blowing or suction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    1993-01-01

    A film model is described for free convective heat transfer and friction in the presence of wall suction or injection. The analysis yields a thermal correction factor, which appears to be the classical (Ackermann) expression, and a novel friction correction factor, derived here for the first time.

  3. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  4. Influence of saturation degree and role of suction in unsaturated soils behaviour: application to liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernay Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pore fluid compressibility on liquefaction has been studied by various authors. But few papers have been published about the role of suction in cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils. Most of these works use Skempton coefficient B as a reference in terms of saturation degree to analyze their results. The use of B in experimental conditions is convenient, but is not accurate when studying liquefaction behavior, since effects of suction are neglected. In this paper, the influence of saturation degree on mechanical behavior of a soil under dynamic loads is studied. Cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on sand samples, under various levels of saturation. Soil-water characteristic curve was used, in order to study influence of suction. The first results confirm that when the degree of saturation decreases, the resistance increases. Initial positive suction tends to stiffen the soil. It also appears that the presence of air delays the occurrence of liquefaction, but doesn’t prevent it. Indeed, liquefaction is observed, whether the soil is saturated or not.

  5. Medium-scale Laboratory Installation of Suction Bucket Foundation in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    in appendix. Main report includes also main findings and comparisons of tests. Similar work on the seepage analysis for installation of bucket foundation has been performed based on numerical results. Tests results obtained in laboratory campaign are compared with numerical findings in order to improve...... the design method for installation of the suction bucket foundation...

  6. Hirschsprung′s disease: Role of rectal suction biopsy - data on 216 specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zillur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung′s disease (HD is dependent on the histological study of rectal ganglion cells, and an open rectal biopsy was the mainstay that required general anaesthesia (GA and carried risk of postoperative rectal bleeding. Suction rectal biopsy later gained wide acceptance and became the choice as there is no requirement of GA and virtual absence of any complications. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the histological findings of 216 rectal suction biopsies studied from 2005 to 2009. Results: There were 143 male and 73 female children. 196 (90.7% children were within 1 year of age. Among 216 rectal suction biopsies 181 (83.80% were aganglionic, 27 (12.5% were ganglionic and 8 (3.7% were inadequate. Majority of patients were of less than 1 year of age (94.47%. Conclusions : The rectal suction biopsy is a bed side procedure, safe, cheap and time saving. There is high degree of accuracy, simplicity and absence of complications.

  7. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  8. Suction removal of sediment from between armor blocks. III: Breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    When a sediment beach covered by stones or an armor layer is exposed to breaking waves, the turbulence generated by the breaking waves can cause mobilization and removal of the sediment underneath the stones. In two earlier studies by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU)-group, the suction...

  9. Simulation of flow structure in the suction pipe of a hydroturbine by integral characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuibin, P.A.; Okulov, Valery; Pylev, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of a model of a twisted flow of an inviscid incompressible liquid, we solve the problem of determining the frequency and amplitude of oscillations caused by the precession of a helical vortex core in the suction tube of a hydroturbine from the specified integral characteristics...

  10. Temperature stratification and insect pest populations in stored wheat with suction versus pressure aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-year study was conducted to compare temperature profiles in the headspace and in the bulk mass of wheat aerated through pressure aeration and suction aeration. Insect pitfall traps were used to measure naturally-occurring populations of stored product insects. Results show uniform distributi...

  11. Long term effects of cyclic loading on suction caisson foundations in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupea, C.; Thijssen, R.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind turbine projects have been characterised by an increase in costs, sizes and distances from shore, EWEA 2012 This created a need of investigating the adequacy of alternative and more fìnancially attractive foundation types such as suction caissons. Within a multi-footing configuration,

  12. On the influence of buoyancy and suction/injection In Heat and Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we examined the influence of buoyancy and suction/injection in the problem of unsteady convection with chemical reaction and radiative heat transfer past a flat porous plate moving through a binary mixture in an optically thin environment is presented. The dimensionless governing equations for this ...

  13. The effect of blowing or suction on laminar free convective heat transfer on flat horizontal plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper laminar free convective heat transfer on flat permeable horizontal plates is investigated. To assess the effect of surface suction or injection on heat transfer a correction factor, provided by the film model (or ldquofilm theoryrdquo), is applied. Comparing the film model

  14. Technical problems during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.; Hoever, S.

    1985-11-01

    Technical problems are repeatedly encountered during percutaneous transhepatic drainage by catheter or endo-prosthesis which are caused by the position, extent and tightness of the stenosis in the biliary ducts. All means of overcoming these problems must be used, otherwise technical failure or complications become inevitable. The methods to be adopted if catheters break and endo-prostheses become displaced or occluded, and for haemorrhage, are described, as well as methods for draining multiple, proximal or intrahepatic stenoses. This is based on an experience with 74 patients on whom 130 drainage procedures have been perforemd (80 catheters, 50 endo-prostheses). All complications and mortality (five patients, 3.8%) were due to problems which could not be solved. Internal biliary drainage by means of an endoprosthesis is markedly superior to catheter drainage. (orig.).

  15. Drainage information analysis and mapping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop a Drainage Information Analysis and Mapping System (DIAMS), with online inspection : data submission, which will comply with the necessary requirements, mandated by both the Governmental Accounting...

  16. Profile of thoracic trauma victims submitted to chest drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broska, Cesar Augusto; Botelho, Adriane Barbosa; Linhares, André DE Castro; DE-Oliveria, Mariana Santos; Veronese, Gabriela; Naufel, Carlos Roberto; Batista, Lislaine Cruz; Diogo, Maria Angélica Kurpel

    2017-01-01

    to describe and compare the variables involved in trauma victims undergoing thoracic drainage. we conducted a retrospective, analytical, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with medical records of patients attended at the Trauma Service of the Curitiba Evangelical University Hospital between February 2011 and January 2014. there were 488 patients undergoing chest drainage, 84.7% men and 15.3% women, with an average age of 38.2 years. Attendances usually occurred at night, without predominance between open or closed mechanism, gender or age group. The majority of patients with thoracic trauma requiring drainage were diagnosed by anamnesis and physical examination (41.1%) and drained in the emergency room (80.8%). Most of the patients (66.2%) had another associated lesion, mostly some abdominal viscera. Complications were present in 16.6% (81 patients), most of them due to drainage positioning error (9.2%). The mean hospital stay was 15 days and drainage lasted for an average of 8.1 days, with no statistical difference between open and closed trauma. The clinical outcome was discharge in most cases. the profile of patients with thoracic trauma is that of young men, attended at night, with some other associated lesion. Although diagnosis and treatment were rapid and most often without the need for complex examinations, the time of drainage, hospitalization and complications were higher than in the literature, which can be explained by the drainage being made at the Emergency Room and the presence of associated injuries. descrever e comparar as variáveis envolvidas nos pacientes vítimas de trauma torácico submetidos à drenagem de tórax. estudo transversal descritivo analítico retrospectivo realizado com prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Serviço de Trauma do Hospital Universitário Evangélico de Curitiba entre fevereiro de 2011 e janeiro de 2014. neste período foram atendidos 488 pacientes, 84,7% homens e 15,3% mulheres, com média de idade de 38,2 anos

  17. Pressure Jumps during Drainage in Macroporous Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soto, Diego; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Corral, A

    2018-01-01

    Tensiometer readings obtained at high resolution during drainage of structured soil columns revealed pressure jumps with long range correlations and burst sequences with a hierarchical structure. The statistical properties of jumps are similar to Haines jumps described in invasion percolation...... processes at pore scale, but they are much larger in amplitude and duration. Pressure jumps can result from transient redistribution of water potential in internal regions of soil and can be triggered during drainage by capillary displacements at the scale of structural pores....

  18. The effects of suction and pin/lock suspension systems on transtibial amputees' gait performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Gholizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suction sockets that are commonly prescribed for transtibial amputees are believed to provide a better suspension than the pin/lock systems. Nevertheless, their effect on amputees' gait performance has not yet been fully investigated. The main intention of this study was to understand the potential effects of the Seal-in (suction and the Dermo (pin/lock suspension systems on amputees' gait performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten unilateral transtibial amputees participated in this prospective study, and two prostheses were fabricated for each of them. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to evaluate the temporal-spatial, kinematics and kinetics variables during normal walking. We also asked the participants to complete some part of Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire (PEQ regarding their satisfaction and problems with both systems. The results revealed that there was more symmetry in temporal-spatial parameters between the prosthetic and sound limbs using the suction system. However, the difference between two systems was not significant (p<0.05. Evaluation of kinetic data and the subjects' feedback showed that the participants had more confidence using the suction socket and the sockets were more fit for walking. Nevertheless, the participants had more complaints with this system due to the difficulty in donning and doffing. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that even though the suction socket could create better suspension, fit, and gait performance, overall satisfaction was higher with the pin/lock system due to easy donning and doffing of the prosthesis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: irct.ir IRCT2014012816395N1.

  19. The suction mechanism of the pipid frog, Pipa pipa (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundall, David; Fernandez, Edward; Irish, Frances

    2017-09-01

    Most suction-feeding, aquatic vertebrates create suction by rapidly enlarging the oral cavity and pharynx. Forceful enlargement of the pharynx is powered by longitudinal muscles that retract skeletal elements of the hyoid, more caudal branchial arches, and, in many fish, the pectoral girdle. This arrangement was thought to characterize all suction-feeding vertebrates. However, it does not exist in the permanently aquatic, tongueless Pipa pipa, an Amazonian frog that can catch fish. Correlating high-speed (250 and 500 fps) video records with anatomical analysis and functional tests shows that fundamental features of tetrapod body design are altered to allow P. pipa to suction-feed. In P. pipa, the hyoid apparatus is not connected to the skull and is enclosed by the pectoral girdle. The major retractor of the hyoid apparatus arises not from the pectoral girdle but from the femur, which lies largely within the soft tissue boundaries of the trunk. Retraction of the hyoid is coupled with expansion of the anterior trunk, which occurs when the hypertrophied ventral pectoral elements are depressed and the urostyle and sacral vertebra are protracted and slide forward on the pelvic girdle, thereby elongating the entire trunk. We suggest that a single, robust pair of muscles adduct the cleithra to depress the ventral pectoral elements with force, while modified tail muscles slide the axial skeleton cranially on the pelvic girdle. Combined hyoid retraction, axial protraction, and pectoral depression expand the buccopharyngeal cavity to a volume potentially equal to that of the entire resting body of the frog. Pipa may be the only tetrapod vertebrate clade that enlarges its entire trunk during suction-feeding. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A randomized comparison of cold snare polypectomy versus a suction pseudopolyp technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Said; Ball, Alex J; Riley, Stuart A; Kitsanta, Panagiota; Johal, Shawinder

    2015-11-01

    Cold snare techniques are widely used for removal of diminutive and small colorectal polyps. The influence of resection technique on the effectiveness of polypectomy is unknown. We therefore compared standard cold snare polypectomy with a newly described suction pseudopolyp technique, for completeness of excision and for complications. In this single-center study, 112 patients were randomized to cold snare polypectomy or the suction pseudopolyp technique. Primary outcome was endoscopic completeness of excision. Consensus regarding the endoscopic assessment of completeness of excision was standardized and aided by chromoendoscopy. Secondary outcomes included: completeness of histological excision, polyp "fly away" and retrieval rates, early bleeding (48 hours), delayed bleeding (2 weeks), and perforation. 148 polyps were removed, with size range 3 - 7 mm, 60 % in the left colon, and 90 % being sessile. Regarding completeness of excision (with uncertain findings omitted): endoscopically, this was higher with the suction pseudopolyp technique compared with cold snare polypectomy but not statistically significantly so (73/74 [98.6 %] vs. 63/68 [92.6 %]; P = 0.08). A trend towards a higher complete histological excision rate with the suction pseudopolyp technique was also not statistically significant (45/59 [76.3 %] vs. 37/58 [63.8 %]; P = 0.14). Polyp retrieval rate was not significantly different (suction 68/76 [89.5 %] vs. cold snare 64/72 [88.9 %]; P = 0.91). No perforation or bleeding requiring hemostasis occurred in either group.  In this study both polypectomy techniques were found to be safe and highly effective, but further large multicenter trials are required.Clinical trial registration at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02208401. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Scaling of suction-feeding kinematics and dynamics in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Scaling effects on the kinematics of suction feeding in fish remain poorly understood, at least partly because of the inconsistency of the results of the existing experimental studies. Suction feeding is mechanically distinct from most other type of movements in that negative pressure inside the buccal cavity is thought to be the most important speed-limiting factor during suction. However, how buccal pressure changes with size and how this influences the speed of buccal expansion is unknown. In this paper, the effects of changes in body size on kinematics of suction feeding are studied in the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Video recordings of prey-capturing C. gariepinus ranging in total length from 111 to 923 mm were made, from which maximal displacements, velocities and accelerations of several elements of the cranial system were determined. By modelling the observed expanding head of C. gariepinus as a series of expanding hollow elliptical cylinders, buccal pressure and power requirement for the expansive phase of prey capture were calculated for an ontogenetic sequence of catfish. We found that angular velocities decrease approximately proportional with increasing cranial size, while linear velocities remain more or less constant. Although a decreasing (angular) speed of buccal expansion with increasing size could be predicted (based on calculations of power requirement and the expected mass-proportional scaling of available muscular power in C. gariepinus), the observed drop in (angular) speed during growth exceeds these predictions. The calculated muscle-mass-specific power output decreases significantly with size, suggesting a relatively lower suction effort in the larger catfish compared with the smaller catfish.

  2. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona

    Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...... in drainage. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2016) (www.supreme-tech.dk) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies for P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches of implementing filter technologies including drainage well...

  3. Evaluation of Flow-Induced Dynamic Stress and Vibration of Volute Casing for a Large-Scale Double-Suction Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient analysis was carried out to investigate the dynamic stress and vibration of volute casing for a large double-suction centrifugal pump by using the transient fluid-structure interaction theory. The flow pulsations at flow rate ranging from 60% to 100% of the nominal flow rate (Qd were taken as the boundary conditions for FEM analysis of the pump volute casing structure. The results revealed that, for all operating conditions, the maximum stress located at the volute tongue region, whereas the maximum vibration displacement happened close to the shaft hole region. It was also found that the blade passing frequency and its harmonics were dominant in the variations of dynamic stress and vibration displacement. The amplitude of the dominant frequency for the maximum stress detected at 0.6 Qd was 1.14 times that at Qd, lower than the related difference observed for pressure fluctuations (3.23 times. This study provides an effective method to quantify the flow-induced structural dynamic characteristics for a large-scale double-suction pump. It can be used to direct the hydraulic and structural design and stable operation, as well as fatigue life prediction for large-scale pumps.

  4. 46 CFR 171.155 - Drainage of an open boat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of an open boat. 171.155 Section 171.155... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.155 Drainage of an open boat. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge. Overboard drainage of the deck is not...

  5. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in malignant extrahepatic cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevels, J.

    1985-03-01

    The technique of non-surgical percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage has been improved recently. Combined internal and external drainage of bile was enabled by manipulation of a guide wire and a drainage catheter through the stenosed or obstructed section of the extrahepatic biliary ducts. Experience have been gained concerning internal drainage of bile by percutaneous transhepatic insertion of an endoprosthesis for some years now.

  6. Failures and complications of thoracic drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Thoracic drainage is a surgical procedure for introducing a drain into the pleural space to drain its contents. Using this method, the pleura is discharged and set to the physiological state which enables the reexpansion of the lungs. The aim of the study was to prove that the use of modern principles and protocols of thoracic drainage significantly reduces the occurrence of failures and complications, rendering the treatment more efficient. Methods. The study included 967 patients treated by thoracic drainage within the period from January 1, 1989 to June 1, 2000. The studied patients were divided into 2 groups: group A of 463 patients treated in the period from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1994 in whom 386 pleural drainage (83.36% were performed, and group B of 602 patients treated form January 1, 1995 to June 1, 2000 in whom 581 pleural drainage (96.51% were performed. The patients of the group A were drained using the classical standards of thoracic drainage by the general surgeons. The patients of the group B, however, were drained using the modern standards of thoracic drainage by the thoracic surgeons, and the general surgeons trained for this kind of the surgery. Results. The study showed that better results were achieved in the treatment of the patients from the group B. The total incidence of the failures and complications of thoracic drainage decreased from 36.52% (group A to 12.73% (group B. The mean length of hospitalization of the patients without complications in the group A was 19.5 days versus 10 days in the group B. The mean length of the treatment of the patients with failures and complications of the drainage in the group A was 33.5 days versus 17.5 days in the group B. Conclusion. The shorter length of hospitalization and the lower morbidity of the studied patients were considered to be the result of the correct treatment using modern principles of thoracic drainage, a suitable surgical technique, and a

  7. Septic arthritis of the knee: presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateschrang, Atesch; Albrecht, Dirk; Schröter, Steffen; Hirt, Bernhard; Weise, Kuno; Dolderer, Jürgen H

    2011-08-07

    The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. After ten minutes, the average extinction was e(1C) = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e(1N) = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e(2C) = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e(2N) = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p irrigation-suction system. A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  8. Cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood improves the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Jakob; Westerberg, Martin; Bengtsson, Anders; Jeppsson, Anders

    2013-09-01

    The inflammatory response after cardiac surgery is characterized by a profound release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recent data suggest that the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is of greater importance than the absolute levels. Retransfusion of unwashed cardiotomy suction blood contributes to the inflammatory response, but the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and whether cell salvage before retransfusion influences the systemic balance have not been investigated previously. Twenty-five coronary artery bypass grafting patients were randomized to either cell salvage of cardiotomy suction blood or no cell salvage before retransfusion. Plasma levels of three anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4 and IL-10] and two proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6), and the IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was measured in cardiotomy suction blood before and after cell salvage, and in the systemic circulation before, during and after surgery. Plasma levels of all cytokines except IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation. The IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio was 6-fold higher in cardiotomy suction blood than in the systemic circulation [median 10.2 (range 1.1-75) vs 1.7 (0.2-24), P suction blood and improved the systemic IL-6-to-IL-10 ratio 24 h after surgery [median 5.2 (3.6-17) vs 12.4 (4.9-31)] compared with no cell salvage (P = 0.032). The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood is unfavourable. Cell salvage reduces the absolute levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in cardiotomy suction blood and improves the balance in the systemic circulation after surgery.

  9. Design and Hemocompatibility Analysis of a Double-Suction Injection Suspension Blood Pump Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhu, Liangfan; Luo, Yun

    2017-11-01

    The blood pump has become a possible solution to heart diseases. For the prevention of device failure and hemocompatibility problems, a rotary pump with suspended bearing is a preferred solution. In our previous work, a novel injection suspension method has been introduced to levitate the rotor. The suspension method is totally passive. This study aims to apply this suspension method to a double-suction pump, and the property of the pump was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The flow field of the pump is simulated based on the SST k-ω turbulent model. The characteristic curves of the pump were calculated. At the nominal working point of 5 L/min, 100 mm Hg, the suspension force acting on the rotor was detected, which could reach 0.46 N with a gap of 150 µm. We compared the pump with a previously developed single-suction injection pump to evaluate the blood compatibility of the double-suction design. The average scalar shear stress values were 3.13 Pa for the double-suction pump and 7.10 Pa for the single-suction pump. Larger volumes in the single-suction pump were exposed to shear stresses higher than 10 Pa. Thresholds for the von Willebrand factor cleavage, platelet activation, and hemolysis were defined to be 9 Pa, 50 Pa, and 150 Pa, respectively. The volume fractions for the double-suction pump are lower for all thresholds. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values for the two pumps were calculated to be 0.008 g/100 L and 0.016 g/100 L. Results proved that the double-suction pump has a better hemocompatibility compared with the single-suction pump. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [The biological aftereffects of preoperative and palliative percutaneous biliary drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo, A; Hebrero, J; Arconada, J A; Fernández, M; Elexpuru, J I; Escudero, B; Lalinde, J; Pinillos, E

    1992-01-01

    Biological repercussions in 78 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice in whom percutaneous biliary drainage was performed, are reported. In 37 cases drainage was done during operation while 41 were palliative. Biochemistry, proteinogram, hematological studies, renal function and immunology were assessed 15.7 +/- 3.4 days postoperatively and 25.2 +/- 4.7 days in palliative drainage. Results show a significant improvement of all parameters, more important in preoperative drainages especially in those combining percutaneous and internal drainage techniques.

