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Sample records for closed fuel cycle

  1. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycoberry, C.; Rougeau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capecities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independant energy source, France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, wastes conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further reeichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy. (author)

  2. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Judson, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for closing the fuel cycle in today's nuclear climate in the US are compared with those envisioned in 1977. Reprocessing, the fast breeder reactor program, and the uranium supply are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the nuclear world is less healthy and less stable than the one previously envisioned and that the major task before the international nuclear community is to develop technologies, institutions, and accepted procedures that will allow to economically provide the huge store of energy from reprocessing and the breeder that it appears the world will desperately need

  3. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  4. Rapsodie: A closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levallet, E.H.; Costa, L.; Mougniot, J.C.; Robin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Fortissimo Version of the core of the RAPSODIE fast reactor produces 40 MWTh. Since its start up in May 1970 in the CEN-CADARACHE its availability has stayed around 85%. Some of the mixed oxyde fuel pins UO 2 - 30% PuO 2 have already reached 150.000 MWd/t. The reprocessing is done in the pilot plant located in the La Hague Center and the plutonium obtained has already been re-used in the reactor. The Rapsodie-Fortissimo cycle is therefore now a closed cycle. This cycle is quite representative of fast reactor cycle characteristics and thus provides a remarkable research and development tool for the study of fabrication, in-reactor performances, transport, storage and reprocessing. These studies concern in particular the evolution of fission products and heavy isotopes content in fuel which controls both reprocessing schemes and intensity of emitted radiations. A program for the analysis of irradiated fuel has been developed either using samples collected all along the cycle, or following the actual reprocessing subassemblies. A set of basic data and calculation models has been established with two objectives: to give a better interpretation of the experimental program on one hand, and to extrapolate these results to the fuel cycle of fast reactors in general on the other hand. The first results have been quite encouraging up to now [fr

  5. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  6. Partially closed fuel cycle of WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Sebian, V.; Necas, V.

    2002-01-01

    Position of nuclear energy at the energy sources competition is characterised briefly. Multi-tier transmutation system is outlined out as effective back-end solution and consequently as factor that can increase nuclear energy competitiveness. LWR and equivalent WWER are suggested as a first tier reactors. Partially closed fuel cycle with combined fuel assemblies is briefed. Main back-end effects are characterised (Authors)

  7. Modeling closed nuclear fuel cycles processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, O.V. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova, 5a street, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeeva, I.R. [Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics, Vasiliev street 13, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456770 (Russian Federation); Liventsov, S.N. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Computer models of processes are necessary for determination of optimal operating conditions for closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) processes. Computer models can be quickly changed in accordance with new and fresh data from experimental research. 3 kinds of process simulation are necessary. First, the VIZART software package is a balance model development used for calculating the material flow in technological processes. VIZART involves taking into account of equipment capacity, transport lines and storage volumes. Secondly, it is necessary to simulate the physico-chemical processes that are involved in the closure of NFC. The third kind of simulation is the development of software that allows the optimization, diagnostics and control of the processes which implies real-time simulation of product flows on the whole plant or on separate lines of the plant. (A.C.)

  8. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  9. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle: the impact of indecision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The supply-demand reprocessing capacity problem caused by failure to close the ''back end'' of the fuel cycle is discussed. An economic study was conducted by Allied-General of the effects of ''throwaway'' fuel cycle; results show that the reprocessing alternative with U and Pu recycle is clearly superior economically to the ''throwaway'' alternative, with a net benefit of $10 million per year per reactor. Obstacles to private enterprise in reprocessing and recycle are next considered, and some possible solutions to delays in closing the ''back end'' of the fuel cycle are discussed

  10. Spent fuel management and closed nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic objectives set by Rosatom Corporation in the field of spent fuel management are given. By 2030, Russia is to create technological infrastructure for innovative nuclear energy development, including complete closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. A target model of the spent NPP nuclear fuel management system until 2030 is analyzed. The schedule for key stages of putting in place the infrastructure for spent NPP fuel management is given. The financial aspect of the problem is also discussed [ru

  11. Characteristics of fast reactor core designs and closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavsky, V.M.; Eliseev, V.A.; Matveev, V.I.; Khomyakov, Y.S.; Tsyboulya, A.M.; Tsykunov, A.G.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the results of recent studies, preliminary basic requirements related to characteristics of fast reactor core and nuclear fuel cycle were elaborated. Decreasing reactivity margin due to approaching breeding ratio to 1, requirements to support non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and requirements to decrease amount of radioactive waste are under consideration. Several designs of the BN-800 reactor core have been studied. In the case of MOX fuel it is possible to reach a breeding ratio about 1 due to the use of larger size of fuel elements with higher fuel density. Keeping low axial fertile blanket that would be reprocessed altogether with the core, it is possible to set up closed fuel cycle with the use of own produced plutonium only. Conceptual core designs of advanced commercial reactor BN-1800 with MOX and nitride fuel are also under consideration. It has been shown that it is expedient to use single enrichment fuel core design in this reactor in order to reach sufficient flattening and stability of power rating in the core. The main feature of fast reactor fuel cycle is a possibility to utilize plutonium and minor actinides which are the main contributors to the long-living radiotoxicity in irradiated nuclear fuel. The results of comparative analytical studies on the risk of plutonium proliferation in case of open and closed fuel cycle of nuclear power are also presented in the paper. (authors)

  12. Closing the fuel cycle: A superior option for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Purushotham, D.S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1999-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle option with reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium (U and Pu) for power generation allows better utilization of the uranium resources. On its part, plutonium is a unique energy source. During the initial years of nuclear fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium for power generation was perceived by many countries to be among the best of long term strategies for the management of spent fuel. But, over the years, some of the countries have taken a position that once-through fuel cycle is both economical and proliferation-resistant. However, such perceptions do vary as a function of economic growth and energy security of a given country. This paper deals with techno-economic perspectives of reprocessing and recycling in the Indian nuclear power programme. Experience of developing Mixed Oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 (MOX) fuel and its actual use in a power reactor (BWR) is presented. The paper further deals with the use of MOX in PHWRs in the future and current thinking, in the Indian context, in respect of advanced fuel cycles for the future. From environmental safety considerations, the separation of long-lived isotopes and minor actinides from high level waste (HLW) would enhance the acceptability of reprocessing and recycle option. The separated actinides are suitable for recycling with MOX fuel. However, the advanced fuel cycles with such recycling of Uranium and transuranium elements call for additional sophisticated fuel cycle activities which are yet to be mastered. India is interested in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles. This paper describes the current status of the Indian nuclear power scenario with reference to the program on reactors, reprocessing and radioactive waste management, plutonium recycle options, thorium-U233 fuel cycle studies and investigations on partitioning of actinides from Purex HLW as relevant to PHWR spent fuels. (author)

  13. Effects of cooling time on a closed LWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R. P.; Forsberg, C. W.; Shwageraus, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on the reactor physics characteristics of a PWR fully loaded with homogeneously mixed U-Pu or U-TRU oxide (MOX) fuel is examined. A reactor physics analysis was completed using the CASM04e code. A void reactivity feedback coefficient analysis was also completed for an infinite lattice of fresh fuel assemblies. Some useful conclusions can be made regarding the effect that cooling time prior to reprocessing spent LWR fuel has on a closed homogeneous MOX fuel cycle. The computational analysis shows that it is more neutronically efficient to reprocess cooled spent fuel into homogeneous MOX fuel rods earlier rather than later as the fissile fuel content decreases with time. Also, the number of spent fuel rods needed to fabricate one MOX fuel rod increases as cooling time increases. In the case of TRU MOX fuel, with time, there is an economic tradeoff between fuel handling difficulty and higher throughput of fuel to be reprocessed. The void coefficient analysis shows that the void coefficient becomes progressively more restrictive on fuel Pu content with increasing spent fuel cooling time before reprocessing. (authors)

  14. Biomass fueled closed cycle gas turbine with water injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardi, Silvia [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2001-01-01

    Direct water injection has been studied for a small scale ({approx} 8 MW fuel input) closed cycle gas turbine coupled to a biomass fueled CFB furnace. Two different working fluids have been considered (helium-water mixture and nitrogen-water mixture). The water injection could take place between the compressor stages, as an intercooler, or after the high pressure compressor, as an aftercooler. Both this options have been studied, varying the relative humidity levels after the injection and the temperatures of the injected water. The effect of water injection on thermodynamic properties of the working fluids has been studied, together with its effect on turbomachinery isentropic efficiency. A sensitivity analysis on turbomachinery efficiency and cycle base pressure has been included. The results from this study have been compared to the performance of a dry closed cycle without water injection. The wet cycle shows an electric efficiency in the range 29-32% with helium-water mixture as working fluid and 30-32% with nitrogen-water mixture as working fluid, while the total efficiency (referring to the fuel LHV) is always higher than 100%. In the non-injected cycle the electric efficiency is 30-35% with helium and 32-36 with nitrogen. The total efficiency in the dry case with two level intercooling and postcooling is 87-89%, while is higher than 100% when only one stage inter- and postcooling is present. Aside from this, the study also includes a sizing of the heat exchangers for the different cycle variations. The heat transfer area is very sensible to the working fluid and to the amount of injected water and it's always higher when a nitrogen-water mixture is used. Compared to the cycle without water injection, by the way, the number of heat exchangers is reduced. This will lead to a lower pressure drop and a simpler plant layout. The total heat transfer area, however, is higher in the wet cycle than in the dry cycle.

  15. Closing nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors: problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrin, A.; Dvoeglazov, K.; Ivanov, V. [Bochvar Institute - VNIINM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) is the most promising way of nuclear energetics development because it prevents spent nuclear fuel (SNF) accumulation and minimizes radwaste volume due to minor actinides (MA) transmutation. CNFC with FR requires the elaboration of safety, environmentally acceptable and economically effective methods of treatment of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The up-to-date industrially implemented SNF reprocessing technologies based on hydrometallurgical methods are not suitable for the reprocessing of SNF with high burn-up and low cooling time. The alternative dry methods (such as electrorefining in molten salts or fluoride technologies) applicable for such SNF reprocessing have not found implementation at industrial scale. So the cost of SNF reprocessing by means of dry technologies can hardly be estimated. Another problem of dry technologies is the recovery of fissionable materials pure enough for dense fuel fabrication. A combination of technical solutions performed with hydrometallurgical and dry technologies (pyro-technology) is proposed and it appears to be a promising way for the elaboration of economically, ecologically and socially accepted technology of FR SNF management. This paper deals with discussion of main principle of dry and aqueous operations combination that probably would provide safety and economic efficiency of the FR SNF reprocessing. (authors)

  16. New Concept of Designing Composite Fuel for Fast Reactors with Closing Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.; Vatulin, A.; Uferov, O.; Kulakov, G.; Sorokin, V.

    2013-01-01

    For fast reactors a novel type of promising composite U-PuO2 fuel is proposed which is based on dispersion fuel elements. Basic approach to fuel element development - separated operations of fabricating uranium meat fuel element and introducing into it Pu or MA dioxides powder, that results in minimizing dust forming operations in fuel element fabrication. Novel fuel features higher characteristics in comparison to metallic or MOX fuel its fabrication technology is readily accomplished and is environmentally clean. A possibility is demonstrated of fabricating coated steel claddings to protect from interaction with fuel and fission products when use standard rod type MOX or metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel. Novel approach to reprocessing of composite fuel is demonstrated, which allows to separate uranium from burnt plutonium as well as the newly generated fissile plutonium from burnt one without chemical processes, which simplifies the closing of the nuclear fuel cycle. Novel composite fuel combines the advantages of metallic and ceramic types of fuel and has high uranium density that allows also to implicate it in BREST types reactor with conversion ratio more than 1. Peculiarities of closing nuclear cycle with composite fuel are demonstrated that allows more effective re-usage of generated Pu as well as, minimizing r/a wastes by incineration of MA in specially developed IMF design

  17. Liquid air fueled open–closed cycle Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiqing; Wang, Jia; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of liquid air is divided into cryogenic energy and expansion energy. • Open–closed cycle Stirling mechanism is employed to improve efficiency. • The Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in cold space. - Abstract: An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, the added Stirling mechanism helps achieve its high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. On one hand, based on Stirling mechanism, gas in the hot space absorbs heat from atmosphere when expanding; gas in the cold space is cooled down by liquid air when compressed. Taking atmosphere as heat source and liquid air as heat sink, a closed Stirling cycle is formed. On the other hand, an exhaust port is set in the hot space. When expanding in the hot space, the vaporized gas is discharged through the exhaust port. Thus, an open cycle is established. To model and analyze the system, the Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in the cold space, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The results obtained from the model show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Its efficiency could be improved by reducing temperature difference between the regenerator and the cold/hot space, increasing the swept volume ratio, decreasing the liquid–gas ratio. To keep

  18. Determination of equilibrium fuel composition for fast reactor in closed fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternovykha Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of evaluation of multiplying and reactivity characteristics of fast reactor operating in the mode of multiple refueling is presented. We describe the calculation model of the vertical section of the reactor. Calculation validations of the possibility of correct application of methods and models are given. Results on the isotopic composition, mass feed, and changes in the reactivity of the reactor in closed fuel cycle are obtained. Recommendations for choosing perspective fuel compositions for further research are proposed.

  19. Multiple recycle of REMIX fuel at VVER-1000 operation in closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, P. N.; Bobrov, E. A., E-mail: evgeniybobrov89@rambler.ru; Chibinyaev, A. V.; Teplov, P. S.; Dudnikov, A. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The basic features of loading the VVER-1000 core with a new variant of REMIX fuel (REgenerated MIXture of U–Pu oxides) are considered during its multiple recycle in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The fuel composition is produced on the basis of the uranium–plutonium regenerate extracted at processing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a VVER-1000, depleted uranium, and the fissionable material: {sup 235}U as a part of highly enriched uranium (HEU) from warheads superfluous for defense purposes or {sup 233}U accumulated in thorium blankets of fusion (electronuclear) neutron sources or fast reactors. Production of such a fuel assumes no use of natural uranium in addition. When converting a part of the VVER-1000 reactors to the closed fuel cycle based on the REMIX technology, the consumption of natural uranium decreases considerably, and there is no substantial degradation of the isotopic composition of plutonium or change in the reactor-safety characteristics at the passage from recycle to recycle.

  20. Closing the fuel cycle - Reaching a public consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, B.; Janouch, F.; Wilson, R.

    1997-01-01

    There are three reasons for wanting nuclear power: it does not produce air pollution, or add to global warming; and it is effectively sustainable. What priority is attached to them? Is the possibility of alternate fuels being developed in the next 20 years large enough that mankind can afford not to develop the nuclear option as a possibility? Is the breeder reactor really needed, and when is the earliest time? Was the NAS 1994 (Panofsky) committee right that the existence of excess weapons plutonium present is a clear and present danger to the USA? If so how can we persuade the President to act? Is there a clear and present danger to other countries too? If so why are they still waiting for the U.S. to act? What are the true economic costs of reprocessing using the present PUREX process and can they be brought down? Is the extra cost of disposing of whole fuel rods vs separated waste, more or less than this? What, if any, is the difference (such as heat from Pu 238 ) between the ease of using ''reactor grade'' plutonium and ''weapons grade'' plutonium to make an atomic bomb? Can the difference be increased, and can this difference (if any) be translated into a lower cost for protection of or greater public acceptance of reactor grade plutonium? What could be an international research effort for a better fuel cycle? e.g: Introducing an IFR fuel cycle into Beloyarsk, Monju and/or Phoenix? Introducing a thorium cycle? Has anyone carefully Recorded, Understood and Explained the past history of breeder reactor technology both of accidents, and of failures and successes? If so, where is it? If not, why not? Is the report by Clarke of NRPB in UK on plutonium toxicity that belies the claim that it is unusually toxic widely known? If not, why not? Can the MAYAK experience with misuse of plutonium be used to help in public understanding? Since India and Pakistan will not sign NPT, can more imaginative, quiet, talks with Indian and Pakistani leaders persuade them to come to

  1. Closing the fuel cycle: the evidence in the long run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; L'Epine, P. de; Pehuet, F.; Pinson, P.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the contribution is to explain the following points: (i) The choice of the Reprocessing Conditioning Recycling (RCR) policy means benefitting from a flexible technology in the medium term, with the possibility of a periodic review and fine tuning of the back-end flows and quantities (e.g. the plutonium inventory). (ii) Long term fuel cycle management in Germany is sustainable, on the basis of progressive multirecycling steps that will control the plutonium baseload inventory; from todays achievements, on can reckon such a scheme is confronted with no major technical limit. An attractive feature of the recycling scheme is to open the way to future advanced processes, such as minimisation of ultimate waste volume or partition and transmutation of TRU, if needed. (iii) The RCR policy is already cost efficient and well be clearly advantageous in the long run. To illustrate and quantify these points, an aggregated model of annual fuel requirements in Germany has been elaborated; it has been applied to the period 1979-2029, thus integrating past and future requirements. Some results are presented hereafter. (orig./DG)

  2. Comparative analysis of methods and tools for open and closed fuel cycles modeling: MESSAGE and DESAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Korovin, Yu.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Fedorova, E.V.; Fesenko, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of optimization and simulation methods by the example of MESSAGE and DESAE programs is carried out for nuclear power prospects and advanced fuel cycles modeling. Test calculations for open and two-component nuclear power and closed fuel cycle are performed. Auxiliary simulation-dynamic model is developed to specify MESSAGE and DESAE modeling approaches difference. The model description is given [ru

  3. Dynamic analysis of once-through and closed fuel cycle economics using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr; Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of system costs, both reactor and fuel cycle costs, is analyzed. • Relative economics of once-through and closed fuel cycles is explored. • Probabilistic approaches are adopted for levelized electricity generation costs. • Main cost drivers for cost gaps between once-through and closed cycles are identified. - Abstract: Although no consensus about the best approach to manage spent fuels has been achieved, economics is one of the major criteria for assessing and selecting acceptable management options. This study compares the reactor and fuel cycle costs of the closed system associated with sodium-cooled fast reactors and pyroprocessing versus the once-through system. We specifically investigated the fuel cycle transition cases of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2100. The results revealed that the closed system (34.00 mills/kWh as a mean value) could be more expensive than the once-through system (32.75 mills/kWh). In contrast, the once-through fuel cycle costs (8.31 mills/kWh), excluding reactor costs, were projected to be greater than the closed fuel cycle costs (7.77 mills/kWh) because of the increased costs of interim storage estimated by the Korean government and the limited contribution of backend fuel cycle components to the discounted costs. The capital cost of sodium-cooled fast reactor is the largest component contributing to the cost gap between the two systems. Among fuel cycle components, pyroprocessing has the largest uncertainty contribution to the cost gap. We also calculated the breakeven unit costs of SFR capital cost and PWR spent fuel pyroprocessing cost.

  4. Assessment of the environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems. Comparison between closed and open fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.; Bourg, S.; Ouvrier, N.; Combernoux, N.; Rostaing, C.; Vargas-Gonzalez, M.; Bruno, J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy perspectives for the current century are dominated by the anticipated significant increase of energy needs. Particularly, electricity consumption is anticipated to increase by a factor higher than two before 2050. Energy choices are considered as structuring political choices that implies a long-standing and stable policy based on objective criteria. LCA (life cycle analysis) is a structured basis for deriving relevant indicators which can allow the comparison of a wide range of impacts of different energy sources. Among the energy-mix, nuclear power is anticipated to have very low GHG-emissions. However, its viability is severely addressed by the public opinion after the Fukushima accident. Therefore, a global LCA of the French nuclear fuel cycle was performed as a reference model. Results were compared in terms of impact with other energy sources. It emphasized that the French nuclear energy is one of the less impacting energy, comparable with renewable energy. In a second, part, the French scenario was compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle scenario. It demonstrates that an open fuel cycle would require about 16% more natural uranium, would have a bigger environmental footprint on the “non radioactive indicators” and would produce a higher volume of high level radioactive waste. - Highlights: • A life cycle analysis of the French close nuclear fuel cycle is performed. • The French nuclear energy is one of the less environmental impacting energy. • The French close fuel cycle is compared to an equivalent open fuel cycle. • An open fuel cycle would have a bigger environmental impact than the French fuel cycle. • Spent nuclear fuel recycling has a positive impact on the environmental footprint

  5. Some conditions and prospects of transition to closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.I.; Lependina, E.V.; Ioughai, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear policy of Russia is based on the necessity of closure of nuclear fuel cycle. But at the same time schedule of such a going is not defined. In this study some conditions and possible time-frames of going the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is revival of Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. But the question is whether closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on open fuel cycle over a long period of time? at present economic circumstances in Russia has formed in such a way that economics of current projects is not favourable to going to closure of cycle due to high capital investment cost and low fuel component of costs, due to low cost of natural uranium. Ecological analysis performed within the framework of external cost model also does not suggest that closed cycle has essential advantages at present, but also in sight. The authors have considered a model including not only external costs but also total resources expenditures with long-term power development. In the framework of such a method it can be demonstrated that closed fuel cycle has some important advantages taking into account not only tasks of immediate future, but power development strategy for the period of 30-50 years. Under conditions of nuclear capacities increase (to 30-50 GW) limitation of cheap uranium resources available in Russia will assume a new significance. Approach of prices at the back-end stages of nuclear fuel cycle to West Europe level also will favour to going to a closed fuel cycle. More severe ecological requirements answering to a sustainable development concept also will make a contribution. Closure of fuel cycle can be significantly accelerated in the case of implementation of weapon plutonium utilization program. The factors mentioned above facilitate evenly to going to a closed nuclear fuel

  6. A proliferation-resistant closed nuclear fuel cycle with radiation-equivalent disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Gabaraev, B.A.; Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The growing energy demand in the next century can be met by large-scale nuclear power that can be deployed around fast reactors operating in a closed U-Pu cycle. The main requirements to the future fuel cycle are 1) reduction of the radiation risk from radioactive waste owing to transmutation of the most hazardous long-lived actinides and fission products in reactors and due to thorough treatment of radwaste to remove these elements, with provision of a balance between the activity of waste put to final disposal and that of uranium extracted from earth; 2) no possibility to use closed cycle facilities for Pu extraction from spent fuel for the purpose of weapons production; physical protection of fuel against thefts (nonproliferation). (author)

  7. The choice of the fuel assembly for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, E.; Alekseev, P.; Chibinyaev, A.; Teplov, P.; Dudnikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    REMIX (Regenerated Mixture) fuel is produced directly from a non-separated mix of recycled uranium and plutonium from reprocessed used fuel and the fabrication technology of such fuel is called REMIX-technology. This paper shows basic features of different fuel assembly (FA) application for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology. This investigation shows how the change in the water-fuel ratio in the VVER FA affects the fuel characteristics produced by REMIX technology during multiple recycling. It is shown that for for the traditional REMIX-fuel it does not make sense to change anything in the design of VVER FA, because there are no advantages in the fuel feed consumption. The natural uranium economy by the fifth cycle reached about 29%. In the case of the REMIX fuel based on uranium-plutonium from SNF MOX fuel, it would be appropriate to use fuel assemblies with a water-fuel ratio of 1.5

  8. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the Integral Fast Reactor closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1995-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode, all at a constant heat rating of 840 MW(thermal). For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode and recycle cores using weapons material only as required for a makeup feed. In addition, the impact of alternative feeds (recycled light water reactor or liquid-metal reactor transuranics) on burner core performance is assessed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium does not have an adverse effect on IFR core performance characteristics; also, favorable performance can be maintained for a wide variety of feed materials and fuel cycle strategies

  9. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  10. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6152 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  11. Definition of breeding gain for the closed fuel cycle and application to a gas cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, W. F. G.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; Van Dam, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a definition is given for the Breeding Gain (BG) of a nuclear reactor, taking into account compositional changes of the fuel during irradiation, cool down and reprocessing. A definition is given for the reactivity weights required to calculate BG. To calculate the effects of changes in the initial fuel composition on BG, first order nuclide perturbation theory is used. The theory is applied to the fuel cycle of GFR600, a 600 MWth Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor. This reactor should have a closed fuel cycle, with a BG equal to zero, breeding just enough new fuel during irradiation to allow refueling by only adding fertile material. All Heavy Metal is recycled in the closed fuel cycle. The result is that a closed fuel cycle is possible if the reprocessing has low losses ( 238 U, 15% Pu, and low amounts of the Minor Actinides. (authors)

  12. Fast molten salt reactor-transmuter for closing nuclear fuel cycle on minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnikov, A. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Subbotin, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Creation fast critical molten salt reactor for burning-out minor actinides and separate long-living fission products in the closed nuclear fuel cycle is the most perspective and actual direction. The reactor on melts salts - molten salt homogeneous reactor with the circulating fuel, working as burner and transmuter long-living radioactive nuclides in closed nuclear fuel cycle, can serve as an effective ecological cordon from contamination of the nature long-living radiotoxic nuclides. High-flux fast critical molten-salt nuclear reactors in structure of the closed nuclear fuel cycle of the future nuclear power can effectively burning-out / transmute dangerous long-living radioactive nuclides, make radioisotopes, partially utilize plutonium and produce thermal and electric energy. Such reactor allows solving the problems constraining development of large-scale nuclear power, including fueling, minimization of radioactive waste and non-proliferation. Burning minor actinides in molten salt reactor is capable to facilitate work solid fuel power reactors in system NP with the closed nuclear fuel cycle and to reduce transient losses at processing and fabrications fuel pins. At substantiation MSR-transmuter/burner as solvents fuel nuclides for molten-salt reactors various salts were examined, for example: LiF - BeF2; NaF - LiF - BeF2; NaF-LiF ; NaF-ZrF4 ; LiF-NaF -KF; NaCl. RRC 'Kurchatov institute' together with other employees have developed the basic design reactor installations with molten salt reactor - burner long-living nuclides for fluoride fuel composition with the limited solubility minor actinides (MAF3 10 mol %) allows to develop in some times more effective molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum - burner/ transmuter of the long-living radioactive waste. In high-flux fast reactors on melts salts within a year it is possible to burn ∼300 kg minor actinides per 1 GW thermal power of reactor. The technical and economic estimation given power

  13. Physics studies of weapons plutonium disposition in the IFR closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Wade, D.C.; Liaw, J.R.; Fujita, E.K.