  11. Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial on Suction Elastic Band Ligator Versus Forceps Ligator in the Treatment of Haemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mohd Ramzisham

    2005-10-01

    Conclusion: Suction band ligation is superior to forceps ligation for the treatment of second- and third-degree haemorrhoids in terms of pain tolerance, amount of analgesia consumed and intra-procedure bleeding.

  12. Effects of manual hyperinflation and suctioning in respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Jessica Siu-Ping; Jones, Alice Yee-Men

    2005-01-01

    ... in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Tracheal suction is often employed by nursing staff in the management of mechanically ventilated patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia but this technique has the potential to increase respiratory resistance...

  13. Influence of Splitter Blades on the Cavitation Performance of a Double Suction Centrifugal Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of splitter blades on double suction centrifugal pumps two impellers with and without splitter blades were investigated numerically and experimentally. Three-dimensional turbulence simulations with and without full cavitation model were applied to simulate the flow in the two pumps with different impellers. The simulation results agreed with the experiment results and the internal flows were analyzed. Both the numerical and experimental results show that by adding splitter blades the hydraulic performance and the cavitation performance of the pump are improved. The pump efficiency is increased especially at high flow rate condition. The pump high efficiency area is extended dramatically. At the same time since the splitter blades share some part of the blade loading, the pump critical NPSH value is decreased. Obvious pressure increase and velocity decrease at blade suction surface near leading edge were observed in the pump impeller with splitter blades. And the pump cavitation performance was improved consequently.

  14. Active Flow Control in a Radial Vaned Diffuser for Surge Margin Improvement: A Multislot Suction Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Marsan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is the final step of a research project that aims at evaluating the possibility of delaying the surge of a centrifugal compressor stage using a boundary-layer suction technique. It is based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations. Boundary-layer suction is applied within the radial vaned diffuser. Previous work has shown the necessity to take into account the unsteady behavior of the flow when designing the active flow control technique. In this paper, a multislot strategy is designed according to the characteristics of the unsteady pressure field. Its implementation results in a significant increase of the stable operating range predicted by the unsteady RANS numerical model. A hub-corner separation still exists further downstream in the diffuser passage but does not compromise the stability of the compressor stage.

  15. Suppression of secondary flows in a double suction centrifugal pump with different loading distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, H. F.; Wang, F. J.; Zhang, Z. C.; Yao, Z. F.; Zhou, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary flow is one of the main reasons for low efficiency in double suction centrifugal pump. In a 3-D inverse design method, the pump blade could be designed by a specified loading distribution to control the flow field in pump. In order to study the influence of loading distribution on secondary flow of a double suction centrifugal pump, the external characteristics and the internal flow field of the pump with three kinds of loading distributions are analysed by using CFD approach. According to the simulation results, it is found that the form of fore-loading distribution at shroud and aft-loading distribution at hub could improve the optimal efficiency and broaden the high efficiency area of the pump. Furthermore, the secondary flow in impeller exit region and volute could be significantly suppressed if the slope of loading distribution curve of shroud is set to be -0.7.

  16. Beneficial effects of intermittent suction and pressure treatment in intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil

    1993-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of a physical treatment modality in patients with intermittent claudication. During this treatment a major part of the skin surface is subjected to intermittent suction and pressure. In a previous, preliminary study the authors found a beneficial effect...... of this treatment in intermittent claudication. The study included 34 patients with moderate, stable intermittent claudication. Twenty-two patients participated in a double-blinded, randomized trial comparing the effects of 25 treatments to 25 placebo applications given over a period of two months. Twelve patients...... administration. The treatment caused significant increments in the ADP thresholds for platelet aggregation, while the effects on fibrinolysis were uncertain. It is concluded that intermittent suction and pressure treatment offers a new approach for conservative treatment of intermittent claudication....

  17. Fabricating Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Microcomponent by Suction Casting Using Silicon Micromold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A suction casting process for fabricating Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5 bulk metallic glass microcomponent using silicon micromold has been studied. A complicated BMG microgear with 50 μm in module has been cast successfully. Observed by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that the cast microgear duplicates the silicon micromold including the microstructure on the surface. The amorphous state of the microgear is confirmed by transmission election microscopy. The nanoindentation hardness and elasticity modulus of the microgear reach 6.5 GPa and 94.5 GPa. The simulation and experimental results prove that the suction casting process with the silicon micromold is a promising one-step method to fabricate bulk metallic glass microcomponents with high performance for applications in microelectromechanical system.

  18. Suction or Nonsuction: How to Manage a Chest Tube After Pulmonary Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Gaetano; Brunelli, Alessandro; Rocco, Raffaele

    2017-02-01

    Despite several randomized trials and meta-analyses, the dilemma as to whether to apply suction after subtotal pulmonary resection has not been solved. The combination of a poorly understood pathophysiology of the air leak phenomenon and the inadequate quality of the published randomized trials is actually preventing thoracic surgeons from abandoning an empirical management of chest drains. Even digital systems do not seem to have made the difference so far. Based on the evidence of the literature, the authors propose a new air leak predictor score (ALPS) as a contributing step toward appropriateness in using intraoperative sealants, opting for an external suction and managing and chest tubes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Suction and Blowing Flow Control on Airfoil for Drag Reduction in Subsonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljit, S. S.; Saad, M. R.; Nasib, A. Z.; Sani, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Idris, A. C.

    2017-10-01

    Lift force is produced from a pressure difference between the pressures acting in upper and lower surfaces. Therefore, flow becomes detached from the surface of the airfoil at separation point and form vortices. These vortices affect the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil in term of lift and drag coefficient. Therefore, this study is investigating the effect of suction and jet blowing in boundary layer separation control on NACA 0012 airfoil in a subsonic wind tunnel. The experiment examined both methods at the position of 25% of the chord-length of the airfoil at Reynolds number 1.2 × 105. The findings show that suction and jet blowing affect the aerodynamic performance of NACA 0012 airfoil and can be an effective means for boundary layer separation control in subsonic flow.

  20. Alternative Shape of Suction Caisson to Reduce Risk of Buckling under high Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Using large suction caissons for offshore wind turbines is an upcoming technology also referred to as bucket foundations. During operation the bucket foundation is loaded by a large overturning moment from the wind turbine and the wave loads. However, during installation the bucket is loaded...... by uniform external pressure and vertical forces. The bucket foundation does not require heavy installation equipment, but since it is constructed as a thin steel shell structure, instability, in the form of buckling, becomes a crucial issue during installation. Typically, the bucket foundation is a large...... cylindrical monopod foundation made of steel. In this paper, an alternative design/shape of the suction caisson, having a smaller risk of buckling under high pressure is presented. The risk of structural buckling is addressed using numerical methods to determine the buckling pressures of the re-designed...

  1. Percutaneous epidural drainage through a burr hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M Falsarella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial extradural collection may cause an increase in intracranial pressure, requiring rapid emergency treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. We described an alternative CT-guided percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage. We report a case of a patient with previous craniectomy for meningioma ressection who presented to the Emergency Department with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. Brains CT showed a extradural collection with subfalcine herniation. After multidisciplinary discussion a CT-guided percutaneous drainage through previous burr hole was performed. The patient was discharged after 36 hours of admission, without further symptoms. We describe a safe and effective alternative percutaneous access for extradural collection drainage in patients with previous burr hole.

  2. GEOMORPHOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF DRAINAGE NETWORKS ON MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KERESZTURI ÁKOS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 327 valleys and their 314 cross-sectional profiles were analyzed on Mars, including width, depth, length, eroded volume, drainage and spatial density, as well as the network structure.According to this systematic analysis, five possible drainage network types were identified such as (a small valleys, (b integrated small valleys, (c individual, medium-sized valleys, (d unconfined,anastomosing outflow valleys, and (e confined outflow valleys. Measuring their various morphometric parameters, these five networks differ from each other in terms of parameters of the eroded volume, drainage density and depth values. This classification is more detailed than those described in the literature previously and correlated to several numerical parameters for the first time.These different types were probably formed during different periods of the evolution of Mars, and sprung from differently localized water sources, and they could be correlated to similar fluvialnetwork types from the Earth.

  3. An Innovative Approach for Drainage Network Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cozzolino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a procedure for the optimal design of rural drainage networks is presented and demonstrated. The suggested approach, exploring the potentialities offered by heuristic methods for the solution of complex optimization problems, is based on the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA, coupled with a steady and uniform flow hydraulic module. In particular, this work has focused: on one hand, on the problems of a technical nature posed by the correct sizing of a drainage network; on the other hand, on the possibility to use a simple but nevertheless efficient GA to reach the minimal cost solution very quickly. The suitability of the approach is tested with reference to small and large scale drainage networks, already considered in the literature.

  4. Tunnel Face Stability and the Effectiveness of Advance Drainage Measures in Water-Bearing Ground of Non-uniform Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Sara; Anagnostou, Georg

    2018-01-01

    Non-uniform permeability may result in complex hydraulic head fields with potentially very high hydraulic gradients close to the tunnel face, which may be adverse for stability depending on the ground strength. Pore pressure relief by drainage measures in advance of the tunnel excavation improves stability, but the effectiveness of drainage boreholes may be low in the case of alternating aquifers and aquitards. This paper analyses the effects of hydraulic heterogeneity and advance drainage quantitatively by means of limit equilibrium computations that take account of the seepage forces acting upon the ground in the vicinity the tunnel face. The piezometric field is determined numerically by means of steady-state, three-dimensional seepage flow analyses considering the heterogeneous structure of the ground and a typical advance drainage scheme consisting of six axial boreholes drilled from the tunnel face. A suite of stability analyses was carried out covering a wide range of heterogeneity scales. The computational results show the effect of the orientation, thickness, location, number and permeability ratio of aquifers and aquitards and provide valuable indications about potentially critical situations, the effectiveness of advance drainage and the adequate arrangement of drainage boreholes. The paper shows that hydraulic heterogeneity results in highly variable face behaviour, even if the shear strength of the ground is constant along the alignment, but ground behaviour is considerably less variable in the presence of advance drainage measures.

  5. Análise comparativa randomizada entre dois tipos de sistema de aspiração traqueal em recém-nascidos Randomized, comparative analysis between two tracheal suction systems in newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Cândida Soares de Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar as variações da saturação de oxigênio durante todo o processo de aspiração (antes, durante e após o procedimento, utilizando dois tipos de sistema de aspiração: aberto (SAA e fechado (SAF. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo randomizado e controlado com 39 recém-nascidos com idade gestacional > a 34 semanas em uso de ventilação mecânica em aparelhos com fluxo contínuo, limitados à pressão e ciclados a tempo. Os RN foram classificados em dois grupos conforme os parâmetros ventilatórios: O Grupo I foi ventilado utilizando PEEP > a 5 cmH2O e MAP > a 8 cmH2O e o Grupo II PEEP OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify and compare variations of oxygen saturation during the whole suction procedure (before, during and after, using two types of suction systems: open (OSS and closed (CSS. METHODS: A controlled, randomized prospective study was carried out with 39 newborn of gestational ages > to 34 weeks using mechanical ventilation devices with a continuous flow, limited to pressure and cycled in time. Newborn were classified in two groups according to the ventilator parameters. Group I was ventilated using PEEP > to 5 cmH2O and MAP > to 8 cmH2O and Group II using PEEP < of 5 cmH2O and MAP < than 8 cmH2O. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences among the studied variable (oxygen saturation were found in the population under study, when the two suction systems open and closed were compared , in the two groups. The oxygen saturation was statistically high after the tracheal suction in both groups. CONCLUSION: Both tracheal suction systems can be used without any drawbacks of the OSS in relation to the CSS, since the casuistry is similar to the one presented in this study.

  6. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  7. Developmental venous anomalies of the posterior fossa with transpontine drainage: report of 3 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueker, W. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany); Mull, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany); Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, Technical University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52 057 Aachen (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) are considered as variant patterns of cerebral venous drainage. Although generally not rare in the cerebellum, DVA of the brain stem or of the cerebellum with drainage through the brain stem are exceptional findings. Because it is not clear whether DVA may sometimes be of clinical significance, we try to correlate the clinical findings of the patients with the course of the variant vessels. We reviewed the literature and report three additional cases. All patients were examined by MRI and digital subtraction angiography. In particular, we discuss the drainage route as compared with the established patterns of posterior fossa blood drainage, which is directed to the dural sinuses, the petrosal vein or the vein of Galen. In one of our patients suffering from trigeminal neuralgia, the close topical relation of the DVA and the trigeminal nucleus and trigeminal nerve entry zone suggests a causal relationship. In a second case the brain stem symptoms were due to haemorrhage of a concomitant cavernoma. It remains unclear if the occurrence of dysarthria and dysaesthesia in the third patient with brain stem DVA was purely coincidental. The only clinical symptom directly attributable to a DVA with transpontine drainage in our series was trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Septic arthritis of the knee: Presentation of a novel irrigation-suction system tested in a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The established treatment for bacterial arthritis of the knee joint is arthroscopic surgery with irrigation and debridement. The aim of this article is to summarize the relevant data in treating bacterial arthritis of the knee joint, and based on these findings to present a novel irrigation suction system, tested in a cadaver study, as an additional tool in the postoperative treatment phase of arthroscopic surgery for knee joint infections. Method The novel automated irrigation-suction system presented here was compared to conventional continuous suction irrigation in a total of six knee joints. All knee joints were filled with 80 ml methylene blue stain and rinsed by two different methods. Fluid specimens were taken after ten and twenty minutes to be compared by photometric extinction measurement at a wave length of 500 nm. Results After ten minutes, the average extinction was e1C = 0.8 for the continuous suction irrigation and e1N = 0.4 for the novel irrigation-suction system. After twenty minutes, we recorded an average extinction of e2C = 0.3 for continuous suction irrigation and e2N = 0.001 for the novel irrigation-suction system. The students t-test revealed superior results after ten and twenty minutes of washing out the knee joints with a p Conclusion A novel irrigation-suction system may be an effective tool for postoperative knee joint irrigation in arthroscopic therapy for bacterial arthritis of the knee. Further animal studies are needed to verify the effects in vivo.

  9. Effect of intrapartum oropharyngeal (IP-OP) suction on meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in developing country: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Sushma; Pal, Mansi M; Saili, Arvind; Gupta, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Evidence about IP-OP suction and selective tracheal intubation in meconium stained neonates is from developed countries. Little information is available about their role in developing countries with high incidence of meconium staining and MAS. This randomized trial was planned to evaluate the effectiveness of IP-OP suction in meconium stained term neonates on prevention of MAS and reduction of its severity. Out of 540 meconium stained full term, cephalic presentation, singleton neonates without major congenital malformations born from June'08 to January'09, 31 were excluded and 509 randomized. In the intervention group IP-OP suction was done at the time of delivery of head using a 10 Fr suction catheter with a negative pressure of 100 mmHg. No IP-OP suction was performed in control group. All neonates with MSAF were assessed as vigorous or non-vigorous after birth and provided care as per NRP guidelines 2005. Two hundred and fifty three neonates were randomized to IP-OP suction and 256 to no IP-OP suction. Eighty-two neonates (16%) developed MAS, the primary outcome parameter, with 40 infants in the intervention group (15.8%) and 42 (16.4%) in the non-intervention group (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.60-1.54). Incidence of severe MAS was comparable (3.55% vs. 2.34%) (P value=0.40). Other variables like requirement of oxygen >48 h (9.8% vs. 10.5%) and mortality (2.7% vs. 1.7%) were also comparable. IP-OP suctioning did not reduce the incidence or severity of MAS even in a setting of high incidence of MAS in a developing country. The mortality in two groups was comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suction drains in esthetic breast implant exchange are associated with surgical site infections: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Eran; Wiser, Itay; Rosenthal, Adaya; Landau, Geva; Ziv, Ella; Heller, Lior

    2017-11-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following esthetic breast implant exchange occurs in up to 2% of procedures. The effect of suction drains on SSI risk in these cases remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the SSI risk in the presence of suction drains after esthetic exchange of breast implants. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing esthetic breast implant exchange between 2012 and 2015. SSI was determined according to the definition of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model to identify independent risk factors for SSI was performed. A total of 256 women (504 breasts) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study. The mean age was 44 ± 11 years. The mean operative time was 93 ± 40 min. The mean implant age at the time of the exchange was 10.3 ± 6.5 years. Suction drains were used in 229 breasts (45.4%) and were removed after 6 ± 7 days. Twenty (4%) breasts were diagnosed with SSI, of which 17 had suction drains. Suction drain use and days until drain removal were associated with a higher risk of SSI (85.0% vs. 43.8%, p suction drains remained an independent risk factor for SSI after adjustment for age, smoking, and previous capsular contracture (OR = 10.66, CI 95% 2.42-46.82). Suction drain use in esthetic breast implant exchange is associated with an increased risk of SSI. Surgeons should carefully consider using suction drains in selected cases only. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study of the Correlation Between Electrical Resistivity and Matric Suction for Unsaturated Ash-Fall Pyroclastic Soils in the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    De Vita, Pantaleone; Piegari, Ester

    2011-01-01

    In the territory of the Campania region (southern Italy), critical rainfall events periodically trigger dangerous fast slope movements involving ashy and pyroclastic soils originated by the explosive phases of the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano and deposited along the surrounding mountain ranges. In this paper, an integration of engineering-geological and geophysical measurements is presented to characterize unsaturated pyroclastic samples collected in a test area on the Sarno Mountains (Salerno and Avellino provinces, Campania region). The laboratory analyses were aimed at defining both soil water retention and electrical resistivity curves versus water content. From the matching of the experimental data, a direct relationship between electrical resistivity and matric suction is retrieved for the investigated soil horizons typical of a ash-fall pyroclastic succession. The obtained relation turns out to be helpful in characterizing soils up to close saturation, which is a critical condition for the trigger of slo...

  12. 3D CFD simulations of trailing suction hopper dredger plume mixing: a parameter study of near-field conditions influencing the suspended sediment source flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Lynyrd; Talmon, A M; van Rhee, C

    2014-11-15

    Frequency, duration and intensity of stresses like turbidity and sedimentation caused by dredging must be known to determine the environmental impact of dredging projects. These stresses depend on the amount of sediment spill from a dredger and on how much of this spill still is in suspension near environmentally sensitive areas. Near-field mixing close to a dredger influences the deposition behaviour of the sediment spill. This is investigated systematically with computational fluid dynamics simulations for 136 different conditions of trailing suction hopper dredger overflow sediment plume mixing. Most important influences are found for the ambient depth and the crossflow velocity (vector sum of the dredging speed and the ambient velocity), which can result in a completely different suspended sediment source flux behind the dredger. The simulation results are translated into mathematical relations to predict the suspended sediment source flux without computational effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A wet-tolerant adhesive patch inspired by protuberances in suction cups of octopi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sangyul; Kim, Da Wan; Park, Youngjin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Ho Bhang, Suk; Pang, Changhyun

    2017-06-01

    Adhesion strategies that rely on mechanical interlocking or molecular attractions between surfaces can suffer when coming into contact with liquids. Thus far, artificial wet and dry adhesives have included hierarchical mushroom-shaped or porous structures that allow suction or capillarity, supramolecular structures comprising nanoparticles, and chemistry-based attractants that use various protein polyelectrolytes. However, it is challenging to develop adhesives that are simple to make and also perform well—and repeatedly—under both wet and dry conditions, while avoiding non-chemical contamination on the adhered surfaces. Here we present an artificial, biologically inspired, reversible wet/dry adhesion system that is based on the dome-like protuberances found in the suction cups of octopi. To mimic the architecture of these protuberances, we use a simple, solution-based, air-trap technique that involves fabricating a patterned structure as a polymeric master, and using it to produce a reversed architecture, without any sophisticated chemical syntheses or surface modifications. The micrometre-scale domes in our artificial adhesive enhance the suction stress. This octopus-inspired system exhibits strong, reversible, highly repeatable adhesion to silicon wafers, glass, and rough skin surfaces under various conditions (dry, moist, under water and under oil). To demonstrate a potential application, we also used our adhesive to transport a large silicon wafer in air and under water without any resulting surface contamination.

  14. Zebrafish larvae exhibit rheotaxis and can escape a continuous suction source using their lateral line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Olszewski

    Full Text Available Zebrafish larvae show a robust behavior called rheotaxis, whereby they use their lateral line system to orient upstream in the presence of a steady current. At 5 days post fertilization, rheotactic larvae can detect and initiate a swimming burst away from a continuous point-source of suction. Burst distance and velocity increase when fish initiate bursts closer to the suction source where flow velocity is higher. We suggest that either the magnitude of the burst reflects the initial flow stimulus, or fish may continually sense flow during the burst to determine where to stop. By removing specific neuromasts of the posterior lateral line along the body, we show how the location and number of flow sensors play a role in detecting a continuous suction source. We show that the burst response critically depends on the presence of neuromasts on the tail. Flow information relayed by neuromasts appears to be involved in the selection of appropriate behavioral responses. We hypothesize that caudally located neuromasts may be preferentially connected to fast swimming spinal motor networks while rostrally located neuromasts are connected to slow swimming motor networks at an early age.

  15. [Pain assessment of tracheal suctioning on brain injury patients by pain behavioral indicator scale (ESCID)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, C; Murillo-Pérez, M A; Morales-Sánchez, C; Torrente-Vela, S; Orejana-Martín, M; García-Iglesias, M; Cuenca-Solanas, M; Alted-López, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess pain response on patients with moderate to severe head injury before a common nursing procedure: tracheal suctioning. An observational longitudinal pilot study with consecutive sampling performed from September to December of 2012. Pain was assessed by a pain behavioral indicator scale 5 minutes before, meanwhile and 15 minutes after tracheal suctioning the days 1, 3 and 6 of their intensive care unit (ICU) stay, as well as a non-painful procedure: rubbing with gauze the forearm of the patient. Pseudo-analgesia and hemodynamic variables were also recorded. Descriptive analysis of the variables, inferential statistics with t-student and Anova with SPSS 17.0; statistical tests were considered significant if the critical level observed was less than 5% (P.05) were shown. Data for the painless procedure were significantly different on day 6 (P<.05) CONCLUSION: During tracheal suctioning in patients with head injury in the first 6 days in the ICU, objective mild-moderate pain according to ESCID scale has been detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  17. Hirschsprung disease and use of calretinin in inadequate rectal suction biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, David Hernandez; Plesec, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Up to 17% of all rectal suction biopsies performed in the evaluation of Hirschsprung disease are considered inadequate. In most instances, inadequate biopsies contain too little submucosa or are taken within the anal transition zone. To examine the utility of calretinin stain in the workup of inadequate biopsies for patients with clinical suspicion of Hirschsprung disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all rectal suction biopsies performed in the evaluation of Hirschsprung disease during the previous 12 years that were considered "inadequate." Seventeen cases were identified, and Hirschsprung disease status was determined by clinical or surgical follow-up. Immunohistochemistry for calretinin was performed for all cases containing columnar mucosa, which were evaluated without knowledge of clinical course. All 12 patients without Hirschsprung disease had calretinin-positive nerve fibers in the lamina propria or muscularis mucosae, and all 5 patients with Hirschsprung disease had no calretinin staining of nerves. In this retrospective series, calretinin immunohistochemistry correctly predicted outcome in all instances. Although the gold standard for the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease in rectal suction biopsies remains the evaluation of ganglion cells in a hematoxylin-eosin staining with sufficient submucosa, calretinin immunohistochemistry is quite helpful in triaging further workup based on clinical suspicion.

  18. MHD flow over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet of a nanofluid with suction/injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Naramgari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the influence of thermal radiation and chemical reaction on two dimensional steady magnetohydrodynamic flow of a nanofluid past a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of suction/injection. We considered nanofluid volume fraction on the boundary is submissive controlled, which makes the present study entirely different from earlier studies and physically more realistic. The equations governing the flow are solved numerically. Effects of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, coefficient of skin friction and local Nusselt number is investigated for stretching/shrinking and suction/injection cases separately and presented through tables. Comparisons with existed results are presented. Present results have an excellent agreement with the existed studies under some special assumptions. Results indicate that the enhancement in Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters depreciates the nanoparticle concentration and increases the mass transfer rate. Dual solutions exist only for certain range of stretching/shrinking and suction/injection parameters.

  19. Clinical application of suction-tube-assisted septal submucosal dissection for endoscopic septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Sen; Lin, Yuan-Yung; Shih, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Chien; Yang, Pei-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Lee, Jih-Chin

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic septoplasty has become the favored approach for the treatment of a deviated septum. Careful septal dissection results in less bleeding, clear endoscopic view, shortened operative time, and fewer postoperative complications. We describe our 5-year experience of using an 8 French Frazier suction tube for submucosal dissection compared with the traditional septoplasty. A total of 434 patients who underwent septoplasty were recruited. The patients in the study were divided into two Groups 1 and 2 based on the employed surgical techniques to treat deviated nasal septum: traditional septoplasty (Group 1: 105 patients) and suction-tube-assisted endoscopic septoplasty (Group 2: 329 patients). All the patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months. No statistically significant differences could be traced between the groups in any demographic factor, regarding the gender, age, and the intraoperative and postoperative complications. A significantly shorter operative time was found in Group 2 (P suction-tube-assisted dissection technique is found to be a surgical alternative, effective with a significantly shorter operating time, and economical option in septal surgery.

  20. Suction blistering the lesional skin of vitiligo patients reveals useful biomarkers of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, James P; Rashighi, Mehdi; Ahmed Refat, Maggi; Richmond, Jillian M; Harris, John E

    2017-05-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin with limited treatment options; there is an urgent need to identify and validate biomarkers of disease activity to support vitiligo clinical studies. To investigate potential biomarkers of disease activity directly in the skin of vitiligo subjects and healthy subjects. Patient skin was sampled via a modified suction-blister technique, allowing for minimally invasive, objective assessment of cytokines and T-cell infiltrates in the interstitial skin fluid. Potential biomarkers were first defined and later validated in separate study groups. In screening and validation, CD8+ T-cell number and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL) 9 protein concentration were significantly elevated in active lesional compared to nonlesional skin. CXCL9 protein concentration achieved greater sensitivity and specificity by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Suction blistering also allowed for phenotyping of the T-cell infiltrate, which overwhelmingly expresses C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3. A small number of patients were enrolled for the study, and only a single patient was used to define the treatment response. Measuring CXCL9 directly in the skin might be effective in clinical trials as an early marker of treatment response. Additionally, use of the modified suction-blister technique supports investigation of inflammatory skin diseases using powerful tools like flow cytometry and protein quantification. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional view of a Trans-African Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelkareem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the arid to hyperarid climate of the Great Sahara of North Africa, pluvial climates dominated the region. Radar data shed some light on the postulated Trans-African Drainage System and its relationship to active and inactive tributaries of the Nile basin. Interpretations of recent elevation data confirm a source of the river water from the Red Sea highlands did not connect the Atlantic Ocean across Tushka basin, highlands of Uwinate and Darfur, and Chad basin, but northward to the ancestral Nile Delta. Elements of topography and climate were considered. They show that the former segments of the Nile closely mirror present-day tributaries of the Nile basin in drainage geometry, landscape, and climate. A rainfall data interpolation scenario revealed that this basin received concurrent runoff from both flanks such as Gabgaba-Allaqi to the east and Tushka basin to the west, similar to present-day Sobat and White Nile tributaries, respectively. Overall the western tributaries such as those of Tushka basin and Howar lead to the Nile, which was (and still is the biggest river system in Africa.

  2. A bridge between original and novel states: ontogeny and function of "suction discs" in the Branchiura (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Tomonari; Møller, Ole Sten; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel structures in the course of evolution faces an explanatory problem, leaving the gap from the ancestral structures difficult to bridge. This difficulty is caused by the lack of intermediate stages. Branchiurans are ectoparasitic crustaceans which use a pair of "suction discs" to attach to their host. These structures are modified first maxillae. During ontogeny, the first maxillae transform from a normal cephalic appendage to the specialized suction disc. However, supposedly ancestral branchiurans lack the suction discs in the adults and the first maxilla remains a normal appendage throughout. We describe the muscular arrangements in the developing first maxillae in Argulus coregoni. The suction discs originate as a fusion of the first and second podomeres. The sucker muscles of the suction discs are homologous to the muscles that insert in the second podomere at the early larval stages. The developmental process of the suction disc can be seen as a "recapitulation" of the evolutionary process. We thus show how the first maxilla can maintain not just the biological role but also a functional continuity during the evolution of the novel structure. From this example it is obvious that the intermediate stages of the emerging novelty, if present in the ontogeny, can help solve at least some of the enigmatic appearances of novel structures. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effect of intraoral suction on oxygen-enriched surgical environments: a mechanism for reducing the risk of surgical fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Andrea M; Jones, James E; McGlothlin, James D; Saxen, Mark A; Sanders, Brian J; Vinson, LaQuia A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a mechanical model was applied in order to replicate potential surgical fire conditions in an oxygen-enriched environment with and without high-volume suction typical for dental surgical applications. During 41 trials, 3 combustion events were measured: an audible pop, a visible flash of light, and full ignition. In at least 11 of 21 trials without suction, all 3 conditions were observed, sometimes with an extent of fire that required early termination of the experimental trial. By contrast, in 18 of 20 with-suction trials, ignition did not occur at all, and in the 2 cases where ignition did occur, the fire was qualitatively a much smaller, candle-like flame. Statistically comparing these 3 combustion events in the no-suction versus with-suction trials, ignition (P = .0005), audible pop (P = .0211), and flash (P = .0092) were all significantly more likely in the no-suction condition. These results suggest a possible significant and new element to be added to existing surgical fire safety protocols toward making surgical fires the "never-events" they should be.

  4. Effect of oronasopharyngeal suction on arterial oxygen saturation in normal, term infants delivered vaginally: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres Nejad, V; Hosseini, R; Sarrafi Nejad, A; Shafiee, G

    2014-07-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with a suction bulb at birth is a traditional practice in the initial management of healthy infants in Iran and many other countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with those of no suction in normal, term newborns delivered vaginally. A total of 170 healthy term infants of first and single uncomplicated pregnancies, with clear amniotic fluid, vaginal delivery and cephalic presentation, enrolled in the trial during labour. Newborns were randomised into one of the two groups, according to the use of the ONPS procedure. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels, heart rates, blood gases of umbilical cord and Apgar scores were determined. The mean SaO2 values over the first and fifth min of birth were similar in the two groups. The maximum time to reach SaO2 of ≥ 92% was shorter in the no suction group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean of heart rates, respiratory rates and Apgar scores between the groups. Apgar scores at 5 and 10 min were between 8 and 10 for all infants, respectively. Newborns receiving suction showed a statistically significant, lower mean partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and a significantly higher partial oxygen pressure (PO2) of umbilical artery. Although the differences were statistically significant, these were not considered clinically significant because values remained within normal ranges. According to this study, ONPS is not recommended as a routine procedure in normal, term infants delivered vaginally.

  5. Regulated tailored suction vs regulated seal: a prospective randomized trial on air leak duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Pompili, Cecilia; Refai, Majed; Sabbatini, Armando

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the air leak duration of two regulated chest tube modes following pulmonary lobectomy. This is a prospective randomized trial on 100 consecutive pulmonary lobectomies (2010-11) performed for lung cancer. A single 24-French chest tube was connected to an electronic system capable of maintaining the pleural pressure within preset values (regulated suction mode) or within a physiological range (regulated seal mode). Patients were randomized to two groups: Group 1, regulated individualized suction (range: -11 to -20 cmH2O, according to lobectomy type); Group 2, regulated seal (-2 cmH2O). The main endpoint was the duration of air leak (h) calculated from the end of the operation to a value consistently below 20 ml/min. Patients with prolonged air leak (>168 h) were connected to a portable device before discharge. Their air leak duration was considered as 192 h. The sample size was calculated to detect 1-day difference in air leak duration with a statistical power of 80%. The two groups were well matched for several baseline and surgical characteristics. No crossovers occurred between groups. The average air leak duration (Group 1: 28 vs Group 2: 22.2, P = 0.6), and the number of patients with prolonged air leak (Group 1: 5 vs Group 2: 4, P = 0.7) and with other complications (Group 1: 6 patients vs Group 2: 7 patients, P = 0.9) were similar between the groups. Sixteen patients of Group 1 and 21 of Group 2 had an air leak present immediately after extubation. Among them, patients of Group 2 (regulated seal) had an air leak lasting 34.5 h less than those of Group 1 (regulated suction) (52.9 vs 87.4, P = 0.07). Regulated seal is as effective and safe as regulated suction in managing chest tubes following lobectomy. This information demonstrates with objective data the non-superiority of regulated suction vs regulated seal and may assist in future investigations on regulated pleural pressure.

  6. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tel: +1 915 545 6855; fax: +1 915 545 6864; e-mail: donald.meier@ttuhsc.edu. Received 10 September 2012 accepted 23 February 2013. Introduction. Peritoneal drainage (PD) was first described as a temporizing measure for the treatment of extremely ill newborns with intestinal perforation (IP) [1]. Subse- quent reports ...

  7. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  8. Recovery of water from acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Metrohm 691 pH meter. BACKGRounD The CSIR patented Alkali Barium and Calcium (ABC) process uses the barium technology to remove sulphate from acid mine drainage (AMD) water and other industrial effluents. The sulphate removal process involves...

  9. Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Antonio F

    2007-06-01

    In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton.

  10. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Peritoneal drainage (PD) was introduced 30 years ago as a temporizing treatment for extremely ill newborns with intestinal perforation (IP). Subsequent reports have shown it to be helpful as a definitive treatment, whereas others have labeled it as an unnecessary delay before laparotomy. Methods This is a ...

  11. Selecting the drainage method for agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    To facilitate crop growth excess water should be drained from the rooting zone to allow root development of the crop and from the soil surface to facilitate access to the field. Basically, there are three drainage methods from which the designer can select being; surface drains, pumped tube wells

  12. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian

    from the wastewater treatment plant to the red beds may destroy the sludge structure and thereby reduces the dewaterability of sludge. Both the mechanical stress during pumping and anaerobic microbial activity affects the sludge quality. The quality of the sludge can be improved if I) the drying reed......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...... beds are placed close to the wastewater treatment plant, II) anaerobic condition is avoid e.g. by adding calcium nitrate, and III) the sludge structure is rebuild before it is poured on the reed bed e.g. by adding calcium carbonate...

  13. Widespread surface meltwater drainage in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingslake, J.; Ely, J.; Das, I.; Bell, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Surface meltwater is thought to cause ice-shelf disintegration, which accelerates the contribution of ice sheets to sea-level rise. Antarctic surface melting is predicted to increase and trigger further ice-shelf disintegration during this century. These climate-change impacts could be modulated by an active hydrological network analogous to the one in operation in Greenland. Despite some observations of Antarctic surface and sub-surface hydrological systems, large-scale active surface drainage in Antarctica has rarely been studied. We use satellite imagery and aerial photography to reveal widespread active hydrology on the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet as far south as 85o and as high as 1800 m a.s.l., often near mountain peaks that protrude through the ice (nunataks) and relatively low-albedo `blue-ice areas'. Despite predominantly sub-zero regional air temperatures, as simulated by a regional climate model, Antarctic active drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water through surface streams and feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 km long. Drainage networks (the largest are over 100 km in length) form on flat ice shelves, steep outlet glaciers and ice-sheet flanks across the West and East Antarctica Ice Sheets. Motivated by the proximity of many drainage systems to low-albedo rock and blue-ice areas, we hypothesize a positive feedback between exposed-rock extent, BIA formation, melting and ice-sheet thinning. This feedback relies on drainage moving water long distances from areas near exposed rock, across the grounding line onto and across ice shelves - a process we observe, but had previously thought to be unlikely in Antarctica. This work highlights previously-overlooked processes, not captured by current regional-scale models, which may accelerate the retreat of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  14. Exit and Paradise Creek Drainage Area Boundaries, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains drainage area boundaries for Exit Creek and Paradise Creek in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. A drainage area boundary identifies the land...

  15. Suction loss during femtosecond laser-assisted small-incision lenticule extraction: Incidence and analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ihab M; Awad, Ramy; Shi, Wei; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    To determine the incidence of and analyze risk factors for suction loss during femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction in the management of myopia or myopic astigmatism. Roayah Vision Correction Center, Alexandria, Egypt. Retrospective comparative case-control study. All eyes that had femtosecond laser-assisted small-incision lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism performed between August 2010 and April 2014 were included. Eyes that developed suction loss were identified. Their characteristics, including demographic data (age and sex), eye laterality, manifest refraction, flat keratometry (K) reading, steep K reading, K astigmatism, optical zone, central corneal thickness, and corneal cap diameter and thickness, were compared with those in randomly selected control eyes to determine the risk factors for developing suction loss. Of the 3376 eyes that had femtosecond laser-assisted small-incision lenticule extraction during the study, 70 (2.1%) developed loss of suction. The incidence decreased with surgical experience (5.06% in 2010, 3.59% in 2011, 3.41% in 2012, 2.32% in 2013, and 1.84% in 2014), suggesting a learning curve. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that eyes with a larger cap diameter were significantly more likely to develop suction loss (P = .023; odds ratio, 9.60). Surgical experience significantly decreased the risk for suction loss during femtosecond laser-assisted small incision lenticule extraction for the correction of myopia or myopic astigmatism but did not eliminate it. A larger cap diameter significantly increased the risk for developing the suction loss. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Time management and nectar flow: flower handling and suction feeding in long-proboscid flies (Nemestrinidae: Prosoeca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolyi, Florian; Morawetz, Linde; Colville, Jonathan F.; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian D.; Krenn, Harald W.

    2013-11-01

    A well-developed suction pump in the head represents an important adaptation for nectar-feeding insects, such as Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. This pumping organ creates a pressure gradient along the proboscis, which is responsible for nectar uptake. The extremely elongated proboscis of the genus Prosoeca (Nemestrinidae) evolved as an adaptation to feeding from long, tubular flowers. According to the functional constraint hypothesis, nectar uptake through a disproportionately elongated, straw-like proboscis increases flower handling time and consequently lowers the energy intake rate. Due to the conspicuous length variation of the proboscis of Prosoeca, individuals with longer proboscides are hypothesised to have longer handling times. To test this hypothesis, we used field video analyses of flower-visiting behaviour, detailed examinations of the suction pump morphology and correlations of proboscis length with body length and suction pump dimensions. Using a biomechanical framework described for nectar-feeding Lepidoptera in relation to proboscis length and suction pump musculature, we describe and contrast the system in long-proboscid flies. Flies with longer proboscides spent significantly more time drinking from flowers. In addition, proboscis length and body length showed a positive allometric relationship. Furthermore, adaptations of the suction pump included an allometric relationship between proboscis length and suction pump muscle volume and a combination of two pumping organs. Overall, the study gives detailed insight into the adaptations required for long-proboscid nectar feeding, and comparisons with other nectar-sucking insects allow further considerations of the evolution of the suction pump in insects with sucking mouthparts.

  17. Role of Lithology and Rock Structure in Drainage Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithology and Rock structure play a vital role in the development of Drainage Network in any drainage basin. The drainage patterns upon land surface develop as directed by the underlying lithology and rock structure. In fact, lithology and rock structure together shape the basin and are decisive parameters of nature and ...

  18. Drainage of Splenic Abscess: A Case Report | Kombo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and was managed by tube drainage. His post operative recovery was uneventful. Conclusion: Tube drainage of the splenic abscess is encouraged if there is easy access to the abscess and there is evidence of residual splenic tissue in the critically ill patient. Key Word: Tube drainage, splenic abscess, splenectomy.