    1994-01-01

    The core performance impact of weapons plutonium introduction into the IFR closed fuel cycle is investigated by comparing three disposition scenarios: a power production mode, a moderate destruction mode, and a maximum destruction mode all at a constant heat rating of 840 MWt. For each scenario, two fuel cycle models are evaluated: cores using weapons material as the sole source of transuranics in a once-through mode, and recycle corns using weapons material only as required for a make-up feed. Calculated results include mass flows, detailed isotopic distributions, neutronic performance characteristics, and reactivity feedback coefficients. In general, it is shown that weapons plutonium feed does not have an adverse impact on IFR core performance characteristics

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear fuel makes the rounds: choosing a closed fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle processes, front-end of the fuel cycle: from crude ore to enriched uranium, back-end of the fuel cycle: the second life of nuclear fuel, and tomorrow: multiple recycling while generating increasingly less waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    France has opted for a policy of processing and recycling spent fuel. This option has already been deployed commercially since the 1990's, but will reach its full potential with the fourth generation. The CEA developed the processes in use today, and is pursuing research to improve, extend, and adapt these technologies to tomorrow's challenges. France has opted for a 'closed cycle' to recycle the reusable materials in spent fuel (uranium and plutonium) and optimise ultimate waste management. France has opted for a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel is processed to recover the reusable materials: uranium and plutonium. The remaining components (fission products and minor actinides) are the ultimate waste. This info-graphic shows the main steps in the fuel cycle currently implemented commercially in France. From the mine to the reactor, a vast industrial system ensures the conversion of uranium contained in the ore to obtain uranium oxide (UOX) fuel pellets. Selective extraction, purification, enrichment - key scientific and technical challenges for the teams in the Nuclear Energy Division (DEN). The back-end stages of the fuel cycle for recycling the reusable materials in spent fuel and conditioning the final waste-forms have reached maturity. CEA teams are pursuing their research in support of industry to optimise these processes. Multi-recycle plutonium, make even better use of uranium resources and, over the longer term, explore the possibility of transmuting the most highly radioactive waste: these are the challenges facing future nuclear systems. (authors)

  15. All heavy metals closed-cycle analysis on water-cooled reactors of uranium and thorium fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Uranium and Thorium fuels as the basis fuel of nuclear energy utilization has been used for several reactor types which produce trans-uranium or trans-thorium as 'by product' nuclear reaction with higher mass number and the remaining uranium and thorium fuels. The utilization of recycled spent fuel as world wide concerns are spent fuel of uranium and plutonium and in some cases using recycled minor actinide (MA). Those fuel schemes are used for improving an optimum nuclear fuel utilization as well to reduce the radioactive waste from spent fuels. A closed-cycle analysis of all heavy metals on water-cooled cases for both uranium and thorium fuel cycles has been investigated to evaluate the criticality condition, breeding performances, uranium or thorium utilization capability and void reactivity condition. Water-cooled reactor is used for the basic design study including light water and heavy water-cooled as an established technology as well as commercialized nuclear technologies. A developed coupling code of equilibrium fuel cycle burnup code and cell calculation of SRAC code are used for optimization analysis with JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. An equilibrium burnup calculation is adopted for estimating an equilibrium state condition of nuclide composition and cell calculation is performed for calculating microscopic neutron cross-sections and fluxes in relation to the effect of different fuel compositions, different fuel pin types and moderation ratios. The sensitivity analysis such as criticality, breeding performance, and void reactivity are strongly depends on moderation ratio and each fuel case has its trend as a function of moderation ratio. Heavy water coolant shows better breeding performance compared with light water coolant, however, it obtains less negative or more positive void reactivity. Equilibrium nuclide compositions are also evaluated to show the production of main nuclides and also to analyze the isotopic composition pattern especially

  16. The benefits of a fast reactor closed fuel cycle in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, R.; Hesketh, K.

    2013-01-01

    The work has shown that starting a fast reactor closed fuel cycle in the UK, requires virtually all of Britain's existing and future PWR spent fuel to be reprocessed, in order to obtain the plutonium needed. The existing UK Pu stockpile is sufficient to initially support only a modest SFR 'closed' fleet assuming spent fuel can be reprocessed shortly after discharge (i.e. after two years cooling). For a substantial fast reactor fleet, most Pu will have to originate from reprocessing future spent PWR fuel. Therefore, the maximum fast reactor fleet size will be limited by the preceding PWR fleet size, so scenarios involving fast reactors still require significant quantities of uranium ore indirectly. However, once a fast reactor fuel cycle has been established, the very substantial quantities of uranium tails in the UK would ensure there is sufficient material for several centuries. Both the short and long term impacts on a repository have been considered in this work. Over the short term, the decay heat emanating from the HLW and spent fuel will limit the density of waste within a repository. For scenarios involving fast reactors, the only significant heat bearing actinide content will be present in the final cores, resulting in a 50% overall reduction in decay energy deposited within the repository when compared with an equivalent open fuel cycle. Over the longer term, radiological dose becomes more important. Total radiotoxicity (normalised by electricity generated) is lower for scenarios with Pu recycle after 2000 years. Scenarios involving fast reactors have the lowest radiotoxicity since the quantities of certain actinides (Np, Pu and Am) eventually stabilise. However, total radiotoxicity as a measure of radiological risk does not account for differences in radionuclide mobility once in repository. Radiological dose is dominated by a small number of fission products so is therefore not affected significantly by reactor type or recycling strategy (since the

  17. Fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1983-05-01

    AECL publications, from the open literature, on fuels and fuel cycles used in CANDU reactors are listed in this bibliography. The accompanying index is by subject. The bibliography will be brought up to date periodically

  18. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  19. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  20. Liquid air fueled open-closed cycle Stirling engine and its exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Xu, Weiqing; Ding, Shuiting; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Rehman, Ali

    2015-01-01

    An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as a pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, a closed cycle structure of Stirling engine is added to combine with the open cycle structure of a conventional cryogenic heat engine to achieve high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. Besides, the theoretical analysis of the proposed engine is performed. The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation in the cold space of the engine, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The modeling results show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Composition of exergy loss in the proposed engine is analyzed. - Highlights: • Cryogenic energy is better exploited by the open-closed cycle Stirling mechanism. • The Schmidt theory is modified to model temperature variation. • Irreversible characteristics are incorporated in the thermodynamic model. • Composition of exergy loss in proposed engine is analyzed.

  1. Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.; Hron, M.

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop nuclear facility is given not only through technical and financial arguments, but sometimes even the greater weight is on political, general safety and public acceptance reasons. Moreover a responsible statement about financial needs is at the beginning of the study possible only with a great error (roughly speaking - factor of two) and a time estimation up to the industrial facilities is about fifteen or even more years. If the technical development and realization is successful, we can express a more responsible conclusion only in such long time intervals. During such long periods, the criteria for political and financial decisions could be changed and the technical development will necessary follow the new situation with a change in the stream of money. On the other side, the stream of money into technology leads to a more precise forecast and a more responsible decision for future realizations. We shall try, in the paper, to reflect technical problems in the closed fuel cycle (like solid and liquid fuel options) with the public demands (refusing of nuclear energy and spent fuel disposal generally, preferring waste less technologies) and political safety aspects (nonproliferation, spent fuel storages). There will be a special attention devoted to such problems in smaller countries, where demands for energy cannot be covered by local classical sources and nuclear energy and spent fuel are already long time reality. The organizational measures and tendencies will be analyzed how to compose sufficiently great and qualified collectives to be able to overcome from the local final disposal development to the common technology realizing practically closed fuel cycle and enabling decomposition of water for the hydrogen production during the first half of this century. Overview information will be given about the Czech national technical program within the EU Program (MOST Project) and within the cooperation with Russian institutes in the molten

  2. Some conditions and prospects of going to a closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.; Lependina, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear policy in Russia is based on the necessity of closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the same time, the schedule of such a move is not yet defined. In this study, some conditions and possible time frames of taking the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is the revival of the Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn out to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. The question is whether the closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on the open fuel cycle over a long period of time? (authors)

  3. BN800: The advanced sodium cooled fast reactor plant based on close fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xingman

    2011-01-01

    As one of the advanced countries with actually fastest reactor technology, Russia has always taken a leading role in the forefront of the development of fast reactor technology. After successful operation of BN600 fast reactor nuclear power station with a capacity of six hundred thousand kilowatts of electric power for nearly 30 years, and after a few decades of several design optimization improved and completed on its basis, it is finally decided to build Unit 4 of Beloyarsk nuclear power station (BN800 fast reactor power station). The BN800 fast reactor nuclear power station is considered to be the project of the world's most advanced fast reactor nuclear power being put into implementation. The fast reactor technology in China has been developed for decades. With the Chinese pilot fast reactor to be put into operation soon, the Chinese model fast reactor power station has been put on the agenda. Meanwhile, the closed fuel cycle development strategy with fast reactor as key aspect has given rise to the concern of experts and decision-making level in relevant areas. Based on the experiences accumulated in many years in dealing the Sino-Russian cooperation in fast reactor technology, with reference to the latest Russian published and authoritative literatures regarding BN800 fast reactor nuclear power station, the author compiled this article into a comprehensive introduction for reference by leaders and experts dealing in the related fields of nuclear fuel cycle strategy and fast reactor technology development researches, etc. (authors)

  4. A Practical Approach to a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustained Nuclear Energy - 12383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Williams, Kent A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6152, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent systems analysis studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have shown that sufficient information is available from previous research and development (R and D), industrial experience, and current studies to make rational decisions on a practical approach to a closed nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. These studies show that a near-term decision is needed to recycle used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States, to encourage public recognition that a practical solution to disposal of nuclear energy wastes, primarily UNF, is achievable, and to ensure a focus on essential near-term actions and future R and D. Recognition of the importance of time factors is essential, including the multi-decade time period required to implement industrial-scale fuel recycle at the capacity needed, and the effects of radioactive decay on proliferation resistance, recycling complexity, radioactive emissions, and high-level-waste storage, disposal form development, and eventual emplacement in a geologic repository. Analysis of time factors led to identification of the benefits of processing older fuel and an 'optimum decay storage time'. Further benefits of focused R and D can ensure more complete recycling of UNF components and minimize wastes requiring disposal. Analysis of recycling costs and nonproliferation requirements, which are often cited as reasons for delaying a decision to recycle, shows that (1) the differences in costs of nuclear energy with open or closed fuel cycles are insignificant and (2) nonproliferation requirements can be met by a combination of 'safeguards-by-design' co-location of back-end fuel cycle facilities, and applied engineered safeguards and monitoring. The study shows why different methods of separating and recycling used fuel components do not have a significant effect on nonproliferation requirements and can be selected on other bases, such as process efficiency, maturity, and cost-effectiveness. Finally, the study

  5. A Practical Approach to a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustained Nuclear Energy - 12383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Williams, Kent A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6152, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent systems analysis studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have shown that sufficient information is available from previous research and development (R and D), industrial experience, and current studies to make rational decisions on a practical approach to a closed nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. These studies show that a near-term decision is needed to recycle used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States, to encourage public recognition that a practical solution to disposal of nuclear energy wastes, primarily UNF, is achievable, and to ensure a focus on essential near-term actions and future R and D. Recognition of the importance of time factors is essential, including the multi-decade time period required to implement industrial-scale fuel recycle at the capacity needed, and the effects of radioactive decay on proliferation resistance, recycling complexity, radioactive emissions, and high-level-waste storage, disposal form development, and eventual emplacement in a geologic repository. Analysis of time factors led to identification of the benefits of processing older fuel and an 'optimum decay storage time'. Further benefits of focused R and D can ensure more complete recycling of UNF components and minimize wastes requiring disposal. Analysis of recycling costs and nonproliferation requirements, which are often cited as reasons for delaying a decision to recycle, shows that (1) the differences in costs of nuclear energy with open or closed fuel cycles are insignificant and (2) nonproliferation requirements can be met by a combination of 'safeguards-by-design' co-location of back-end fuel cycle facilities, and applied engineered safeguards and monitoring. The study shows why different methods of separating and recycling used fuel components do not have a significant effect on nonproliferation requirements and can be selected on other bases, such as process efficiency, maturity, and cost-effectiveness. Finally, the study concludes that

  6. Nuclear material attractiveness: an assessment of material associated with a closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Wallace, R.K.; Hase, K.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ireland, J.R.; Johnson, M.W.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Sleaford, B.W.; Robel, M.; Bradley, K.S.; Collins, B.A.; Prichard, A.W.; Smith, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed. (authors)

  7. Nuclear Material Attractiveness: An Assessment Of Material Associated With A Closed Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R.K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G.D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J.R.; Johnson, M.W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  8. Fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.

    1989-01-01

    The situation of the nuclear fuel cycle for LWR type reactors in France and in the Federal Republic of Germany was presented in 14 lectures with the aim to compare the state-of-the-art in both countries. In addition to the momentarily changing fuilds of fuel element development and fueling strategies, the situation of reprocessing, made interesting by some recent developmnts, was portrayed and differences in ultimate waste disposal elucidated. (orig.) [de

  9. Technology readiness of partitioning and transmutation toward closed fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kurata, Masaki; Morita, Yasuji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Minato, Kazuo; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats technology readiness level (TRL) assessment of Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) toward closed fuel cycle in JAPAN. The purpose is providing clarified information related to the current maturity of the partitioning and transmutation technologies by applying the methodology of TRL, parallel to attempting to establish common indications among relating technology area. The methodology should be one of useful communication tools between specialists and management level, and also among countries interested in the P-T technologies. The generic TRL in this study is based on the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership)'s definition: TRL 3 shows the status that critical function is proved and elemental technologies are identified, TRL 4 represents that relating technologies are validated at bench scale in laboratory environment, and TRL 5 achieves the completion of development related to the subsystem and elemental technologies. Detailed indications are established through discussion of the relating specialists. Reviewed technological area includes P-T and minor actinide (MA) cycle: Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) and Accelerator driven system (ADS) for MA transmutation, partitioning processes, and MA-bearing fuels. The assessments reveal that TRL spreads around TRL 3 to TRL 4 because each system requires more the development of elemental technologies. Transmutation core of FBR is assessed to be TRL 4 in that MA bearing integral test is required additionally, and ADS becomes TRL 3 because the elemental technologies were identified and the requirements were specified. Consequently, the common key issue is how the nuclear calculation methodology will be validated for MA-bearing-fuelled core, since several percentages of MA changes the void reactivity and the Doppler Effect significantly, which are inherently important in reactor safety. It should be that critical experiments with several kg of americium or more are difficult in the existing experimental

  10. Variants of Regenerated Fissile Materials Usage in Thermal Reactors as the First Stage of Fuel Cycle Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, E. A.; Tsibul'skiy, V. F.

    2017-12-01

    At present, 240 000 t of spent nuclear fuel (SF) has been accumulated in the world. Its long-term storage should meet safety conditions and requires noticeable finances, which grow every year. Obviously, this situation cannot exist for a long time; in the end, it will require a final decision. At present, several variants of solution of the problem of SF management are considered. Since most of the operating reactors and those under construction are thermal reactors, it is reasonable to assume that the structure of the nuclear power industry in the near and medium-term future will be unchanged, and it will be necessary to utilize plutonium in thermal reactors. In this study, different strategies of SF management are compared: open fuel cycle with long-term SF storage, closed fuel cycle with MOX fuel usage in thermal reactors and subsequent long-term storage of SF from MOX fuel, and closed fuel cycle in thermal reactors with heterogeneous fuel arrangement. The concept of heterogeneous fuel arrangement is considered in detail. While in the case of traditional fuel it is necessary to reprocess the whole amount of spent fuel, in the case of heterogeneous arrangement, it is possible to separate plutonium and 238U in different fuel rods. In this case, it is possible to achieve nearly complete burning of fissile isotopes of plutonium in fuel rods loaded with plutonium. These fuel rods with burned plutonium can be buried after cooling without reprocessing. They would contain just several percent of initially loaded plutonium, mainly even isotopes. Fuel rods with 238U alone should be reprocessed in the usual way.

  11. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-15

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR.

  12. Assessment of Proliferation Resistance of Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle System with Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors Using INPRO Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2007-11-01

    Using the INPRO methodology, the proliferation resistance of an innovative nuclear energy system(INS) defined as a closed nuclear fuel cycle system consisting of KALIMER and pyroprocessing, has been assessed. Considering a very early development stage of the INS concept, the PR assessment is carried out based on intrinsic features, if required information and data are not available. The PR assessment of KALIMER and JSFR using the INPRO methodology affirmed that an adequate proliferation resistance has been achieved in both INSs CNFC-SFR, considering the assessor's progress and maturity of design development. KALIMER and JSFR are developed or being developed conforming to the targets and criteria defined for developing Gen IV nuclear reactor system. Based on these assessment results, proliferation resistance and physical protection(PR and PP) of KALIMER and JSFR are evaluated from the viewpoint of requirements for future nuclear fuel cycle system. The envisioned INSs CNFC-SFR rely on active plutonium management based on a closed fuel cycle, in which a fissile material is recycled in an integrated fuel cycle facility within proper safeguards. There is no isolated plutonium in the closed fuel cycle. The material remains continuously in a sequence of highly radioactive matrices within inaccessible facilities. The proliferation resistance assessment should be an ongoing analysis that keeps up with the progress and maturity of the design of Gen IV SFR

  13. Closed-Cycle Hydrogen-Oxygen Regenerative Fuel Cell at the NASA Glenn Research Center-An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    The closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen proton exchange membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has demonstrated multiple back-to-back contiguous cycles at rated power and round-trip efficiencies up to 52 percent. It is the first fully closed cycle RFC ever demonstrated. (The entire system is sealed; nothing enters or escapes the system other than electrical power and heat.) During fiscal year fiscal year (FY) FY06 to FY07, the system s numerous modifications and internal improvements focused on reducing parasitic power, heat loss, and noise signature; increasing its functionality as an unattended automated energy storage device; and in-service reliability.

  14. Nuclear power technology system with molten salt reactor for transuranium nuclides burning in closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, P.N.; Dudnikov, A.A.; Ignatiev, V.V.; Prusakov, V.N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoy, N.N.; Subbotin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    A concept of nuclear power technology system with homogeneous molten salt reactors for burning and transmutation of long-lived radioactive toxic nuclides is considered in the paper. Disposition of such reactors in enterprises of fuel cycle allows to provide them with power and facilitate solution of problems with rad waste with minimal losses. (Authors)

  15. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  16. Prospects of subcritical molten salt reactor for minor actinides incineration in closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Pavel N.; Balanin, Andrey L.; Dudnikov, Anatoly A.; Fomichenko, Petr A.; Nevinitsa, Vladimir A.; Frolov, Aleksey A.; Lubina, Anna S.; Sedov, Aleksey A.; Subbotin, Aleksey S.; Blandinsky, Viktor Yu. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor is proposed for minor actinides (separated from spent fuel VVER-1000 light water reactor) incineration and for {sup 233}U conversion from {sup 232}Th. Here the subcritical molten salt reactor with fuel composition of heavy nuclide fluorides in molten LiF - NaF - KF salt and with external neutron source, based on 1 GeV proton accelerator and molten salt cooled tungsten target is considered. The paper presents the results of parametrical analysis of equilibrium nuclide composition of molten salt reactor with minor actinides feed in dependence of core dimensions, average neutron flux and external neutron source intensity. Reactor design is defined; requirements to external neutron source are posed; heavy nuclides equilibrium and fuel cycle main parameters are calculated.

  17. Status of sodium cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycle in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fast reactors form the second stage of India's 3-stage nuclear power programme. The seed for India's fast reactor programme was sown through the construction of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, that was commissioned in 1985. FBTR has operated with an unique, indigenously developed plutonium rich mixed carbide fuel, which has reached a burn up as high as 155 GWd/t without any fuel failure in the core. The sodium systems in the reactor have performed excellently. The availability of the reactor has been as high as 92% in the recent campaigns. The fuel discharged from FBTR up to 100 GWd/t has been reprocessed successfully. The experience gained in the construction, commissioning and operation of FBTR has provided the necessary confidence to launch a Prototype FBR of 500 MWe capacity (PFBR). This reactor will be fuelled by uranium, plutonium mixed oxide. The reactor construction started in 2003 and the reactor is scheduled to be commissioned by 2010. The design of the reactor has incorporated the worldwide operating experience from the FBRs and has addressed various safety issues reported in literature, besides introducing a number of innovative features which have reduced the unit energy cost and contributed to its enhanced safety. Simultaneous with the construction of the reactor, the fuel cycle of the reactor has been addressed in a comprehensive manner and construction of a fuel cycle facility has been initiated. Subsequent to the PFBR, 4 more reactors with identical design are proposed to be constructed. Various elements of reactor design are being carefully analysed with the aim of introducing innovative features towards further reduction in unit energy cost and enhancing safety in these reactors

  18. Closed ThUOX Fuel Cycle for LWRs with ADTT (ATW) Backend for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.E.; Sailor, W.C.; Venneri, F.

    1998-01-01

    A future nuclear energy scenario with a closed, thorium-uranium-oxide (ThUOX) fuel cycle and new light water reactors (TULWRs) supported by Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems could provide several improvements beyond today's once-through, UO 2 -fueled nuclear technology. A deployment scenario with TULWRs plus ATWs to burn the actinides produced by these LWRs and to close the back-end of the ThUOX fuel cycle was modeled to satisfy a US demand that increases linearly from 80 GWe in 2020 to 200 GWe by 2100. During the first 20 years of the scenario (2000-2020), nuclear energy production in the US declines from today's 100 GWe to about 80 GWe, in accordance with forecasts of the US DOE's Energy Information Administration. No new nuclear systems are added during this declining nuclear energy period, and all existing LWRs are shut down by 2045. Beginning in 2020, ATWs that transmute the actinides from existing LWRs are deployed, along with TULWRs and additional ATWs with a support ratio of 1 ATW to 7 TULWRs to meet the energy demand scenario. A final mix of 174 GWe from TULWRs and 26 GWe from ATWs provides the 200 GWe demand in 2100. Compared to a once-through LWR scenario that meets the same energy demand, the TULWR/ATW concept could result in the following improvements: depletion of natural uranium resources would be reduced by 50%; inventories of Pu which may result in weapons proliferation will be reduced in quantity by more than 98% and in quality because of higher neutron emissions and 50 times the alpha-decay heating of weapons-grade plutonium; actinides (and possibly fission products) for final disposal in nuclear waste would be substantially reduced; and the cost of fuel and the fuel cycle may be 20-30% less than the once-through UO 2 fuel cycle

  19. Natural Transmutation of Actinides via the Fission Reaction in the Closed Thorium-Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalkin, V. Ye.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is shown for a closed thorium-uranium-plutonium fuel cycle that, upon processing of one metric ton of irradiated fuel after each four-year campaign, the radioactive wastes contain 54 kg of fission products, 0.8 kg of thorium, 0.10 kg of uranium isotopes, 0.005 kg of plutonium isotopes, 0.002 kg of neptunium, and "trace" amounts of americium and curium isotopes. This qualitatively simplifies the handling of high-level wastes in nuclear power engineering.

  20. Perspective on the French closed fuel cycle: Open towards energy future and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinturier, Bernard; Debes, Michel; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-01

    Energy sustainability and nuclear energy nowadays are far reaching issues with many implications and as a consequence, any long term sustainable strategy needs to be flexible. In France, nuclear energy (427 TWh in 2004, 80% of national electricity production) is a major asset for clean electricity production and for meeting Kyoto protocol objective in France. The decision to build a future EPR reactor in France has been taken. Regarding back end and fuel cycle, the current reprocessing and recycling strategy, with the existing industrial system (Cogema La Hague and Melox), has proven to be reliable and efficient. It enables to meet sustainability requirements, now and in the long run: ensuring a good management of high level waste through vitrification, reducing the amount of nuclear spent fuel in interim storage, recycling valuable nuclear material (Pu), keeping the possibility to use Pu concentrated in MOX spent fuel to start FBR in the future. To maintain this possibility for the far future, EDF considers that the Generation IV program is of major importance in order to develop future fast reactors able to use plutonium and to ensure a full utilization of uranium resource, while optimizing high level waste management. EDF strategy is to keep the nuclear option open in the future, with a two-steps approach for the renewal of the current nuclear fleet: first, around 2020, with the launching of generation III reactors like EPR, and second, depending on the energy demand, launching of Generation IV systems, around 2040 or beyond. To meet this energy prospect, R and D efforts must be devoted to fast breeder reactors (sodium cooled, which benefits already from industrial experience, and gas cooled, under consideration for R and D). Globally, this strategy is open to future progress and optimisation as needed to meet long term energy sustainability. It appears the necessity of a good consistency between all the components of the nuclear system: reactors, fuel cycle

  1. Closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the U.S., economics and business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, Stefano; Hanson, Alan; Shakir, Sam; Louvet, Thibault

    2007-01-01

    There are different strategies available for managing used nuclear fuel. Some countries recycle used fuel to re-utilize valuable material, while others store used fuel for future disposal in geologic repositories ('once-through' fuel cycle). For the last twenty years, the U.S. has adopted the once-through cycle and has begun the development of a geologic repository for used fuel disposal at Yucca Mountain. Several factors have emerged in the last few years and have started to re-open the debate on what is the appropriate used fuel management strategy in the U.S. Most notably, cost estimates for the development of a geologic repository have escalated and are expected to keep increasing in the near future. At the same time, the U.S. is seeing a renewed interest in nuclear energy and significant nuclear power generation capacity is expected to be added to the current base. Moreover, price of uranium have experience a dramatic rise, as much as a seven-fold increase, in the last two years. Finally, the recycling strategy has proven to be operationally effective in countries other than the U.S. and a solid industrial experience base has accumulated. Recycling as part of a comprehensive nuclear waste management strategy and complementary to an exclusive once-through strategy appear to be a viable option that requires serious consideration. Several questions need to be addressed to determine the viability of recycling in the U.S. What are the underlying economics and how does recycling compare with alternative options? What approach for technology and funding has the highest success rate for such a capital-intensive project? What kind of infrastructure (recycling plant, transportation, process, etc.) is needed? What is the most appropriate development schedule? Several scenarios have been evaluated through economic modeling and analyses of system dynamics. Results indicate that a recycling approach that includes a commercially-developed integrated recycling facility

  2. Convincing about the advanced use of nuclear energy closing the fuel cycle: from a burden to a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neau, Henry Jacques

    2007-01-01

    France has associated a closed fuel cycle with its nuclear program, and developed the corresponding treatment recycling capabilities accordingly. This choice was recently consolidated by law. according to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste act of June 2006, the volume and radio toxicity reduction of nuclear waste is an objective that can notably be reached with their treatment and conditioning. Presently, used fuel valuable components (U and Pu) are recycled into MOX fuel and RepU, when fission products are conditioned under an extremely solid and resistant form which cannot disperse and dissolve in the environment (High Level Vitrified Waste). Safety and waste minimisation remain the AREVA constant objective. Presently operated treatment and recycling AREVA NC facilities are using mature industrial technologies, which address environment preservation and non proliferation concerns. This french national choice requires a permanent global acceptance strategy towards politicians, media, associations and more generally public opinion: to. be accepted, in needs to be understood. Transparency, dialogue and information are keywords for AREVA NC to be sure that closing the fuel cycle is considered as the best option available now for responsibly managing the waste, respecting the environment, preserving the resource and securing the future. Partnering in this Global Acceptance policy with other countries and customers, who already rely- or plan to do so - on this recycling strategy is both a reality and a permanent axis of development for AREVA NC

  3. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive owing to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Rapidly increasing uranium prices, public reluctance for widespread Pu recycling and expected delays for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, particularly with re-fabrication by remote handling of 233 U, are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu recycling. To divert from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems worth while intensifying future efforts for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGRs are particularly promising for economic application. However, further research and development activities should not concentrate on this reactor type alone. Light- and heavy-water-moderated reactors, and even future fast breeders, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  4. Synthesis and analysis of a closed cycle methane-fueled marine energy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teich, C.I.

    1983-01-01

    A marine energy system has been synthesized from state-of-the-art technology to convert nuclear derived electricity into liquefied methane. In the first part of the process, the on-board process, liquid methane is burned in a combined gas turbine-steam turbine system to provide propulsion power and the carbon dioxide created during combustion recovered. In the second part of the process, the fuel regeneration process, the methane is regenerated in a centralized land-based facility by the reaction of the recovered carbon dioxide with hydrogen obtained from nuclear-powered electrolysis of water. The system was analyzed by combining thermodynamic available energy analysis and an approximate preliminary design. The available energy analysis of the combined system established the thermodynamic feasibility of the methane-carbon dioxide cycle and resulted in various process improvements because of the inefficiencies disclosed by the analysis. The more critical on-board process was analyzed and developed further by a capital cost optimization and ranking alternate process options by their available energy consumptions. The optimal on-board process, whose capital cost is 16% less than the preliminary design, has an effectiveness of 47% and the fuel regeneration process an effectiveness of 56%. It was also found that the process cost was proportional to the horsepower raised to the seven-tenths power

  5. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  6. Development of closed cycle infrastructure at VNIPIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onufrienko, S.V.; Kuzin, A.S.; Shafrova, N.P.; Zavadskij, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the creation of a closed nuclear fuel cycle is described. Achievements and future development projects of the Leading Institute VNIPIET are listed. The diagram of the closed nuclear fuel cycle in Russia with separate uranium and plutonium recycling is given. The major milestones of the VNIPIET history are reported [ru

  7. Closed cycle gas dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsley, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The device includes a closed cycle gasdynamic laser wherein the lasing fluid is recirculated in a closed loop. The closed loop includes a nozzle array, a lasing cavity and a diffuser. The exit of the diffuser is connected to the inlet to the nozzle array with a fuel heat exchanger located in the lasing flow and a pumping means located between the heat exchanger and the nozzle array. To provide for cooling of the pumping means and to improve diffuser performance, gas bled from the diffuser is cooled by two heat exchangers and pumped into cooling passages in the pumping means. The heat exchangers for cooling the flow to the pumping means are located in series and carry fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor and the heat exchanger in the lasing flow cools the fluid and carries the fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor. (U.S.)