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Closed Surgical Wounds With Dead Space

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Hyunsuk; Lee, A-Young; Park, Eun Jung; Hong, Joon Pio

    2015-01-01

    Background Closed incisional wound surgery frequently leaves dead space under the repaired skin, which results in delayed healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on incisional wounds with dead space after primary closure by evaluating the fluid volume through the suction drain, blood flow of the skin, tensile strength, and histology of the wounds. Methods Bilateral 25-cm-long incisional wounds with dead space were created on the ...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    V. Kiran; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  1. An experimental study on a suction flow control method to reduce the unsteadiness of the wind loads acting on a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Li; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui

    2014-04-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a suction flow control method for vortex-induced vibration (VIV) suppression. The flow control method uses a limited number of isolated suction holes to manipulate the vortex shedding in the wake behind a circular cylinder in order to reduce the unsteadiness of the dynamic wind loads acting on the cylinder. The experimental study was performed at Re ≈ 3.0 × 104, i.e., in the typical Reynolds number range of VIV for the cables of cable-stayed bridges. In addition to measuring the surface pressure distributions to determine the resultant dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flow field measurements to reveal the changes in the shedding process of the unsteady wake vortex structures from the test model with and without the suction flow control. The effects of important controlling parameters (i.e., the azimuthal locations of the suction holes in respect to the oncoming airflow, the spanwise spacing between the suction holes, and the suction flow rate through the suction holes) on the wake flow characteristics, the surface pressure distributions, and the resultant dynamic wind loads were assessed quantitatively. While a higher suction flow rate and smaller spanwise spacing between the suction holes were beneficial to the effectiveness of the suction flow control, the azimuthal locations of the suction holes were found to be very critical for reducing the fluctuating amplitudes of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model using the suction flow control method. With the suction holes located at the proper azimuthal locations on the test model (i.e., at the azimuthal angle of θ = 90° and 270° for the present study), the characteristics of the wake flow behind the test model were found to change significantly along the entire span of the test model, even though only a limited number of the isolated suction

  2. [Closed irrigation system for pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillukat, T; Schädel-Höpfner, M; Prommersberger, K-J; van Schoonhoven, J

    2011-07-01

    Treatment of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis within the osteofibrous channel of the thumb and finger by insertion of a closed irrigation system. Pyogenic tenosynovitis of the flexor tendons of the hand. Necrosis of the flexor tendons or flexor tendon sheath, gangrene of the finger, extensive loss of soft tissue. Insertion of a flexible irrigation catheter via a guide wire into the flexor tendon sheath and a vacuum suction drain into the finger or the palm of the hand. Extensive exploration of the flexor tendon sheath is not mandatory. On days 0-3 continuous irrigation, on day 4 change of the irrigation catheter to suction, on day 5 removal of the irrigation catheter, on day 6 removal of the suction drain, on day 7 start of exercise. Irrigation volume: about 500-1500 ml/24 h isotonic solution. Of 35 patients treated for flexor tenosynovitis by closed irrigation, 33 were reviewed. There were 19 male patients and 14 female patients. The average age at the time of surgery was 51 (8-85) years. Hospital stay was 8.9 (3-26) days on average. At the time of follow-up, the average grip strength was 84% (23-163%) of the unaffected side. Pain at rest was 0.2 (0-4), pain during exercise 1.2 (0-8) on the analogue scale, the DASH score was 16.8 (0-58) points. According to the rating system for flexor tendon function, there were one poor, one fair, five good, and 26 excellent results.

  3. Manual vibrocompression and nasotracheal suctioning in post-operative period of infants with heart deffects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Seabra de Assumpção

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of manual vibrocompression and nasotracheal suctioning on heart (hr and respiratory (rr rates, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, pain and respiratory distress in infants in the postoperative period of a cardiac surgery. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, in which the assessments were performed by the same physiotherapist in two moments: before and after the procedure. The infants were randomly divided into two groups: Intervention (IG, with manual chest vibrocompression, nasotracheal suctioning and resting; and Control CG, with 30 minutes of rest. Cardiorespiratory data (SpO2; hr; rr were monitored and the following scales were used: Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, for pain evaluation, and Bulletin of Silverman-Andersen (BSA, for respiratory distress assessment. The data were verified by analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: 20 infants with heart disease, ten in each group (seven acyanotic and three cyanotic were enrolled, with ages ranging from zero to 12 months. In the analysis of the interaction between group and time, there was a significant difference in the variation of SpO2 (p=0.016, without changes in the other variables. Considering the main effect on time, only rr showed a significant difference (p=0.001. As for the group main effect, there were no statistical differences (SpO2 - p=0.77, hr - p=0.14, rr - p=0.17, NIPS - p=0.49 and BSA - p=0.51 . CONCLUSIONS: The manual vibrocompression and the nasotracheal suctioning applied to infants in postoperative of cardiac surgery did not altered SpO2 and rr, and did not trigger pain and respiratory distress. [Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC: REQ: 1467].

  4. Correspondence between electrical resistivity and total suction in compacted kaolin considering the presence of salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospection techniques based on measuring the electrical resistivity of geomaterials are being used mainly for geophysical characterization, for evaluating soil contamination and the extension of contaminated areas, in addition to the compaction control in geotechnical works. This technique is based on the fact that contrasts in electrical resistivity along the profiles analysed help identifying zones of transition, because this property is affected by the presence of water and dissolved salts in the electrolyte, as well as by soil structure. However, in situ data interpretation has some difficulties because electrical resistivity is affected by changes in the unsaturated state of the soil, as well as by the presence of salt compounds (natural or from contamination. The correspondence between electrical resistivity and total suction in compacted kaolin considering the presence of salt was investigated in the study presented. The samples tested were compacted for the same voids ratio and water content, however one type was prepared with distilled water and the other with a NaCl solution (0.5 M. This is a relatively small concentration of salt, to which there were no significant changes in the liquid and plasticity limits, neither on zeta potential if pH is equal to 7, however the quantity of ions supplied was enough to affect the electrical resistivity of the compacted material. The water retention curve of the two kinds of samples was determined using a water dewpoint device and through vapour equilibrium. The electrical resistivity was measured in samples to which suction was known, allowing to find a relationship between total suction and electrical conductivity, and therefore between water content and electrical resistivity. The results found are commented considering the electrical transport through the liquid phase and its continuity in the porous media, which depends on the conductivity of the electrolyte and on the degree of saturation.

  5. Local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage for cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Unno, Youichi; Omoto, Akiko; Shozu, Makio

    2016-12-01

    To report the results of local injection of diluted vasopressin followed by suction curettage as a conservative treatment for women with cervical ectopic pregnancy, who wish to preserve their future fertility. This was a retrospective chart review in a university hospital and a municipal hospital. We injected diluted vasopressin (Pitressin R, total amount of 4-10 units) transvaginally into the cervix surrounding the gestational sac, but not directly into the gestational sac, and/or the lower segment of the uterine body under transvaginal ultrasonographic guidance. After cessation of fetal heartbeats, we aspirated the conceptus by performing suction curettage. We injected additional vasopressin into the gestational sac in cases with a viable fetus after the initial injection. Forced contraction of the cervical smooth muscle facilitated removal of the conceptus with minimal blood loss during curettage. We measured operative time, total blood loss, complications, and the need for additional treatment. We included 11 women. Mean patient age, gestational age, and serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) at the intervention were 31.2±6.4years, 6.0±0.6 weeks, and 18,370±21,570 IU/L, respectively. Mean size of the gestational sac was 19.6±9.5mm. The uterus was successfully preserved without any complications in all patients. All procedures were completed within 15min except for the first case (range: 5-33min). In 4 cases, the conceptus containing a gestational sac was spontaneously extruded en bloc from the external os after the injection. Additional systematic methotrexate administration was required in one case because of remaining villi at the implantation site with persistence of serum hCG levels after the procedure. Local injection of diluted vasopressin and subsequent suction curettage is a feasible conservative treatment for cervical ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction for bronchiolitis treatment in infants under two years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, R-X; Zhang, C-L; Zhen, Q; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency, clinical effects and nursing methods related to the use of magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction for treating infants under two years old suffering from bronchiolitis. From January 2014 to September 2014, ninety-six infants with capillary bronchitis were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n=49) and control group (n=47). All patients went through conventional anti-inflammatory therapy. Based on this, infants in the control group were additionally treated with intravenous drip of magnesium sulfate while patients in the experimental group were treated with magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction. We recorded all changes in blood gas and clinical scores, the residence time of symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis, and hospitalization time. Results obtained on clinical effects and adverse reactions were compared and analyzed. The Variations of PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 before treatment in both groups did not show any statistically significant differences (p>0.05); while after treatment analyses demonstrated that in both groups we had an increase in PaO2 and SaO2 and a decrease in PaCO2. The increase in PaO2 and SaO2 values were more pronounced while the decrease observed in PaCO2 was more significant in our experimental group. The total effective rate was significantly higher while the total adverse reaction rate, the resolution time of clinical symptoms and hospitalization time were significantly lower in our experimental group. Magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction was safe and effective in treating with bronchiolitis of infants below 2 years old, and its adverse reaction rate was low, nursing procedure was simple, and nursing difficulty level was low.

  7. Surgical treatment of Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided suction curettage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, D; Knez, J; Appiah, A; Farahani, L; Mavrelos, D; Ross, J A

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided suction curettage for management of pregnancies implanted into the lower uterine segment Cesarean section scar. This was a retrospective study including women diagnosed with Cesarean section scar pregnancy at two large tertiary referral early pregnancy units between 1997 and 2014. Surgical evacuation was offered to selected women presenting in the first trimester ≤ 14 weeks' gestation. All procedures were performed transcervically under ultrasound guidance using suction curettage. A modified Shirodkar cervical suture was used in women who required additional measures to secure hemostasis. A total of 232 women with Cesarean section scar pregnancy were seen at the referral units; 191/232 (82.3%) women were treated surgically. The median intraoperative blood loss was 100 mL (range, 10-3000 mL); 9/191 (4.7% (95% CI, 1.7-7.7%)) women required blood transfusion and, in one (0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.5%)), life-saving hysterectomy had to be performed because of uncontrollable intraoperative bleeding. Of the women who attended for follow-up, 7/116 (6.0% (95% CI, 1.7-10.3%)) required a repeat surgical procedure because of retained products of conception. Multivariable analysis showed that the gestational sac diameter (odds ratio (OR), 1.10 (95% CI, 1.03-1.17)) and pregnancy vascularity on Doppler examination (OR, 3.41 (95% CI, 1.39-8.33)) were significant predictors of heavy intraoperative blood loss (> 1000 mL). Ultrasound-guided suction curettage is an effective method for the treatment of pregnancies implanted into a lower uterine segment Cesarean section scar and is associated with a low risk of blood transfusion and hysterectomy. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Short-snouted toothless ichthyosaur from China suggests Late Triassic diversification of suction feeding ichthyosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen.

  9. Retrograde Suction Decompression Through Direct Puncture of the Common Carotid Artery for Paraclinoid Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Toyooka, Terushige; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomura, Satoshi; Tomiyama, Arata; Nakao, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Mori, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Surgical clipping of paraclinoid aneurysm can be very difficult because strong adhesions may hinder the dissection of the perforators and surrounding anatomical structures from the aneurysm dome. We describe our experience with using retrograde suction decompression during the clipping of paraclinoid aneurysms and discuss the relative advantages and pitfalls. This study included 23 patients with large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms who underwent surgical treatment consisting of direct clipping with suction decompression between March 2004 and August 2014. Direct puncture of the common carotid artery (CCA) was performed with a 20-gauge needle. The aneurysm was temporarily trapped by clamping of the CCA and external carotid artery (ECA), followed by temporary clipping of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) distal to the aneurysm neck. Blood was then gently aspirated through a catheter introduced into the cervical ICA, resulting in collapse of the aneurysm. Therefore, safe aneurysm dissection was feasible during interruption of the blood flow, which could be maintained for up to 5 min. This procedure was repeated until dissection and clipping of the aneurysm were completed. Seven patients were admitted with SAH, 11 with asymptomatic unruptured aneurysm, and 5 with symptomatic unruptured aneurysm. The aneurysms were located on the paraclinoidal segment of the ICA in 15 cases, on the ICA-posterior communicating artery (PComA) in 6, at the ICA bifurcation in 1, and on the anterior wall of the ICA in 1. None of them suffered complications related to the CCA puncture. Surgical outcome was good recovery in 13 patients, moderate disability in 4, severe disability in 4, and vegetative state in 1. Retrograde suction decompression through direct puncture of the common carotid artery is a useful adjunct technique for the clipping of paraclinoid ICA aneurysms.

  10. Flexible Ultrathin Endoscope Integrated with Irrigation Suction Apparatus for Assisting Microneurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Naoki; Morimoto, Yuji; Fujii, Kazuya; Toyooka, Terushige; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopy can observe the anatomical components in a deeply located and/or hidden area during neurosurgical procedures under the operating microscope. We have newly developed a flexible ultrathin endoscope integrated with irrigation suction apparatus (FUEISA) to visualize deeply located and/or hidden areas for assisting microneurosurgery. The present study investigated the usefulness of the FUEISA system for direct clipping surgery of cerebral aneurysms. Twenty-one patients underwent microneurosurgery assisted with the FUEISA system for direct clipping of cerebral aneurysms. The flexible ultrathin endoscope (outer diameter 0.75mm) consists of an image guide (6000 dpi) and a light guide, integrated with the irrigation suction apparatus. This endoscopic system was inserted before and after clipping to observe the anatomical conditions surrounding the lesions. In all cases, handling and operation of the FUEISA was technically successful during the surgical procedure. The ultrathin endoscope was adequately integrated with the irrigation suction apparatus in all cases. General anatomy visualization including the lenticulostriate arteries, medial striate arteries, and/or internal carotid artery perforators was possible, and the correct clip positioning and vessel conditions were easily checked. The endoscope revealed that the clip had been positioned incorrectly in one case. No complications associated with the endoscopic system occurred. The FUEISA system can be applied with safe manipulation, which was remarkably useful for confirmation of the presence of perforators and cranial nerves behind the lesions, particularly anatomical components located in deep and/or hidden areas during clipping of cerebral aneurysms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.

    1978-03-01

    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  12. SOIL COVER IN TUTOVA DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Stanga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article covers a monographic presentation of the soils from the Tutova drainage basin. The analysis of the pedogeographic assemblage was performed based on the soil surveys of the territories corresponding to Tutova’s drainage basin, and completed with field research. The taxonomic classification was done in accordance with the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (2003 and the soil map was created at a 1:25.000 scale. The zonal soils dominate the region; the Chernisols are on the first rank with a share of 39.95%, followed by Luvisols with a percent of 27.62%. Among the soils with an azonal and intrazonal character, the entic soils are dominant (21.90%, followed by Anthrosols (8.89% and by Hydrisols (1.64%.

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage - an analysis on 72 cases of internal drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Chan Sup; Sung, Kyu Bo; Lee, Byung Hee; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    A total of 72 cases of internal biliary drainage procedure has been done percutaneously at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital for recent 4 and half years since August 1981. Five different types of internal drainage including endoprosthesis were applied to various conditions with different obstruction levels. The different method of procedure in each type of internal drainage was described and the results were analysed. 1. Among the clinical diagnosis in 72 cases, carcinoma of bile duct was in 37 cases as the most frequent one. The next was pancreas head carcinoma in 16 cases, followed by metastatic carcinoma and other diseases. 2. Type I internal drainage, classical internal and external type with distal end in duodenum, was applied in 43 cases as the most common one. Type II, modification of type I with distal end in CBD, was applied in 17 cases. Tyep III, endoprosthesis distal end into duodenum, was applied in 7 cases. Type IV, endoprosthesis just across the obstruction on bile duct, was applied in 2 cases, Type V, combined type of any internal drainage with external drainage, was applied in 3 cases. 3. According to various obstruction level, preferred type could be selected. For proximal obstruction type II and IV were preferred and for distal obstruction type III was chosen. However, type I could be applied in any situation. 4. Early complication occurred in 9 cases (12.5%). Clinical improvement with decrease in bilirubin level was observed in 17 of 21 cases in which follow-up data was available over 2 months. 5. Through the experience with those 72 cases it is recommended that appropriate type of internal biliary drainage should be selected according to prognosis, obstruction level and clinical findings of each patient.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Wall Cooling and Suction Effects on Supersonic Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Transition Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.

  15. Analysis of the suction effect on the mass transfer when using the heat and mass transfer analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la [Department of PRA and Fluid Systems, Initec-Westinghouse Technology Services, S.A., Nuclear Services Business, Central Nuclear de Vandellos II, Aptdo. de correos no 48, 43890 L' Hospitalet de L' Infant, Tarragona (Spain)], E-mail: jcrosa@anacnv.com; Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Cobo, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia Camino de Vera S/N, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The transport phenomenon between a fluid in movement and a wall is strongly affected by the permeability of the wall. The application of a correction factor standing for the transpiration effect will be required whenever a heat transfer model is based either on the use of heat, mass or momentum analogies or on the use of empirical correlations for the computation of the heat transfer coefficient. The suction factor commonly used when solving as a function of either mass or molar fractions is called the Bird suction factor. The validity of this factor rests on the hypothesis of the film theory or Couette flow. This paper reviews the Bird suction factor in laminar regime, extending the analysis to turbulent flow conditions and finding thereby that Bird's equation can overestimate the suction factor under turbulent condensation conditions in the gas phase. Finally, an alternative formulation for the suction factor under turbulent condensation conditions has been proposed and compared with Bird's original formulation. In doing this, both data and models developed by other authors and the UW-Madison test facility database have been used. The results show the suitability of the alternative formulation when calculating the condensation rate in turbulent natural circulation scenarios, whereas Bird's formulation seems to be more appropriate for laminar regimes.

  16. Slow pull versus suction in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic solid masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Chang, Kenneth J; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Uchino, Rie; Mizuno, Suguru; Miyabayashi, Koji; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hirano, Kenji; Tanaka, Mariko; Tada, Minoru; Fukayama, Masashi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic masses is an established procedure for obtaining a pathological specimen. However, application of suction during EUS-FNA is still controversial and the efficacy of the slow-pull technique was recently reported for new core biopsy needles. The purpose of this study was to compare the suction and slow-pull techniques using regular FNA needles. The diagnostic yield of the suction and slow-pull techniques was retrospectively studied for patients who underwent EUS-FNA for pancreatic solid lesions. A total of 367 passes (181 by suction and 186 by the slow-pull technique) were performed during 97 EUS-FNA procedures for 93 patients with pancreatic solid lesions. The slow-pull technique resulted in lower scores for cellularity (≥2 for 37.5 % vs. 76.7 %) but scores for contamination with blood were lower (≥2 for 25.0 % vs. 66.7 %) and sensitivity of diagnosis of malignancy was higher (90.0 % vs. 67.9 %) when a 25-gauge FNA needle was used. There were no significant differences between the two techniques when a 22-gauge needle was used. In multivariate analysis of 82 cases with malignancy, the slow-pull technique (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, P = 0.028), tumor size ≥25 mm (OR 4.64, P suction technique in EUS-FNA of pancreatic solid masses, especially with a 25-gauge FNA needle.

  17. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  18. Observations on the flight pattern of some Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species by using suction trap in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the seasonal flight activity of the Phlaeothripidae (Thysanoptera species was studied by using suction trap, in South-East Hungary, in the years 2000 and 2004 from April to October. The flight period of two dominant species, namely Haplothrips angusticornis Priesner and Haplothrips aculeatus Fabricius (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae, was observed in high number in Europe. Also, it was the first record of mass flight observation of H. angusticornis. In addition, the effect of meteorological factors, such as temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, air pressure, and their influences, were evaluated.

  19. Anatomy and Physiology of Left Ventricular Suction Induced by Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Lim, Einly; Moloney, John; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2015-08-01

    This study in five large greyhound dogs implanted with a VentrAssist left ventricular assist device focused on identification of the precise site and physiological changes induced by or underlying the complication of left ventricular suction. Pressure sensors were placed in left and right atria, proximal and distal left ventricle, and proximal aorta while dual perivascular and tubing ultrasonic flow meters measured blood flow in the aortic root and pump outlet cannula. When suction occurred, end-systolic pressure gradients between proximal and distal regions of the left ventricle on the order of 40-160 mm Hg indicated an occlusive process of variable intensity in the distal ventricle. A variable negative flow difference between end systole and end diastole (0.5-3.4 L/min) was observed. This was presumably mediated by variable apposition of the free and septal walls of the ventricle at the pump inlet cannula orifice which lasted approximately 100 ms. This apposition, by inducing an end-systolic flow deficit, terminated the suction process by relieving the imbalance between pump requirement and delivery from the right ventricle. Immediately preceding this event, however, unnaturally low end-systolic pressures occurred in the left atrium and proximal left ventricle which in four dogs lasted for 80-120 ms. In one dog, however, this collapse progressed to a new level and remained at approximately -5 mm Hg across four heart beats at which point suction was relieved by manual reduction in pump speed. Because these pressures were associated with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of -5 mm Hg as well, they indicate total collapse of the entire pulmonary venous system, left atrium, and left ventricle which persisted until pump flow requirement was relieved by reducing pump speed. We suggest that this collapse caused the whole vascular region from pulmonary capillaries to distal left ventricle to behave as a Starling resistance which further reduced right

  20. [The new Iglesias resectoscope with simultaneous irrigation and suction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, J J; de Boisgisson, P; Navio-Nino, S

    1976-03-01

    This new resectoscope is the result of over 30 years experience of T.U.R. Its principle is a double flow running through the resectoscope: inflow and outflow under succion. The advantages are: 1. T.U.R. can be performed continuously, quicker than with conventional resectoscopes and theoretically with no limit of time. 2. T.U.R. is done under intra-vesical pressure, avoiding the T.U.R. syndrome. 3. T.U.R. is done more confortably: better vision bleeding control by watching the suction bottle, no more wet surgeon.

  1. A suction blister model reliably assesses skin barrier restoration and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J

    2015-02-01

    Skin wound healing models can be used to detect changes in immune function in response to interventions. This study used a test-retest format to assess the reliability of a skin suction blister procedure for quantitatively evaluating human immune function in repeated measures type studies. Up to eight suction blisters (~30 mm(2)) were induced via suction on each participant's left and right forearm (randomized order; blister session 1 and 2), separated by approximately one week. Fluid was sampled from each blister, and the top layer of each blister was removed to reveal up to eight skin wounds. Fluid from each wound was collected 4, 7 and 24h after blisters were induced, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), to assess skin barrier recovery, was measured daily at each wound site until values were within 90% of baseline values (i.e., unbroken skin). Sleep, stress and inflammation (i.e., factors that affect wound healing and immune function), preceding the blister induction, were assessed via activity monitors (Actical, Philips Respironics, Murrysville, Pennsylvania), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and C-reactive protein (CRP), respectively. Area-under-the-curve and TEWL, between blister session 1 and 2, were compared using Pearson correlations and partial correlations (controlling for average nightly sleep, PSS scores and CRP). The suction blister method was considered reliable for assessing immune response and skin barrier recovery if correlation coefficients reached 0.7. Volunteers (n=16; 12 M; 4F) were 23 ± 5 years [mean ± SD]. Time to skin barrier restoration was 4.9 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.9 days for sessions 1 and 2, respectively. Correlation coefficients for skin barrier restoration, IL-6, IL-8 and MIP-1α were 0.9 (Psuction blister method is sufficiently reliable for assessing skin barrier restoration and immune responsiveness. This data can be used to determine sample sizes for cross-sectional or repeated

  2. Effects of mass transfer on MHD flow of casson fluid with chemical reaction and suction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shehzad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effect of mass transfer in the magnetohydrodynamic flow of a Casson fluid over a porous stretching sheet is addressed in the presence of a chemical reaction. A series solution for the resulting nonlinear flow is computed. The skin friction coefficient and local Sherwood number are analyzed through numerical values for various parameters of interest. The velocity and concentration fields are illustrated for several pertinent flow parameters. We observed that the Casson parameter and Hartman number have similar effects on the velocity in a qualitative sense. We further analyzed that the concentration profile decreases rapidly in comparison to the fluid velocity when we increased the values of the suction parameter.

  3. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage using endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder, W.; Rupp, N.

    1986-06-01

    Even in the presence of intrahepatic metastases or previous failure of biliary enteric anastomosis, patients suffering from malignant obstructive jaundice can bve given relief by biliary endoprosthesis. Mean survival time is four months. Other than with a catheter drain, spetic cholangitis is rarely observed after the insertion of an endoprosthesis. The intervention's risk will hardly be augmented by drainage of both lobes as often necessary.

  4. Life Cycle Cost for Drainage Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    T. J. 1984. "Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Drainage Products: The First 25 Years," Symposium on Durability of Culverts and Storm Drains , Transportation...Practice No. 50, Washington, DC. 1984. "Symposium on Durability of Culverts and Storm Drains ," Transportation Research Record 1001, Washington, DC...Durability of Culverts and Storm Drains , Transpor’tation Research Record 1001, National Research Council, Washington, DC. pp 88-94. Brown, R. 1964

  5. The importance of lymphatic drainage in physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    VINKLEROVÁ, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical part summarizes all the theoretical knowledge on the topic. I am presenting a brief history of the discovery of the lymphatic vessels and the lymphatic drainage, the lymphatic system anatomy and its functions in the human body. Next, I have defined the concept of lymphoedema and divided it by its origin to primary and secondary lymphedema. The work includes the diagnosis of lymphedema , both conservative and surgical treatment options, indications and contraindications of lymp...

  6. Factors influencing pleural drainage in parapneumonic effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, J M; Valencia, H; Bielsa, S

    2016-10-01

    The identification of parapneumonic effusions (PPE) requiring pleural drainage is challenging. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiological and pleural fluid findings in discriminating between PPE that need drainage (complicated PPE (CPPE)) and those that could be resolved with antibiotics only (uncomplicated PPE (UPPE)). A retrospective review of 641 consecutive PPE, of which 393 were categorized as CPPE and 248 as UPPE. Demographics, radiological (size and laterality on a chest radiograph) and pleural fluid parameters (pus, bacterial cultures, biochemistries) were compared among groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine variables useful for predicting chest drainage, and receiver-operating characteristic curves assisted in the selection of the best cutoff values. According to the likelihood ratios (LR), findings increasing the probability of chest tube usage the most were: effusions occupying ≥1/2 of the hemithorax (LR 13.5), pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 (LR 6.2), pleural fluid glucose ≤40mg/dL (LR 5.6), pus (LR 4.8), positive pleural fluid cultures (LR 3.6), and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase >2000U/L (LR 3.4). In the logistic regression analysis only the first two were selected as significant predictors of CPPE. In non-purulent effusions, the effusion's size and pleural fluid pH retained their discriminatory properties, in addition to a pleural fluid C-reactive protein (CRP) level >100mg/L. Large radiological effusions and a pleural fluid pH ≤7.15 were the best predictors for chest drainage in patients with PPE. In the subgroup of patients with non-purulent effusions, pleural fluid CRP also contributed to CPPE identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Streaming potential during drainage and imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiazuo; Vinogradov, Jan; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, M. D.

    2017-06-01

    The rock pore space in many subsurface settings is saturated with water and one or more immiscible fluid phases. Examples include nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in contaminated aquifers, supercritical CO2 during sequestration in deep saline aquifers, the vadose zone, and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Self-potential (SP) and seismoelectric (SE) methods have been proposed to monitor multiphase flow in such settings. However, to properly interpret and model these data requires an understanding of the saturation dependence of the streaming potential. This paper presents a methodology to determine the saturation dependence of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C) and streaming current charge density (Qs) in unsteady state drainage and imbibition experiments and applies the method to published experimental data. Unsteady state experiments do not yield representative values of C and Qs (or other transport properties such as relative permeability and electrical conductivity) at partial saturation (Sw) because Sw within the sample is not uniform. An interpretation method is required to determine the saturation dependence of C and Qs within a representative elementary volume with uniform saturation. The proposed method makes no assumptions about the pore space geometry. Application of the method to published experimental data from two natural sandstone samples shows that C exhibits hysteresis between drainage and imbibition, can exhibit significant nonmonotonic variations with saturation, is nonzero at the irreducible water saturation, and can exceed the value observed at Sw = 1. Moreover, Qs increases with decreasing Sw but is not given by 1/Sw as is often assumed. The variation in Qs with Sw is very similar for a given sample and a given drainage or imbibition process, and the difference between samples is less than the difference between drainage and imbibition. The results presented here can be used to help interpret SP and SE measurements obtained in partially

  8. Recent drainage events of glacial Lake Cachet 2, Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, G.; Wendt, J.; Wendt, A.; Escobar, F.; Lopez, P.; Carrasco, J.; Rivera, A.; Leidich, J.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Cachet 2 (47°12' S, 73°15' W, 422 m a.s.l.) is a proglacial lake of 4 km2 located on the eastern margin of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (3,953 km2, Rivera et al., 2007), which is dammed on its southern margin by Colonia Glacier. Until April 2008 there was no historical evidence of catastrophic flooding of this lake. In 2008 three sudden drainage events occurred at Lake Cachet 2 (April 6-7; October 7-8 and 21-22 December). During each event the flood wave traveled down Colonia River to the confluence with Baker River, then affected Baker River to a distance of up to 25 km upstream from the confluence and downstream all the way to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean fjords at Caleta Tortel (100 km to the southwest), transporting abundant sediments. In April the runoff of Baker River close to the confluence with Colonia River increased from a base level of 1,200 m3/s on April 7 to a peak runoff of 3,570 m3/s within a period of less than 48 hours, resulting in a river level increase of 4.5 m and an associated water temperature drop from 8°C to 4°C. In October the base level was 573 m3/s, with a peak runoff of 3,007 m3/s, a river level increase of 4.7 m and a water temperature drop from 7.3°C to 4.8°C, while in December the corresponding values were 1,145 m3/s, 3,052 m3/s, 11°C and 8°C. The flood affected roads, bridges, farms and cattle, fortunately not resulting in any human damage. Similar floods had been reported on Colonia River several decades ago, the last having occurred in the 1970s, all of which originated at that time at glacial Lake Arco, located south of Colonia Glacier. Airborne and ground explorations carried out after each event in 2008 confirmed that the floods originated at Lake Cachet 2, draining under Colonia Glacier for a distance of 8 km and emerging at the front of the glacier. As a result parts of the glacier front collapsed after each event, where large ice fractures could be observed. During the October event a complete drainage of

  9. Behaviour of oxamyl and propamocarb in two rockwool cultivation systems: open drainage and recirculation of nutrient solution excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.; Houx, N.W.H.; Runia, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of oxamyl and propamocarb was studied in nutrient solution applied at different rates to an open drainage system and a closed cultivation system for eighteen days. Hardly did any transformation occur in the nutrient solution in the supply tank. In periods of intense radiation the

  10. Drainage and Stratification Kinetics of Foam Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Foam lifetime, drainage kinetics and stability are strongly influenced by surfactant type (ionic vs non-ionic), and added proteins, particles or polymers modify typical responses. The rate at which fluid drains out from a foam film, i.e. drainage kinetics, is determined in the last stages primarily by molecular interactions and capillarity. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, colloids and polyelectrolyte-surfactant mixtures, a layered ordering of molecules, micelles or particles inside the foam films leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. Though stratification is observed in many confined systems including foam films containing particles or polyelectrolytes, films containing globular proteins seem not to show this behavior. Using a Scheludko-type cell, we experimentally study the drainage and stratification kinetics of horizontal foam films formed by protein-surfactant mixtures, and carefully determine how the presence of proteins influences the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of foam films.

  11. A STUDY OF VARIABLES CHARACTERIZING DRAINAGE PATTERNS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In GIS and in terrain analysis, drainage systems are important components. Due to local topography and subsurface geology, a drainage system achieves a particular drainage pattern based on the form and texture of its network of stream channels and tributaries. Drainage pattern recognition helps to provide a qualitative description of the terrain for analysis and classification and is useful for terrain modelling and visualization and applications in environment. Much research has been done on the description of drainage patterns in geography and hydrology. However automatic drainage pattern recognition in river networks is not well developed. This paper introduces a method based on geometric quantitative indicators to recognize drainage patterns in a river network automatically. Experiment results are presented and discussed.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage as an alternative to percutaneous drainage and surgical bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayakul, Varayu; Aswakul, Pitulak

    2015-01-16

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had been a treatment modality of choice for both benign and malignant biliary tract obstruction for more than half century, with a very high clinical success rate and low complications. But in certain circumstances, such as advanced and locally advanced pancreatobiliary malignancies (pancreatic cancer, cholangiocarcinoma, ampullary tumor) and tight benign strictures, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) fails. Up to this point, the only alternative interventions for these conditions were percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound guided interventions was introduced for a couple decades with the better visualization and achievement of the pancreatobiliary tract. And it's still in the process of ongoing development. The inventions of new techniques and accessories lead to more feasibility of high-ended procedures. Endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage was a novel treatment modality for the patient who failed ERCP with the less invasive technique comparing to surgical bypass. The technical and clinical success was high with acceptable complications. Regarded the ability to drain the biliary tract internally without an exploratory laparotomy, this treatment modality became a very interesting procedures for many endosonographers, worldwide, in a short period. We have reviewed the literature and suggest that endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage is also an option, and one with a high probability of success, for biliary drainage in the patients who failed conventional endoscopic drainage.

  13. Is ultrasonography-guided drainage a safe and effective alternative to incision and drainage for deep neck space abscesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabirmoghaddam, P; Mohseni, A; Navvabi, Z; Sharifi, A; Bastaninezhad, S; Safaei, A

    2017-03-01

    Deep neck space abscesses are common head and neck surgery emergencies. Traditionally, surgical incision and drainage has been the main treatment for deep neck abscesses. Recently, it has been suggested that ultrasound-guided drainage of neck abscesses can be an effective and less invasive alternative to incision and drainage. Patients with deep neck space abscesses referred to the emergency department of Amiralam Hospital were assessed and enrolled to the study if they met the inclusion criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to incision and drainage or ultrasound-guided drainage groups using sealed envelopes. Sixty patients were evaluated, with 30 patients in each group. There was a significant difference (p deep neck abscesses.

  14. In vivo testing of a novel adjustable glaucoma drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarin, Adan; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Bigler, Stéphane; Mermoud, André; Moulin, Alexandre; Roy, Sylvain

    2014-10-14

    We report on the in vivo testing of a novel noninvasively adjustable glaucoma drainage device (AGDD), which features an adjustable outflow resistance, and assess the safety and efficiency of this implant. Under general anesthesia, the AGDD was implanted on seven white New Zealand rabbits for a duration of 4 months under a scleral flap in a way analogous to the Ex-PRESS device and set in an operationally closed position. The IOP was measured on a regular basis on the operated and control eyes using a rebound tonometer. Once a month the AGDD was adjusted noninvasively from its fully closed to its fully open position and the resulting pressure drop was measured. The contralateral eye was not operated and served as control. After euthanization, the eyes were collected for histology evaluation. The mean preoperative IOP was 11.1 ± 2.4 mm Hg. The IOP was significantly lower for the operated eye (6.8 ± 2 mm Hg) compared to the nonoperated eye (13.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) during the first 8 days after surgery. When opening the AGDD from its fully closed to fully open position, the IOP dropped significantly from 11.2 ± 2.9 to 4.8 ± 0.9 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Implanting the AGDD is a safe and uncomplicated surgical procedure. The fluidic resistance was noninvasively adjustable during the postoperative period with the AGDD between its fully closed and fully open positions. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  15. Suction/Injection Effects on the Swirling Flow of a Reiner-Rivlin Fluid near a Rough Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity equations for the Bödewadt flow of a non-Newtonian Reiner-Rivlin fluid, subject to uniform suction/injection, are solved numerically. The conventional no-slip boundary conditions are replaced by corresponding partial slip boundary conditions, owing to the roughness of the infinite stationary disk. The combined effects of surface slip (λ, suction/injection velocity (W, and cross-viscous parameter (L on the momentum boundary layer are studied in detail. It is interesting to find that suction dominates the oscillations in the velocity profiles and decreases the boundary layer thickness significantly. On the other hand, injection has opposite effects on the velocity profiles and the boundary layer thickness.

  16. The concentration distribution around a growing gas bubble in a bio tissue under the effect of suction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S A

    2014-07-01

    The concentration distribution around a growing nitrogen gas bubble in the blood and other bio tissues of divers who ascend to surface too quickly is obtained by Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) for variant and constant ambient pressure through the decompression process. In this paper, the growing of gas bubbles and concentration distribution under the effect of suction process are studied as a modification of Mohammadein and Mohamed model (zero suction). The growth of gas bubble is affected by ascent rate, tissue diffusivity, initial concentration difference, surface tension and void fraction. Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) is obtained as a special case from the present model. Results showed that, the suction process activates the systemic blood circulation and delay the growth of gas bubbles in the bio tissues to avoid the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A History of Suction-Type Laminar Flow Control with Emphasis on Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braslow, Albert L.

    1999-01-01

    Laminar-flow control is an area of aeronautical research that has a long history at NASA's Langley Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Center, their predecessor organizations, and elsewhere. In this monograph, the author, who spent much of his career at Langley working with this research, presents a history of that portion of laminar-flow technology known as active laminar-flow control, which employs suction of a small quantity of air through airplane surfaces. This important technique offers the potential for significant reduction in drag and, thereby, for large increases in range or reductions in fuel usage for aircraft. For transport aircraft, the reductions in fuel consumed as a result of laminar-flow control may equal 30 percent of present consumption. Given such potential, it is obvious that active laminar-flow control with suction is an important technology. In this study, the author covers the early history of the subject and brings the story all the way to the mid-1990s with an emphasis on flight research, much of which has occurred at Dryden. This is an important monograph that not only encapsulates a lot of history in a brief compass but also does so in language that is accessible to non-technical readers. NASA is publishing it in a format that will enable it to reach the wide audience the subject deserves.

  18. Aphids of the genus Diuraphis caught by Johnson suction trap in Poznań, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strażyński Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1973-2011 in Poznań, aphid catches were carried out using Johnson’s suction trap. Since then the suction trap located at the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznań has continuously recorded the daily and seasonal dynamics of aphid flights. The collected results has been used to establish one of the largest databases of this type in Europe. The data also allow tracking changes in aphid biodiversity under the changing climatic conditions. Three aphid species of Diuraphis spp. were identified: D. muehlei (Börner, 1950 - in 1974, D. bromicola (Hille Ris Lambers, 1959 - in 1988, D. noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913 - in 2003 as a result of systematic and long-term aphid collections. The occurrence of D. noxia presents a particular risk to cereal crops in Poland. This expansive aphid species that originates from Asia and the Mediterranean is a vector of Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDV, and has become one of the most important pest of wheat and barley in the world. Changes in climatic conditions that have been observed in recent years in Poland such as hot summer, long and warm autumn, mild winter seem to be optimal for occurrence and development of aphid species from warmer parts of Europe.

  19. End Suction Centrifugal Pump Operating in Turbine Mode for Microhydro Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azlan Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current research works on the end suction centrifugal pump coupled with induction generator running in turbine mode for microhydro application. The information can be used by practicing engineers, researchers, and plant managers to understand the potential of pump running as turbine. Review on experimental and simulation works was carried out encompassing end suction single stage low specific speed which is less than 10 kW. This is followed by review of their efficiency improvement through modifications. The results show that centrifugal pump can operate in turbine modes without any modification on mechanical components. However, to achieve the best efficiency point (BEP, it requires higher flow rate and head than pumping rating. Efficiency improvement is viable through geometric modification to improve hydraulic characteristic. The studies also show that pump as turbine (PAT can be directly coupled with modified induction motor as generator by adding capacitor and electric control system, regulating voltage and frequency at the output terminal. It was found that PAT offers the best low cost solution for microhydro application especially for third world countries that do not have local microhydro manufacturer.