  8. Thorium fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac, R.; Darilek, P.; Breza, J.; Necas, V.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the thorium fuel cycle management. Description of the thorium fuels and thorium fuel cycle benefits and challenges as well as thorium fuel calculations performed by the computer code HELIOS are presented.

  9. Fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gerhard J.

    1990-01-01

    TRIGA reactor operators are increasingly concerned about the back end of their Fuel Cycle due to a new environmental policy in the USA. The question how to close the Fuel Cycle will have to be answered by all operators sooner or later. Reprocessing of the TRIGA fuel elements is not available. Only long term storage and final disposal can be considered. But for such a storage or disposal a special treatment of the fuel elements and of course a final depository is necessary. NUKEM plans to undertake efforts to assist the TRIGA operators in this area. For that reason we need to know your special needs for today and tomorrow - so that potential processors can consider whether to offer these services on the market. (orig.)

  10. Perspectives on the closed fuel cycle - Implications for high-level waste matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Jean-Marie; Quang, Richard Do; Masson, Herve; Lieven, Thierry; Ferry, Cecile; Poinssot, Christophe; Debes, Michel; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy accounts for 80% of electricity production in France, generating approximately 1150 t of spent fuel for an electrical output of 420 TWh. Based on a reprocessing-conditioning-recycling strategy, the orientations taken by Electricite de France (EDF) for the mid-term and the far-future are to keep the fleet performances at the highest level, and to maintain the nuclear option fully open by the replacement of present pressurized water reactor (PWR) by new light water reactor (LWR), such as the evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) and future Generation IV designs. Adaptations of waste materials to new requirements will come with these orientations in order to meet long-term energy sustainability. In particular, waste materials and spent fuels are expected to meet increased requirements in comparison with the present situation. So the treatment of higher burn-up UO 2 spent fuel and MOX fuel requires determining the performances of glass and other matrices according to several criteria: chemical 'digestibility' (i.e. capacity of glass to incorporate fission products and minor actinides without loss of quality), resistance to alpha self-irradiation, residual power in view of disposal. Considering the long-term evolution of spent MOX fuel in storage, the helium production, the influence of irradiation damages accumulation and the evolution of the microstructure of the fuel pellet need to be known, as well as for the future fuels. Further, the eventual transmutation of minor actinides in fast neutron reactors (FR) of Generation IV, if its interest in optimising high-level waste management is proven, may also raise new challenges about the materials and fuel design. Some major questions in terms of waste materials and spent fuel are discussed in this paper

  11. The thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization of the thorium fuel cycle has long since been considered attractive due to the excellent neutronic characteristics of 233 U, and the widespread and cheap thorium resources. Although the uranium ore as well as the separative work requirements are usually lower for any thorium-based fuel cycle in comparison to present uranium-plutonium fuel cycles of thermal water reactors, interest by nuclear industry has hitherto been marginal. Fast increasing uranium prices, public reluctance against widespread Pu-recycling and expected retardations for the market penetration of fast breeders have led to a reconsideration of the thorium fuel cycle merits. In addition, it could be learned in the meantime that problems associated with reprocessing and waste handling, but particularly with a remote refabrication of 233 U are certainly not appreciably more difficult than for Pu-recycling. This may not only be due to psychological constraints but be based upon technological as well as economical facts, which have been mostly neglected up till now. In order to diversify from uranium as a nuclear energy source it seems to be worthwhile to greatly intensify efforts in the future for closing the Th/ 233 U fuel cycle. HTGR's are particularly promising for economic application. However, further R and D activites should not be solely focussed on this reactor type alone. Light and heavy-water moderated reactors, as well as even fast breeders later on, may just as well take advantage of a demonstrated thorium fuel cycle. A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art of Th/ 233 U-recycling technology and the efforts still necessary to demonstrate this technology all the way through to its industrial application

  12. Cladding tube materials for advanced nuclear facilities with closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosova, I. [Slovenska technicka univerzita v Bratislave, Fakulta elektrotechniky a informatiky, Ustav jadroveho a fyzikalneho inzinierstva, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The paper is aimed on perspective materials for fuel cladding in advanced nuclear reactors. Samples of Eurofer and ODS Eurofer were studied by various techniques such as Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy, Vickers Hardness and Coincidence Doppler Broadening. After studying the samples by these methods, we implanted them by Helium atoms to simulate irradiation damage. Samples were then remeasured by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy to determine the affect of implantation on its behavior. (authors)

  13. International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios (FR13), Paris – March 4-7, 2013: Closing Session. Summary of Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles Panel Session II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability was discussed in terms of the social, environment and economic perspectives, which arise from the original Brundtland definition of sustainability. The panel presented their perspectives of the need to move towards a sustainable future, involving better use of uranium, reductions in high-level radioactive waste, safe, secure and economic operation of nuclear reactors and the fuel cycle. In all cases, it was considered that sustainability in the long-term must involve fast reactors and a closed nuclear fuel cycle, although both Korea and the IAEA pointed out that these are clearly national decisions and there will not be a single solution for all countries

  14. Improving the actinides recycling in closed fuel cycles, a major step towards nuclear energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Grandjean, S.; Masson, M.; Bouillis, B.; Warin, D.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the sustainability of nuclear energy is a longstanding road that requires a stepwise approach to successively tackle the following 3 objectives. First of all, optimize the consumption of natural resource to preserve them for future generations and hence guarantee the energetic independence of the countries (no uranium ore is needed anymore). The current twice-through cycle of Pu implemented by France, UK, Japan and soon China is a first step in this direction and already allows the development and optimization of the relevant industrial processes. It also allows a major improvement regarding the conditioning of the ultimate waste in a durable and robust nuclear glass. Secondly, the recycling of americium could be an interesting option for the future with the deployment of FR fleet to save the repository resource and optimize its use by allowing a denser disposal. It would limit the burden towards the future generations and the need for additional repositories before several centuries. Thirdly, the recycling of the whole minor actinides inventory could be an interesting option for the far-future for strongly decreasing the waste long-term toxicity, down to a few centuries. It would bring the waste issue back within the human history, which should promote its acceptance by the social opinion

  15. Denatured fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the denatured fuel concept and discusses the characteristics of fuel cycles based on the concept. The proliferation resistance of denatured fuel cycles, the reactor types they involve, and the limitations they place on energy generation potential are discussed. The paper concludes with some remarks on the outlook for such cycles

  16. RIAR experimental base development concept 1. Multi-purpose pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed fuel cycle technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovsk region, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    The principles of closed FC arrangement on the basis of non-aqueous methods allow the development of production addressing two tasks simultaneously: production of fresh fuel and reprocessing of irradiated fuel, that makes it possible to achieve the industrial level of implementation of closed FC of fast reactors of new generation in a series variant of standardized process modules on the basis of innovative pyrochemical high-effective compact technologies. For the purpose of experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies at the RIAR site, the existing experimental base is being updated and a multi-purpose pyrochemical complex is developed: - Experimental complex of pyrochemical molten salt facilities to reprocess all types of spent fuel (MOX, nitride, metallic, IMF) of fast reactors of new generation (BN-800, MBIR, BREST). - Experimental complex of facilities to master a gas-fluoride technology of reprocessing intractable fuel, research reactors fuel and thermal SNF. - Transition of the existing facility of pyro-electrochemical production of MOX fuel into the mode of reprocessing of the BN-800 MOX SNF. - Renovation of the facilities for production of fuel elements from experimental, re-fabricated, innovative and high-active fuel - a complex of heavy and glove boxes - to produce experimental fuel elements and targets with MAs on the basis of oxides (vibro and pellets), mixed nitrides, metal alloys and inert matrices in heavy boxes. - Upgrading of the complex for mastering and demonstration of the processes for radioactive waste management and spent fuel pyrochemical reprocessing. The report covers main concept and design solutions, plans and schedule of the program for development of pyrochemical complex for experimental justification of innovative closed FC technologies. (authors)

  17. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-01-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U 6+ -secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10 5 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings

  18. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.T.; Ewing, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; b) formation and properties of U 6+ - secondary phases; c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10 5 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings. (authors)

  19. Closing carbon cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels are used as raw materials for the manufacture of synthetic organic materials, e.g. plastics, fibres, synthetic rubber, paints, solvents, fertilisers, surfactants, lubricants and bitumen. Since fossil carbon is embodied in these products they may be particularly relevant to climate

  20. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  1. Neutronic and Isotopic Simulation of a Thorium-TRU's fuel Closed Cycle in a Lead Cooled ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanz, J. M.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Perez-Parra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several lead-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead as primary coolant and moderator and fuels made by transuranics inside a thorium oxide matrix. The strategy assumed in this simulation implies that every discharge of the ADS will be reprocessed and would produce four waste streams: fission and activation products, remaining ''232 Th, produced ''233 U and remaining TRU's. The ''233 U is separated for other purposes; the remaining TRU are recovered altogether and mixed with the adequate amount of ''232 Th and fresh TRUs coming from LWR spent fuel. The simulations performed in this study have been focused primarily in the evolution of the fuel isotopic composition during and after each ADS burn-up cycle. (Author) 10 refs

  2. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  4. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  5. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  6. Closed cycle device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.E.; Witt, D.L.; Staley, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A gas dynamic laser wherein the lasing fluid is recirculated in a closed loop is described. The flow can be assumed to start with the lasing gas passing through a cascade of supersonic nozzles. This low pressure, high velocity gas is then passed through a lasing cavity where the lasing action takes place. The energy of the high velocity gas stream is converted back to static pressure in a supersonic diffuser. The diffuser is constructed with (1) variable geometry, and (2) provisions for bleeding off the boundary layer for improved efficiency. Downstream of the supersonic diffuser there is a heat exchanger which partially cools the gas in the loop. This partially cooled gas is then supplied to a compressor where the pressure and temperature are raised back to the level at the start of the flow. The lasing gas is directed from the exit of the compressor to a manifold upstream of the cascade of supersonic nozzles. The compressor only supplies a pressure rise equal to the pressure loss by inefficiencies in the nozzle, the supersonic diffuser and the pressure drop in the heatexchanger and plumbing. To provide for cooling of the compressor, the gas bled from the diffuser is cooled by a second heat exchanger and pumped back to compressor inlet pressure and introduced into the compressor for cooling. In steady state operation, both heat exchangers referred to above, are designed to regulatethe nozzle inlet gas temperature by removing the amount of heat energy added by compressing minus the amount of energy extracted in the lasing beam and energy lost to the environment. The compressor and pumping means for cooling the compressor can be driven by any means desired. (U.S.)

  7. Optimization of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.W.; Balu, K.; Boczar, P.G.; Krebs, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle can be optimized subject to a wide range of criteria. Prime amongst these are economics, sustainability of resources, environmental aspects, and proliferation-resistance of the fuel cycle. Other specific national objectives will also be important. These criteria, and their relative importance, will vary from country to country, and with time. There is no single fuel cycle strategy that is optimal for all countries. Within the short term, the industry is attached to dominant thermal reactor technologies, which themselves have two main variants, a cycle closed by reprocessing of spent fuel and subsequent recycling and a once through one where spent fuel is stored in advance of geological disposal. However, even with current technologies, much can be done to optimize the fuel cycles to meet the relevant criteria. In the long term, resource sustainability can be assured for centuries through the use of fast breeder reactors, supporting high-conversion thermal reactors, possibly also utilizing the thorium cycle. These must, however, meet the other key criteria by being both economic and safe. (author)

  8. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. The IFR modern nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power is an essential component of the world's energy supply. The IFR program, by returning to fundamentals, offers a fresh approach to closing the nuclear fuel cycle. This closed fuel cycle represents the ultimate in efficient resource utilization and environmental accountability. 35 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Fuel cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle management is more and more dependent on the management of the generation means among the power plants tied to the grid. This is due mainly because of the importance taken by the nuclear power plants within the power system. The main task of the fuel cycle management is to define the refuelling pattern of the new and irradiated fuel assemblies to load in the core as a function of: 1) the differences which exist between the actual conditions of the core and what was expected for the present cycle, 2) the operating constraints and the reactor availability, 3) the technical requirements in safety and the technological limits of the fuel, 4) the economics. Three levels of fuel cycle management can be considered: 1) a long term management: determination of enrichments and expected cycle lengths, 2) a mid term management whose aim corresponds to the evaluation of the batch to load within the core as a function of both: the next cycle length to achieve and the integrated power history of all the cycles up to the present one, 3) a short term management which deals with the updating of the loaded fuel utilisations to take into account the operation perturbations, or with the alteration of the loading pattern of the next batch to respect unexpected conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Dinner, P.; Yoshida, H.

    1991-01-01

    Resulting from the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) by the parties involved in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, this document summarizes the design requirements and the Conceptual Design Descriptions for each of the principal subsystems and design options of the ITER Fuel Cycle conceptual design. The ITER Fuel Cycle system provides for the handling of all tritiated water and gas mixtures on ITER. The system is subdivided into subsystems for fuelling, primary (torus) vacuum pumping, fuel processing, blanket tritium recovery, and common processes (including isotopic separation, fuel management and storage, and processes for detritiation of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes). After an introduction describing system function and conceptual design procedure, a summary of the design is presented including a discussion of scope and main parameters, and the fuel design options for fuelling, plasma chamber vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary and common processes. Design requirements are defined and design descriptions are given for the various subsystems (fuelling, plasma vacuum pumping, fuel cleanup, blanket tritium recovery, and auxiliary/common processes). The document ends with sections on fuel cycle design integration, fuel cycle building layout, safety considerations, a summary of the research and development programme, costing, and conclusions. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are being conducted in the following areas: advanced solvent extraction techniques, accident consequences, fuel cycles for nonproliferation, pyrochemical and dry processes, waste encapsulation, radionuclide transport in geologic media, hull treatment, and analytical support for LWBR

  13. Analysis of Russian transition scenarios to innovative nuclear energy system based on thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagramanyan, V.S.; Poplavskaya, E.V.; Korobeynikov, V.V.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Moseev, A.L.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of modeling of Russian nuclear energy (NE) scenarios on the basis of thermal and fast reactors with closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Modeling has been carried out with use of CYCLE code (SSC RF IPPE's tool) designed for analysis of Nuclear Energy System (NES) with closed NFC taking into account plutonium and minor actinides (MA) isotopic composition change during multi-recycling of fuel in fast reactors. When considering fast reactor introduction scenarios, one of important questions is to define optimal time for their introduction and related NFC's facilities. Analysis of the results obtained has been fulfilled using the key INPRO indicators for sustainable energy development. It was shown that a delay in fast reactor introduction led to serious ecological, social and finally economic risks for providing energy security and sustainable development of Russia in long-term prospects and loss of knowledge and experience in mastering innovative technologies of fast reactors and related nuclear fuel cycle. (author)

  14. IFR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation

  15. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  16. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  17. The progressive achievement of a closed fuel cycle in France; La mise en oeuvre progressive d'un cycle ferme en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugelmann, D.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2008-03-15

    The author reviews the progressive building of a strong nuclear fuel cycle industry in France. The first major step was the abandon of the graphite-gas reactor system to the PWR system. The government's decision to opt for reactors operating with enriched uranium opened the way to the application at an industrial scale of uranium enrichment technology that was only confined to military purposes. The legal entity 'EURODIF S A' was founded at that time and the different production units of the George-Besse-1 enrichment plant entered into service progressively from 1978 to 1982. The Comurhex company was created in 1969, and was in charge of producing the uranium hexafluoride necessary to the fabrication of nuclear fuels. La-Hague plant entered into service in 1966, its aim was to process spent fuels from graphite-gas reactors. Inside this plant the HAO (High Activity Oxide) dedicated to PWR spent fuels was operating in 1974. The MELOX plant dedicated to the fabrication of mixed oxides fuels (Mox) entered into operation in 1995 (till now more than 5000 Mox assemblies have been fabricated. Another important step was the processing of Mox fuels. During these 30 years, the nuclear industry has made impressing progress concerning: the increase of burn-up rates, the performance of fuels, the increase in the volume being processed, the packaging of radioactive wastes, the development of nuclear transport, and a reduction of the impact on the environment. In order to maintain its level of performance the nuclear industry has made important investments concerning: mining (a global investment of 2.3*10{sup 9} euros), Comurhex-2 (a 610*10{sup 6} euros investment) and Georges-Besse-2 plant (a 3*10{sup 9} euros investment for the enrichment of uranium through centrifugation). (A.C.)

  18. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  19. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  20. Future fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cycle must offer both financial and resource savings if it is to be considered for introduction into Ontario's nuclear system. The most promising alternative CANDU fuel cycles are examined in the context of both of these factors over a wide range of installed capacity growth rates and economic assumptions, in order to determine which fuel cycle, or cycles, should be introduced, and when. It is concluded that the optimum path for the long term begins with the prompt introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle. For a wide range of conditions, this cycle remains the optimum throughout the very long term. Conditions of rapid nuclear growth and very high uranium price escalation rates warrant the supersedure of the low-enriched-uranium cycle by either a plutonium-topped thorium cycle or plutonium recycle, beginning between 2010 and 2025. It is also found that the uranium resource position is sound in terms of both known resources and production capability. Moreover, introduction of the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle and 1250 MWe reactor units will assure the economic viability of nuclear power until at least 2020, even if uranium prices increase at a rate of 3.5% above inflation. The interrelationship between these two conclusions lies in the tremendous incentive for exploration which will occur if the real uranium price escalation rate is high. From a competitive viewpoint, nuclear power can withstand increases in the price of uranium. However, such increases will likely further expand the resource base, making nuclear an even more reliable energy source. (auth)

  1. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC

  2. Fuel cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Montmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-07-01

    In NPT safeguards the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied at present to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle. There is a continuing interest and activity on the part of the IAEA in new NPT safeguards approaches that more directly address a State's nuclear activities as a whole. This fuel cycle based safeguards system is expected to a) provide a statement of findings for the entire State rather than only for individual facilities; b) allocate inspection efforts so as to reflect more realistically the different categories of nuclear materials in the different parts of the fuel cycle and c) provide more timely and better coordinated information on the inputs, outputs and inventories of nuclear materials in a State. (orig./RF) [de

  3. Fuel cycle economics of HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U.

    1975-06-15

    The High Temperature Reactor commands a unique fuel cycle flexibility and alternative options are open to the utilities. The reference thorium reactor operating in the U-233 recycle mode is 10 to 20% cheaper than the low-enriched reactor; however, the thorium cycle depends on the supply of 93% enriched uranium and the availability of reprocessing and refabrication facilities to utilize its bred fissile material. The economic landscape towards the end of the 20th Century will presumably be dominated by pronounced increases in the costs of natural resources. In the case of nuclear energy, resource considerations are reflected in the price of uranium, which is expected Lo have reached 50 $/lbm U3O8 in the early 1990s and around 100 $/lbm U3O8 around 2010. In this economic environment the fuel cycle advantage of the thorium system amounts to some 20% and is capable of absorbing substantial expenses in bringing about the closing of the out-of-pile cycle. A most attractive aspect of the HTR fuel cycle flexibility is for the utility to start operating the reactor on the low enriched uranium cycle and at a later date switch over to the thorium cycle as this becomes economically more and more attractive. The incentive amounts to some 50 M$ in terms of present worth money at the time of decision making, assumed to take place 10 years after start-up. The closing of the thorium cycle is of paramount importance and a step to realize this objective lies in simplifying the head-end reprocessing technology by abandoning the segregation concept of feed and breed coated particles in the reference cycle. A one-coated-particle scheme in which all discharged uranium isotopes are recycled in mixed oxide particles is feasible and suffers a very minor economic penalty only.

  4. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740 0 C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000 0 C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th- 233 U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized

  5. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  6. Fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, M.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of co-locating and integrating fuel cycle facilities at one site is discussed. This concept offers considerable advantages, especially in minimizing the amount of radioactive material to be transported on public roads. Safeguards and physical protection as relating to such an integrated system of facilities are analysed in detail, also industrial and commercial questions. An overall risk-benefit evaluation turns out to be in favour of fuel cycle centres. These centres seem to be specifically attractive with regard to the back end of the fuel cycle, including on-site disposal of radioactive wastes. The respective German approach is presented as an example. Special emphasis is given to the site selection procedures in this case. Time scale and cost for the implementation of this concept are important factors to be looked at. Since participation of governmental institutions in these centres seems to be indispensable their respective roles as compared to industry must be clearly defined. The idea of adjusting fuel cycle centres to regional rather than national use might be an attractive option, depending on the specific parameters in the region, though results of existing multinational ventures are inconclusive in this respect. Major difficulties might be expected e.g. because of different national safety regulations and standards as well as commercial conditions among partner countries. Public acceptance in the host country seems to be another stumbling block for the realization of this type of multinational facilities

  7. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  8. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems Based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with the requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study, but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts, during the course of extensive discussions, analyzed the country/region/world context data; discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the CNFC-FR systems; identified technologies suitable for the INS; and arrived at a broad definition of a common CNFC-FR system. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of CNFC-FR systems for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the area of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee in meetings held in Vienna 2005 - 2007. The authors of the Joint Study report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of the INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report, a summary of the results was produced, which is the content of this publication. The full text of the Joint Study

  9. Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors. A Report of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    A Joint Study was started in 2005 and completed in 2007 within the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). Canada, China, France, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine participated in this study. The objectives were to assess a nuclear energy system based on a closed fuel cycle (CNFC) with fast reactors (FR) regarding its sustainability, determine milestones for the nuclear energy system deployment, and establish frameworks for, and areas of, collaborative R and D work. The assessment was carried out in accordance with requirements of INPRO methodology and guiding documents of the Joint Study developed and approved by the participating parties (Canada and Ukraine participated in the discussions during the Joint Study but did not contribute to the assessments themselves). The Joint Study was implemented in steps. In its first step, nominated experts in course of extensive discussions analyzed the country/region/world context data, discussed national and global scenarios of introduction of the INS CNFC-FR, identified technologies suitable for the INS, and arrived at a broad definition of a common INS CNFC-FR. In the second step, the participants of the study examined characteristics of INS CNFC-FR for compliance with criteria of sustainability developed in the INPRO methodology in the domain of economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection and infrastructure. The results of the study were submitted to and endorsed by the INPRO Steering Committee meetings held in Vienna 2005-2007. The authors of the report highly appreciate the valuable comments provided by delegates of INPRO Steering Committee meetings as well as the advice and assistance of the other experts. Due to the length of the Joint Study report a summary of the results was produced, which was published as a hard copy. The full text of the Joint Study report is available on the CD

  10. Thorium fuel cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, K [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-07-01

    Systems analysis of the thorium cycle, a nuclear fuel cycle accomplished by using thorium, is reported in this paper. Following a brief review on the history of the thorium cycle development, analysis is made on the three functions of the thorium cycle; (1) auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle to save uranium consumption, (2) thermal breeder system to exert full capacity of the thorium resource, (3) symbiotic system to utilize special features of /sup 233/U and neutron sources. The effects of the thorium loading in LWR (Light Water Reactor), HWR (Heavy Water Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) are considered for the function of auxiliary system of U-Pu cycle. Analysis is made to find how much uranium is saved by /sup 233/U recycling and how the decrease in Pu production influences the introduction of FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor). Study on thermal breeder system is carried out in the case of MSBR (Molten Salt Breeder Reactor). Under a certain amount of fissile material supply, the potential system expansion rate of MSBR, which is determined by fissile material balance, is superior to that of FBR because of the smaller specific fissile inventory of MSBR. For symbiotic system, three cases are treated; i) nuclear heat supply system using HTGR, ii) denatured fuel supply system for nonproliferation purpose, and iii) hybrid system utilizing neutron sources other than fission reactor.

  11. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  12. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  13. 24-month fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstein, R.G.; Sipes, D.E.; Beall, R.H.; Donovan, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four month reload cycles can potentially lessen total power generation costs. While 24-month cores increase purchased fuel costs, the longer cycles reduce the number of refueling outages and thus enhance plant availability; men-rem exposure to site personnel and other costs associated with reload core design and licensing are also reduced. At dual unit sites an operational advantage can be realized by refueling each plant alternately on a 1-year offset basis. This results in a single outage per site per year which can be scheduled for off-peak periods or when replacement power costs are low

  14. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  16. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  17. HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In the spring of 1987, the HTGR fuel cycle project has been existing for ten years, and for this reason a status seminar has been held on May 12, 1987 in the Juelich Nuclear Research Center, that gathered the participants in this project for a discussion on the state of the art in HTGR fuel element development, graphite development, and waste management. The papers present an overview of work performed so far and an outlook on future tasks and goals, and on taking stock one can say that the project has been very successful so far: The HTGR fuel element now available meets highest requirements and forms the basis of today's HTGR safety philosophy; research work on graphite behaviour in a high-temperature reactor has led to complete knowledge of the temperature or neutron-induced effects, and with the concept of direct ultimate waste disposal, the waste management problem has found a feasible solution. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  19. Solid TRU fuels and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru; Suzuki, Yasufumi

    1997-01-01

    Alloys and nitrides are candidate solid fuels for transmutation. However, the nitride fuels are preferred to the alloys because they have more favorable thermal properties which allows to apply a cold-fuel concept. The nitride fuel cycle technology is briefly presented

  20. Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region calculated for a CANDU-PHW reactor operating on closed thorium-uranium and thorium-plutonium-uranium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1979-09-01

    Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region are commonly computed for each nuclide independently of other resonance nuclides present in the fuel mixture. While this technique is usually entirely adequate for uranium fuel cycles, it is necessary to establish its legitimacy for closed thorium fuel cycles topped with fissile uranium or plutonium by analysis of a number of representative cases. At the same time cross sections originating from WIMS (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme) calculations are compared with values computed in this study. In this context, particular attention is paid to the adequacy of the lower boundary for the WIMS resonance treatment. All calculations are based on heavy nuclide cross sections from the ENDF/B-IV data compilaton (Evaluated Nuclear Data File). Appreciable interaction effects have been determined for all nuclides except for 232 Th. In most cases, these are due to the strong 232 Th resonance doublet at 21.8 eV and 23.5 eV but some effects also result from resonances of 234 U (5.19 eV, 48.75 eV), 236 U (5.45 eV), 242 Pu (2.67 eV) and others. The influence of mutual interaction on the infinite lattice multiplicaton factor is very small in comparison to the effects of self-shielding. WIMS cross sections do not always compare well with the values computed in the study, but discrepancies are in most cases related to the different sources of data. Interaction effects are not explicitly taken into account in WIMS. Several nuclides ( 233 Pa, 233 U, 240 Pu, 242 Pu) show appreciable self-shielding below the WIMS resonance region and are therefore not treated adequately. The impact of these discrepancies on the multiplication factor is relatively small, however, because of error cancellation. (author)

  1. Dual Expander Cycle Rocket Engine with an Intermediate, Closed-cycle Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, William D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A dual expander cycle (DEC) rocket engine with an intermediate closed-cycle heat exchanger is provided. A conventional DEC rocket engine has a closed-cycle heat exchanger thermally coupled thereto. The heat exchanger utilizes heat extracted from the engine's fuel circuit to drive the engine's oxidizer turbomachinery.