  20. Modelled three-dimensional suction accuracy predicts prey capture success in three species of centrarchid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Emily A.; Higham, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prey capture is critical for survival, and differences in correctly positioning and timing a strike (accuracy) are likely related to variation in capture success. However, an ability to quantify accuracy under natural conditions, particularly for fishes, is lacking. We developed a predictive model of suction hydrodynamics and applied it to natural behaviours using three-dimensional kinematics of three centrarchid fishes capturing evasive and non-evasive prey. A spheroid ingested volume of water (IVW) with dimensions predicted by peak gape and ram speed was verified with known hydrodynamics for two species. Differences in capture success occurred primarily with evasive prey (64–96% success). Micropterus salmoides had the greatest ram and gape when capturing evasive prey, resulting in the largest and most elongate IVW. Accuracy predicted capture success, although other factors may also be important. The lower accuracy previously observed in M. salmoides was not replicated, but this is likely due to more natural conditions in our study. Additionally, we discuss the role of modulation and integrated behaviours in shaping the IVW and determining accuracy. With our model, accuracy is a more accessible performance measure for suction-feeding fishes, which can be used to explore macroevolutionary patterns of prey capture evolution. PMID:24718455

  1. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gregory J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  2. Controls on shallow landslide initiation: Diverse hydrologic pathways, 3D failure geometries, and unsaturated soil suctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark; Iverson, Richard; Brien, Dianne; Iverson, Neal; LaHusen, Richard; Logan, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and ensuing debris flows are a common hazard worldwide, yet forecasting their initiation at a specific site is challenging. These challenges arise, in part, from diverse near-surface hydrologic pathways under different wetting conditions, 3D failure geometries, and the effects of suction in partially saturated soils. Simplistic hydrologic models typically used for regional hazard assessment disregard these complexities. As an alterative to field studies where the effects of these governing factors can be difficult to isolate, we used the USGS debris-flow flume to conduct controlled, field-scale landslide initiation experiments. Using overhead sprinklers or groundwater injectors on the flume bed, we triggered failures using three different wetting conditions: groundwater inflow from below, prolonged moderate-intensity precipitation, and bursts of high-intensity precipitation. Failures occurred in 6 m3 (0.65-m thick and 2-m wide) prisms of loamy sand on a 31° slope; these field-scale failures enabled realistic incorporation of nonlinear scale-dependent effects such as soil suction. During the experiments, we monitored soil deformation, variably saturated pore pressures, and moisture changes using ˜50 sensors sampling at 20 Hz. From ancillary laboratory tests, we determined shear strength, saturated hydraulic conductivities, and unsaturated moisture retention characteristics. The three different wetting conditions noted above led to different hydrologic pathways and influenced instrumental responses and failure timing. During groundwater injection, pore-water pressures increased from the bed of the flume upwards into the sediment, whereas prolonged moderate infiltration wet the sediment from the ground surface downward. In both cases, pore pressures acting on the impending failure surface slowly rose until abrupt failure. In contrast, a burst of intense sprinkling caused rapid failure without precursory development of widespread positive pore

  3. Unsteady Stagnation Point Flow and Heat Transfer over a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Suction or Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with suction/injection is studied. The governing partial differential equations are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation and solved numerically. Both stretching and shrinking cases are considered. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity, and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the dual solutions exist for the shrinking case, whereas the solution is unique for the stretching case. Numerical results show that the range of dual solutions increases with mass suction and decreases with mass injection.

  4. Investigation of Operating Pressure Ratio of a Supersonic Wind Tunnel Utilizing Distributed Boundary-layer Suction in Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C B; Valerino, A S

    1950-01-01

    Effect of distributed boundary-layer suction on operating pressure ratio of a supersonic wind tunnel was investigated. Investigation was made in 3.84- by 10-inch supersonic tunnel operating at Mach number 2.0 and suction was applied in neighborhood of the normal shock to two walls of a constant-area extension of test section. A reduction of 4 percent of operating pressure ratio was attributed to improved flow conditions at subsonic-diffuser inlet. The theoretical normal shock was, in practice, replaced by a multiple-branch shock configuration across which the flow parameters changed in approximate accordance with the Rankine-Hugoniot values.

  5. Integrated urban drainage, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    2002-01-01

    measures are local infiltration, source control, storage basins, local treatment and real time control. New paradigms have been introduced: risk of pollution due to system failure, technology for water reuse, sustainability, new architecture and greener up-stream solutions as opposed to down......This paper summarises the status of urban storm drainage as an integrated professional discipline, including the management-policy interface, by which the goals of society are implemented. The paper assesses the development of the discipline since the INTERURBA conference in 1992 and includes...

  6. Pitfalls in Cutaneous Melanoma Lymphatic Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinea, Silviu; Sandru, Angela; Gherghe, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard in staging of cutaneous melanoma. As skin lymphatic drainage is complex, preoperative empirical assessment of SN localization is virtually impossible. Therefore in order to identify all regional lymphatic basins corresponding to a specific primary tumor is mandatory to carry out preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. In this paper we present a clinical case that highlights the importance of identifying, biopsy and histological analysis of all SN in order to achieve a correct staging of the patient, followed by appropriate treatment according to the real clinical stage of the disease. Celsius.

  7. Relationship between the lymphatic drainage of the breast and the upper extremity: a postmortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlista, David; Eliska, Oldrich

    2012-10-01

    This anatomic study details the lymphatic drainage of the upper extremity (UE) and breast, as well as its course in the axilla and its relation to axillary reverse mapping. Two aspects important for breast cancer surgery were followed: connection between the lymphatics of the UE and breast, and the possible cause of lymphedema of the UE after sentinel node (SN) biopsy. Patent blue dye was injected bilaterally in 23 cadavers with no history of breast carcinoma to simultaneously visualize the lymphatics of the UE and breast. After visualization and dissection of the lymphatic vessels and nodes, a record of their routes was made. A scheme of superficial UE and breast lymphatics was constructed. After application of color contrast to the UE, 2-4 main afferent collectors were shown. As opposed to cranial and medial collectors, caudal collectors diverged from the axillary vein and entered the caudal axilla. In five (10.8%) cases, the caudal collector entered a node, which was considered to be the SN of the breast. In six (13%) cases, the SN of the breast and SNs of the UE were found in close proximity (up to 1.5 cm). Lymphatic drainage of the UE and breast are closely related in the caudal part of the axilla. SN groups for the UE and breast share connections in 24% of cases, which could explain lymphedema after surgery if damaged. Additional studies are needed to further improve our understanding of the lymphatic drainage of the UE and breast.

  8. Non-stationary behavior of roof drainage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koláček Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the non-stationary behavior of a roof drainage during experimental measurement in the climate simulator. Many buildings use a fully or partially flat roof where it is necessary to use the roof drainage. Thermal behavior of roof drainage is very important from the point of view of heat transfer and potential condensation. The placement of a roof drain slightly deteriorates thermal transmittance of the roof. This experiment evaluates roof drains in the specific climate simulator where thermal conditions were dynamically controlled in the specific temperature range. The measurement was performed for two types of roof drains. The first drainage is a simple single-shell and the second is double-shell drainage. The results show the effect on the thermal transmittance of the roof section and also the minimal effect of condensation on the non-insulation part of the drainage. Both roof drains showed minimal deterioration of thermal transmittance of the roof construction.

  9. Suction/Inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver : a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wälti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Czell, David; Goyen, Matthias; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. • Suction/Inspiration against resistance is promising to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery. • Patients potentially suffering pulmonary embolism are able to follow suction/inspiration against resistance. • Contrast density after suction is superior in comparison to other breathing maneuvers.

  10. Arterial Pulsations cannot Drive Intramural Periarterial Drainage: Significance for Aβ Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Alexandra K; MacGregor Sharp, Matthew; Gatherer, Maureen; Bressloff, Neil W; Carare, Roxana O; Richardson, Giles

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and to date there is no cure or efficient prophylaxis. The cognitive decline correlates with the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the walls of capillaries and arteries. Our group has demonstrated that interstitial fluid and Aβ are eliminated from the brain along the basement membranes of capillaries and arteries, the intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD) pathway. With advancing age and arteriosclerosis, the stiffness of arterial walls, this pathway fails in its function and Aβ accumulates in the walls of arteries. In this study we tested the hypothesis that arterial pulsations drive IPAD and that a valve mechanism ensures the net drainage in a direction opposite to that of the blood flow. This hypothesis was tested using a mathematical model of the drainage mechanism. We demonstrate firstly that arterial pulsations are not strong enough to produce drainage velocities comparable to experimental observations. Secondly, we demonstrate that a valve mechanism such as directional permeability of the IPAD pathway is necessary to achieve a net reverse flow. The mathematical simulation results are confirmed by assessing the pattern of IPAD in mice using pulse modulators, showing no significant alteration of IPAD. Our results indicate that forces other than the cardiac pulsations are responsible for efficient IPAD.

  11. [Effects of vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation for treatment of scald burns with seawater immersion in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Wu, Qi; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jia-Han

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation in the treatment of scald burns with seawater immersion in rabbits. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were subjected to deep partial-thickness scald burns in 4 regions on the bilateral skin of the spine. The wounds were managed with common dressing (group A), common dressing after seawater immersion (group B), closed vacuum drainage after seawater immersion (group C), or closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation after seawater immersion (group D). Wound effusion and tissue necrosis were observed at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after the burns. Tissue samples were collected from the wounds for HE staining and immunohistochemistry for VEGF and CD31, and the changes of capillary endothelial cells in the wound were observed using electron microscopy. The water content in the wound tissues was determined, and the wound healing rate was calculated after the injury. Sea water immersion of the wound results in earlier onset of edema and more extensive tissue necrosis in the scalded rabbits. The mean necrotic area in groups C and D was smaller than that in group B early after the burns, and vacuum drainage promoted necrotic tissue elimination and accelerated wound healing. Early after the burns, water content in the tissues increased with time in all the groups and reached the highest level at 3 days, and was significantly lower in groups C and D than in group B. Pathologically, vascular endothelial cell damage at the wound site was worsened after seawater immersion. In group D, the basement membrane damage was milder and the endothelial cell membrane remained intact at the wound site, where new blood vessels occurred at 3 days after the burns, a time earlier than that in the other 3 groups with also the highest vascular density. Closed vacuum drainage combined with heparin irrigation can relieve edema at the scald wound with seawater immersion, improve microcirculation, accelerate the removal

  12. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  13. Displacement Processes in Stable Drainage Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Pride, S. R.; Manga, M.

    2016-12-01

    Drainage fronts are stabilized at large bond number, when a low density nonwetting fluid displaces a high density wetting fluid from above. This is an ideal flow scenario for studying the correspondence between pore scale processes and continuum models because the front is a persistent macroscale feature that is propagated by discrete, multiplepore scale displacements. We present new observations of stable air/water drainage in thin, threedimensional, poured bead packs at varying capillary number. With backlighting and a high speed camera, we observe short range front velocities that are an order of magnitude larger than bulk pore velocity, consistent with previous studies in ordered 2D structures. We also quantify displacement lengths and front width. For comparison to continuum simulations, we measure saturation by light transmission continuously over a series of 1 cm length voxels. We focus on the critical nonwetting saturation (CNS, or "emergence point") at which voxels are percolated by air and continuum air permeability becomes nonzero. We find that mean CNS is capillary number dependent even at large bond number, with larger CNS at lower capillary number. Continuum simulations with an equivalent discretization demonstrate that CNS is a significant source of uncertainty for predictions of the time and saturation profile at chamber-length air breakthrough.

  14. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  15. Floating roof tank drainage system improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Wagner Andrade da; Holdack, Ricardo; Ruza, Adilson; Schraml, Karina Chacur; Fujikawa, Mauro Yutaka [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Adilson Batista da [ATP Engenharia Ltda., Parnamirim, RN (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    TRANSPETRO's tank TQ-8803 is a floating roof tank, used for storing gasoline at atmospheric pressure. This tank presented a roof movement restriction at a certain height in the receiving and sending operations, besides problems in draining the rainwater from the floating roof. The roof drain was a central articulated pipe, with a single intake spot. The tank had an anti-rotational 12-inch guide tube and a separate 8-inch gauging tube. It was verified that there were signs of friction between the tubes and their nozzles, and that both the tubes were out of plummet. The solution was removing both the tubes and installing a single anti-rotational guide tube, which received the level and temperature gauges, besides being used for manual gauging and as sampling nozzle. A new drainage system was also projected. It uses a flexible tube, supported in a spiral form on the bottom of the tank, and has a main and four auxiliary drainage boxes, positioned in the center of the roof and next to the pontoon, below the mobile stairs. These boxes were provided with elastomer duckbill check valves, substituting the swing check valves previously installed. After the maintenance conclusion, the anomalies found before were solved. (author)

  16. Suction curettage as first line treatment in cases with cesarean scar pregnancy: feasibility and effectiveness in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ibrahim; Ekiz, Ali; Acar, Deniz Kanber; Kaya, Basak; Ozkose, Burak; Ozdemir, Cagdas; Talay, Hasan; Gedikbasi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is an extremely rare form of an ectopic pregnancy, which is defined as the localization of a fertilized ovum surrounded by uterine muscular fiber and scar tissue. The objective of this study was to discuss the management options for CSPs in a singleton center. In the current study, we discussed the current management options for CSPs based on our 6 years of experience. A retrospective evaluation of diagnosed and treated 26 patients with CSPs in Istanbul Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital during a 6-year period was discussed. Suction curettage was performed as first-line treatment in patients with a gestation 2 mm. Twenty-two (84.6%) patients with CSPs were initially treated surgically (curettage and hysterotomy) and four (15.4%) patients were treated medically with methotrexate injections. Vacuum aspiration was performed in 19 patients as a first-line treatment, six of them needed an additional Foley balloon catheter to be inserted for tamponade because of persistent vaginal bleeding. Suction curettage was successful in 12 patients. The treatment rate for suction curettage with or without Foley balloon catheter tamponade was 16 of 19 (84.2%). The early diagnosis of a CSP (7-8 weeks gestation) with a β-hCG level 2 mm can be treated with suction curettage with or without placement of a uterine Foley balloon as curative treatment.

  17. Limited attractant range of the black-light suction trap for the capture of Culicoides biting midges (Dipetera: Ceratopogonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    The suction light trap (LT) is a standard tool used to capture Culicoides biting midges, when estimating abundances, and mapping species ranges. The exact range of attraction of the LT is in dispute, however, with several studies indicating the range to vary widely, between 4 and 50 m. In this

  18. Conceptual Design of Portable Filtered Air Suction Systems For Prevention of Released Radioactive Gas under Severe Accidents of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Yim, Man S.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    It becomes evident that severe accidents may occur by unexpected disasters such as tsunami, heavy flood, or terror. Once radioactive material is released from NPP through severe accidents, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gas spreading in the air. As a remedy for this problem, the idea on the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for the prevention of released radioactive gas under severe accidents was proposed. In this paper, the conceptual design of a PoFASS focusing on the number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are proposed. In order to design a flexible robot suction nozzle, mathematical models for the gaps which represent the lifted heights of extensible covers for given convex shapes of pipes and for the covered areas are developed. In addition, the system requirements for the design of the robot arms of PoFASS are proposed, which determine the accessible range of leakage points of released radioactive gas. In this paper, the conceptual designs of the flexible robot suction nozzle and robot arm have been conducted. As a result, the minimum number of robot fingers and robot arm rods are defined to be four and three, respectively. For further works, extensible cover designs on the flexible robot suction nozzle and the application of the PoFASS to the inside of NPP should be studied because the radioactive gas may be released from connection pipes between the containment building and auxiliary buildings.

  19. Is elimination of cardiotomy suction preferable in aortic valve replacement? Assessment of perioperative coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Akimasa; Nakahira, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hirai, Hidekazu; Okada, Yuko; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Guidelines recommend the avoidance of direct return of pericardial blood based on evidence from coronary surgery. A continuous auto-transfusion system (CATS) can be a good alternative to cardiotomy suction by reinfusing aspirated pericardial blood without the necessity of intermittent collection. To clarify the effects of direct return of pericardial blood in aortic valve replacement (AVR), we compared the effects of cardiotomy suction and an alternative CATS on perioperative coagulofibrinolysis and inflammation systems, and clinical outcomes. METHODS In 40 AVR operations between April 2009 and April 2011, the retransfusion method of pericardial blood during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was allocated to the use of cardiotomy suction (non-Cell-Saver group, n = 20) or CATS (Cell-Saver group, n = 20) under identical protocols of anticoagulation and transfusion. The blood from the left ventricular vent was returned to the venous reservoir. We obtained blood samples at nine points up to the morning after surgery. RESULTS Perioperative values for coagulofibrinolysis markers, such as thrombin–antithrombin III complex, fibrinogen degeneration products, D-dimer and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, were significantly lower in the Cell-Saver group than those in the non-Cell-Saver group from 1 h after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass to 3 or 6 h after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (P suction, thus facilitating less-invasive valve surgeries with marked suppression of coagulofibrinolysis responses. PMID:23728087

  20. Investigating the impact of Lake Agassiz drainage routes on the 8.2 ka cold event with a climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-X. Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The 8.2 ka event is the most prominent abrupt climate change in the Holocene and is often believed to result from catastrophic drainage of proglacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway (LAO that routed through the Hudson Bay and the Labrador Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean, and perturbed Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC. One key assumption of this triggering mechanism is that the LAO freshwater drainage was dispersed over the Labrador Sea. Recent data, however, show no evidence of lowered δ18O values, indicative of low salinity, from the open Labrador Sea around 8.2 ka. Instead, negative δ18O anomalies are found close to the east coast of North America, extending as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, suggesting that the freshwater drainage may have been confined to a long stretch of continental shelf before fully mixing with North Atlantic Ocean water. Here we conduct a sensitivity study that examines the effects of a southerly drainage route on the 8.2 ka event with the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE model. Hosing experiments of four routing scenarios, where freshwater was introduced to the Labrador Sea in the northerly route and to three different locations along the southerly route, were performed to investigate the routing effects on model responses. The modeling results show that a southerly drainage route is possible but generally yields reduced climatic consequences in comparison to those of a northerly route. This finding implies that more freshwater would be required for a southerly route than for a northerly route to produce the same climate anomaly. The implicated large amount of LAO drainage for a southerly routing scenario is in line with a recent geophysical modelling study of gravitational effects on sea-level change associated with the 8.2 ka event, which suggests that the volume of drainage might be larger than previously estimated.

  1. Suction-based propulsion as a basis for efficient animal swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-11-01

    A central and long-standing tenet in the conceptualization of animal swimming is the idea that propulsive thrust is generated by pushing the surrounding water rearward. Inherent in this perspective is the assumption that locomotion involves the generation of locally elevated pressures in the fluid to achieve the expected downstream push of the surrounding water mass. Here we show that rather than pushing against the surrounding fluid, efficient swimming animals primarily pull themselves through the water via suction. This distinction is manifested in dominant low-pressure regions generated in the fluid surrounding the animal body, which are observed by using particle image velocimetry and a pressure calculation algorithm applied to freely swimming lampreys and jellyfish. These results suggest a rethinking of the evolutionary adaptations observed in swimming animals as well as the mechanistic basis for bio-inspired and biomimetic engineered vehicles.

  2. Decoupled CFD-based optimization of efficiency and cavitation performance of a double-suction pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlavaj, A.; Morgut, M.; Jošt, D.; Nobile, E.

    2017-04-01

    In this study the impeller geometry of a double-suction pump ensuring the best performances in terms of hydraulic efficiency and reluctance of cavitation is determined using an optimization strategy, which was driven by means of the modeFRONTIER optimization platform. The different impeller shapes (designs) are modified according to the optimization parameters and tested with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, namely ANSYS CFX. The simulations are performed using a decoupled approach, where only the impeller domain region is numerically investigated for computational convenience. The flow losses in the volute are estimated on the base of the velocity distribution at the impeller outlet. The best designs are then validated considering the computationally more expensive full geometry CFD model. The overall results show that the proposed approach is suitable for quick impeller shape optimization.

  3. Free-convection flow past a horizontal surface in a nanofluid with suction/injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nurul Shahirah Mohd; Arifin, Norihan Md; Bachok, Norfifah; Nazar, Roslinda

    2017-08-01

    The present work deals with the steady free-convection boundary-layer flow past a horizontal permeable surface embedded in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid. The similarity transformation was applied to the governing equations to transform into a system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order (RKF45) method. Three types of nanoparticles which are titania (TiO2), alumina (Al2O3), and copper (Cu) in the based fluid of water are considered to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle volume fraction parameter, υ. Results are presented and discussed for the local Nusselt number, the surface velocity, the temperature profiles, and the velocity profile. It is found that the imposition of suction/injection has an impact on the velocity profiles and temperature profiles.

  4. Dissipation on Steady MHD Marangoni Convection Flow over a Flat Surface with Suction and Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of radiation and mass transfer on a steady MHD two-dimensional Marangoni convection flow over a flat surface in presence of Joule heating and viscous dissipation under influence of suction and injection is studied numerically. The general governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using unique similarity transformation. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the Runge-Kutta method along with shooting technique. The effects of governing parameters on velocity, temperature, and concentration as well as interface velocity, the surface temperature gradient, and the surface concentration gradient were presented in graphical and tabular forms. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

  5. The magnetohydrodynamic stagnation point flow of a nanofluid over a stretching/shrinking sheet with suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Syahira; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of a nanofluid over a permeable stretching/shrinking sheet is studied. Numerical results are obtained using boundary value problem solver bvp4c in MATLAB for several values of parameters. The numerical results show that dual solutions exist for the shrinking case, while for the stretching case, the solution is unique. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the dual solutions. For the stable solution, the skin friction is higher in the presence of magnetic field and increases when the suction effect is increased. It is also found that increasing the Brownian motion parameter and the thermophoresis parameter reduces the heat transfer rate at the surface.

  6. Suction-based propulsion as a basis for efficient animal swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J.; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

    2015-01-01

    A central and long-standing tenet in the conceptualization of animal swimming is the idea that propulsive thrust is generated by pushing the surrounding water rearward. Inherent in this perspective is the assumption that locomotion involves the generation of locally elevated pressures in the fluid to achieve the expected downstream push of the surrounding water mass. Here we show that rather than pushing against the surrounding fluid, efficient swimming animals primarily pull themselves through the water via suction. This distinction is manifested in dominant low-pressure regions generated in the fluid surrounding the animal body, which are observed by using particle image velocimetry and a pressure calculation algorithm applied to freely swimming lampreys and jellyfish. These results suggest a rethinking of the evolutionary adaptations observed in swimming animals as well as the mechanistic basis for bio-inspired and biomimetic engineered vehicles. PMID:26529342

  7. [Closed automatic programmed aspiration-irrigation method in the treatment of abdominal abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanshin, N N; Bystritskiĭ, A L

    1989-12-01

    Treatment of 124 patients with abdominal abscesses is analysed. Sixty-four patients (a test group) were treated by air-tight drainage of the abscess cavity with double-tube silicone drains and automatic fraction irrigation of the purulent cavity in the postoperative period. Other methods of intraabdominal abscess drainage were used in 60 patients (a control group). The advantages of closed programmed aspiration-irrigation treatment are shown.

  8. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  10. Effect of Zr Purity and Oxygen Content on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of Melt-Spun and Suction-Cast Cu46Zr42Al7Y5 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxygen content in zirconium on the structure and mechanical properties of the Cu46Zr42Al7Y5 alloy, in the form of melt-spun ribbons and suction-cast rods, was investigated. Two types of Zr, rod and crystal bar of different nominal purities and oxygen contents, were used to synthesize the alloy by arc melting. Rapidly solidified ribbons were produced by melt spinning and their amorphous structures were confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Bulk samples in the form of rods were cast using a special water-cooled suction casting unit attached to the arc melting system. XRD and DSC studies proved the amorphous structure of the bulk alloy synthesized from low-oxygen Zr and partial crystallization of the same alloy for high-oxygen Zr. In both bulk samples, uniformly distributed crystalline particles were identified as yttrium oxides. Higher mean compressive strength of amorphous alloy was observed. The hardness of amorphous phase was close to 500 HV1 in both bulk alloys, while the hardness of crystalline dendritic areas, observed in the alloy synthesized from high oxygen Zr, was lower by about 50 HV1.

  11. Seasonal variation in an acid mine drainage microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Ryan R; Mykytczuk, Nadia C S; Leduc, Leo G; Merritt, Thomas J S

    2017-02-01

    Environmental oxidation and microbial metabolism drive production of acid mine drainage (AMD). Understanding changes in the microbial community, due to geochemical and seasonal characteristics, is fundamental to AMD monitoring and remediation. Using direct sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes to identify bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic members of the microbial community at an AMD site in Northern Ontario, Canada, we found a dynamic community varying significantly across winter and summer sampling times. Community composition was correlated with physical and chemical properties, including water temperature, pH, conductivity, winter ice thickness, and metal concentrations. Within Bacteria, Acidithiobacillus was the dominant genus during winter (11%-57% of sequences) but Acidiphilium was dominant during summer (47%-87%). Within Eukarya, Chrysophyceae (1.5%-94%) and Microbotrymycetes (8%-92%) dominated the winter community, and LKM11 (4%-62%) and Chrysophyceae (25%-87%) the summer. There was less diversity and variability within the Archaea, with similar summer and winter communities mainly comprising Thermoplasmata (33%-64%) and Thermoprotei (5%-20%) classes but also including a large portion of unclassified reads (∼40%). Overall, the active AMD community varied significantly between winter and summer, with changing community profiles closely correlated to specific differences in AMD geochemical and physical properties, including pH, water temperature, ice thickness, and sulfate and metal concentrations.

  12. In vivo site-specific transfection of naked plasmid DNA and siRNAs in mice by using a tissue suction device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Shimizu

    Full Text Available We have developed an in vivo transfection method for naked plasmid DNA (pDNA and siRNA in mice by using a tissue suction device. The target tissue was suctioned by a device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS following the intravenous injection of naked pDNA or siRNA. Transfection of pDNA encoding luciferase was achieved by the suction of the kidney, liver, spleen, and heart, but not the duodenum, skeletal muscle, or stomach. Luciferase expression was specifically observed at the suctioned region of the tissue, and the highest luciferase expression was detected at the surface of the tissue (0.12±0.03 ng/mg protein in mice liver. Luciferase expression levels in the whole liver increased linearly with an increase in the number of times the liver was suctioned. Transfection of siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene significantly suppressed the expression of GAPDH mRNA in the liver. Histological analysis shows that severe damage was not observed in the suctioned livers. Since the suction device can be mounted onto the head of the endoscope, this method is a minimally invasive. These results indicate that the in vivo transfection method developed in this study will be a viable approach for biological research and therapies using nucleic acids.

  13. Mechanical ventilation and the role of saline instillation in suctioning adult intensive care unit patients: an evidence-based practice review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros, Alyssa Camille S

    2014-01-01

    Saline instillation in suctioning mechanically ventilated patients remains a common practice in the intensive care unit (ICU). Many respiratory therapists and nurses are using saline with suctioning without an adequate knowledge of the current evidence-based research to guide this practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if this routine method is beneficial or harmful to the patients and provide evidence-based practice recommendations that will serve as a guide for practice. This is a comprehensive review on the use of saline instillation in suctioning mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients. Database such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and national guidelines are extracted for the review of literature. The study population consists of patients 18 years or older, who are intubated or have a tracheostomy in place, requiring mechanical ventilation, and who are admitted in the ICU. Although most of the evidence suggests not to use saline when suctioning, there are various limitations to the studies such as small sample size, settings, inconsistencies in data collection, or not enough or outdated research clinical trials, which calls for further studies. This study does not support the use of saline instillation when suctioning an artificial airway. Further clinical trials are crucial to effectively determine if saline instillation use with suctioning an artificial airway is deemed harmful, which can be strictly enforced as a mandatory clinical guideline for all hospitals to include in their standardized protocol to not use saline instillation with suctioning.

  14. In vivo Site-Specific Transfection of Naked Plasmid DNA and siRNAs in Mice by Using a Tissue Suction Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazunori; Kawakami, Shigeru; Hayashi, Kouji; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Nakao, Kazuwa; Hashida, Mitsuru; Konishi, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo transfection method for naked plasmid DNA (pDNA) and siRNA in mice by using a tissue suction device. The target tissue was suctioned by a device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) following the intravenous injection of naked pDNA or siRNA. Transfection of pDNA encoding luciferase was achieved by the suction of the kidney, liver, spleen, and heart, but not the duodenum, skeletal muscle, or stomach. Luciferase expression was specifically observed at the suctioned region of the tissue, and the highest luciferase expression was detected at the surface of the tissue (0.12±0.03 ng/mg protein in mice liver). Luciferase expression levels in the whole liver increased linearly with an increase in the number of times the liver was suctioned. Transfection of siRNA targeting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene significantly suppressed the expression of GAPDH mRNA in the liver. Histological analysis shows that severe damage was not observed in the suctioned livers. Since the suction device can be mounted onto the head of the endoscope, this method is a minimally invasive. These results indicate that the in vivo transfection method developed in this study will be a viable approach for biological research and therapies using nucleic acids. PMID:22844458

  15. Suction against resistance: a new breathing technique to significantly improve the blood flow ratio of the superior and inferior vena cava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Roos, Justus E; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Wälti, Stephan; Reischauer, Carolin; Froehlich, Johannes M

    2014-12-01

    Optimal contrast within the pulmonary artery is achieved by the maximum amount of contrast-enhanced blood flowing through the superior vena cava (SVC), while minimum amounts of non-contrasted blood should originate from the inferior vena cava (IVC). This study aims to clarify whether "suction against resistance" might optimise this ratio. Phase-contrast pulse sequences on a 1.5T MRI magnet were used for flow quantification (mean flow (mL/s), stroke volume (Vol) in the SVC and IVC in volunteers. Different breathing manoeuvers were analysed repeatedly: free breathing; inspiration; expiration; suction against resistance, and Valsalva. To standardise breathing commands, volunteers performed suction and Valsalva manoeuvers with an MR-compatible manometer. Suction against resistance was associated with a significant drop of the IVC/SVC flow quotient (1.63 [range 1.3-2.0] p  0.05). Suction against resistance caused a significant drop in the IVC/SVC quotient. Theoretically, this breathing manoeuver might significantly improve the enhancement characteristics of CT angiography. Suction provokes reduction in blood flow in the inferior vena cava. Ratio between the inferior and superior vena cava blood flow diminished during suction. Manometer used during breathing standardises MR phase-contrast blood flow measurements.

  16. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias [Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Czell, David [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Neurology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Reischauer, Carolin [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  17. Intranasal Drainage for Pediatric Nasal Abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey; Smith, Lee P

    2014-07-01

    Nasal abscesses of the tip or soft tissues are uncommon in children. We describe an endonasal surgical approach for nasal abscesses based on our experience with 3 children at our tertiary care, academic children's hospital. All presented with significant nasal pain out of proportion to the physical examination findings, along with edema, induration, and some intermittent bleeding and discharge of sebaceous and/or keratinous debris. Parenteral antibiotics were administered for an initial period of at least 24 hours in all cases, without any significant improvement in the patients' symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast was diagnostic in all cases. Symptomatic relief was achieved immediately postoperatively. No child required a second drainage procedure, and all children had an uneventful recovery. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Irrigation drainage: Green River basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Miller, Jerry B.

    1988-01-01

    A reconnaissance of wildlife areas in the middle Green River basin of Utah during 1986-87 determined that concentrations of selenium in water and biological tissues were potentially harmful to wildlife at the Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and in the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge. Concentations of selenium in irrigation drainage entering Stewart Lake ranged from 14 to 140 micrograms per liter; liver tissue from coots collected from the lake contained selenium concentrations of as much as 26 micrograms per gram and samples of tissue from carp contained as much as 31 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of selenium in a pond at the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, which receives irrigation water and shallow ground water, were as much as 93 micrograms per liter. Liver tissue from coots collected from this pond contained selenium concentrations of as much as 43 micrograms per gram; eggs of water birds contained as much as 120 micrograms per gram.

  19. Conceptual design report for site drainage control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Mound Plant (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Inc. (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety & Health (ES&H) Upgrades Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by facility activities. The first project of this multiphase program is now in the final stages of construction, and the second project is currently under design. Four additional projects, one of which is presented in this report, are in the conceptual design stage. At Mound, 22 soil zones have become contaminated with radioactive material. These zones cover approximately 20 percent of the total area of developed property at the site. During a storm event, the rainwater washes contaminated soil from these zones into the storm sewer system. These radioactive contaminants may then be discharged along with the stormwater into the Great Miami River via the Miami Erie Canal. This conceptual design report (CDR), Site Drainage Control, the fourth project in the ES&H program, describes a project that will provide improvements and much needed repairs to inadequate and deteriorating portions of the storm drainage system on the developed property. The project also will provide a stormwater retention facility capable of storing the stormwater runoff, from the developed property, resulting from a 100-year storm event. These improvements will permit the effective control and monitoring of stormwater to prevent the spread of radioactive contaminants from contaminated soil zones and will provide a means to collect and contain accidental spills of hazardous substances.

  20. Chemical abatement of acid mine drainage formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, J.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data were used to develop a unified model of hydroxo-, sulfato-, and bisulfato-iron complexes and their stability constants in iron-sulfate solutions. Free energy of formation for each ligand series species was hypothesized to be linear in ligand number because of supporting evidence from the literature. Laboratory tests on the inhibition of acid mine drainage bacteria were conducted. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. Low-pH cultures of Thiobacillus thioxidans significantly increased zinc sulfide dissolution rates relative to sterile controls. Sodium lauryl sulfate, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 mg/liter, respectively, in identical low-pH, batch cultures of Thiobacillus thiooxidans, were sufficient for complete inhibition of bacterial zinc sulfide dissolution. Pilot-scale experiments on the abatement of acid mine drainage formation in both fresh and weathered pyritic coal refuse were also conducted. At doses of 0.5 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg in fresh and weathered refuse, respectively, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, and most significantly, sodium lauryl surface, reduced the rate of iron, sulfate, and acidity production in water-leached barrels of coal refuse material.

  1. Peritoneal drainage versus laparotomy in necrotizing enterocolitis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    babies are subjected to formal laparotomy as a definitive treatment ... babies may be subjected to bedside drainage with local anesthesia or ... mental outcomes [7]. Bedside peritoneal drainage is performed under local anesthesia for extremely sick low birth weight neonates as an alternative to traditional laparotomy [8].

  2. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  3. Evaluating the Acid Mine Drainage Potential at Abosso Goldfields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of Acid Rock Drainae (ARD) affects both plants and animals that are present in a drainage system. In some base metal and coal mining environments, the presence of sulphide minerals especially pyrite and their exposure to oxygen and water may trigger Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Evaluation of the potential for ...

  4. Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The land reclamation component computes leaching fraction, drainage coefficient, amount of drainable water, salinity, sodicity and then designs a ditch drain to convey the leached water out of the field. Keywords: Surface and subsurface drainage design, computer application, land reclamation, salinity, sodicity, drains

  5. Laparoscopy‑guided Liver Abscess Drainage: An Additional Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open surgery is frequently done in our environment because of lack of standard equipment for percutaneous drainage.[3] This is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared to percutaneous drainage. Consequently minimal access surgery techniques are increasingly being used in the treatment of this ...

  6. A synthesis and comparative evaluation of drainage water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viable large-scale crop production in the United States requires artificial drainage in humid and poorly drained agricultural regions. Excess water removal is generally achieved by installing tile drains that export water to open ditches that eventually flow into streams. Drainage water management...

  7. Simulating Effects of Drainage Design Parameters on Optimum Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural water management system aims to provide crop water requirements to sustain optimum yield. Some of the factors influencing optimum crop yield are drainage design parameters in water-logged soils. Hence, the impact of drainage design parameters on optimum crop yield was examined. Field experimentation ...

  8. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; van As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  9. Strike slip faulting inferred from offsetting of drainages: Lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detailed analysis of landforms, drainages and geology of the area between the rivers Amaravati and Karjan was carried out in order to understand the tectonic history of the lower Narmada basin. Movement along the various faults in the area was studied on the basis of the drainage offsetting. Horizontal offsetting of ...

  10. Passive remediation of acid mine drainage using cryptocrystalline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... water and oxygen leading to the formation of highly acidic mine effluent known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The ... formation of acid mine drainage using pyrite as an example. (Simate et al., 2014):. 4FeS2 + 15O2 + 14H2O ..... water with calcium carbonate. Water Sci. Technol. 29 (9) 285–296. MAREE JP ...

  11. selecting suitable drainage pattern to minimize flooding in sangere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Takana

    in the contour interpolation using Simple kriging method, with a precession of 0.001m, a vector layer for existing drainages was created. The spatial data obtained from the ground survey method was used in the production of the vector layer map. The coordinates were used in plotting the drainage geometry and delineation ...

  12. Predicting success of catheter drainage in infected necrotizing pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; Van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314099050; Ali, Usama Ahmed; Van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; Van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821721

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. Methods: This was a

  13. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, Robbert A.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Brunschot, Sandra; Bakker, Olaf J.; Ahmed Ali, Usama; van Goor, Harry; Boermeester, Marja A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Besselink, Marc G.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. This was a post hoc analysis of 130

  14. Predicting Success of Catheter Drainage in Infected Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollemans, R.A.; Bollen, T.L.; Brunschot, S. van; Bakker, O.J.; Ali, U. Ahmed; Goor, H. van; Boermeester, M.A.; Gooszen, H.G.; Besselink, M.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: At least 30% of patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis are successfully treated with catheter drainage alone. It is currently not possible to predict which patients also need necrosectomy. We evaluated predictive factors for successful catheter drainage. METHODS: This was a

  15. Preoperative percutaneous transhepatic drainage: use or abuse. A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Moody, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit of preoperative percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice was reviewed in the literature from 1974 to July 1984. The role of preoperative drainage cannot be definitively assessed. Significant reduction of morbidity and mortality has been reported in

  16. Andean tectonics as a cause for changing drainage patterns in Miocene northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, Carina; Guerrero, Javier; Sarmiento, Gustavo A.; Lorente, Maria A.

    1995-03-01

    New data from Neogene strata in northern South America suggest that Miocene tectonism in the northeastern Andes was responsible for the genesis of the Amazon River and changes in the drainage patterns of other major rivers such as the Magdalena and the Orinoco. Here we present a new model for the paleogeographic evolution of northern South America during the Miocene. In the early Miocene, a large part of the drainage of northwest Amazonia was directed northward along the paleo Orinoco river system to a delta in Lake Maracaibo. Uplift of the Eastern Cordillera in the late middle Miocene caused the first development of the Amazon River; however, no connection with the Atlantic was established, and the Amazon fed the paleo Orinoco river system, which drained toward the Caribbean. Substantial Andean uplift in the late Miocene resulted in major changes in paleogeography: the Orinoco changed its course, the Amazon established a connection to the Atlantic, causing the drowning of carbonate platforms, and the Amazon Caribbean connection was closed. Thus the drainage and paleogeography of northern South America in the Miocene were strongly controlled by tectonic movements in the northeastern Andes.

  17. Intelligent real-time operation of a pumping station for an urban drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Wei, Chih-Chiang

    2013-05-01

    SummaryIn this study, we apply artificial intelligence techniques to the development of two real-time pumping station operation models, namely, a historical and an optimized adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS-His and ANFIS-Opt, respectively). The functions of these two models are the determination of the real-time operation criteria of various pumping machines for controlling flood in an urban drainage system during periods when the drainage gate is closed. The ANFIS-His is constructed from an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using historical operation records. The ANFIS-Opt is constructed from an ANFIS using the best operation series, which are optimized by a tabu search of historical flood events. We use the Chung-Kong drainage basin, New Taipei City, Taiwan, as the study area. The operational comparison variables are the highest water level (WL) and the absolute difference between the final WL and target WL of a pumping front-pool. The results show that the ANFIS-Opt is better than the ANFIS-His and historical operation models, based on the operation simulations of two flood events using the two operation models.

  18. Experimental study of entrainment and drainage flows in microscale soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Steffen; Adelizzi, Eric A; Troian, Sandra M

    2005-04-26

    The thickness of freely suspended surfactant films during vertical withdrawal and drainage is investigated using laser reflectivity. The withdrawal process conducted at capillary numbers below 10(-3) generates initial film thicknesses in the micrometer range; subsequent thinning is predominantly impelled by capillary and not gravitational forces. Under these conditions, our results show that film thinning above and below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) is well approximated by a power law function in time whose exponents, which range from -0.9 to -1.8, are inconsistent with current descriptions of capillary-viscous drainage in inextensible films which predict exponents close to -0.5. Correlations between the experimental fitting parameters illustrate important differences in film behavior across the cmc. In addition, normalization of the drainage data yields a collapse to a single functional form over 3 decades in time for a wide range of initial withdrawal rates. We demonstrate that modification of the interface boundary condition in current models to account for Marangoni stresses through an effective slip parameter yields values of the exponents and other key parameters in excellent agreement with experiment. This modification also successfully describes the withdrawal thickness below the cmc.

  19. Unilobar versus bilobar biliary drainage: effect on quality of life and bilirubin level reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Gamanagatti

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Percutaneous biliary drainage provides good palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Partial-liver drainage achieved results as good as those after complete liver drainage with significant improvements in QOL and reduction of the bilirubin level.