  2. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  3. Quantitative and radiological assessment of PYRO-SFR closed fuel cycle against direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Minhaj; Lee, Suhong; Cheong, Jaehak; Whang, Jooho [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Calculations have been made to estimate the generation of SNF including Plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MAs) from PWR and PHWR NPPs by using the IAEA code Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) for the period of 2016, 2030 as 12 more NPPs will be added by the year 2029. In order to find the optimize option for SNF management through sustainable use of nuclear energy system and reduce the associated radiological risk, 4 scenarios to burnout the Pu and MAs are analyzed. Estimation for the amount of SNF including major radionuclides has made for the year of 2016, 2030, 2089 and 2109 with an approximate amount of 148,19.65MT, 248,34.6 MT, 41572.23 MT and 61272.24 MT of SNF will be generated respectively. Radioactivity and radiotoxicity is calculated in order to access the radiological risk in terms of ingestion. Four Transmutation strategies is predicted to make Korean NPPs sustainable by incorporating KALIMER-600 (Burner) reactor in Korean nuclear fleet with an approximate transmutation rate of 99.77%, 96.57%, 95.34% and 97.58% for MA only (scenario-1), (MA & Pu) scenario-2, scenario-3 (MA only till the year 2125) and scenario-4 MA & Pu till the year 2148) respectively.

  4. Fuel cycle kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical methodology describing the time dependent growth of large populations of nuclear power reactors of different types is pursued. This methodology is based on the apparent close analogy between the time dependent variations of neutrons and of fuel in nuclear reactors. Methods for the realistic projection of reactor populations, as they develop in a reactor park, are provided using the point park model as kernel in a superposition of reactor deployment elements that form a realistic park scenario. Typical deployment strategy results are presented illustrating the theoretical and computational advantages of the point park model methodology

  5. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  6. Part 5. Fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; McFarlane, H.F.; Amundson, P.I.; Goin, R.W.; Webster, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    The results of the FBR fuel cycle study that supported US contributions to the INFCE are presented. Fuel cycle technology is reviewed from both generic and historical standpoints. Technology requirements are developed within the framework of three deployment scenarios: the reference international, the secured area, and the integral cycle. Reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling, transportation, and safeguards are discussed for each deployment scenario. Fuel cycle modifications designed to increase proliferation defenses are described and assessed for effectiveness and technology feasibility. The present status of fuel cycle technology is reviewed and key issues that require resolution are identified

  7. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Homan, F.J.; Balthesen, E.; Turner, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred in the development of HTGR fuel and fuel cycle. These accomplishments permit a wide choice of fuel designs, reactor concepts, and fuel cycles. Fuels capable of providing helium outlet temperatures of 750 0 C are available, and fuels capable of 1000 0 C outlet temperatures may be expected from extension of present technology. Fuels have been developed for two basic HTGR designs, one using a spherical (pebble bed) element and the other a prismatic element. Within each concept a number of variations of geometry, fuel composition, and structural materials are permitted. Potential fuel cycles include both low-enriched and high-enriched Th- 235 U, recycle Th- 233 U, and Th-Pu or U-Pu cycles. This flexibility offered by the HTGR is of great practical benefit considering the rapidly changing economics of power production. The inflation of ore prices has increased optimum conversion ratios, and increased the necessity of fuel recycle at an early date. Fuel element makeup is very similar for prismatic and spherical designs. Both use spherical fissile and fertile particles coated with combinations of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Both use carbonaceous binder materials, and graphite as the structural material. Weak-acid resin (WAR) UO 2 -UC 2 fissile fuels and sol-gel-derived ThO 2 fertile fuels have been selected for the Th- 233 U cycle in the prismatic design. Sol-gel-derived UO 2 UC 2 is the reference fissile fuel for the low-enriched pebble bed design. Both the United States and Federal Republic of Germany are developing technology for fuel cycle operations including fabrication, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste handling. Feasibility of basic processes has been established and designs developed for full-scale equipment. Fuel and fuel cycle technology provide the basis for a broad range of applications of the HTGR. Extension of the fuels to higher operating temperatures and development and commercial demonstration of fuel

  8. Back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Current strategies of the back-end nuclear fuel cycles are: (1) direct-disposal of spent fuel (Open Cycle), and (2) reprocessing of the spent fuel and recycling of the recovered nuclear materials (Closed Cycle). The selection of these strategies is country-specific, and factors affecting selection of strategy are identified and discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. CANDU advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.B.

    1986-03-01

    This report is based on informal lectures and presentations made on CANDU Advanced Fuel Cycles over the past year or so, and discusses the future role of CANDU in the changing environment for the Canadian and international nuclear power industry. The changing perspectives of the past decade lead to the conclusion that a significant future market for a CANDU advanced thermal reactor will exist for many decades. Such a reactor could operate in a stand-alone strategy or integrate with a mixed CANDU-LWR or CANDU-FBR strategy. The consistent design focus of CANDU on enhanced efficiency of resource utilization combined with a simple technology to achieve economic targets, will provide sufficient flexibility to maintain CANDU as a viable power producer for both the medium- and long-term future

  10. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    Economics is one of the essential criteria to be considered for the future deployment of the nuclear power. With regard to the competitive power market, the cost of electricity from nuclear power plants is somewhat highly competitive with those from the other electricity generations, averaging lower in cost than fossil fuels, wind, or solar. However, a closer look at the nuclear power production brings an insight that the cost varies within a wide range, highly depending on a nuclear fuel cycle option. The option of nuclear fuel cycle is a key determinant in the economics, and therefrom, a comprehensive comparison among the proposed fuel cycle options necessitates an economic analysis for thirteen promising options based on the material flow analysis obtained by an equilibrium model as specified in the first article (Modeling and System Analysis of Different Fuel Cycle Options for Nuclear Power Sustainability (I): Uranium Consumption and Waste Generation). The objective of the article is to provide a systematic cost comparison among these nuclear fuel cycles. The generation cost (GC) generally consists of a capital cost, an operation and maintenance cost (O and M cost), a fuel cycle cost (FCC), and a decontaminating and decommissioning (D and D) cost. FCC includes a frontend cost and a back-end cost, as well as costs associated with fuel recycling in the cases of semi-closed and closed cycle options. As a part of GC, the economic analysis on FCC mainly focuses on the cost differences among fuel cycle options considered and therefore efficiently avoids the large uncertainties of the Generation-IV reactor capital costs and the advanced reprocessing costs. However, the GC provides a more comprehensive result covering all the associated costs, and therefrom, both GC and FCC have been analyzed, respectively. As a widely applied tool, the levelized cost (mills/KWh) proves to be a fundamental calculation principle in the energy and power industry, which is particularly

  11. Analytical chemistry challenges at the back end of fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panja, S.; Dhami, P.S.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the various nuclear fuel cycle activities, spent fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste management play key role for adaptation of closed fuel cycle option and success of three stage Indian nuclear power programme. Reprocessing mainly aims to recover fissile and fertile component from spent fuel using well known PUREX/THOREX processes. Waste management deals with all the activities which are essential for safe management of radioactive wastes that get generated during entire nuclear fuel cycle operation

  12. French development program on fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Bourgeois, M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to close the fuel cycle of fast reactors makes the development of the cycle installations (fuel fabrication, irradiated assembly conditioning before reprocessing, reprocessing and waste management) especially independent with the development of the reactor. French experience with the integrated cycle over a period of about 25 years, the tonnage of fuels fabricated (more than 100 t of mixed oxides) for the Rapsodie, Phoenix and SuperPhoenix reactors, and the tonnage of reprocessed fuel (nearly 30 t of plutonium fuel) demonstrate the control of the cycle operations. The capacities of the cycle installations in existence and under construction are largely adequate for presents needs, even including a new European EFR reactor. They include the Cadarache fuel fabrication complex, the La Hague UP2-800 reprocessing plant, and the Marcoule pilot facility. Short- and medium-term R and D programs are connected with fuel developments, with the primary objective of very high burnups. For the longer term and for a specific plant to reprocess fast reactor fuels, the programs could concern new fabrication and reprocessing systems and the study of the consequences of the reduction in fuel out-of-core time

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  14. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Lindauer, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with 238 U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial

  15. Analysis of possible fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Kessler, G.; Engelmann, P.; Maerkl, H.; Stoll, W.

    1978-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of the most important fuel cycles. A rough analysis of fuel cycles is attempted under the aspects of proliferation, status of technical feasibility, resource conservation and waste management and the most important criteria for such an analysis are discussed. Among the multitude of potential combinations of fuel cycles and types of reactors only a few have reached a level of technical feasibility which would make them eligible for commercial implementation within the next decade. However, if, for instance, the higher proliferation resistance of a specific fuel cycle is to be utilized to diminish the worldwide proliferation hazard, that cycle would first of all have to be introduced on an industrial scale as quickly as possible. The analysis shows that the reduction of the bazard of worldwide proliferation will continue to be the objective primarily of international agreements and measures taken in the political realm. (orig.) [de

  16. Quadratic reactivity fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    For educational purposes it is highly desirable to provide simple yet realistic models for fuel cycle and fuel economy. In particular, a lumped model without recourse to detailed spatial calculations would be very helpful in providing the student with a proper understanding of the purposes of fuel cycle calculations. A teaching model for fuel cycle studies based on a lumped model assuming the summability of partial reactivities with a linear dependence of reactivity usefully illustrates fuel utilization concepts. The linear burnup model does not satisfactorily represent natural enrichment reactors. A better model, showing the trend of initial plutonium production before subsequent fuel burnup and fission product generation, is a quadratic fit. The study of M-batch cycles, reloading 1/Mth of the core at end of cycle, is now complicated by nonlinear equations. A complete account of the asymptotic cycle for any order of M-batch refueling can be given and compared with the linear model. A complete account of the transient cycle can be obtained readily in the two-batch model and this exact solution would be useful in verifying numerical marching models. It is convenient to treat the parabolic fit rho = 1 - tau 2 as a special case of the general quadratic fit rho = 1 - C/sub tau/ - (1 - C)tau 2 in suitably normalized reactivity and cycle time units. The parabolic results are given in this paper

  17. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  18. ITER fuel cycle systems layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-10-01

    The ITER fuel cycle building (FCB) will contain the following systems: fuel purification - permeator based; fuel purification - molecular sieves; impurity treatment; waste water storage and treatment; isotope separation; waste water tritium extraction; tritium extraction from solid breeder; tritium extraction from test modules; tritium storage, shipping and receiving; tritium laboratory; atmosphere detritiation systems; fuel cycle control centre; tritiated equipment maintenance space; control maintenance space; health physics laboratory; access, access control and facilities. The layout of the FCB and the requirements for these systems are described. (10 figs.)

  19. Compound process fuel cycle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Mass flow of light water reactor spent fuel for a newly proposed nuclear fuel cycle concept 'Compound Process Fuel Cycle' has been studied in order to assess the capacity of the concept for accepting light water reactor spent fuels, taking an example for boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel of 60 GWd/t burn-up and for a fast reactor core of 3 GW thermal output. The acceptable heavy metal of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel is about 3.7 t/y/reactor while the burn-up of the recycled fuel is about 160 GWd/t and about 1.6 t/y reactor with the recycled fuel burn-up of about 300 GWd/t, in the case of 2 times recycle and 4 times recycle respectively. The compound process fuel cycle concept has such flexibility that it can accept so much light water reactor spent fuels as to suppress the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up if not so high fuel burn-up is expected, and can aim at high fuel burn-up if the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up is not so much. Following distinctive features of the concept have also been revealed. A sort of ideal utilization of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel might be achieved through this concept, since both plutonium and minor actinide reach equilibrium state beyond 2 times recycle. Changes of the reactivity coefficients during recycles are mild, giving roughly same level of reactivity coefficients as the conventional large scale fast breeder core. Both the radio-activity and the heat generation after 4 year cooling and after 4 times recycle are less than 2.5 times of those of the pre recycle fuel. (author)

  20. CANDU fuel cycles - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1976-05-01

    The present commercially proven Canadian nuclear power system is based on a once-through natural uranium fuel cycle characterized by high uranium utilization and a high conversion efficiency. The cycle closes with secure retrievable storage of spent fuel. This cycle is based on a CANDU reactor concept which is now well understood. Both active and passive fuel storage options have been investigated and will be described in this paper. Future development of the CANDU system is focussed on conservation of uranium by plutonium and thorium recycle. The full exploitation of these options requires continued emphasis on neutron conservation, efficiency of extraction and fuel refabrication processes. The results of recent studies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  1. Dynamic Analysis of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je

    2006-02-01

    The thorium fuel recycle scenarios through the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor have been analyzed for two types of thorium fuel: homogeneous ThO 2 UO 2 and ThO 2 UO 2 -DUPIC fuels. The recycling is performed through the dry process fuel technology which has a proliferation resistance. For the once-through fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. After setting up the once-through fuel cycle model, the thorium fuel CANDU reactor was modeled to investigate the fuel cycle parameters. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products of the multiple recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. From the analysis results, it was found that the closed or partially closed thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. Also, it is known that both the homogeneous and heterogeneous thorium fuel cycles can reduce the SF accumulation and save the natural uranium resource compared with the once-through cycle. From the material balance view point, the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle seems to be more feasible. It is recommended, however, the economic analysis should be performed in future

  2. Dynamic Analysis of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je

    2006-02-15

    The thorium fuel recycle scenarios through the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor have been analyzed for two types of thorium fuel: homogeneous ThO{sub 2}UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}UO{sub 2}-DUPIC fuels. The recycling is performed through the dry process fuel technology which has a proliferation resistance. For the once-through fuel cycle model, the existing nuclear power plant construction plan was considered up to 2016, while the nuclear demand growth rate from the year 2016 was assumed to be 0%. After setting up the once-through fuel cycle model, the thorium fuel CANDU reactor was modeled to investigate the fuel cycle parameters. In this analysis, the spent fuel inventory as well as the amount of plutonium, minor actinides and fission products of the multiple recycling fuel cycle were estimated and compared to those of the once-through fuel cycle. From the analysis results, it was found that the closed or partially closed thorium fuel cycle can be constructed through the dry process technology. Also, it is known that both the homogeneous and heterogeneous thorium fuel cycles can reduce the SF accumulation and save the natural uranium resource compared with the once-through cycle. From the material balance view point, the heterogeneous thorium fuel cycle seems to be more feasible. It is recommended, however, the economic analysis should be performed in future.

  3. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  4. New technology and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1979-06-01

    The means of improving uranium utilization in nuclear power reactors are reviewed with respect to economic considerations, assurance of adequate fuel supplies and risk of weapons proliferation. Reference is made to what can be done to improve fuel economy in existing reactor systems operating on a once-through fuel cycle and the potential for improvement offered by fuel recycle in those systems. The state of development of new reactor systems that offer significant savings in uranium utilization is also reviewed and conclusions are made respecting the policy implications of the search for fuel economy. (author)

  5. The nuclear fuel cycle in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.

    2004-01-01

    As we enter the 21st century and contemplate the deployment of Generation III+ machines and the development of Generation IV systems, the fuel cycle within which these reactors are to operate has become a predominant consideration. The four challenges to nuclear development of the 21st century of economics, safety, sustainability through spent fuel management and efficient fuel utilization, and proliferation resistance increasingly involve the front and back ends of the fuel cycle equally if not more than the design of the reactor which has reached a far higher level of maturity. It is tempting to accept the closed cycle with its promise of effective waste management as inevitable. The central questions, however, are the characteristics of the desired closed cycle, the relative advantages of thermal versus fast spectrum closed cycles, the character and pace of the transition to a closed cycle, and finally the most central question as to whether the closed cycle is indeed more desirable a choice than is an open cycle. The desired closed fuel cycle for the long term around which this paper is based is full actinide recycle with natural uranium feed and only fission products discharged to an ultimate waste repository. It is concluded that a major international research and development program to achieve this fuel cycle is important to pursue. However, the need to decide for the closed cycle and deploy it is not pressing for the next several decades. (author)

  6. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  7. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without re-enrichment, the plutonium as conventional Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  8. CANDU fuel-cycle vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G

    1998-05-01

    The fuel-cycle path chosen by a particular country will depend on a range of local and global factors. The CANDU reactor provides the fuel-cycle flexibility to enable any country to optimize its fuel-cycle strategy to suit its own needs. AECL has developed the CANFLEX fuel bundle as the near-term carrier of advanced fuel cycles. A demonstration irradiation of 24 CANFLEX bundles in the Point Lepreau power station, and a full-scale critical heat flux (CHF) test in water are planned in 1998, before commercial implementation of CANFLEX fuelling. CANFLEX fuel provides a reduction in peak linear element ratings, and a significant enhancement in thermalhydraulic performance. Whereas natural uranium fuel provides many advantages, the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) in CANDU reactors offers even lower fuel-cycle costs and other benefits, such as uprating capability through flattening the channel power distribution across the core. Recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessing spent PWR fuel is a subset of SEU that has significant economic promise. AECL views the use of SEU/RU in the CANFLEX bundle as the first logical step from natural uranium. High neutron economy enables the use of low-fissile fuel in CANDU reactors, which opens up a spectrum of unique fuel-cycle opportunities that exploit the synergism between CANDU reactors and LWRs. At one end of this spectrum is the use of materials from conventional reprocessing: CANDU reactors can utilize the RU directly without reenrichment, the plutonium as conventional mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, and the actinide waste mixed with plutonium in an inert-matrix carrier. At the other end of the spectrum is the DUPIC cycle, employing only thermal-mechanical processes to convert spent LWR fuel into CANDU fuel, with no purposeful separation of isotopes from the fuel, and possessing a high degree of proliferation resistance. Between these two extremes are other advanced recycling options that offer particular advantages in exploiting the

  9. Fuel cycle management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, H.; Mikkola, I.

    1987-01-01

    Both Finnish utilities producing nuclear power - Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (Industrial Power Co. Ltd, TVO) - have created efficient fuel cycle management systems. The systems however differ in almost all respects. The reason is that the principal supplier for IVO is the Soviet Union and for TVO is Sweden. A common feature of both systems at the front end of the cycle is the building of stockpiles in order to provide for interruptions in fuel deliveries. Quality assurance supervision at the fuel factory for IVO is regulated by the Soviet Chamber of Commerce and Industry and a final control is made in Finland. The in-core fuel management is done by IVO using codes developed in Finland. The whole IVO fuel cycle is basically a leasing arrangement. The spent fuel is returned to the USSR after five years cooling. TVO carries out the in-core fuel management using a computer code system supplied by Asea-Atom. TVO is responsable for the back end of the cycle and makes preparations for the final disposal of the spent fuel in Finland. 6 refs., 2 figs

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  11. Research reactors fuel cycle problems and dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, R.

    2004-01-01

    During last 10 years, some problems appeared in different steps of research reactors fuel cycle. Actually the majority of these reactors have been built in the 60s and these reactors were operated during all this long period in a cycle with steps which were dedicated to this activity. Progressively and for reasons often economical, certain steps of the cycle became more and more difficult to manage due to closing of some specialised workshops in the activities of scraps recycling, irradiated fuel reprocessing, even fuel fabrication. Other steps of the cycle meet or will meet difficulties, in particular supplying of fissile raw material LEU or HEU because this material was mostly produced in enrichment units existing mainly for military reason. Rarefaction of fissile material lead to use more and more enriched uraniums said 'of technical quality', that is to say which come from mixing of varied qualities of enriched material, containing products resulting from reprocessing. Actually, problems of end of fuel cycle are increased, either consisting of intermediary storage on the site of reactor or on specialised sites, or consisting of reprocessing. This brief summary shows most difficulties which are met today by a major part of industrials of the fuel cycle in the exercise of their activities

  12. Nonproliferation norms in civilian nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Tomio

    2005-01-01

    For sustainable use of nuclear energy in large scale, it seems inevitable to choose a closed cycle option. One of the important questions is, then, whether we can really achieve the compatibility between civilian nuclear fuel cycle and nonproliferation norms. In this aspect, Japan is very unique because she is now only one country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program as a non-nuclear weapon state in NPT regime. In June 2004 in the midst of heightened proliferation concerns in NPT regime, the IAEA Board of Governors concluded that, for Japanese nuclear energy program, non-diversion of declared nuclear material and the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities were verified through the inspections and examinations under Comprehensive Safeguards and the Additional Protocol. Based on this conclusion, the IAEA announced the implementation of Integrated Safeguards in Japan in September 2004. This paper reviews how Japan has succeeded in becoming the first country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program to qualify for integrated Safeguards, and identifies five key elements that have made this achievement happen: (1) Obvious need of nuclear fuel cycle program, (2) Country's clear intention for renunciation of nuclear armament, (3) Transparency of national nuclear energy program, (4) Record of excellent compliance with nonproliferation obligations for many decades, and (5) Numerous proactive efforts. These five key elements will constitute a kind of an acceptance model for civilian nuclear fuel cycle in NNWS, and may become the basis for building 'Nonproliferation Culture'. (author)

  13. Report on studies on closed cycle MHD power generation; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden kento hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    Summarized herein are results of the studies on closed cycle MHD (CCMHD) power generation by the study committee. The studied system is based on the MHD gas turbine combined Brayton cycle of about 500,000 kW in output power, firing natural gas as the fuel, and the conceptual design works therefor are completed. The major findings are: the overall plant efficiency: 54.2% at the power transmission side, plot area required per unit power output: 0.04 m{sup 2}/KW, unit construction cost: 251,000 yen/KW, and unit power generation cost: 10.2 yen/KWh. This system will be more operable than the gas turbine combined cycle with steam system, because start-up time, output change rate, optimum load and so on are constrained not on the power generator side but on the gas turbine side. The expected environmental effects include the exhaust gas NOX concentration being equivalent with that associated with the conventional power generator of 2-stage combustion system, quantity of combustion gases to be treated being approximately 40% of that associated with the gas turbine combined cycle, and reduced CO2 gas emissions, resulting from enhanced power generation efficiency. It is expected that the CCMHD system can exhibit higher efficiency than the high-temperature gas turbine combined cycle system. (NEDO)

  14. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  15. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  16. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  17. Characteristics of fuel cycle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilina, C.A.; Everette, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Management System started in 1979 to describe and model the existing commercial low-level waste management system. The system description produced is based on the identification of the different elements making up both the fuel and non-fuel cycle and their relationships to each other. A systems model based on the system description can accurately reflect the flow of low-level waste from generator to disposal site and is only limited by the reliability of the information it uses. For both the fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle large quantities of information is required in order to allow the system to operate at its full potential. Work is ongoing to collect this information. Significant progress is being made in the fuel cycle area primarily because the majority of fuel cycle low-level radioactive waste is produced by commercial power reactor plant operations. The Low-Level Waste Management system is only beginning to derive the benefits to be obtained from an accurate low-level waste management information system. As data is verified and analyzed, results on a national as well as individual organization level will be gained. Comparisons to previous studies will be made. Accurate projections of waste volumes and activities to be produced, projected impacts of waste streams of treatment or management changes are only examples of information to be produced. 1 figure, 1 table

  18. Romanian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1998-01-01

    Romanian decision to introduce nuclear power was based on the evaluation of electricity demand and supply as well as a domestic resources assessment. The option was the introduction of CANDU-PHWR through a license agreement with AECL Canada. The major factors in this choice have been the need of diversifying the energy resources, the improvement the national industry and the independence of foreign suppliers. Romanian Nuclear Power Program envisaged a large national participation in Cernavoda NPP completion, in the development of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and horizontal industry, in R and D and human resources. As consequence, important support was being given to development of industries involved in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design execution standards, QA procedures and current nuclear safety requirements at international level. Unit 1 of the first Romanian nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP with a final profile 5x700 Mw e, is now in operation and its production represents 10% of all national electricity production. There were also developed all stages of FRONT END of Nuclear Fuel Cycle as well as programs for spent fuel and waste management. Industrial facilities for uranian production, U 3 O 8 concentrate, UO 2 powder and CANDU fuel bundles, as well as heavy water plant, supply the required fuel and heavy water for Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents the Romanian activities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and waste management fields. (authors)

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  20. Fuel cycle developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the end-of-1994 status of world uranium production and fuels processing. The major producing areas/countries of the world are discussed and the production figures for each area/country are provided. The conversion services market is also discussed, as is the enrichment services market. Each of the major enrichment services provider organizations is noted

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  2. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme

  3. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme.

  4. A New Dynamic Model for Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sungyeol; Ko, Won Il

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of mass flow is a complex process where numerous parameters and their complex interaction are involved. Given that many nuclear power countries have light and heavy water reactors and associated fuel cycle technologies, the mass flow analysis has to consider a dynamic transition from the open fuel cycle to other cycles over decades or a century. Although an equilibrium analysis provides insight concerning the end-states of fuel cycle transitions, it cannot answer when we need specific management options, whether the current plan can deliver these options when needed, and how fast the equilibrium can be achieved. As a pilot application, the government brought several experts together to conduct preliminary evaluations for nuclear fuel cycle options in 2010. According to Table 1, they concluded that the closed nuclear fuel cycle has long-term advantages over the open fuel cycle. However, it is still necessary to assess these options in depth and to optimize transition paths of these long-term options with advanced dynamic fuel cycle models. A dynamic simulation model for nuclear fuel cycle systems was developed and its dynamic mass flow analysis capability was validated against the results of existing models. This model can reflects a complex combination of various fuel cycle processes and reactor types, from once-through to multiple recycling, within a single nuclear fuel cycle system. For the open fuel cycle, the results of the developed model are well matched with the results of other models

  5. US activities on fuel cycle transition scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Countries with active nuclear programmes typically have as a goal transition to a closed fuel cycle. A closed fuel cycle enables long-term sustainability, provides waste management benefits, and as a system, can reduce overall proliferation risk. This transition will take many decades, thus the study of the actual transition is an important topic. The United States systems analysis activities as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) provide the integrating analyses for the fuel cycle programme, and recent activities are focusing on transition options, and specifically, the dynamics of the transition. The United States is still studying both one-tier (recycling in fast reactors only) and two-tier (recycling in both thermal and fast reactors) systems, and the systems analysis activities provide insight into the trade-offs associated with the systems, and variations of each. Most recently, a series of sensitivity studies have been completed which provide insight into the behaviour of a transition system. These studies evaluate the impact of changing various parameters in the fuel cycle system, and provide insight into how the system will change as parameters change. Because these deployment analyses look at the development of nuclear energy systems over a long period of time, it is very unlikely that we will accurately predict the system's characteristics over time (for example, growth in electricity demand, how quickly nuclear reactors will be deployed, how many fast rectors versus thermal reactors, the conversion ratio of the fast reactors, etc.). How the system will develop will depend on a variety of factors, ranging from political to technical, rational to irrational. Because we cannot accurately predict the future, we need to understand how things could change, and what impact those changes have. Analyses of future fuel cycle systems require a number of assumptions. These include growth rates for nuclear energy, general architecture of fuel cycle

  6. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  8. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  9. Fuel cycle math - part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is Part 2 of a two part series on simple mathematics associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. While not addressing any of the financial aspects of the fuel cycle, this article does discuss the following: conversion between English and metric systems; uranium content expressed in equivalent forms, such as U3O8, and the method of determining these equivalencies; the uranium conversion process, considering different input and output compounds; and the enrichment process, including feed, tails, and product assays, as well as SWU and feed requirements

  10. Fuel and fuel cycles with high burnup for WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernushev, V.; Sokolov, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the status and trends in development of nuclear fuel and fuel cycles for WWER reactors. Parameters and main stages of implementation of new fuel cycles will be presented. At present, these new fuel cycles are offered to NPPs. Development of new fuel and fuel cycles based on the following principles: profiling fuel enrichment in a cross section of fuel assemblies; increase of average fuel enrichment in fuel assemblies; use of refuelling schemes with lower neutron leakage ('in-in-out'); use of integrated fuel gadolinium-based burnable absorber (for a five-year fuel cycle); increase of fuel burnup in fuel assemblies; improving the neutron balance by using structural materials with low neutron absorption; use of zirconium alloy claddings which are highly resistant to irradiation and corrosion. The paper also presents the results of fuel operation. (author)

  11. Fuel cycle and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.

    1979-01-01

    The volume of the fuel cycle is described in its economic importance and its through put, as it is envisaged for the Federal Republic of Germany. Definitions are given for quality continuing usefulness of an object and translated into quality criteria. Requirements on performance of fuel elements are defined. The way in which experimental results are translated into mass production of fuel rods, is described. The economic potential for further quality effort is derived. Future ways of development for quality control organisation and structure are outlined. (Auth.)

  12. The future fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paret, L.; Touron, E.

    2016-01-01

    The future fuel cycle plants will have to cope with both the fuel for PWR and the fuel for the new generation of fast reactors. Furthermore, the MOX fuel, that is not recycled in PWR reactors will have the possibility to be recycled in fast reactors of 4. generation. Recycling MOX fuels will imply to handle nuclear fuels with higher concentration of Pu than today. The design of the nuclear fuel for the future fast reactors will be similar to that of the Astrid prototype. In order to simplify the fabrication of UPuO_2 pellets, all the fabrication process will take place in a dedicated glove box. Enhanced reality and virtual reality technologies have been used to optimize the glove-box design in order to have a better recovery of radioactive dust and to ease routine operations and its future dismantling. As a fuel assembly will contain 120 kg of UPuO_2 fuel, it will no longer be possible to mount these assemblies by hand contrary to what was done for Superphenix reactor. A new shielded mounting line has to be designed. Another point is that additive manufacturing for the fabrication of very small parts with a complex design will be broadly used. (A.C.)

  13. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in the main countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Japan, FRG, United Kingdom, France and Canada are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  15. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  17. Some thorium fuel cycle strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.; Hatton, H.

    1979-02-01

    The report deals with the problem of introducing an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on thorium in Canada. It is pointed out that timing and introduction rate are important considerations, certain choices of these variables leading to undesirable business fluctuations in some of the industries involved in the production of nuclear energy. (author)

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in some countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmarmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Spain and India are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  19. Fuel cycles for the 80's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the American Nuclear Society's topical meeting on the fuel cycle are summarized. Present progress and goals in the areas of fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, accountability, and safeguards are reported. Present governmental policies which affect the fuel cycle are also discussed. Individual presentations are processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  20. Closed-cycle gas turbine working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Campbell, J. Jr.; Wright, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic requirements of a closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) working fluid were identified and the effects of their thermodynamic and transport properties on the CCGT cycle performance, required heat exchanger surface area and metal operating temperature, cycle operating pressure levels, and the turbomachinery design were investigated. Material compatibility, thermal and chemical stability, safety, cost, and availability of the working fluid were also considered in the study. This paper also discusses CCGT working fluids utilizing mixtures of two or more pure gases. Some mixtures of gases exhibit pronounced synergetic effects on their characteristic properties including viscosity, thermal conductivity and Prandtl number, resulting in desirable heat transfer properties and high molecular weights. 21 refs

  1. Closed power cycles thermodynamic fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Invernizzi, Costante Mario

    2013-01-01

    With the growing attention to the exploitation of renewable energies and heat recovery from industrial processes, the traditional steam and gas cycles are showing themselves often inadequate. The inadequacy is due to the great assortment of the required sizes power and of the large kind of heat sources. Closed Power Cycles: Thermodynamic Fundamentals and Applications offers an organized discussion about the strong interaction between working fluids, the thermodynamic behavior of the cycle using them and the technological design aspects of the machines. A precise treatment of thermal engines op

  2. Economic evaluation of fast reactor fuel cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ping; Zhao Fuyu; Yan Zhou; Li Chong

    2012-01-01

    Economic calculation and analysis of two kinds of nuclear fuel cycle are conducted by check off method, based on the nuclear fuel cycling process and model for fast reactor power plant, and comparison is carried out for the economy of fast reactor fuel cycle and PWR once-through fuel cycle. Calculated based on the current price level, the economy of PWR one-through fuel cycle is better than that of the fast reactor fuel cycle. However, in the long term considering the rising of the natural uranium's price and the development of the post treatment technology for nuclear fuels, the cost of the fast reactor fuel cycle is expected to match or lower than that of the PWR once-through fuel cycle. (authors)

  3. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  4. Concept for fuel-cycle based safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deMontmollin, J.M.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Gupta, D.

    1985-01-01

    Although the guidelines for NPT safeguards specify that the State's fuel cycle and degree of international independence are to be taken into account, the same model approach and absolute-quantity inspection goals are applied to all similar facilities, irrespective of the State's fuel cycle, and the findings are reported in those terms. A concept whereby safeguards might more effectively and efficiently accomplish the purposes of NPT safeguards is explored. The principal features are: (1) division of the fuel cycle into three zones, each containing material having a different degree of significance for safeguards; (2) closing a verified material balance around each zone, supplementing the present MBA balances for more sensitive facilities and replacing them for others; (3) maintenance by the IAEA of a current book inventory for each facility by means of immediate, abbreviated reporting of interfacility transfers; (4) near real-time analysis of material flow patterns through the fuel cycle; and (5) a periodic statement of the findings for the entire State that takes the form that there is assurance that all nuclear materials under safeguards are accounted for to some stated degree of uncertainty

  5. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    fulfill its mission that is to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  6. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    to contribute in improving the quality of life of the Brazilian people. The nuclear fuel cycle is a series of steps involved in the production and use of fuel for nuclear reactors. The Laboratories of Chemistry and Environmental Diagnosis Center, CQMA, support the demand of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Program providing chemical characterization of uranium compounds and other related materials. In this period the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) concentrated efforts on improving equipment and systems to enable the IEA-R1 research reactor to operate at higher power, increasing the capacity of radioisotopes production, samples irradiation, tests and experiments. (author)

  7. The benefits of longer fuel cycle lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Longer fuel cycle lengths have been found to increase generation and improve outage management. A study at Duke Power Company has shown that longer fuel cycles offer both increased scheduling flexibility and increased capacity factors

  8. Fuel cycle problems in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Fuel cycle problems of fusion reactors evolve around the breeding, recovery, containment, and recycling of tritium. These processes are described, and their implications and alternatives are discussed. Technically, fuel cycle problems are solvable; economically, their feasibility is not yet known

  9. Fuel cycle math - part one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article is Part One of a two-part article that reviews some of the numbers associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The contents of Part One include: composition of the element uranium, considering atomic mass and weight-percent of the isotopes; uranium in the ground, including ore grades; mining, with dilution factors and recovery rates; ore sorting, including concentration factors; and uranium recovery. No financial information is presented in either Part One or Part Two

  10. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  11. Fuel Cycle of Reactor SVBR-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G. [FSUE State Scientific Center Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, 1, Bondarenko sq., Obninsk, Kaluga rg., 249033 (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Modular fast reactor with lead-bismuth heavy liquid-metal coolant in 100 MWe class (SVBR 100) is referred to the IV Generation reactors and shall operate in a closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) without consumption of natural uranium. Usually it is considered that launch of fast reactors (FR) is realized using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel. However, such launch of FRs is not economically effective because of the current costs of natural uranium and uranium enrichment servicing. This is conditioned by the fact that the quantity of reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of thermal reactors (TR) calculated for a ton of plutonium that determines the expenditures for construction and operation of the corresponding enterprise is very large due to low content of plutonium in the TR SNF. The economical effectiveness of FRs will be reduced as the enterprises on reprocessing the TR SNF have to be built prior to FRs have been implemented in the nuclear power (NP). Moreover, the pace of putting the FRs in the NP will be constrained by the quantity of the TR SNF. The report grounds an alternative strategy of FRs implementation into the NP, which is considered to be more economically effective. That is conditioned by the fact that in the nearest future use of the mastered uranium oxide fuel for FRs and operation in the open fuel cycle with postponed reprocessing will be most economically expedient. Changeover to the mixed uranium-plutonium fuel and closed NFC will be economically effective when the cost of natural uranium is increased and the expenditures for construction of enterprises on SNF reprocessing, re-fabrication of new fuel with plutonium and their operating becomes lower than the corresponding costs of natural uranium, uranium enrichment servicing, expenditures for fabrication of fresh uranium fuel and long temporary storage of the SNF. As when operating in the open NFC, FRs use much more natural uranium as compared with TRs, and at a planned high pace of NP development

  12. Aspects of the fast reactors fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The fuel cycle for fast reactors, is analysed, regarding the technical aspects of the developing of the reprocessing stages and the fuel fabrication. The environmental impact of LMFBRs and the waste management of this cycle are studied. The economic aspects of the fuel cycle, are studied too. Some coments about the Brazilian fast reactors programs are done. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Conceptual design of a quasi-homogeneous pressurized heavy water reactor to be operated in the closed Th-U233 fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This paper deals with the heavy water reactor, which, from the neutron economy point of view, offers advantages over the light water reactor. Its capability to be fuelled with natural uranium has also been considered a desirable nuclear option by various countries with sufficient domestic uranium resources not wishing to be dependent on the import of enrichment and other fuel cycle services which, in addition, would draw on the foreign exchange reserves. Pressurized heavy water reactors have been designed and built according to two somewhat different versions. While the Canadian CANDU-PHWR concept uses pressure tubes in a nearly unpressurized moderator tank (calandria), the German development line takes advantage of the established and well proven LWR technology, and, thus, uses a pressure vessel design where coolant channels and the surrounding moderator are held at equal pressure. This pressure vessel type heavy water reactor which has been built on a commercial demonstration plant level at ATUCHA in Argentina is described in a companion paper where also a conceptual design for a 685 MWsub(e) PHWR is discussed

  14. Spent fuel transport in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrousse, M.

    1977-01-01

    The transport of radioactive substances is a minor part of the fuel cycle because the quantities of matter involved are very small. However the length and complexity of the cycle, the weight of the packing, the respective distances between stations, enrichment plants and reprocessing plants are such that the problem is not negligible. In addition these transports have considerable psychological importance. The most interesting is spent fuel transport which requires exceptionally efficient packaging, especially where thermal and mechanical resistance are concerned. To meet the safety criteria necessary for the protection of both public and users it was decided to use the maximum capacity consistent with rail transport and to avoid coolant fluids under pressure. Since no single type of packing is suitable for all existing stations an effort has been made to standardise handling accessories, and future trands are towards maximum automation. A discussion on the various technical solutions available for the construction of these packing systems is followed by a description of those used for the two types of packaging ordered by COGEMA [fr

  15. Fuel Cycle Technologies 2014 Achievement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bonnie C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) program supports the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) mission to: “Enhance U.S. security and economic growth through transformative science, technology innovation, and market solutions to meet our energy, nuclear security, and environmental challenges.” Goal 1 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to innovate energy technologies that enhance U.S. economic growth and job creation, energy security, and environmental quality. FCT does this by investing in advanced technologies that could transform the nuclear fuel cycle in the decades to come. Goal 2 of DOE’s Strategic Plan is to strengthen national security by strengthening key science, technology, and engineering capabilities. FCT does this by working closely with the National Nuclear Security Administration and the U.S Department of State to develop advanced technologies that support the Nation’s nuclear nonproliferation goals.

  16. On the problems of the fuel cycles of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W.J.; Wagner, H.F.

    1976-01-01

    A secured procurement with nuclear energy can be only achieved if a completely closed fuel cycle will be established. In the Federal Republic of Germany efforts are concentrated on the front end as well as on the back end of the fuel cycle. At the front end the main tasks are to secure uranium supply and to establish the necessary enrichment capacity. The German concept for the back end of the fuel cycle will provide for an integrated and co-located system for all necessary facilities including reprocessing, plutonium fuel fabrication, treatment, interim storage and final disposal of the radioactive wastes to be operational in the mid-80's. Responsibilities for establishing this system are shared between government and private industry. Government will provide for final waste disposal, industry will built and operate the other facilities. Another important point for the introduction of nuclear energy is to solve reliably the problems of protection of fissionable material, radioactive waste and nuclear facilities. German government has initiated respective activities and has started appropriate R+D-work. (orig.) [de

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle versus the carbon cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power provides approximately 17% of the world's electricity, which is equivalent to a reduction in carbon emissions of ∼0.5 gigatonnes (Gt) of C/yr. This is a modest reduction as compared with global emissions of carbon, ∼7 Gt C/yr. Most analyses suggest that in order to have a significant and timely impact on carbon emissions, carbon-free sources, such as nuclear power, would have to expand total production of energy by factors of three to ten by 2050. A three-fold increase in nuclear power capacity would result in a projected reduction in carbon emissions of 1 to 2 Gt C/yr, depending on the type of carbon-based energy source that is displaced. This three-fold increase utilizing present nuclear technologies would result in 25,000 metric tonnes (t) of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) per year, containing over 200 t of plutonium. This is compared to a present global inventory of approximately 280,000 t of SNF and >1,700 t of Pu. A nuclear weapon can be fashioned from as little as 5 kg of 239 Pu. However, there is considerable technological flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. There are three types of nuclear fuel cycles that might be utilized for the increased production of energy: open, closed, or a symbiotic combination of different types of reactor (such as, thermal and fast neutron reactors). The neutron energy spectrum has a significant effect on the fission product yield, and the consumption of long-lived actinides, by fission, is best achieved by fast neutrons. Within each cycle, the volume and composition of the high-level nuclear waste and fissile material depend on the type of nuclear fuel, the amount of burn-up, the extent of radionuclide separation during reprocessing, and the types of materials used to immobilize different radionuclides. As an example, a 232 Th-based fuel cycle can be used to breed fissile 233 U with minimum production of Pu. In this paper, I will contrast the production of excess carbon in the form of CO 2 from fossil fuels with

  18. Homogeneous Thorium Fuel Cycles in Candu Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R.; Magill, M. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The CANDU{sup R} reactor has an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility, as a consequence of its fuel-channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle [1]. These features facilitate the introduction and full exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in Candu reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Because thorium itself does not contain a fissile isotope, neutrons must be provided by adding a fissile material, either within or outside of the thorium-based fuel. Those same Candu features that provide fuel-cycle flexibility also make possible many thorium fuel-cycle options. Various thorium fuel cycles can be categorized by the type and geometry of the added fissile material. The simplest of these fuel cycles are based on homogeneous thorium fuel designs, where the fissile material is mixed uniformly with the fertile thorium. These fuel cycles can be competitive in resource utilization with the best uranium-based fuel cycles, while building up a 'mine' of U-233 in the spent fuel, for possible recycle in thermal reactors. When U-233 is recycled from the spent fuel, thorium-based fuel cycles in Candu reactors can provide substantial improvements in the efficiency of energy production from existing fissile resources. The fissile component driving the initial fuel could be enriched uranium, plutonium, or uranium-233. Many different thorium fuel cycle options have been studied at AECL [2,3]. This paper presents the results of recent homogeneous thorium fuel cycle calculations using plutonium and enriched uranium as driver fuels, with and without U-233 recycle. High and low burnup cases have been investigated for both the once-through and U-233 recycle cases. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). 1. Boczar, P.G. 'Candu Fuel-Cycle Vision', Presented at IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on 'Fuel Cycle Options for LWRs and HWRs', 1998 April 28 - May 01, also Atomic Energy

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Kent Williams; J.D. Smith; Brent Boore

    2006-12-01

    A fuel cycle economic analysis was performed on four fuel cycles to provide a baseline for initial cost comparison using the Gen IV Economic Modeling Work Group G4 ECON spreadsheet model, Decision Programming Language software, the 2006 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis report, industry cost data, international papers, the nuclear power related cost study from MIT, Harvard, and the University of Chicago. The analysis developed and compared the fuel cycle cost component of the total cost of energy for a wide range of fuel cycles including: once through, thermal with fast recycle, continuous fast recycle, and thermal recycle.

  20. Benefits of barrier fuel on fuel cycle economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, R.L.; Kunz, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Barrier fuel rod cladding was developed to eliminate fuel rod failures from pellet/cladding stress/corrosion interaction and to eliminate the associated need to restrict the rate at which fuel rod power can be increased. The performance of barrier cladding has been demonstrated through extensive testing and through production application to many boiling water reactors (BWRs). Power reactor data have shown that barrier fuel rod cladding has a significant beneficial effect on plant capacity factor and plant operating costs and significantly increases fuel reliability. Independent of the fuel reliability benefit, it is less obvious that barrier fuel has a beneficial effect of fuel cycle costs, since barrier cladding is more costly to fabricate. Evaluations, measurements, and development activities, however, have shown that the fuel cycle cost benefits of barrier fuel are large. This paper is a summary of development activities that have shown that application of barrier fuel significantly reduces BWR fuel cycle costs

  1. Feasibility study on tandem fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, P.S.; Suh, I.S.; Rim, C.S.; Kim, B.K.; Suh, K.S.; Ro, S.K.; Juhn, P.I.; Kim, S.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this feasibility study is to review and assess the current state of technology concerning the tandem fuel cycle. Based on the results from this study, a long-term development plan suitable for Korea has been proposed for this cycle, i.e., the PWR → CANDU tandem fuel cycle which used plutonium and uranium, recovered from spent PWR fuel by co-processing, as fuel material for CANDU reactors. (Author)

  2. Introductory remarks about the international fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.

    1989-01-01

    The reason why nuclear power has promise is because of the promise of its fuel cycle. The fuel cycle is in fairly good shape and has demonstrated the characteristics of good economics, good general characterization, and good maintenance of the various parts of the fuel cycle. The thermal recycling of fuel is an area in which the economics have changed to the point that, at least in many parts of the world, it's no longer economical

  3. Thorium nuclear fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Do, Jae Bum; Choi, Yoon Dong; Park, Kyoung Kyum; Choi, In Kyu; Lee, Jae Won; Song, Woong Sup; Kim, Heong Woo

    1998-03-01

    Since thorium produces relatively small amount of TRU elements after irradiation in the reactor, it is considered one of possible media to mix with the elements to be transmuted. Both solid and molten-salt thorium fuel cycles were investigated. Transmutation concepts being studied involved fast breeder reactor, accelerator-driven subcritical reactor, and energy amplifier with thorium. Long-lived radionuclides, especially TRU elements, could be separated from spent fuel by a pyrochemical process which is evaluated to be proliferation resistance. Pyrochemical processes of IFR, MSRE and ATW were reviewed and evaluated in detail, regarding technological feasibility, compatibility of thorium with TRU, proliferation resistance, their economy and safety. (author). 26 refs., 22 figs

  4. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Yang, M.S.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The DUPIC fuel cycle was conceived as an alternative to the conventional fuel cycle backed options, with a view to multiple benefits expectable from burning spent PWR fuel again in CANDU reactors. It is based on the basic idea that the bulk of spent PWR fuel can be directly refabricated into a reusable fuel for CANDU of which high efficiency in neutron utilization would exhaustively burn the fissile remnants in the spent PWR fuel to a level below that of natural uranium. Such ''burn again'' strategy of the DUPIC fuel cycle implies that the spent PWR fuel will become CANDU fuel of higher burnup with relevant benefits such as spent PWR fuel disposition, saving of natural uranium fuel, etc. A salient feature of the DUPIC fuel cycle is neither the fissile content nor the bulk radioactivity is separated from the DUPIC mass flow which must be contained and shielded all along the cycle. This feature can be considered as a factor of proliferation resistance by deterrence against access to sensitive materials. It means also the requirement for remote systems technologies for DUPIC fuel operation. The conflicting aspects between better safeguardability and harder engineering problems of the radioactive fuel operation may be the important reason why the decades' old concept, since INFCE, of ''hot'' fuel cycle has not been pursued with much progress. In this context, the DUPIC fuel cycle could be a live example for development of proliferation resistant fuel cycle. As the DUPIC fuel cycle looks for synergism of fuel linkage from PWR to CANDU (or in broader sense LWR to HWR), Korea occupies a best position for DUPIC exercise with her unique strategy of reactor mix of both reactor types. But the DUPIC benefits can be extended to global bonus, expectable from successful development of the technology. (author)

  5. Comparison of PWR-IMF and FR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, Petr; Zajac, Radoslav; Breza, Juraj; Necas, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The paper gives a comparison of PWR (Russia origin VVER-440) cycle with improved micro-heterogeneous inert matrix fuel assemblies and FR cycle. Micro-heterogeneous combined assembly contains transmutation pins with Pu and MAs from burned uranium reprocessing and standard uranium pins. Cycle analyses were performed by HELIOS spectral code and SCALE code system. Comparison is based on fuel cycle indicators, used in the project RED-IMPACT - part of EU FP6. Advantages of both closed cycles are pointed out. (authors)

  6. Economic aspects of Dukovany NPP fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, P.; Borovicka, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of high burnup program implementation at Dukovany NPP and its influence on the fuel cycle costs. Dukovany internal fuel cycle is originally designed as a three years cycle of the Out-In-In fuel reloading patterns. These reloads are not only uneconomical but they additionally increased the radiation load of the reactor pressure vessel due to high neutron leakage typical for Out-In-In loading pattern. To avoid the high neutron leakage from the core a transition to 4-year fuel cycle is started in 1987. The neutron leakage from the core is sequentially decreased by insertion of older fuel assemblies at the core periphery. Other developments in fuel cycle are: 1) increasing of enrichment in control assemblies (3.6% of U-235); 2) improvement in fuel assembly design (reduce the assembly shroud thickness from 2.1 to 1.6 mm); 3) introduction of Zr spacer grid instead of stainless steel; 4) introduction of new type of assembly with profiled enrichment with average value of 3.82%. Due to increased reactivity of the new assemblies the transition to the partial 5-year fuel cycle is required. Typical fuel loading pattern for 3, 3.5, 4 and 5-year cycles are shown in the presented paper. An evaluation of fuel cost is also discussed by using comparative analysis of different fuel cycle options. The analysis shows that introduction of the high burnup program has decrease relative fuel cycle costs

  7. Economic comparison of fusion fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The economics of the DT, DD, and DHe fusion fuel cycles are evaluated by comparison on a consistent basis. The designs for the comparison employ HT-9 structure and helium coolant; liquid lithium is used as the tritium breeding material for the DT fuel cycle. The reactors are pulsed, superconducting tokamaks, producing 1200 MW of electric power. The DT and DD designs scan a range of values of plasma beta, assuming first stability scaling laws. The results indicate that on a purely economic basis, the DT fuel cycle is superior to both of the advanced fuel cycles. Geometric factors, materials limitations, and plasma beta were seen to have an impact on the Cost of Electricity (COE). The economics for the DD fuel cycle are more strongly affected by these parameters than is the DT fuel cycle. Fuel costs are a major factor in determining the COE for the DHe fuel cycle. Based on costs directly attributable to the fuel cycle, the DT fuel cycle appears most attractive. Technological advances, improved understanding of physics, or strides in advanced energy conversion schemes may result in altering the economic ranking of the fuel cycles indicated here. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the end of February 1980, the two-years work on the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was finished in Vienna with a plenary meeting. INFCE is likely to have been a unique event in the history of international meetings: It was ni diplomatic negotiation meeting, but a techno-analytical investigation in which the participants tenaciously shuggled for many of the formulations. Starting point had been a meeting initiated by President Carter in Washington in Oct. 1979 after the World Economy Summit Meeting in London. The results of the investigation are presented here in a brief and popular form. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes, which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford site have caused ecological perturbations, and, if so, to determine the source, nature and magnitude of such disturbances

  10. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. This paper focuses on terrestrial and aquatic radioecology of waste management areas and biotic transport parameters

  11. Fuel fabrication and reprocessing for nuclear fuel cycle with inherent safety demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrin, Andrey Yurevich; Dvoeglazov, Konstantin Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Valentine Borisovich; Volk, Vladimir Ivanovich; Skupov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Glushenkov, Alexey Evgenevich [Joint Stock Company ' ' The High Technological Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Troyanov, Vladimir Mihaylovich; Zherebtsov, Alexander Anatolievich [Innovation and Technology Center of Project ' ' PRORYV' ' , State Atomic Energy Corporation ' ' Rosatom' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-01

    The strategies adopted in Russia for a closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR), selection of fuel type and recycling technologies of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are discussed. It is shown that one of the possible technological solutions for the closing of a fuel cycle could be the combination of pyroelectrochemical and hydrometallurgical methods of recycling of SNF. This combined scheme allows: recycling of SNF from FR with high burn-up and short cooling time; decreasing the volume of stored SNF and the amount of plutonium in a closed fuel cycle in FR; recycling of any type of SNF from FR; obtaining the high pure end uranium-plutonium-neptunium end-product for fuel refabrication using pellet technology.

  12. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  13. Fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of 235 U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors

  14. A fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of 235 U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors. (author)

  15. A fuel cycle cost study with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J E; Freese, K E [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Fuel cycle costs are compared for a range of {sup 235}U loadings with HEU and LEU fuels using the IAEA generic 10 MW reactor as an example. If LEU silicide fuels are successfully demonstrated and licensed, the results indicate that total fuel cycle costs can be about the same or lower than those with the HEU fuels that are currently used in most research reactors. (author)

  16. Ecological aspects of the radiation-migration equivalence principle in a closed fuel cycle and its comparative assessment with the ALARA principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poluektov, P.P.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Voloshin, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    The errors and uncertainties arising in the determination of radionuclide escape from the RW burial require the use of extremely conservative estimates. In the limit, the nuclide concentrations in the waste may be used as estimates of their concentrations in underground waters. On this basis, it is possible to evaluate the corresponding radio-toxicities (by normalizing to the interference levels) of individual components and radioactive waste as a whole or the effective radio-toxicities (by dividing the radionuclide radio-toxicities into the retardation factors for the nuclide transfer with underground waters). This completely coincides with the procedure of performing the limiting conservative estimate according to the traditional approach with the use of scenarios, escape models, and the corresponding codes. A comparison of radio-toxicities for waste with those for natural uranium consumed for producing a required fuel results in the notion of radiation-migration equivalence for individual waste components and radioactive waste as a whole. Therefore, the radiation-migration equivalence corresponds to the limiting conservative estimate in the traditional approach to the determination of RW disposal safety in comparison with the radiotoxicity of natural uranium. The amounts of radionuclides in fragments (and actinides) and the corresponding weight of heavy metal in the fuel are compared with due regard for the hazard (according to the NRB-99 standards), the nuclide mobility (through the sorption retardation factors), the retention of radioactive waste by the solid matrix, and the contribution from the chains of uranium fission products. It was noted above that the RME principle is aimed at ensuring the radiological safety of the present and future generations and the environment through the minimization of radioactive waste upon reprocessing. This is attended by reaching a reasonably achievable, low level of radiological action in the context of modern science, i

  17. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed

  18. High conversion HTRs and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, H.; Hansen, U.; Larsen, H.; Price, M.S.T.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses the principles of the core design and the fuel cycle layout for High Conversion HTRs (HCHTRs). Though most of the principles apply equally to HTRs of the pebble-bed and the prismatic fuel element design types, the paper concentrates on the latter. Design and fuel cycle strategies for the full utilisation of the high conversion potential are compared with others that aim at easier reprocessing and the 'environmental' fuel cycle. The paper concludes by discussing operating and fuel cycle characteristics and economics of HCHTRs, and how the latter impinge on the allowable price for uranium ore and the available uranium resources. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  20. Fuel rod behaviour at high burnup WWER fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, A.; Bogatyr, S.; Kouznetsov, V.; Khvostov, G.; Lagovsky; Korystin, L.; Poudov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The modernisation of WWER fuel cycles is carried out on the base of complete modelling and experimental justification of fuel rods up to 70 MWd/kgU. The modelling justification of the reliability of fuel rod and fuel rod with gadolinium is carried out with the use of certified START-3 code. START-3 code has a continuous experimental support. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-440 fuel is justified for fuel rod and pellet burnups 65 MWd/kgU and 74 MWd/U, accordingly. Results of analysis are demonstrated by the example of uranium-gadolinium fuel assemblies of second generation under 5-year cycle with a portion of 6-year assemblies and by the example of successfully completed pilot operation of 5-year cycle fuel assemblies during 6 years at unit 3 of Kolskaja NPP. The thermophysical and strength reliability of WWER-1000 fuel is justified for a fuel rod burnup 66 MWd/kgU by the example of fuel operation under 4-year cycles and 6-year test operation of fuel assemblies at unit 1 of Kalininskaya NPP. By the example of 5-year cycle at Dukovany NPP Unit 2 it was demonstrated that WWER fuel rod of a burnup 58 MWd/kgU ensure reliable operation under load following conditions. The analysis has confirmed sufficient reserves of Russian fuel to implement program of JSC 'TVEL' in order to improve technical and economical parameters of WWER fuel cycles

  1. Survey of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zech, H.J.; Pickert, F.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief outline of the technical aspects of the fuel cycle, starting from the mining of uranium up to fuel element fabrication, is followed by a more detailed description of the management of the outer fuel cycle. This includes the system of contracts and their reciprocal technical and chronological interdepence, as well as financial aspects, market conditions and trends. (RB) [de

  2. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  3. Multitube coaxial closed cycle gas laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Walch, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A gas laser design capable of long term reliable operation in a commercial environment is disclosed. Various construction details which insulate the laser optics from mechanical distortions and vibrations inevitably present in the environment are developed. Also, a versatile optical cavity made up of modular units which render the basic laser configuration adaptable to alternate designs with different output capabilities is shown in detail. The system built around a convection laser operated in a closed cycle and the working medium is a gas which is excited by direct current electric discharges. (auth)

  4. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  5. Fuel Cycle System Analysis Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Dixon, Brent W.; Gombert, Dirk; Hoffman, Edward A.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Williams, Kent A.