  20. Performance assessment of groundwater drainage basin in small-sized mountain rivers based on DTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenkov, A.; Dutova, E.; Pokrovsky, D.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the performance assessment methods for groundwater drainage basin based on the analysis of morphometric indices of small-sized mountain river drainage basins. DTM was applied to analyze morphometric indices of drainage basins.

  1. Climate change impacts on rainfall extremes and urban drainage: state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick; Olsson, Jonas; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Beecham, Simon; Pathirana, Assela; Bülow Gregersen, Ida; Madsen, Henrik; Nguyen, Van-Thanh-Van

    2013-04-01

    ; adaptive approach that provides inherent flexibility and reversibility and avoids closing off options; importance of active learning. References: Willems, P., Olsson, J., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Beecham, S., Pathirana, A., Bülow Gregersen, I., Madsen, H., Nguyen, V-T-V. (2012). Impacts of climate change on rainfall extremes and urban drainage. IWA Publishing, 252 p., Paperback Print ISBN 9781780401256; Ebook ISBN 9781780401263 Willems, P., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Olsson, J., Nguyen, V.T.V. (2012), 'Climate change impact assessment on urban rainfall extremes and urban drainage: methods and shortcomings', Atmospheric Research, 103, 106-118

  2. The efficacy and safety of autologous blood transfusion drainage in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Ke; Hong, Kun-Hao; Xie, Hui; Luo, Ming-Hui; Guo, Da; Liu, Jun

    2016-11-02

    Autologous blood transfusion drainage (ABTD) has been used for many years to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We evaluate the current evidence concerning the efficiency and safety of ABTD used in TKA compared with conventional suction drainage (CSD). We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and four Chinese databases. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of ABTD versus CSD in TKA were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen RCTs involving 1534 patients who compared the effects of ABTD versus CSD were included. Five of the RCTs were performed in Asia, ten in Europe, and one in North America. Patients in the ABTD group had a lower blood transfusion rate (OR: 0.25 [0.13, 0.47]; Z = 4.27, P analysis suggests that ABTD is a safe and effective method that yields a lower blood transfusion rate and fewer units transfused per patient in TKA compared with CSD.

  3. Percutaneous drainage of Morel-Lavallée lesions when the diagnosis is delayed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Biao; Zhang, Chi; Luo, Cong-feng

    2014-10-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesions are a closed internal degloving, and open débridement can damage the only remaining blood supply to the skin. We performed percutaneous draining and débridement to treat 8 patients in whom the diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions was delayed more than 1 week. Here we discuss our treatment procedures and the outcomes in these 8 patients. We consider percutaneous drainage to be an effective treatment for patients with delayed diagnosis of Morel-Lavallée lesions.

  4. Implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Brian A; Fernandes, Rodrigo A B; Akil, Handan; Chopra, Vikas; Diniz, Bruno; Tan, James; Huang, Alex

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate success rates in controlling intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantation of a second glaucoma drainage device (GDD) with a Baerveldt glaucoma implant in patients with refractory glaucoma, with a secondary aim of reducing the need for postoperative glaucoma medications. This retrospective, noncomparative, interventional study included patients undergoing a second GDD for uncontrolled glaucoma from a tertiary care glaucoma service. Data were obtained from the medical records for the preoperative period and after the 1st, 15th, and 30th day, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then yearly until the last postoperative visit. Visual acuity, IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (NGM) from the follow-up visits were compared to baseline. Success and failure criteria were analyzed based on IOP level or need of glaucoma medications. Forty-nine patients were studied, with a mean follow-up time of 25 ± 21 months. The mean preoperative IOP was 23.7 ± 8.2 mmHg, and decreased to 14.8 ± 4.0 mmHg after 1 year, 14.4 ± 3.9 mmHg after 2 years, and 16.6 ± 8.5 mmHg after 3 years. The mean preoperative NGM was 3.4 ± 1.3, and decreased to 2.0 ± 1.8 after 1 year, 2.5 ± 1.6 after 2 years, and 2.8 ± 2.0 after 3 years. Absolute success was 9% after 1 year for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 18 mmHg, and 76% for a postoperative IOP between 5 and 21 mmHg. The qualified success was 88% at the first and second years and 83% at the third year. With up to 3 years of follow-up, a second glaucoma drainage device was successful in reducing IOP to below 21 mmHg, but not as successful below 18 mmHg. The success rate is improved with the use of glaucoma medications with up to 3 years of follow-up.

  5. Evaluation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Roadway Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Diana M; Grabowski, Marta K; Benitez, Amy C B; Schmidt, Arthur R; Guest, Jeremy S

    2017-08-15

    Roadway drainage design has traditionally focused on cost-effectively managing water quantity; however, runoff carries pollutants, posing risks to the local environment and public health. Additionally, construction and maintenance incur costs and contribute to global environmental impacts. While life cycle assessment (LCA) can potentially capture local and global environmental impacts of roadway drainage and other stormwater systems, LCA methodology must be evaluated because stormwater systems differ from wastewater and drinking water systems to which LCA is more frequently applied. To this end, this research developed a comprehensive model linking roadway drainage design parameters to LCA and life cycle costing (LCC) under uncertainty. This framework was applied to 10 highway drainage projects to evaluate LCA methodological choices by characterizing environmental and economic impacts of drainage projects and individual components (basin, bioswale, culvert, grass swale, storm sewer, and pipe underdrain). The relative impacts of drainage components varied based on functional unit choice. LCA inventory cutoff criteria evaluation showed the potential for cost-based criteria, which performed better than mass-based criteria. Finally, the local aquatic benefits of grass swales and bioswales offset global environmental impacts for four impact categories, highlighting the need to explicitly consider local impacts (i.e., direct emissions) when evaluating drainage technologies.

  6. Unusual Solidification Behavior of the Suction-Cast Cu-Zr-Al-Y Alloy Doped with Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Tomasz; Cios, Grzegorz; Latuch, Jerzy; Pajor, Krzysztof; Bała, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    The effect of iron addition on the microstructure of the Cu-Zr-Al-Y glass-forming alloy was studied. Despite a high superficial cooling rate, small Fe additions (1.5 and 3 pct) induced formation of crystalline CuZr and AlCu2Zr phases on the outer layers of suction-cast rods. As the melt composition near the solid/liquid interface was depleted in Fe, the remaining melt vitrified at a relatively low cooling rate.

  7. Inflation lung mechanics deteriorates markedly after saline instillation and open endotracheal suctioning in mechanically ventilated healthy piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Goncalves, Doris; Perez-de-Sá, Valéria; Ingimarsson, Jónas; Werner, Olof; Larsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Non-bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage is an alternative to diagnostic bronchoscopy in pediatric patients, as fiberoptic bronchoscopes with aspiration channels are too large for small infants. There are many variations of the method in clinical practice, and saline instillation followed by open endotracheal suctioning is still commonly used. Lung function can deteriorate with these procedures, and we have investigated the effects on lung mechanics and oxygenation in healthy piglets. The lungs of anesthetized and mechanically ventilated piglets were recruited with CPAP 35 cmH2O. Thereafter we instilled 5 ml of saline into the endotracheal tube, followed by three breaths from the ventilator. Saline was retrieved through a suction catheter wedged far distally in the airway. The procedure was followed by a new recruitment maneuver. Complete inspiratory/expiratory pressure - volume loops (PV-loops) were obtained just before and 5 min after saline instillation. Arterial blood gases were collected at equivalent times in 14 similar piglets submitted to exactly the same procedure. The inspiratory limb of the PV-loops changed markedly, as the lower inflection point was displaced towards higher pressures (P=0.004), and hysteresis measured at 15 and 30 cmH2O increased (P=0.004 and P=0.012, respectively). Although PaO2 decreased significantly (P=0.001), values after saline instillation/suctioning were still in the high normal range, that is, 22.2 +/- 2.6 kPa. Opening pressures of the lungs increase markedly after saline instillation/suctioning in healthy piglets. In this situation, adequate recruitment maneuvers and PEEP might prevent lung collapse and deteriorations in arterial oxygenation. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Comparison of manual and suction pump aspiration techniques for performing bronchoalveolar lavage in 18 dogs with respiratory tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, K S; Defarges, A M N; Abrams-Ogg, A C G; Viel, L; Brisson, B A; Bienzle, D

    2014-01-01

    Different aspiration techniques to retrieve bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) affect sample quality in healthy dogs. Studies evaluating these techniques in dogs with respiratory disease are lacking. To compare sample quality of BALF acquired by manual aspiration (MA) and suction pump aspiration (SPA). Eighteen client-owned dogs with respiratory disease. Randomized, blinded prospective clinical trial. Manual aspiration was performed with a 35-mL syringe attached directly to the bronchoscope biopsy channel and SPA was performed with a maximum of 50 mmHg negative pressure applied to the bronchoscope suction valve using the suction trap connection. Both aspiration techniques were performed in each dog on contralateral lung lobes, utilizing 2 mL/kg lavage volumes per site. Samples of BALF were analyzed by percentage of retrieved infusate, total nucleated cell count (TNCC), differential cell count, semiquantitative assessment of slide quality, and diagnosis score. Data were compared by paired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement. The percentage of retrieved BALF (P = .001) was significantly higher for SPA than MA. Substantial agreement was found between cytologic classification of BALF obtained with MA and SPA (kappa = 0.615). There was no significant difference in rate of definitive diagnosis achieved with cytologic assessment between techniques (P = .78). Suction pump aspiration, compared to MA, improved BALF retrieval, but did not significantly affect the rate of diagnostic success of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in dogs with pulmonary disease. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. An in vitro study examining a novel suction curette device for lumbar discectomy compared with standard manual discectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, William F; Ordway, Nathaniel R; Araghi, Ali; Buckley, Rudolph A; Fayyazi, Amir H

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE This purpose of this study was to objectively evaluate and assess the efficacy and efficiency of discectomy and endplate preparation during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) using traditional manual instrumentation versus a novel suction discectomy curette. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion is the most widely used approach for lumbar arthrodesis, and its success depends on the ability to achieve fusion. Complete preparation of intervertebral disc space (removal of the nucleus, endplate cartilage, and margin of inner annulus) is the surgical goal. Performing an adequate discectomy requires numerous instrument passes, increasing surgical time and the risk of complications. METHODS Four experienced spinal surgeons performed transforaminal discectomies from T-12 to S-1 on 5 whole-body cadavers. Each level (n = 26) was randomly assigned to either a control group using traditional instruments (12 levels) or to a suction curette group (14 levels). The time required to perform the discectomy and the number of passes through the annulus were recorded. Motion segments were dissected and analyzed by digital photogrammetric analysis. The intervertebral disc and the discectomy cross-sectional areas were measured on both superior and inferior images of each dissected surgical level. Areas were divided into 4 quadrants based on a midsagittal and midcoronal axis and analyzed for regional efficiency. In addition, a cross-sectional area of bony endplate (the area still covered with cartilage) and an area of endplate perforation were evaluated. RESULTS There was no significant difference in surgical time between the techniques (7:51 ± 2:43 minutes in the manual discectomy [MD] group and 7:06 ± 3:33 minutes in the suction curette discectomy [SD] group). There were significantly fewer (p suction curette device could potentially improve the clinical fusion rate.

  10. Determination of Matric Suction and Saturation Degree for Unsaturated Soils, Comparative Study - Numerical Method versus Analytical Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Vasile-Florin

    2017-10-01

    Matric suction is a soil parameter which influences the behaviour of unsaturated soils in both terms of shear strength and permeability. It is a necessary aspect to know the variation of matric suction in unsaturated soil zone for solving geotechnical issues like unsaturated soil slopes stability or bearing capacity for unsaturated foundation ground. Mathematical expression of the dependency between soil moisture content and it’s matric suction (soil water characteristic curve) has a powerful character of nonlinearity. This paper presents two methods to determine the variation of matric suction along the depth included between groundwater level and soil level. First method is an analytical approach to emphasize one direction steady state unsaturated infiltration phenomenon that occurs between the groundwater level and the soil level. There were simulated three different situations in terms of border conditions: precipitations (inflow conditions on ground surface), evaporation (outflow conditions on ground surface), and perfect equilibrium (no flow on ground surface). Numerical method is finite element method used for steady state, two-dimensional, unsaturated infiltration calculus. Regarding boundary conditions there were simulated identical situations as in analytical approach. For both methods, was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen (1980) for mathematical expression of soil water characteristic curve. Also for the unsaturated soil permeability prediction model was adopted the equation proposed by van Genuchten-Mualen. The fitting parameters of these models were adopted according to RETC 6.02 software in function of soil type. The analyses were performed in both methods for three major soil types: clay, silt and sand. For each soil type were concluded analyses for three situations in terms of border conditions applied on soil surface: inflow, outflow, and no flow. The obtained results are presented in order to highlight the differences

  11. Comparison of Manual and Suction Pump Aspiration Techniques for Performing Bronchoalveolar Lavage in 18 Dogs with Respiratory Tract Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, K. S.; Defarges, A.M.N.; Abrams?Ogg, A.C.G.; Viel, L.; Brisson, B.A.; Bienzle, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Different aspiration techniques to retrieve bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) affect sample quality in healthy dogs. Studies evaluating these techniques in dogs with respiratory disease are lacking. Objectives To compare sample quality of BALF acquired by manual aspiration (MA) and suction pump aspiration (SPA). Animals Eighteen client?owned dogs with respiratory disease. Methods Randomized, blinded prospective clinical trial. Manual aspiration was performed with a 35?mL syringe ...

  12. [The effects of endotracheal suction on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients under pressure-controlled or volume-controlled ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-wei; Liu, Zhi

    2007-10-01

    To compare the effects of endotracheal suction on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics in mechanically ventilated patients receiving pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) or volume-controlled ventilation (VCV). A randomized cross-over study was conducted. Twenty-three mechanically ventilated patients were randomly assigned to ventilation with either PCV or VCV at first, and then the other. Endotracheal suction was performed with an open suction system. Changes in gas exchange and respiratory mechanics after suctions under the two modes were compared. With PCV, the tidal volume (VT) and the compliance were (6.60+/-1.95) ml/kg and (18+/-7) ml/cm H2O (1 cm H2O=0.098 kPa) respectively at 30 minutes after suction, as compared to (9.05+/-0.22) ml/kg and (24+/-6) ml/cm H2O respectively at baseline; the difference being significant (F=8.47, 8.01, all P0.05). With PCV, the heart rate (HR) and the mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) were (109+/-20) beats/min and (89+/-10) mm Hg respectively at 5 minutes after suction, as compared to (97+/-17) beats/min and (83+/-12) mm Hg respectively at baseline; the difference being significant (F=5.86, 9.49, all P<0.05). With VCV, HR and MAP were (110+/-17) beats/min and (87+/-11) mm Hg respectively at 5 minutes after suction, as compared to (96+/-17) beats/min and (79+/-11) mm Hg respectively at baseline; the difference being significant (F=7.33, 7.96, all P<0.05). Endotracheal suction causes lung collapse leading to impairment of gas exchange and decreased compliance both under PCV and VCV, but the effect on gas exchange was more severe and persistent under PCV than under VCV.

  13. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  14. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  15. Copper isotope fractionation in acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, Bryn E; Mathur, Ryan; Dohnalkova, Alice; Wall, A J; Runkel, R L; Brantley, Susan L

    2009-03-01

    We surveyed the Cu isotopic composition of primary minerals and stream water affected by acid mine drainage in a mineralized watershed located in southwestern Colorado, USA. The δ65Cu values (based on 65Cu/63Cu) of local enargite (δ65Cu = -0.01 ± 0.10‰; 2σ) and chalcopyrite (δ65Cu = 0.16 ± 0.10‰) are within the general range of previously reported values for terrestrial primary Cu sulfides (-1‰ < δ65Cu < 1). These mineral samples show lower δ65Cu values than stream waters (δ65Cu = 1.36 - 1.74 ± 0.10‰), with an average isotopic fractionation (quantified as Δaq-mino = δ65Cuaq – δ65Cu min, where Cuaq is leached Cu and Cu mino is the original mineral) of 1.60 ± 0.14‰ and 1.43 ± 0.14‰ for enargite and chalcopyrite, respectively.

  16. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Filho, Elio Barreto de; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas.

  17. The Importance of Complete Pericardiectomy and the Role of the Apical Suction Device in Chronic Constrictive Pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Na, Kwon Joong; Kim, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the preoperative attributes and clinical impacts of complete pericardiectomy in chronic constrictive pericarditis. A total of 26 patients were treated from January 2001 to December 2013. The pericardium was resected as widely as possible. When excessive bleeding or hemodynamic instability occurred intraoperatively, a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n=3, 11.5%) or an apical suction device (n=8, 30.8%) was used. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent ≥ 80% resection of the pericardium (group A, n=18) and those who underwent apical suction device was more frequently applied in group A than group B (n=8, 30.8% vs. n=0, 0.0%; p=0.031). The postoperative New York Heart Association functional classification improved more in group A (p=0.030). Long-term follow-up echocardiography also showed a lower frequency of unresolved constriction in group A than in group B (n=1, 5.60% vs. n=5, 62.5%; p=0.008). Patients with chronic constrictive pericarditis demonstrated symptomatic improvement through complete pericardiectomy. Aggressive resection of the pericardium may correct constrictive physiology and an apical suction device can facilitate the approach to the posterolateral aspect of the left ventricle and atrioventricular groove area without the aid of CPB.

  18. Effect of inflow discharges on the development of matric suction and volumetric water content for dike during overtopping tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Ismail, Mohd A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The point of this review is to depict the impact of various inflow discharge rate releases on the instruments of matric suction and volumetric water content during an experimental test of spatial overtopping failure at school of civil engineering in universiti Sains of Malaysia. A dry sand dike was conducted inside small flume channel with twelve sensors of tensiometer and Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR). Instruments are installed in the soil at different locations in downstream and upstream slopes of the dike for measuring the response of matric suction and volumetric water content, respectively. Two values of inflow discharge rates of 30 and 40 L/min are utilized as a part of these experiments to simulate the effectiveness of water reservoirs in erosion mechanism. The outcomes demonstrate that the matric suction and volumetric water content are decreased and increased, respectively for both inflow discharges. The higher inflow discharges accelerate the saturation of dike soil and the erosion process faster than that for the lower inflow discharges.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of a compressible turbulent channel flow with uniform blowing and suction through isothermal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametani, Yukinori; Fukagata, Koji

    2014-11-01

    High-speed transports such as aircrafts and bullet trains support human activity in the modern society. In such applications, the turbulent friction drag is the major contributor to the energy loss. Kametani and Fukagata (J. Fluid Mech., 2011) investigated by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS) the drag reduction effect by blowing and the turbulence stabilization effect by suction in an incompressible spatially developing turbulent boundary layer, and quantitatively discussed different contributions to those effects. In this study, DNS of a compressible turbulent channel with uniform blowing and suction through the isothermal walls is performed. The Reynolds number based on the bulk mass flow rate, the viscosity on the wall and the channel half width is set to be 3000. The bulk Mach number is set to be 0.8 and 1.5 to compare the results in subsonic and supersonic cases. The drag reduction (enhancement) effect was confirmed on the blowing (suction) wall. As the Mach number increases, however, the control efficiency of blowing is found to be deteriorated because of the increased density near the wall. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  20. Determining Suction Feeding Efficiency in the Bowfin fish (Amia) using Particle Image Velocimery and Computaional Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Yenny; Kharbouch, Karim; Sanford, Christopher; Reckinger, Shanon

    2014-11-01

    Suction feeding is the most common form of prey capture in aquatic vertebrates. During the early evolution of fishes there was a major change in shape of the mouth, from a wedge shaped mouth opening in more primitive fishes to a more circular and planar mouth. This change in shape resulted from increased mobility of a key upper jaw bone, the maxilla. It has been suggested that this change in shape dramatically increased suction feeding efficiency. This study examines the hydrodynamic effects of these two mouth shapes in the same animal, the bowfin fish (Amia calva). 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyze suction feeding events. Post-processing algorithms have been developed to determine the flow rate of water into the mouth of the fish; the area of fluid, the velocity of fluid and the volume of fluid affected by the fish; the velocity of the fluid at the mouth, as well as the velocity of the fluid as a function of the distance from the mouth, finally the force exerted on the fluid by the fish is also determined. Lastly, a numerical model has been developed for comparison using a non-uniform mesh, which adapts dynamically in space and time to the fish feeding event. The realistic geometry of the fish's head is modeled in CAD.