    2009-01-01

    This Handbook aims to improve understanding and communication regarding nuclear fuel cycle options. It is intended to assist DOE, Campaign Managers, and other presenters prepare presentations and reports. When looking for information, check here. The Handbook generally includes few details of how calculations were performed, which can be found by consulting references provided to the reader. The Handbook emphasizes results in the form of graphics and diagrams, with only enough text to explain the graphic, to ensure that the messages associated with the graphic is clear, and to explain key assumptions and methods that cause the graphed results. Some of the material is new and is not found in previous reports, for example: (1) Section 3 has system-level mass flow diagrams for 0-tier (once-through), 1-tier (UOX to CR=0.50 fast reactor), and 2-tier (UOX to MOX-Pu to CR=0.50 fast reactor) scenarios - at both static and dynamic equilibrium. (2) To help inform fast reactor transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio and uranium supply behavior, section 5 provides the sustainable fast reactor growth rate as a function of TRU conversion ratio. (3) To help clarify the difference in recycling Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, and all-TRU, section 5 provides mass fraction, gamma, and neutron emission for those four cases for MOX, heterogeneous LWR IMF (assemblies mixing IMF and UOX pins), and a CR=0.50 fast reactor. There are data for the first 10 LWR recycle passes and equilibrium. (4) Section 6 provides information on the cycle length, planned and unplanned outages, and TRU enrichment as a function of fast reactor TRU conversion ratio, as well as the dilution of TRU feedstock by uranium in making fast reactor fuel. (The recovered uranium is considered to be more pure than recovered TRU.) The latter parameter impacts the required TRU impurity limits specified by the Fuels Campaign. (5) Section 7 provides flows for an 800-tonne UOX separation plant. (6) To complement 'tornado' economic uncertainty

  6. The economics of thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and thorium fuel cycles are discussed. The thorium cycles are initiated by using either enriched uranium or plutonium. Subsequent thorium cycles utilize recycled uranium-233 and, where necessary, either uranium-235 or plutonium as topping. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which thorium cycles are economically attractive. (auth)

  7. Research and development of thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Jun.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear properties of thorium are summarized and present status of research and development of the use of thorium as nuclear fuel is reviewed. Thorium may be used for nuclear fuel in forms of metal, oxide, carbide and nitride independently, alloy with uranium or plutonium or mixture of the compound. Their use in reactors is described. The reprocessing of the spent oxide fuel in thorium fuel cycle is called the thorex process and similar to the purex process. A concept of a molten salt fuel reactor and chemical processing of the molten salt fuel are explained. The required future research on thorium fuel cycle is commented briefly. (T.H.)

  8. Closed cycle electric discharge laser design investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, P. K.; Smith, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Closed cycle CO2 and CO electric discharge lasers were studied. An analytical investigation assessed scale-up parameters and design features for CO2, closed cycle, continuous wave, unstable resonator, electric discharge lasing systems operating in space and airborne environments. A space based CO system was also examined. The program objectives were the conceptual designs of six CO2 systems and one CO system. Three airborne CO2 designs, with one, five, and ten megawatt outputs, were produced. These designs were based upon five minute run times. Three space based CO2 designs, with the same output levels, were also produced, but based upon one year run times. In addition, a conceptual design for a one megawatt space based CO laser system was also produced. These designs include the flow loop, compressor, and heat exchanger, as well as the laser cavity itself. The designs resulted in a laser loop weight for the space based five megawatt system that is within the space shuttle capacity. For the one megawatt systems, the estimated weight of the entire system including laser loop, solar power generator, and heat radiator is less than the shuttle capacity.

  9. Advanced fuel development at AECL: What does the future hold for CANDU fuels/fuel cycles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferschmidt, W.C.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines advanced fuel development at AECL. It discusses expanding the limits of fuel utilization, deploy alternate fuel cycles, increase fuel flexibility, employ recycled fuels; increase safety and reliability, decrease environmental impact and develop proliferation resistant fuel and fuel cycle.

  10. Thorium fuel cycle - Potential benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    There has been significant interest among Member States in developing advanced and innovative technologies for safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles, while minimizing waste and environmental impacts. This publication provides an insight into the reasons for renewed interest in the thorium fuel cycle, different implementation scenarios and options for the thorium cycle and an update of the information base on thorium fuels and fuel cycles. The present TECDOC focuses on the upcoming thorium based reactors, current information base, front and back end issues, including manufacturing and reprocessing of thorium fuels and waste management, proliferation-resistance and economic issues. The concluding chapter summarizes future prospects and recommendations pertaining to thorium fuels and fuel cycles

  11. Plutonium in an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles evolved over the past five decades have allowed many nations of the world to enjoy the benefits of nuclear energy, while contributing to the sustainable consumption of the world's energy resources. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production suffered many traumas since the 1970s because of perceived risks of proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, the experience of the past five decades has shown that the world community is committed to safeguarding all fissile materials and continuing the use of nuclear energy resources. Decisions of a few nations to discard spent nuclear fuels in geologic formations are contrary to the goals of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development being pursued by the world community. The maintenance of an enduring nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including spent fuels

  12. SPES, Fuel Cycle Optimization for LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Determination of optimal fuel cycle at equilibrium for a light water reactor taking into account batch size, fuel enrichment, de-rating, shutdown time, cost of replacement energy. 2 - Method of solution: Iterative method

  13. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  15. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is substantially more complicated than the energy production cycles of conventional fuels because of the very low abundance of uranium 235, the presence of radioactivity, the potential for producing fissile nuclides from irradiation, and the risk that fissile materials will be used for nuclear weapons. These factors add enrichment, recycling, spent fuel storage, and safeguards to the cycle, besides making the conventional steps of exploration, mining, processing, use, waste disposal, and transportation more difficult

  16. Nonproliferation characteristics of advanced fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiatives and safeguards methods and systems. Alternative cycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products

  17. Fuel cycle parameters for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes seven fuel cycle parameters (efficiency, specific power, burnup, equilibrium net fissile feed, equilibrium net fissile surplus, first charge fissile content, and whether or not fuel reprocessing is required) to be used in long-term strategy analyses of fuel cycles based on natural UO 2 , low enriched uranium, mixed oxides, plutonium topped thorium, uranium topped thorium, and the fast breeder oxide cycle. (LL)

  18. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P. G.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Meneley, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    There are many reasons for countries embarking on a CANDU R program to start with the natural uranium fuel cycle. Simplicity of fuel design, ease of fabrication, and ready availability of natural uranium all help to localize the technology and to reduce reliance on foreign technology. Nonetheless, at some point, the incentives for using natural uranium fuel may be outweighed by the advantages of alternate fuel cycles. The excellent neutron economy, on-line refuelling, and simple fuel-bundle design provide an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility in CANDU reactors. The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a two- to three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than dose conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U. S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or

  19. Comprehensive Fuel Cycle - Community Perspective - 13093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Richard V. [Savannah River Community Reuse Organization, P.O. Box 696, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Frazier, Timothy A. [Dickstein Shapiro LLP, 1825 Eye Street NW, Washington, DC, 20006-5403 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Should a five-county region surrounding the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site ('SRS') use its assets to help provide solutions to closing the nation's nuclear fuel cycle? That question has been the focus of a local ad hoc multi-disciplinary community task force (Tier I) that has been at work in recent months outlining issues and identifying unanswered questions to determine if assuming a leadership role in closing the nuclear fuel cycle is in the community's interest. If so, what are the terms and conditions under which we the community would agree to participate? Our starting point was the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future ('Commission') which made a total of eight (8) recommendations in its final report. There are several recommendations that are directly relevant to the Tier I group and potential efforts of the Region. These are the 'consent-based approach', the creation of an independent nuclear waste management entity funded from the existing nuclear waste fee; the 'prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities', and 'continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development'. (authors)

  20. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  1. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnesale, A.

    1980-01-01

    As nuclear power expands globally, so too expands the capability for producing nuclear weapons. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was organized in 1977 for the purpose of exploring two areas: (1) ways in which nuclear energy can be made available to help meet world energy needs, and (2) means by which the attendant risk of weapons proliferation can be held to a minimum. INFCE is designed for technical and analytical study rather than negotiation. Its organizational structure and issues under consideration are discussed. Some even broader issues that emerge from consideration of the relationships between the peaceful and military use of nuclear energy are also discussed. These are different notions of the meaning of nuclear proliferation, nuclear export policy, the need of a nuclear policy to be both a domestic as well as a foreign one, and political-military measures that can help reduce incentives of countries to acquire nuclear weapons of their own

  2. Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    ⇒ The IAEA’s International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was established in 2000. ⇒ INPRO cooperates with Member States to ensure that sustainable nuclear energy is available to help meet the energy needs of the 21st century. ⇒ INPRO is part of the integrated services of the IAEA provided to Member States considering initial development or expansion of nuclear energy programmes. ⇒ INPRO Methodology for nuclear energy system assessment - a comprehensive set of internationally agreed basic principles, requirements and criteria in the important areas of economics, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance, physical protection, environment and infrastructure. ⇒ Meeting the INPRO criteria in all of the areas ensures sustainability of nuclear energy system and its high potential to meet growing energy demand throughout the present century

  3. Safeguarding the Plutonium Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Lockwood, D.

    2013-01-01

    In developing a Safeguards Approach for a plutonium process facility, two general diversion and misuse scenarios must be addressed: 1) Unreported batches of undeclared nuclear material being processed through the plant and bypassing the accountancy measurement points, and 2) The operator removing plutonium at a rate that cannot be detected with confidence due to measurement uncertainties. This paper will look at the implementation of international safeguards at plutonium fuel cycle facilities in light of past lessons learned and current safeguards approaches. It will then discuss technical areas which are currently being addressed as future tools to improve on the efficiency of safeguards implementation, while maintaining its effectiveness. The discussion of new improvements will include: safeguards by design (SBD), process monitoring (PM), measurement and monitoring equipment, and data management. The paper is illustrated with the implementation of international safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant in Japan and its accountancy structure is detailed. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  4. VVER fuel cycle development at Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Chrapiak, V.; Majerik, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four VVER-440 units are now under exploitation at Bohunice-site in Slovakia. Fuel cycle development of Unit No.3 and No.4 (type 213) is discussed and compared with equilibrium cycles in this paper. (author)

  5. Advanced fuel cycles in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E.; Boczar, P.G.

    1990-04-01

    This paper re-examines the rationale for advanced nuclear fuel cycles in general, and for CANDU advanced fuel cycles in particular. The traditional resource-related arguments for more uranium nuclear fuel cycles are currently clouded by record-low prices for uranium. However, the total known conventional uranium resources can support projected uranium requirements for only another 50 years or so, less if a major revival of the nuclear option occurs as part of the solution to the world's environmental problems. While the extent of the uranium resource in the earth's crust and oceans is very large, uncertainty in the availability and price of uranium is the prime resource-related motivation for advanced fuel cycles. There are other important reasons for pursuing advanced fuel cycles. The three R's of the environmental movement, reduce, recycle, reuse, can be achieved in nuclear energy production through the employment of advanced fuel cycles. The adoption of more uranium-conserving fuel cycles would reduce the amount of uranium which needs to be mined, and the environmental impact of that mining. Environmental concerns over the back end of the fuel cycle can be mitigated as well. Higher fuel burnup reduces the volume of spent fuels which needs to be disposed of. The transmutation of actinides and long-lived fission products into short-lived fission products would reduce the radiological hazard of the waste from thousands to hundreds of years. Recycling of uranium and/or plutonium in spent fuel reuses valuable fissile material, leaving only true waste to be disposed of. Advanced fuel cycles have an economical benefit as well, enabling a ceiling to be put on fuel cycle costs, which are

  6. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  7. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D

  8. Proposed fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, L.; Walters, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the key features of ANL's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is a close-coupled fuel cycle. The proposed fuel cycle is similar to that demonstrated over the first five to six years of operation of EBR-II, when a fuel cycle facility adjacent to EBR-II was operated to reprocess and refabricate rapidly fuel discharged from the EBR-II. Locating the IFR and its fuel cycle facility on the same site makes the IFR a self-contained system. Because the reactor fuel and the uranium blanket are metals, pyrometallurgical processes (shortned to ''pyroprocesses'') have been chosen. The objectives of the IFR processes for the reactor fuel and blanket materials are to (1) recover fissionable materials in high yield; (2) remove fission products adequately from the reactor fuel, e.g., a decontamination factor of 10 to 100; and (3) upgrade the concentration of plutonium in uranium sufficiently to replenish the fissile-material content of the reactor fuel. After the fuel has been reconstituted, new fuel elements will be fabricated for recycle to the reactor

  9. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the ''front end'' and ''back end'' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of the Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  10. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the 'front end' and 'back end' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of The Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  11. DUPIC fuel cycle economics assessment (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Kim, D. H.

    1999-04-01

    This is a state-of-art report that describes the current status of the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis conducted by the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group of the DUPIC fuel development project. For the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized the 1st technical meeting composed of 8 domestic specialists from government, academy, industry, etc. and a foreign specialist of hot-cell design from TRI on July 16, 1998. This report contains the presentation material of the 1st technical meeting, published date used for the economics analysis and opinions of participants, which could be utilized for further DUPIC fuel cycle and back-end fuel cycle economics analyses. (author). 11 refs., 7 charts

  12. Practical introduction of thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The pracitcal introduction of throrium fuel cycles implies that thorium fuel cycles compete economically with uranium fuel cycles in economic nuclear power plants. In this study the reactor types under consideration are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), and fast breeder reactors (FBRs). On the basis that once-through fuel cycles will be used almost exclusively for the next 20 or 25 years, introduction of economic thorium fuel cycles appears best accomplished by commercial introduction of HTGRs. As the price of natural uranium increases, along with commercialization of fuel recycle, there will be increasing incentive to utilize thorium fuel cycles in heavy water reactors and light water reactors as well as in HTGRs. After FBRs and fuel recycle are commercialized, use of thorium fuel cycles in the blanket of FBRs appears advantageous when fast breeder reactors and thermal reactors operate in a symbiosis mode (i.e., where 233 U bred in the blanket of a fast breeder reactor is utilized as fissile fuel in thermal converter reactors)

  13. Introducing advanced nuclear fuel cycles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, M.F.

    1978-05-01

    The ability of several different advanced fuel cycles to provide energy for a range of energy growth scenarios has been examined for a few special situations of interest in Canada. Plutonium generated from the CANDU-PHW operating on natural uranium is used to initiate advanced fuel cycles in the year 2000. The four fuel cycles compared are: 1) natural uranium in the CANDU-PHW; 2) high burnup thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 3) self-sufficient thorium cycle in the CANDU-PHW; 4) plutonium-uranium cycle in a fast breeder reactor. The general features of the results are quite clear. While any plutonium generated prior to the introduction of the advanced fuel cycle remains, system requirements for natural uranium for each of the advanced fuel cycles are the same and are governed by the rate at which plants operating on natural uranium can be retired. When the accumulated plutonium inventory has been entirely used, natural uranium is again required to provide inventory for the advanced fuel cycle reactors. The time interval during which no uranium is required varies only from about 25 to 40 years for both thorium cycles, depending primarily on the energy growth rate. The breeder does not require the entire plutonium inventory produced and so would call for less processing of fuel from the PHW reactors. (author)

  14. Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Cost Estimates for Advanced Fuel Cycle Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Presentation Outline: • Why Do I Need a Cost Basis?; • History of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis; • Description of the Cost Basis; • Current Work; • Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle Applications; • Sample Fuel Cycle Cost Estimate Analysis; • Future Work

  15. Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.; Romanello, V.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.

    2013-01-01

    To support the evaluation of R and D needs and relevant technology requirements for future nuclear fuel cycles, the OECD/NEA WPFC Expert Group on Advanced Fuel Cycle Scenarios was created in 2010, replacing the WPFC Expert Group on Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies (1) to assemble, organise and understand the scientific issues of advanced fuel cycles and (2) to provide a framework for assessing specific national needs related to the implementation of advanced fuel cycles. In this framework, a simulation of world transition scenarios towards possible future fuel cycles with fast reactors has been performed, using both a homogeneous and a heterogeneous approach involving different world regions. In fact, it has been found that a crucial feature of any world scenario study is to provide not only trends for an idealised 'homogeneous' description of the world, but also trends for different regions in the world, selected with simple criteria (mostly of geographical type), in order to apply different hypotheses to energy demand growth, different fuel cycle strategies and different reactor types implementation in the different regions. This approach was an attempt to avoid focusing on selected countries, in particular on those where no new spectacular energy demand growth is expected, but to provide trends and conclusions that account for the features of countries that will be major future players in the world's energy development. The heterogeneous approach considered a subdivision of the world in four main macro-regions (where countries have been grouped together according to their economic development dynamics). An original global electricity production envelope was used in simulations and a specific regional energy share was defined. In the regional approach two different fuel cycles were analysed: a once-through LWR cycle was used as the reference and a transition to fast reactor closed cycle to enable a better management of resources and minimisation of waste

  16. Advanced fuel cycles for WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, Y. M.; Pavlovichev, A. M.; Pavlov, V. I.; Spirkin, E. I.; Styrin, Y. A.; Kosourov, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Main stages of Russian uranium fuel development regarding improvement of safety and economics of fuel load operation are presented. Intervals of possible changes in fuel cycle duration have been demonstrated for the use of current and perspective fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel load patterns have been demonstrated and main core neutronics parameters have been presented. Problems on the use of axial blankets with reduced enrichment in WWER-1000 fuel assemblies are considered. Some results are presented regarding core neutronic characteristics of WWER-1000 at the use of regenerated uranium and uranium-plutonium fuel. Examples of equilibrium fuel cycles for the core partially loaded with MOX fuel from weapon-grade plutonium are also considered (Authors)

  17. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Laurence F.; Preston, J.; Sweder, G.; Anderson, T.; Janson, S.; Humberstone, M.; MConn, J.; Clark, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development

  18. Fuel cycle studies for the Dragon HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoisa, J A; Nunn, R M; Twitchin, A E

    1971-02-15

    This note reports the progress made at B.N.L. in the study of the fuel cycle for the HTR design described by Daub (1970). The primary purpose of the study is to examine the special problems of the approach to equilibrium fuel cycle.

  19. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores; Gerardo Aliberti

    2014-06-01

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  20. Physics challenges for advanced fuel cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, Massimo; Aliberti, Gerardo; Palmiotti, Giuseppe

    2014-06-17

    Advanced fuel cycles and associated optimized reactor designs will require substantial improvements in key research area to meet new and more challenging requirements. The present paper reviews challenges and issues in the field of reactor and fuel cycle physics. Typical examples are discussed with, in some cases, original results.

  1. Recent developments in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderer, A.

    1984-01-01

    There is a description of the present situation in each individual area of the nuclear fuel cycle. Further topics are: risk and safety factors and emissions from the fuel cycle, availability and disruptions, waste disposal and the storage of radioactive waste. (UA) [de

  2. Status of IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; McFarlane, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The next major step in Argonne's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program is demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle, in conjunction with continued operation of EBR-II. The Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) is being readied for this mission. This paper will address the status of facility systems and process equipment, the initial startup experience, and plans for the demonstration program

  3. Uncertainty Analyses of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence F. Miller; J. Preston; G. Sweder; T. Anderson; S. Janson; M. Humberstone; J. MConn; J. Clark

    2008-12-12

    The Department of Energy is developing technology, experimental protocols, computational methods, systems analysis software, and many other capabilities in order to advance the nuclear power infrastructure through the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFDI). Our project, is intended to facilitate will-informed decision making for the selection of fuel cycle options and facilities for development.

  4. BWROPT: A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottinger, Keith E.; Maldonado, G. Ivan, E-mail: Ivan.Maldonado@utk.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A multi-cycle BWR fuel cycle optimization algorithm is presented. • New fuel inventory and core loading pattern determination. • The parallel simulated annealing algorithm was used for the optimization. • Variable sampling probabilities were compared to constant sampling probabilities. - Abstract: A new computer code for performing BWR in-core and out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for multiple cycles simultaneously has been developed. Parallel simulated annealing (PSA) is used to optimize the new fuel inventory and placement of new and reload fuel for each cycle considered. Several algorithm improvements were implemented and evaluated. The most significant of these are variable sampling probabilities and sampling new fuel types from an ordered array. A heuristic control rod pattern (CRP) search algorithm was also implemented, which is useful for single CRP determinations, however, this feature requires significant computational resources and is currently not practical for use in a full multi-cycle optimization. The PSA algorithm was demonstrated to be capable of significant objective function reduction and finding candidate loading patterns without constraint violations. The use of variable sampling probabilities was shown to reduce runtime while producing better results compared to using constant sampling probabilities. Sampling new fuel types from an ordered array was shown to have a mixed effect compared to random new fuel type sampling, whereby using both random and ordered sampling produced better results but required longer runtimes.

  5. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle covers the procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, its recovery and recycling after use and the safe storage of all wastes generated through these operations. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well documented safety record accumulated over the past 40 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This report constitutes an up-to-date analysis of the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the available experience in OECD countries. It addresses the technical aspects of fuel cycle operations, provides information on operating practices and looks ahead to future activities

  6. Fuel cycle technologies - The next 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, L.N.; Ion, S.E.; Patterson, J.

    1997-01-01

    World energy demands are set to increase through the next Millennium. As fossil fuel reserves fall and environmental concerns increase there is likely to be a growing dependence on nuclear and renewable sources for electricity generation. This paper considers some of the desirable attributes of the nuclear fuel cycle in the year 2050 and emphasises the importance of considering the whole of the fuel cycle in an integrated way - the concept of the 'holistic' fuel cycle. We then consider how some sectors of the fuel cycle will develop, through a number of multi- national contributions covering: enrichment, fuel, aqueous reprocessing, non-aqueous reprocessing, P and T, MOX, direct disposal, waste. Finally, we summarize some of the key technical and institutional challenges that lie ahead if nuclear power is going to play its part in ensuring that planet Earth is a safe and hospitable place to live. (author)

  7. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  8. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the different fuel cycle stages with which the CEA is associated, the annual flow of materials and wastes produced at these different stages, and the destiny of these produced materials and wastes. These information are given for the different CEA R and D activities: experimentation hot laboratories (activities, fuel cycle stages, list of laboratories, tables giving annual flows for each of them), research reactors (types of reactors, fuel usage modes, annual flows of nuclear materials for each reactor), spent fuel management (different types of used materials), spent fuels and radioactive wastes with a foreign origin (quantities, processes)

  9. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles activities in IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawada, H.P.; Ganguly, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Of late several developments in reprocessing areas along with advances in fuel design and robotics have led to immense interest in partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The R and D efforts in the P and T area are being paid increased attention as potential answers to ever-growing issues threatening sustainability, environmental protection and non-proliferation. Any fuel cycle studies that integrate partitioning and transmutation are also known as ''advanced fuel cycles'' (AFC), that could incinerate plutonium and minor actinide (MA) elements (namely Am, Np, Cm, etc.) which are the main contributors to long-term radiotoxicity. The R and D efforts in developing these innovative fuel cycles as well as reactors are being co-ordinated by international initiatives such as Innovative Nuclear Power Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GENP). For these advanced nuclear fuel cycle schemes to take shape, the development of liquid-metal-cooled reactor fuel cycles would be the most essential step for implementation of P and T. Some member states are also evaluating other concepts involving the use of thorium fuel cycle or inert-matrix fuel or coated particle fuel. Advanced fuel cycle involving novel partitioning methods such as pyrochemical separation methods to recover the transuranic elements are being developed by some member states which would form a critical stage of P and T. However, methods that can achieve a very high reduction (>99.5%) of MA and long-lived fission products in the waste streams after partitioning must be achieved to realize the goal of an improved protection of the environment. In addition, the development of MA-based fuel is also an essential and crucial step for transmutation of these transuranic elements. The presentation intends to describe progress of the IAEA activities encompassing the following subject-areas: minimization of

  10. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. A directory of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities, published online as part of the Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (iNFCIS: http://www-nfcis.iaea.org/). This is the fourth hardcopy publication in almost 30 years and it represents a snapshot of the NFCIS database as of the end of 2008. Together with the attached CD-ROM, it provides information on 650 civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 53 countries, thus helping to improve the transparency of global nuclear fuel cycle activities

  11. Technology Insights and Perspectives for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bays; S. Piet; N. Soelberg; M. Lineberry; B. Dixon

    2010-09-01

    The following report provides a rich resource of information for exploring fuel cycle characteristics. The most noteworthy trends can be traced back to the utilization efficiency of natural uranium resources. By definition, complete uranium utilization occurs only when all of the natural uranium resource can be introduced into the nuclear reactor long enough for all of it to undergo fission. Achieving near complete uranium utilization requires technologies that can achieve full recycle or at least nearly full recycle of the initial natural uranium consumed from the Earth. Greater than 99% of all natural uranium is fertile, and thus is not conducive to fission. This fact requires the fuel cycle to convert large quantities of non-fissile material into fissile transuranics. Step increases in waste benefits are closely related to the step increase in uranium utilization going from non-breeding fuel cycles to breeding fuel cycles. The amount of mass requiring a disposal path is tightly coupled to the quantity of actinides in the waste stream. Complete uranium utilization by definition means that zero (practically, near zero) actinide mass is present in the waste stream. Therefore, fuel cycles with complete (uranium and transuranic) recycle discharge predominately fission products with some actinide process losses. Fuel cycles without complete recycle discharge a much more massive waste stream because only a fraction of the initial actinide mass is burned prior to disposal. In a nuclear growth scenario, the relevant acceptable frequency for core damage events in nuclear reactors is inversely proportional to the number of reactors deployed in a fuel cycle. For ten times the reactors in a fleet, it should be expected that the fleet-average core damage frequency be decreased by a factor of ten. The relevant proliferation resistance of a fuel cycle system is enhanced with: decreasing reliance on domestic fuel cycle services, decreasing adaptability for technology misuse

  12. Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light Water Reactor/Fast Burner Reactor Fuel Cycles Proposed as Part of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kent Alan; Shropshire, David E.

    2009-01-01

    A spreadsheet-based 'static equilibrium' economic analysis was performed for three nuclear fuel cycle scenarios, each designed for 100 GWe-years of electrical generation annually: (1) a 'once-through' fuel cycle based on 100% LWRs fueled by standard UO2 fuel assemblies with all used fuel destined for geologic repository emplacement, (2) a 'single-tier recycle' scenario involving multiple fast burner reactors (37% of generation) accepting actinides (Pu,Np,Am,Cm) from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled LWR fleet (63% of generation), and (3) a 'two-tier' 'thermal+fast' recycle scenario where co-extracted U,Pu from the reprocessing of used fuel from the uranium-fueled part of the LWR fleet (66% of generation) is recycled once as full-core LWR MOX fuel (8% of generation), with the LWR MOX used fuel being reprocessed and all actinide products from both UO2 and MOX used fuel reprocessing being introduced into the closed fast burner reactor (26% of generation) fuel cycle. The latter two 'closed' fuel cycles, which involve symbiotic use of both thermal and fast reactors, have the advantages of lower natural uranium requirements per kilowatt-hour generated and less geologic repository space per kilowatt-hour as compared to the 'once-through' cycle. The overall fuel cycle cost in terms of $ per megawatt-hr of generation, however, for the closed cycles is 15% (single tier) to 29% (two-tier) higher than for the once-through cycle, based on 'expected values' from an uncertainty analysis using triangular distributions for the unit costs for each required step of the fuel cycle. (The fuel cycle cost does not include the levelized reactor life cycle costs.) Since fuel cycle costs are a relatively small percentage (10 to 20%) of the overall busbar cost (LUEC or 'levelized unit electricity cost') of nuclear power generation, this fuel cycle cost increase should not have a highly deleterious effect on the competitiveness of nuclear power. If the reactor life cycle

  13. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Sites where radioactive wastes are found are solid waste burial grounds, soils below liquid stoage areas, surface ditches and ponds, and the terrestrial environment around chemical processing facilities that discharge airborne radioactive debris from stacks. This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potentiall human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford Site have caused ecological perturbations, and if so, to determine the source, nature, and magnitude of such disturbances

  14. Safeguarding the fuel cycle: Methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of IAEA safeguards is characterized by the extent to which they achieve their basic purpose - credible verification that no nuclear material is diverted from peaceful uses. This effectiveness depends inter alia but significantly on manpower in terms of the number and qualifications of inspectors. Staff increases will be required to improve effectiveness further, if this is requested by Member States, as well as to take into account new facilities expected to come under safeguards in the future. However, they are difficult to achieve due to financial constraints set by the IAEA budget. As a consequence, much has been done and is being undertaken to improve utilization of available manpower, including standardization of inspection procedures; improvement of management practices and training; rationalization of planning, reporting, and evaluation of inspection activities; and development of new equipment. This article focuses on certain aspects of the verification methodology presently used and asks: are any modifications of this methodology conceivable that would lead to economies of manpower, without loss of effectiveness. It has been stated in this context that present safeguards approaches are ''facility-oriented'' and that the adoption of a ''fuel cycle-oriented approach'' might bring about the desired savings. Many studies have been devoted to this very interesting suggestion. Up to this moment, no definite answer is available and further studies will be necessary to come to a conclusion. In what follows, the essentials of the problem are explained and some possible paths to a solution are discussed

  15. Study on closed cycle MHD generation systems; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden system no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The closed cycle noble gas MHD generation systems are surveyed and studied. The concept of closed cycle noble gas MHD generation is confirmed to extract high enthalpy, and now going into the engineering demonstration stage from the basic research stage. These systems have various characteristics. The highest working temperature is around 1,700 degrees C, which is close to that associated with the existing techniques. Use of helium or argon gas as the working fluid makes the system relatively free of various problems, e.g., corrosion. It can attain a much higher efficiency than the combined cycle involving gas turbine. It suffers less heat loss in the passages, is suitable for small- to medium-capacity power generation systems, and copes with varying load. The compact power generation passages decrease required size of the superconducting magnet. The technical problems to be solved include optimization of power generation conditions, demonstration of durability of the power generation passages, injection/recovery of the seed material, treatment of the working gas to remove molecular impurities, and development of heat exchangers serviceable at high temperature produced by direct combustion of coal. The conceptual designs of the triple combined system are completed. (NEDO)

  16. Advanced fuel cycles of WWER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunin, G.; Novikov, A.; Pavlov, V.; Pavlovichev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper considers characteristics of fuel cycles for the WWER-1000 reactor satisfying the following conditions: duration of the campaign at the nominal power is extended from 250 EFPD up to 470 and more ones; fuel enrichment does not exceed 5 wt.%; fuel assemblies maximum burnup does not exceed 55 MWd/kgHM. Along with uranium fuel, the use of mixed Uranium-Plutonium fuel is considered. Calculations were conducted by codes TVS-M, BIPR-7A and PERMAK-A developed in the RRC Kurchatov Institute, verified for the calculations of uranium fuel and certified by GAN RF

  17. Innovation in the fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The fuel cycle industry will have to adapt to the production of new fuel and in the same time will have to improve its performance. Innovation will be a key factor of success. Innovation must be driven by the needs of the fuel cycle industry to achieve. The fuel cycle requirement of tomorrow, Innovative processes for mining high grade uranium, Innovative enrichment process, Sorting the pellets at Melox plant, Innovation in action, and Innovative waste management in la Hague are presented. A number of innovative solutions are already implemented and are in action on industrial facilities. As problems are becoming more and more tough to address, international cooperation will be required. The fuel cycle industry, as a part of the nuclear power industry, is committed to seek improvements through performance upgrade and innovation. (Cho. G. S.). 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Serving the fuel cycle: preparing tomorrow's packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.

    2001-01-01

    The main fleet of transport packagings serving today the fuel cycle was born more than 20 years ago. Or was it they? The present paper will show that serving the fuel cycle by preparing tomorrow's logistics is actually an on-going process, rather than a rupture. We shall review the great packagings of the fuel cycle: In the front end, the major actors are the UF 4 , UF 6 , enriched UF 6 , UO 2 powders, fresh fuel packagings. In the back end of the fuel cycle, we find the dry transport casks of the TN-12, TN-17, TN-13, family and also the Excellox wet flasks. In the waste management, a whole fleet of containers, culminating in the TN Gemini, are available or being created. (author)

  19. Large-scale fuel cycle centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy center concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey - 1975 (NECSS-75) -- an important study mandated by the U.S. Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For the study, NRC defined fuel cycle centers to consist of fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle center sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000 - 300,000 MWe. The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle center permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centers in enhancing safeguarding of strategic special nuclear materials -- plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting of fuel cycle centers presents a considerably smaller problem than the siting of reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the United States (1500-2000 MT/yr) can reprocess the fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000 MWe. Only two or three fuel cycle centers of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the United States by the year 2000 . The NECSS-75 fuel cycle center evaluations showed that large scale fuel cycle centers present no real technical difficulties in siting from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be attainable with fuel cycle centers; such centers offer opportunities for improved waste management systems. Combined centers consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centers can eliminate not only shipment of plutonium, but also mixed oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centers unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of plutonium-burning reactors could reduce any

  20. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  1. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  2. Advanced fuel cycles and burnup increase of WWER-440 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proselkov, V.; Saprykin, V.; Scheglov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Analyses of operational experience of 4.4% enriched fuel in the 5-year fuel cycle at Kola NPP Unit 3 and fuel assemblies with Uranium-Gadolinium fuel at Kola NPP Unit 4 are made. The operability of WWER-440 fuel under high burnup is studied. The obtained results indicate that the fuel rods of WWER-440 assemblies intended for operation within six years of the reviewed fuel cycle totally preserve their operability. Performed analyses have demonstrated the possibility of the fuel rod operability during the fuel cycle. 12 assemblies were loaded into the reactor unit of Kola 3 in 2001. The predicted burnup in six assemblies was 59.2 MWd/kgU. Calculated values of the burnup after operation for working fuel assemblies were ∼57 MWd/kgU, for fuel rods - up to ∼61 MWd/kgU. Data on the coolant activity, specific activity of the benchmark iodine radionuclides of the reactor primary circuit, control of the integrity of fuel rods of the assemblies that were operated for six years indicate that not a single assembly has reached the criterion for the early discharge

  3. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  5. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  6. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.-P.; Durret, L.-F.

    1995-01-01

    Three main features of the globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and discussed. The first is an increase in the scale of the nuclear fuel cycle materials and services markets in the past 20 years. This has been accompanied by a growth in the sophistication of the fuel cycle. Secondly, the nuclear industry is now more vulnerable to outside pressures; it is no longer possible to make strategic decisions on the industry within a country solely on national considerations. Thirdly, there are changes in the decision-making process at the political, regulatory, operational and industrial level which are the consequence of global factors. (UK)

  7. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Choi, J.W.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    From the early nineties, a research programme, called DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) has been undertaken in an international exercise involving Korea, Canada, the U.S. and later the IAEA. The basic idea of this fuel cycle alternative is that the spent fuel from LWR contains enough fissile remnant to be burnt again in CANDUs thanks to its excellent neutron economy. A systematic R and D plan has now gained a full momentum to verify experimentally the DUPIC fuel cycle concept. 4 refs

  8. The status of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis for the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Seong Ki; Lee, Hyo Jik; Chang, Hong Rae; Kwon, Eun Ha; Lee, Yoon Hee; Gao, Fanxing [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The system analysis has been used with different system and objectives in various fields. In the nuclear field, the system can be applied from uranium mining to spent fuel reprocessing or disposal which is called the nuclear fuel cycle. The analysis of nuclear fuel cycle can be guideline for development of advanced fuel cycle through integrating and evaluating the technologies. For this purpose, objective approach is essential and modeling and simulation can be useful. In this report, several methods which can be applicable for development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle, such as TRL, simulation and trade analysis were explained with case study

  9. Moving towards sustainable thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, B.; Hamilton, H.

    2011-01-01

    The CANDU reactor has an unsurpassed degree of fuel-cycle flexibility as a consequence of its fuel-channel design, excellent neutron economy, on-power refueling, and simple fuel bundle design. These features facilitate the introduction and full exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in CANDU reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Thoria (ThO 2 ) based fuel offers both fuel performance and safety advantages over urania (UO 2 ) based fuel, due its higher thermal conductivity which results in lower fuel-operating temperatures at similar linear element powers. Thoria fuel has demonstrated lower fission gas release than UO 2 under similar operating powers during test irradiations. In addition, thoria has a higher melting point than urania and is far less reactive in hypothetical accident scenarios owing to the fact that it has only one oxidation state. This paper examines one possible strategy for the introduction of thorium fuel cycles into CANDU reactors. In the short term, the initial fissile material would be provided in a heterogeneous bundle of low-enriched uranium and thorium. The medium term scenario uses homogeneous Pu/Th bundles in the CANDU reactor, further increasing the energy derived from the thorium. In the long term, the full energy potential from thorium would be realized through the recycle of the U-233 in the used fuel. With U-233 recycle in CANDU reactors, plutonium would then only be required to top up the fissile content to achieve the desired burnup. (author)

  10. CANDU fuel cycle options in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczar, P.G.; Fehrenbach, P.J.; Meneley, D.A.

    1996-04-01

    The easiest first step in CANDU fuel-cycle evolution may be the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU), including recovered uranium from reprocessed LWR spent fuel. Relatively low enrichment (up to 1.2%) will result in a twoto three-fold reduction in the quantity of spent fuel per unit energy production, reductions in fuel-cycle costs, and greater flexibility in the design of new reactors. The CANFLEX (CANDU FLEXible) fuel bundle would be the optimal fuel carrier. A country that has both CANDU and PWR reactors can exploit the natural synergism between these two reactor types to minimize overall waste production, and maximize energy derived from the fuel. This synergism can be exploited through several different fuel cycles. A high burnup CANDU MOX fuel design could be used to utilize plutonium from conventional reprocessing or more advanced reprocessing options (such as co-processing). DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In CANDU) represents a recycle option that has a higher degree of proliferation resistance than does conventional reprocessing, since it uses only dry processes for converting spent PWR fuel into CANDU fuel, without separating the plutonium. Good progress is being made in the current KAERI, AECL, and U.S. Department of State program in demonstrating the technical feasibility of DUPIC. In the longer term, CANDU reactors offer even more dramatic synergistic fuel cycles with PWR or FBR reactors. If the objective of a national fuel-cycle program is the minimization of actinide waste or destruction of long-lived fission products, then studies have shown the superiority of CANDU reactors in meeting this objective. Long-term energy security can be assured either through the thorium cycle or through a CANDU 1 FBR system, in which the FBR would be operated as a 'fuel factory,' providing the fissile material to power a number of lower-cost, high efficiency CANDU reactors. In summary, the CANDU reactor's simple fuel design, high neutron economy, and on

  11. To Recycle or Not to Recycle? An Intergenerational Approach to Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    AbstractThis paper approaches the choice between the open and closed nuclear fuel cycles as a matter of intergenerational justice, by revealing the value conflicts in the production of nuclear energy. The closed fuel cycle improve sustainability in terms of the supply certainty of uranium and

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the nuclear fuel cycle. It is divided into three parts. The first part, called Front-End, covers all activities connected with fuel procurement and fabrication. The middle part of the cycle includes fuel reload design activities and the operation of the fuel in the reactor. Back-End comprises all activities ensuring safe separation of spent fuel and radioactive waste from the environment. The individual stages of the fuel cycle are strongly interrelated. Overall economic optimization is very difficult. Generally, NPV is used for an economic evaluation in the nuclear fuel cycle. However the high volatility of uranium prices in the Front-End, and the large uncertainty of both economic and technical parameters in the Back-End, make the use of NPV difficult. The real option method is able to evaluate the value added by flexibility of decision making by a company under conditions of uncertainty. The possibility of applying this method to the nuclear fuel cycle evaluation is studied. 

  13. CANDU-6 fuel optimization for advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Aubin, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.st-aubin@polymtl.ca; Marleau, Guy, E-mail: guy.marleau@polymtl.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • New fuel selection process proposed for advanced CANDU cycles. • Full core time-average CANDU modeling with independent refueling and burnup zones. • New time-average fuel optimization method used for discrete on-power refueling. • Performance metrics evaluated for thorium-uranium and thorium-DUPIC cycles. - Abstract: We implement a selection process based on DRAGON and DONJON simulations to identify interesting thorium fuel cycles driven by low-enriched uranium or DUPIC dioxide fuels for CANDU-6 reactors. We also develop a fuel management optimization method based on the physics of discrete on-power refueling and the time-average approach to maximize the economical advantages of the candidates that have been pre-selected using a corrected infinite lattice model. Credible instantaneous states are also defined using a channel age model and simulated to quantify the hot spots amplitude and the departure from criticality with fixed reactivity devices. For the most promising fuels identified using coarse models, optimized 2D cell and 3D reactivity device supercell DRAGON models are then used to generate accurate reactor databases at low computational cost. The application of the selection process to different cycles demonstrates the efficiency of our procedure in identifying the most interesting fuel compositions and refueling options for a CANDU reactor. The results show that using our optimization method one can obtain fuels that achieve a high average exit burnup while respecting the reference cycle safety limits.

  14. Fuel cycle strategies for growth of nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purushotham, D.S.C.; Balu, K.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear power has been identified as an essential component to meet the growing energy demand of India. The three stage fuel cycle strategy to achieve this with the available resources envisages the use of natural uranium in PHWRs in the first stage, the plutonium-uranium/plutonium-thorium cycles in Fast reactors/Advanced HWRs in the second stage, followed by exploitation of essentially U233 in the third stage. The technologies necessary for this programme, mainly through the back-end of the fuel cycle including reprocessing, waste management and recycle of Pu have been developed accordingly, as a direct result of the closed fuel cycle policy followed by us from the very beginning. This paper addresses the considerations involved in several activities taken up in our programme, their current status and plans for the future. (author)

  15. Several remarks on the fuel cycle economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Kubin; Rudolf Vespalec

    2007-01-01

    Present paper deals with some aspects influencing significantly cost of nuclear fuel and possibilities of its usage in optimal fuel cycle technology. Our discussion is focused on the phase of fuel procurement that means financial parts of the contract as well as its technical Appendices. Typically the fuel fabrication price is taken as the main economy indicator; nevertheless also many other financial and technical features of the contract must be taken into account in order to reach the best price of electricity sold into public energy grid. Our experience from several international tenders shows that the consistent complex of commercial and technical parameters of the contract is necessary to achieve optimal economic results and prepare proper conditions for advanced fuel cycle technology. Among those essential characteristics are payment conditions and schedule and extent of vendor's services and assistance to the operator. Very important role play also technical parameters, as safety and operational limits, influencing loading pattern quality and operating flexibility. Obviously also a level of operator's fuel cycle technology is a crucial point that is necessary for usage of technical quality of the fuel at the power plant. The final electricity price, produced by the plant, and uranium consumption are the only objective criteria to evaluate economic level of the fuel contract and the fuel cycle at all (Authors)

  16. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Kawamura, Fumio

    1995-01-01

    In the long term plan for atomic energy that the Atomic Energy Commission decided the other day, the necessity of the technical development for establishing full scale fuel cycle for future was emphasized. Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in technical development and facility construction in the fields of uranium enrichment, MOX fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing and so on. In uranium enrichment, it took part in the development of centrifuge process centering around Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and took its share in the construction of the Rokkasho uranium enrichment plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. Also it cooperates with Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association. In Mox fuel fabrication, it took part in the construction of the facilities for Monju plutonium fuel production of PNC, for pellet production, fabrication and assembling processes. In spent fuel reprocessing, it cooperated with the technical development of maintenance and repair of Tokai reprocessing plant of PNC, and the construction of spent fuel stores in Rokkasho reprocessing plant is advanced. The centrifuge process and the atomic laser process of uranium enrichment are explained. The high reliability of spent fuel reprocessing plants and the advancement of spent fuel reprocessing process are reported. Hitachi Ltd. Intends to exert efforts for the technical development to establish nuclear fuel cycle which increases the importance hereafter. (K.I.)

  17. Out-of-core fuel cycle optimization for nonequilibrium cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, S.A.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for determining the family of near-optimum fuel management schemes that minimize the levelized fuel cycle costs of a light water reactor over a multicycle planning horizon. Feed batch enrichments and sizes, burned batches to reinsert, and burnable poison loadings are determined for each cycle in the planning horizon. Flexibility in the methodology includes the capability to assess the economic benefits of various partially burned bath reload strategies as well as the effects of using split feed enrichments and enrichment palettes. Constraint limitations are imposed on feed enrichments, discharge burnups, moderator temperature coefficient, and cycle energy requirements

  18. Nuclear fuel cycle scenarios at CGNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Zhou; Nie, Li Hong; Mao, Guo Ping; Hao, Si Xiong; Shen, Kang

    2008-01-01

    Established in 1994, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Holding Co. (CGNPC) now owns two power stations GNPS and LNPS Phase I, with approximate 4000 MWe of installed capacity. With plant upgrades, advanced fuel management has been introduced into the two plants to improve the plant economical behavior with the high burnup fuel implemented. For the purpose of sustainable development, some preliminary studies on nuclear fuel cycle, especially on the back-end, have been carried out at CGNPC. According to the nuclear power development plan of China, the timing for operation and the capacity of the reprocessing facility are studied based on the amount of the spent fuel forecast in the future. Furthermore, scenarios of the fuel cycles in the future in China with the next generation of nuclear power were considered. Based on the international experiences on the spent fuel management, several options of spent fuel reprocessing strategies are investigated in detail, for example, MOX fuel recycling in light water reactor, especially in the current reactors of CGNPC, spent fuel intermediated storage, etc. All the investigations help us to draw an overall scheme of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to find a suitable road-map to achieve the sustainable development of nuclear power. (authors)

  19. Fast reactors fuel Cycle: State in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In this SFEN day we treat all aspects (economics-reactor cores, reprocessing, experience return) of the LMFBR fuel cycle in Europe and we discuss about the development of this type of reactor (EFR project) [fr

  20. Ecological effects of fuel cycle activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L; Cada, G; Kroodsma, R; Shriner, D; Tolbert, V; Turner, R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the approach used to characterize ecological impacts of the coal fuel cycle. The same approach is used for many of the impacts in other fuel cycles as well. The principal analytical approach being used in the study is an accounting framework - that is, a series of matrices that map each phase of the fuel cycle to a suite of possible. emissions, each emission to a suite of impact categories, and each impact category to an external cost. This paper summarizes the ecological impacts of all phases of the coal fuel cycle, defines the ecological impact categories used in the study's 'accounting framework', and discusses alternative approaches to quantification. Externalities associated with CO{sub 2}-induced global climate change are beyond the scope of this paper and are not discussed.

  1. Globalization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougeau, J.P. [Cogema, Corporate Strategy and International Development, Velizy (France)

    1996-07-01

    The article deals with the increased scale and sophistication of the markets in the nuclear fuel cycle, with the increased vulnerability to outside pressures, and with changes in the decision process.

  2. Ecological effects of fuel cycle activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.; Cada, G.; Kroodsma, R.; Shriner, D.; Tolbert, V.; Turner, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the approach used to characterize ecological impacts of the coal fuel cycle. The same approach is used for many of the impacts in other fuel cycles as well. The principal analytical approach being used in the study is an accounting framework - that is, a series of matrices that map each phase of the fuel cycle to a suite of possible. emissions, each emission to a suite of impact categories, and each impact category to an external cost. This paper summarizes the ecological impacts of all phases of the coal fuel cycle, defines the ecological impact categories used in the study's 'accounting framework', and discusses alternative approaches to quantification. Externalities associated with CO 2 -induced global climate change are beyond the scope of this paper and are not discussed

  3. WWER-440 fuel cycles possibilities using improved fuel assemblies design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolas, P.; Svarny, J.

    2008-01-01

    Practically five years cycle has been achieved in the last years at NPP Dukovany. There are two principal means how it could be achieved. First, it is necessary to use fuel assemblies with higher fuel enrichment and second, to use fuel loading with very low leakage. Both these conditions are fulfilled at NPP Dukovany at this time. It is known, that the fuel cycle economy can be improved by increasing the fuel residence time in the core up to six years. There are at least two ways how this goal could be achieved. The simplest way is to increase enrichment in fuel. There exists a limit, which is 5.0 w % of 235 U. Taking into account some uncertainty, the calculation maximum is 4.95 w % of 235 U. The second way is to change fuel assembly design. There are several possibilities, which seem to be suitable from the neutron - physical point of view. The first one is higher mass content of uranium in a fuel assembly. The next possibility is to enlarge pin pitch. The last possibility is to 'omit' FA shroud. This is practically unrealistic; anyway, some other structural parts must be introduced. The basic neutron physical characteristics of these cycles for up-rated power are presented showing that the possibilities of fuel assemblies with this improved design in enlargement of fuel cycles are very promising. In the end, on the basis of neutron physical characteristics and necessary economical input parameters, a preliminary evaluation of economic contribution of proposals of advanced fuel assemblies on fuel cycle economy is presented (Authors)

  4. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  5. Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1978-01-01

    Forty years of experience on closed-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) is emphasized to substantiate the claim that this prime-mover technology is well established. European fossil-fired plants with air as the working fluid have been individually operated over 100,000 hours, have demonstrated very high availability and reliability, and have been economically successful. Following the initial success of the small air closed cycle gas turbine plants, the next step was the exploitation of helium as the working fluid for plants above 50 MWe. The first fossil fired combined power and heat plant at Oberhausen, using a helium turbine, plays an important role for future nuclear systems and this is briefly discussed. The combining of an HTGR and an advanced proven power conversion system (CCGT) represents the most interesting and challenging project. The key to acceptance of the CCGT in the near term is the introduction of a small nuclear cogeneration plant (100 to 300 MWe) that utilizes the waste heat, demonstrating a very high fuel utilization efficiency: aspects of such a plant are outlined. (author)

  6. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  7. French views on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavardes, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel cycle activities are viewed in France as a very important and indissociable part of our nuclear program. Supply of material and services are firmly assured for domestic needs and overcapacities provide opportunities for industry to compete on the international market. A permanent and consistent R and D effort is continuously undertaken, aiming to apply new advanced technologies improving safety, economy and reliability of fuel cycle installations

  8. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohi, D; Toman, M

    1994-07-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons.

  9. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  10. The nuclear fuel cycle; Le cycle du combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  11. Future fuel cycle development for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.; McDonnell, F.N.; Griffiths, J.; Boczar, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The CANDU reactor has proven to be safe and economical and has demonstrated outstanding performance with natural uranium fuel. The use of on-power fuelling, coupled with excellent neutron economy, leads to a very flexible reactor system with can utilize a wide variety of fuels. The spectrum of fuel cycles ranges from natural uranium, through slightly enriched uranium, to plutonium and ultimately thorium fuels which offer many of the advantages of the fast breeder reactor system. CANDU can also burn the recycled uranium and/or the plutonium from fuel discharged from light water reactors. This synergistic relationship could obviate the need to re-enrich the reprocessed uranium and allow a simpler reprocessing scheme. Fule management strategies that will permit future fuel cycles to be used in existing CANDU reactors have been identified. Evolutionary design changes will lead to an even greater flexibility, which will guarantee the continued success of the CANDU system. (author)

  12. Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Dixon, Brent W.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe 'lessons learned' from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the 'so what' question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

  13. FRG paper on assessment of fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle under different aspects: Assured energy supply, economy, environmental aspects, and non-proliferation philosophy. The results of an assessment of nuclear fuel variants along these lines for several types of commercial reactors (light-water reactors, heavy-water reactors, high-temperature reactors, and fast breeders) are presented in tables

  14. Physics of fusion-fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The evaluation of nuclear fusion fuels for a magnetic fusion economy must take into account the various technological impacts of the various fusion fuel cycles as well as the relative reactivity and the required β's and temperatures necessary for economic steady-state burns. This paper will review some of the physics of the various fusion fuel cycles (D-T, catalyzed D-D, D- 3 He, D- 6 Li, and the exotic fuels: 3 He 3 He and the proton-based fuels such as P- 6 Li, P- 9 Be, and P- 11 B) including such items as: (1) tritium inventory, burnup, and recycle, (2) neutrons, (3) condensable fuels and ashes, (4) direct electrical recovery prospects, (5) fissile breeding, etc. The advantages as well as the disadvantages of the different fusion fuel cycles will be discussed. The optimum fuel cycle from an overall standpoint of viability and potential technological considerations appears to be catalyzed D-D, which could also support smaller relatively clean, lean-D, rich- 3 He satellite reactors as well as fission reactors

  15. Description Fuel Cycle Spanish. Technical Visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Valero, R.; Vinuesa Carretero, A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes all processes and operations from the mining of uranium to the management of radioactive waste generated. These processes include the manufacture of nuclear fuel, the operation of the plants and the storage of radioactive waste in the corresponding temporary stores. (Author)

  16. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  17. Increased fuel burn-up and fuel cycle equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of nuclear competitiveness will rely mainly on increased fuel performance, with higher burn-up, and reactors sustained life. Regarding spent fuel management, the EDF current policy relies on UO 2 fuel reprocessing (around 850 MTHM/year at La Hague) and MOX recycling to ensure plutonium flux adequacy (around 100 MTHM/year, with an electricity production equivalent to 30 TWh). This policy enables to reuse fuel material, while maintaining global kWh economy with existing facilities. It goes along with current perspective to increase fuel burn-up up to 57 GWday/t mean in 2010. The following presentation describes the consequences of higher fuel burn-up on fuel cycle and waste management and implementation of a long term and global equilibrium for decades in spent fuel management resulting from this strategy. (author)

  18. An Integrated Fuel Depletion Calculator for Fuel Cycle Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Bright-lite is a reactor modeling software developed at the University of Texas Austin to expand upon the work done with the Bright [1] reactor modeling software. Originally, bright-lite was designed to function as a standalone reactor modeling software. However, this aim was refocused t couple bright-lite with the Cyclus fuel cycle simulator [2] to make it a module for the fuel cycle simulator.

  19. Cycle to Cycle Variation Study in a Dual Fuel Operated Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Pasunurthi, Shyamsundar

    2017-03-28

    The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series like in the experiments to investigate the potential of high fidelity RANS simulations coupled with detailed chemistry, to accurately predict the CCV. Cycle to cycle variation (CCV) is expected to be due to variabilities in operating and boundary conditions, in-cylinder stratification of diesel and natural gas fuels, variation in in-cylinder turbulence levels and velocity flow-fields. In a previous publication by the authors [1], variabilities in operating and boundary conditions are incorporated into several closed cycle simulations performed in parallel. Stochastic variations/stratifications of fuel-air mixture, turbulence levels, temperature and internal combustion residuals cannot be considered in such closed cycle simulations. In this study, open cycle simulations with port injection of natural gas predicted the combined effect of the stratifications on the CCV of in-cylinder pressure. The predicted Coefficient of Variation (COV) of cylinder pressure is improved compared to the one captured by closed cycle simulations in parallel.

  20. The nuclear fuel cycle including essential aspects of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnemuende, R.; May, H.

    1978-11-01

    When judging nuclear energy not only the reactor but also the whole fuel cycle is of importance. The fuel cycle consists of the supply, i.e. the process from uranium ore to the insertion of fuel elements into the reactor and the waste management, the removal of fuel elements from the reactor and the final storage of radioactive waste. The different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are well known with regard to their technical difficulties, their problems of industrial safety and pollution. Although it is possible to compare them qualitatively, they still differ partly to a considerable extent, from a quantitative point of view. However, the fact that technical solutions are available for all kinds of tasks can be stated. It is significant for the Federal Republic of Germany that all essential preparatory work for closing the nuclear fuel cycle has been carried out and that safety problems will no longer be in the way of the large-scale realization of uranium enrichment, reprocessing of nuclear fuels and final storage of radioactive waste. Further research and development activities will serve its technical and economic optimization. (orig.) [de

  1. Program summary. Nuclear waste management and fuel cycle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This Program Summary Document describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Programs. Particular emphasis is given to near-term, specifically Fiscal Year (FY) 1982, activities. The overall objective of these programs will be achieved by the demonstration of: (1) safe radioactive waste management practices for storage and disposal of high-level waste and (2) advanced technologies necessary to close the nuclear fuel cycle on a schedule which would assure a healthy future for the development of nuclear power in this country

  2. BWR fuel cycle optimization using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Servin, Juan Jose; Castillo, Jose Alejandro; Pelta, David Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → OCONN a new system to optimize all nuclear fuel management steps in a coupled way. → OCON is based on an artificial recurrent neural network to find the best combination of partial solutions to each fuel management step. → OCONN works with a fuel lattices' stock, a fuel reloads' stock and a control rod patterns' stock, previously obtained with different heuristic techniques. → Results show OCONN is able to find good combinations according the global objective function. - Abstract: In nuclear fuel management activities for BWRs, four combinatorial optimization problems are solved: fuel lattice design, axial fuel bundle design, fuel reload design and control rod patterns design. Traditionally, these problems have been solved in separated ways due to their complexity and the required computational resources. In the specialized literature there are some attempts to solve fuel reloads and control rod patterns design or fuel lattice and axial fuel bundle design in a coupled way. In this paper, the system OCONN to solve all of these problems in a coupled way is shown. This system is based on an artificial recurrent neural network to find the best combination of partial solutions to each problem, in order to maximize a global objective function. The new system works with a fuel lattices' stock, a fuel reloads' stock and a control rod patterns' stock, previously obtained with different heuristic techniques. The system was tested to design an equilibrium cycle with a cycle length of 18 months. Results show that the new system is able to find good combinations. Cycle length is reached and safety parameters are fulfilled.

  3. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ''pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs

  4. Fuel cycle optimization in PWR'S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de; Amorim, E.S. do.

    1979-08-01

    Neutronics aspects of a reactor core throughout its cycle were investigated in a search for increasing in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes content in the cycle discharged disposal. The effects due to design modifications introduced at burnup levels near the end-of-cycle, in an equilibrium cycle condition, have indicated the possibility of a better in-core utilization of the residual fissile isotopes existing in the cycle discharged disposal. The potential benefits are significant to warranty an examination of the mechanical and thermal hydraulic involved. At convenient burnup levels, change in H 2 O/UO 2 volume ratio were introduced allowing an intense depletion of the residual fissile isotopes existing in assemblies with high exposures levels. (Author) [pt

  5. Synergistic fuel cycles of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Dastur, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Good neutron economy is the basis of the fuel cycle flexibility in the CANDU reactor. This paper describes the fuel cycle options available to the CANDU owner with special emphasis on resource conservation and waste management. CANDU fuel cycles with low initial fissile content operate with relatively high conversion ratio. The natural uranium cycle provides over 55 % of energy from the plutonium that is created during fuel life. Resource utilization is over 7 MWd/kg NU. This can be improved by slight enrichment (between 0.9 and 1.2 wt % U235) of the fuel. Resource utilization increases to 11 MWd/kg NU with the Slightly Enriched Uranium cycle. Thorium based cycles in CANDU operate at near-breeder efficiency. Obey provide attractive options when used with natural uranium or separated (reactor grade and weapons grade) plutonium as driver fuels. In the latter case, the energy from the U233 plus the initial plutonium content amounts to 3.4 GW(th).d/kg Pu-fissile. The same utilization is expected from the use of FBR plutonium in a CANDU thorium cycle. Extension of natural resource is achieved by the use of spent fuels in CANDU. The LWR/CANDU Tandem cycle leads to an additional 77 % of energy through the use of reprocessed LWR fuel (which has a fissile content of 1.6 wt %) in CANDU. Dry reprocessing of LWR fuel with the OREOX process (a more safeguardable alternative to the PUREX process) provides an additional 50 % energy. Uranium recovered (RU) from separation of plutonium contained in spent LWR fuel provides an additional 15 MWd/kg RU. CANDU's low fissile requirement provides the possibility, through the use of non-fertile targets, of extracting energy from the minor actinides contained in spent fuel. In addition to the resource utilization advantage described above, there is a corresponding reduction in waste arisings with such cycles. This is especially significant when separated plutonium is available as a fissile resource. (author)

  6. The nuclear fuel cycle, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballery, J.L.; Cazalet, J.; Hagemann, R.

    1995-01-01

    Because uranium is widely distributed on the face of the Earth, nuclear energy has a very large potential as an energy source in view of future depletion of fossil fuel reserves. Also future energy requirements will be very sizeable as populations of developing countries are often growing and make the energy question one of the major challenges for the coming decades. Today, nuclear contributes some 340 GWe to the energy requirements of the world. Present and future nuclear programs require an adequate fuel cycle industry, from mining, refining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and the storage of the resulting wastes. The commercial fuel cycle activities amount to an annual business in the 7-8 billions of US Dollars in the hands of a large number of industrial operators. This paper gives details about companies and countries involved in each step of the fuel cycle and about the national strategies and options chosen regarding the back end of the fuel cycle (waste storage and reprocessing). These options are illustrated by considering the policy adopted in three countries (France, United Kingdom, Japan) versed in reprocessing. (J.S.). 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. CFTSIM-ITER dynamic fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Gierszewski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic system models have been developed for specific tritium systems with considerable detail and for integrated fuel cycles with lesser detail (e.g. D. Holland, B. Merrill, Analysis of tritium migration and deposition in fusion reactor systems, Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium Eng. Problems of Fusion Research (1981); M.A. Abdou, E. Vold, C. Gung, M. Youssef, K. Shin, DT fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors, Fusion Technol. (1986); G. Spannagel, P. Gierszewski, Dynamic tritium inventory of a NET/ITER fuel cycle with lithium salt solution blanket, Fusion Eng. Des. (1991); W. Kuan, M.A. Abdou, R.S. Willms, Dynamic simulation of a proposed ITER tritium processing system, Fusion Technol. (1995)). In order to provide a tool to understand and optimize the behavior of the ITER fuel cycle, a dynamic fuel cycle model called CFTSIM is under development. The CFTSIM code incorporates more detailed ITER models, specifically for the important isotope separation system, and also has an easier-to-use graphical interface. This paper provides an overview of CFTSIM Version 1.0. The models included are those with significant and varying tritium inventories over a test campaign: fueling, plasma and first wall, pumping, fuel cleanup, isotope separation and storage. An illustration of the results is shown. (orig.)

  8. Waste management and the holistic fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Robbins, R.A.; Eilbeck, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines a holistic approach to the nuclear fuel cycle and the impact that waste management can have on the holistic approach. The philosophy includes regarding irradiated fuel as a resource rather than a waste that can be used as a source of fissile material to be recycled, either Uranium returned to fuel or Plutonium in mixed oxide fuels (MOX) for fast and impact of those compounds that leave the cycle (solid waste, liquid effluent and gaseous effluent) are minimized. This can only be achieved by applying a full life cycle analysis of process benefits. The paper describes some of the work in waste management but notes that waste and its generation must be seen as an integral part of any developed strategy. (authors)

  9. Fuel cycle related parametric study considering long lived actinide production, decay heat and fuel cycle performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Damian, F.; Lenain, R.; Lecomte, M.

    2001-01-01

    One of the very attractive HTGR reactor characteristics is its highly versatile and flexible core that can fulfil a wide range of diverse fuel cycles. Based on a GTMHR-600 MWth reactor, analyses of several fuel cycles were carried out without taking into account common fuel particle performance limits (burnup, fast fluence, temperature). These values are, however, indicated in each case. Fuel derived from uranium, thorium and a wide variety of plutonium grades has been considered. Long-lived actinide production and total residual decay heat were evaluated for the various types of fuel. The results presented in this papers provide a comparison of the potential and limits of each fuel cycle and allow to define specific cycles offering lowest actinide production and residual heat associated with a long life cycle. (author)

  10. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  11. Back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Lambert, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    At present, that portion of the nuclear fuel cycle involving reprocessing, waste management, and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication is in an unsettled state. Government regulatory requirements with respect to all aspects of the back end of the fuel cycle are still being formulated, and there is little positive experience on the operation of commercial reprocessing or mixed-oxide fabrication plants. In view of this unsettled situation, it will be difficult to meet the reprocessing and mixed-oxide fabrication needs of the next decade in the pattern previously anticipated. The costs in the back end of the fuel cycle are much higher than had been anticipated several years ago, a situation similar to that of almost all large endeavors in this country. On the other hand, the added costs are small relative to total power costs and do not affect the economic advantage of nuclear power as compared to other power sources. A rough economic analysis indicates that the question for the back end of the fuel cycle has changed from one of optimizing profitability to one of determining the most economic disposition of spent fuel. Long-term spent fuel storage is a practical and economically acceptable way to provide time for determining a sound course of action for the back end of the fuel cycle. Indeed, if one could count on a breeder economy before the end of the century, one possible course of action is to store light-water fuel until the plutonium can be used in breeders. However, for philosophical as well as practical reasons, it is important that the uncertainties in the course of action should be resolved as quickly as possible. Long-term storage should not be an excuse to delay resolution of the basic questions. (U.S.)

  12. Sustainability of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Effect of FR Deployment for New Scenarios with Decreased Nuclear Contribution after 3.11: • Uranium utilization in constant contribution scenario: - Many countries maintain their nuclear energy program after 3.11. - Uranium shortage is still fatal issue of this century. - FR system has significant contribution to enhanse sustainability in uranium utilization. • Spent Fuel (SF) management in constant contribution scenario: - Reprocessing of spent fuels will be essential to remain the SF stockpile within the storage capacity. • Pu/waste management in all scenarios: - FR systems can provide flexibility to Pu/waste management

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  14. Closed cycle MHD specialist meeting. Progress report, 1971--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietjens, L.H.

    1972-04-01

    Abstracts of the conference papers on closed cycle MHD research are presented. The general areas of discussion are the following: results on closed cycle experiments; plasma properties, and instabilities and stabilization in nonequilibrium plasmas; loss mechanisms, current distributions, electrode effects, boundary layers, and gas dynamic effects; and design concepts of large MHD generators, and nuclear MHD power plants. (GRA)

  15. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.baptista@ist.utl.pt [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla [IDMEC-Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley [Intelligent Energy, Charnwood Building, HolywellPark, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3GR (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO{sub 2} emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: > A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. > The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions results. > A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  16. Fuel cell hybrid taxi life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Patricia; Ribau, Joao; Bravo, Joao; Silva, Carla; Adcock, Paul; Kells, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    A small fleet of classic London Taxis (Black cabs) equipped with hydrogen fuel cell power systems is being prepared for demonstration during the 2012 London Olympics. This paper presents a Life Cycle Analysis for these vehicles in terms of energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, focusing on the impacts of alternative vehicle technologies for the Taxi, combining the fuel life cycle (Tank-to-Wheel and Well-to-Tank) and vehicle materials Cradle-to-Grave. An internal combustion engine diesel taxi was used as the reference vehicle for the currently available technology. This is compared to battery and fuel cell vehicle configurations. Accordingly, the following energy pathways are compared: diesel, electricity and hydrogen (derived from natural gas steam reforming). Full Life Cycle Analysis, using the PCO-CENEX drive cycle, (derived from actual London Taxi drive cycles) shows that the fuel cell powered vehicle configurations have lower energy consumption (4.34 MJ/km) and CO 2 emissions (235 g/km) than both the ICE Diesel (9.54 MJ/km and 738 g/km) and the battery electric vehicle (5.81 MJ/km and 269 g/km). - Highlights: → A Life Cycle Analysis of alternative vehicle technologies for the London Taxi was performed. → The hydrogen powered vehicles have the lowest energy consumption and CO 2 emissions results. → A hydrogen powered solution can be a sustainable alternative in a full life cycle framework.

  17. Fuel cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, J E; Freese, K E [RERTR Program, Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    1983-09-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. The status of the development and demonstration of the oxide and silicide fuels are presented in several papers in these proceedings. Routine utilization of these fuels with the uranium densities considered here requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. Thermal-hydraulic safety margins, shutdown margins, mixed cores, and transient analyses are not addressed here, but analyses of these safety issues are in progress for a limited number of the most promising design options. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data is presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed. All safety criteria for the reactor with these fuel element designs need to be satisfied as well. With LEU oxide fuel, 31 g U/cm{sup 3} 1 and 0.76 mm--thick fuel meat, elements with 18-22 plates 320-391 g {sup 235}U) result in the same or lower total costs than with the HEU element 23 plates, 280 g {sup 235}U). Higher LEU loadings (more plates per element) are needed for larger excess reactivity requirements. However, there is little cost advantage to using more than 20 of these plates per element. Increasing the fuel meat thickness from 0.76 mm to 1.0 mm with 3.1 g U/cm{sup 3} in the design with 20 plates per element could result in significant cost reductions if the

  18. Impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, Stan; Cavedon, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    OECD/NEA has performed a study on the impact of advanced fuel cycle options on waste management policies with 33 experts from 12 member countries, 1 non-member country and 2 international organizations. The study extends a series of previous ones on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) issues, focusing on the performance assessments for repositories of high-level waste (HLW) arising from advanced fuel cycles. This study covers a broader spectrum than previous studies, from present industrial practice to fully closed cycles via partially closed cycles (in terms of transuranic elements); 9 fuel cycle schemes and 4 variants. Elements of fuel cycles are considered primarily as sources of waste, the internal mass flows of each scheme being kept for the sake of mass conservation. The compositions, activities and heat loads of all waste flows are also tracked. Their impact is finally assessed on the waste repository concepts. The study result confirms the findings from the previous NEA studies on P and T on maximal reduction of the waste source term and maximal use of uranium resources. In advanced fuel cycle schemes the activity of the waste is reduced by burning first plutonium and then minor actinides and also the uranium consumption is reduced, as the fraction of fast reactors in the park is increased to 100%. The result of the repository performance assessments, analysing the effect of different HLW isotopic composition on repository performance and on repository capacity, shows that the maximum dose released to biosphere at any time in normal conditions remains, for all schemes and for all the repository concepts examined, well below accepted radiation protection thresholds. The major impact is on the detailed concept of the repositories, through heat load and waste volume. Advanced fuel cycles could allow a repository to cover waste produced from 5 to 20 times more electricity generation than PWR once-through cycle. Given the flexibility of the advanced fuel

  19. Thermally regenerative hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell power cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    Two innovative thermodynamic power cycles are analytically examined for future engineering feasibility. The power cycles use a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell for electrical energy production and use the thermal dissociation of water for regeneration of the hydrogen and oxygen. The TDS (thermal dissociation system) uses a thermal energy input at over 2000 K to thermally dissociate the water. The other cycle, the HTE (high temperature electrolyzer) system, dissociates the water using an electrolyzer operating at high temperature (1300 K) which receives its electrical energy from the fuel cell. The primary advantages of these cycles is that they are basically a no moving parts system, thus having the potential for long life and high reliability, and they have the potential for high thermal efficiency. Both cycles are shown to be classical heat engines with ideal efficiency close to Carnot cycle efficiency. The feasibility of constructing actual cycles is investigated by examining process irreversibilities and device efficiencies for the two types of cycles. The results show that while the processes and devices of the 2000 K TDS exceed current technology limits, the high temperature electrolyzer system appears to be a state-of-the-art technology development. The requirements for very high electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies are seen as determining the feasbility of the HTE system, and these high efficiency devices are currently being developed. It is concluded that a proof-of-concept HTE system experiment can and should be conducted.

  20. Simulation of Cycle-to-Cycle Variation in Dual-Fuel Engines

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed

    2017-03-13

    Standard practices of internal combustion (IC) engine experiments are to conduct the measurements of quantities averaged over a large number of cycles. Depending on the operating conditions, the cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of quantities, such as the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) are observed at different levels. Accurate prediction of CCV in IC engines is an important but challenging task. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations using high performance computing (HPC) can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. In the present study, a dual fuel large engine is considered, with natural gas injected into the manifold accompanied with direct injection of diesel pilot fuel to trigger ignition. Multiple engine cycles in 3D are simulated in series as in the experiments to investigate the potential of HPC based high fidelity simulations to accurately capture the cycle to cycle variation in dual fuel engines. Open cycle simulations are conducted to predict the combined effect of the stratification of fuel-air mixture, temperature and turbulence on the CCV of pressure. The predicted coefficient of variation (COV) of pressure compared to the results from closed cycle simulations and the experiments.

  1. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  2. Contribution of Heavy Water Board in nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Contributed Paper IT-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    The three stage Indian nuclear power programme envisages use of closed nuclear fuel cycle and thorium utilization as its mainstay for long term energy security on sustainable basis. India is committed to realize this objective through the development and deployment of frontier technologies pertaining to all aspects of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Comprehensive indigenous capabilities have been developed in all aspects of nuclear power and associated fuel cycles. Heavy Water Board (HWB), with its abiding objective of fulfilling demand of heavy water for India's flourishing nuclear power program, is one of the frontrunner in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology. HWB is now engaged in wide spectrum of activities in various facets of fuel cycle covering all the three stages of Indian Nuclear Power Programme. HWB is contributing to Nuclear Fuel Cycle through large scale production and sustained supply of key input materials including heavy water, solvents for nuclear hydrometallurgy, 10 B enriched boron etc

  3. Social awareness on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    In the present we surveyed public opinion regarding the nuclear fuel cycle to find out about the social awareness about nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear facilities. The study revealed that people's image of nuclear power is more familiar than the image of the nuclear fuel cycle. People tend to display more recognition and concern towards nuclear power and reprocessing plants than towards other facilities. Comparatively speaking, they tend to perceive radioactive waste disposal facilities and nuclear power plants as being highly more dangerous than reprocessing plants. It is found also that with the exception of nuclear power plants don't know very much whether nuclear fuel cycle facilities are in operation in Japan or not. The results suggests that 1) the relatively mild image of the nuclear fuel cycle is the result of the interactive effect of the highly dangerous image of nuclear power plants and the less dangerous image of reprocessing plants; and 2) that the image of a given plant (nuclear power plant, reprocessing plant, radioactive waste disposal facility) is influenced by the fact of whether the name of the plant suggests the presence of danger or not. (author)

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy For Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects

  5. Fuel Cycle Requirements Code (FLYER). Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gift, E.H.; Goode, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    Planning for, and the analysis of, the fuel requirements of the nuclear industry requires the ability to evaluate contingencies in many areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. The areas of nuclear fuel utilization, both uranium and plutonium, and of separative work requirements are of particular interest. The Fuel Cycle Requirements (FLYER) model has been developed to provide a flexible, easily managed tool for obtaining a comprehensive analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. The model allows analysis of the interactions among the nuclear capacity growth rate, reactor technology and mix, and uranium and plutonium recycling capabilities. The model was initially developed as a means of analyzing nuclear growth contingencies with particular emphasis on the uranium feed and separative work requirements. It served to provide the planning group with analyses similar to the OPA's NUFUEL code which has only recently become available for general use. The model has recently been modified to account for some features of the fuel cycle in a more explicit manner than the NUFUEL code. For instance, the uranium requirements for all reactors installed in a given year are calculated for the total lifetime of those reactors. These values are cumulated in order to indicate the total uranium committed for reactors installed by any given year of the campaign. Similarly, the interactions in the back end of the fuel cycle are handled specifically, such as, the impacts resulting from limitations on the industrial capacity for reprocessing and mixed oxide fabrication of both light water reactor and breeder fuels. The principal features of the modified FLYER code are presented in summary form

  6. Candu reactors with thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.M.; Fehrenbach, P.; Duffey, R.; Kuran, S.; Ivanco, M.; Dyck, G.R.; Chan, P.S.W.; Tyagi, A.K.; Mancuso, C.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decade and a half AECL has established a strong record of delivering CANDU 6 nuclear power plants on time and at budget. Inherently flexible features of the CANDU type reactors, such as on-power fuelling, high neutron economy, fuel channel based heat transport system, simple fuel bundle configuration, two independent shut down systems, a cool moderator and a defence-in-depth based safety philosophy provides an evolutionary path to further improvements in design. The immediate milestone on this path is the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM** (ACRTM**), in the form of the ACR-1000TM**. This effort is being followed by the Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) design that will allow water-cooled reactors to attain high efficiencies by increasing the coolant temperature above 550 0 C. Adaptability of the CANDU design to different fuel cycles is another technology advantage that offers an additional avenue for design evolution. Thorium is one of the potential fuels for future reactors due to relative abundance, neutronics advantage as a fertile material in thermal reactors and proliferation resistance. The Thorium fuel cycle is also of interest to China, India, and Turkey due to local abundance that can ensure sustainable energy independence over the long term. AECL has performed an assessment of both CANDU 6 and ACR-1000 designs to identify systems, components, safety features and operational processes that may need to be modified to replace the NU or SEU fuel cycles with one based on Thorium. The paper reviews some of these requirements and the associated practical design solutions. These modifications can either be incorporated into the design prior to construction or, for currently operational reactors, during a refurbishment outage. In parallel with reactor modifications, various Thorium fuel cycles, either based on mixed bundles (homogeneous) or mixed channels (heterogeneous) have been assessed for technical and economic viability. Potential applications of a

  7. Economic analyses of LWR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, F.R.

    1977-05-01

    An economic comparison was made of three options for handling irradiated light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. These options are reprocessing of spent reactor fuel and subsequent recycle of both uranium and plutonium, reprocessing and recycle of uranium only, and direct terminal storage of spent fuel not reprocessed. The comparison was based on a peak-installed nuclear capacity of 507 GWe by CY 2000 and retirement of reactors after 30 years of service. Results of the study indicate that: Through the year 2000, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWRs saves about $12 billion (FY 1977 dollars) compared with the throwaway cycle, but this amounts to only about 1.3% of the total cost of generating electricity by nuclear power. If deferred costs are included for fuel that has been discharged from reactors but not reprocessed, the economic advantage increases to $17.7 billion. Recycle of uranium only (storage of plutonium) is approximately $7 billion more expensive than the throwaway fuel cycle and is, therefore, not considered an economically viable option. The throwaway fuel cycle ultimately requires >40% more uranium resources (U 3 O 8 ) than does reprocessing spent fuel where both uranium and plutonium are recycled

  8. Commercialization of nuclear fuel cycle business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakabe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Japan depends on foreign countries almost for establishing nuclear fuel cycle. Accordingly, uranium enrichment, spent fuel reprocessing and the safe treatment and disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is important for securing energy. By these means, the stable supply of enriched uranium, the rise of utilization efficiency of uranium and making nuclear power into home-produced energy can be realized. Also this contributes to the protection of earth resources and the preservation of environment. Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. operates four business commercially in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, aiming at the completion of nuclear fuel cycle by the technologies developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the introduction of technologies from foreign countries. The conditions of location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the course of the location in Rokkasho are described. In the site of about 740 hectares area, uranium enrichment, burying of low level radioactive waste, fuel reprocessing and high level waste control have been carried out, and three businesses except reprocessing already began the operation. The state of operation of these businesses is reported. Hereafter, efforts will be exerted to the securing of safety through trouble-free operation and cost reduction. (K.I.)

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle light and shadow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, A.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle industry has a far reaching effect on future world energy developments. The growth in turnover of this industry follows a known patterm; by 1985 this turnover will have reached a figure of 2 billion dollars. Furthermore, the fuel cycle plays a determining role in ensuring the physical continuity of energy supplies for countries already engaged in the nuclear domain. Finally, the development of this industry is subject to economic and political constraints which imply the availability of raw materials, technological know-how, and production facilities. Various factors which could have an adverse influence on the cycle: technical, economic, or financial difficulties, environmental impact, nuclear safety, theft or diversion of nuclear materials, nuclear weapon, proliferation risks, are described, and the interaction between the development of the cycle, energy independance, and the fulfillment of nuclear energy programs is emphasized. It is concluded that the nuclear fuel cycle industry is confronted with difficulties due to its extremely rapid growth rate (doubling every 5 years); it is a long time since such a growth rate has been experienced by any heavy industry. The task which lays before us is difficult, but the fruit is worth the toil, as it is the fuel cycle which will govern the growth of the nuclear industry [fr

  10. The integral fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1990-01-01

    The liquid-metal reactor (LMR) has the potential to extend the uranium resource by a factor of 50 to 100 over current commercial light water reactors (LWRs). In the integral fast reactor (IFR) development program, the entire reactor system - reactor, fuel cycle, and waste process - is being developed and optimized at the same time as a single integral entity. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel. The lead irradiation tests on the new U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II have surpassed 185000 MWd/t burnup, and its high burnup capability has now been fully demonstrated. The metallic fuel also allows a radically improved fuel cycle technology. Pyroprocessing, which utilizes high temperatures and molten salt and molten metal solvents, can be advantageously utilized for processing metal fuels because the product is metal suitable for fabrication into new fuel elements. Direct production of a metal product avoids expensive and cumbersome chemical conversion steps that would result from use of the conventional Purex solvent extraction process. The key step in the IFR process is electrorefining, which provides for recovery of the valuable fuel constituents, uranium and plutonium, and for removal of fission products. A notable feature of the IFR process is that the actinide elements accompany plutonium through the process. This results in a major advantage in the high-level waste management

  11. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R ampersand D programs and key personnel on 23 countries, including the US, four multi-national agencies, and 21 nuclear societies. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries-a section for each country which summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies-a section for each of the international agencies which has significant fuel cycle involvement and a listing of nuclear societies. Glossary-a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country as well as some general information. The latter presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the United States

  12. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  13. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  14. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  15. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  16. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  17. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  18. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  19. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  20. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Kim, Ho Dong; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2006-12-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle, and evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance and economics. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to have an advantage in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness and long-term proliferation-resistance, while it is expected to be more economically competitive, if uranium ore prices increase or costs of pyroprocessing and fuel fabrication decrease.

  1. Transparency associated with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The author first recalls that the French nuclear industry works within the frame defined by international treaties and laws which ensure rigor and transparency. He gives some explanations for the resorting to Russian installations and for reprocessed uranium recycling (among them: supply security for the French nuclear industry, strategy of complete use of uranium energetic potential). Then, he outlines how the French State must further improve transparency and pedagogy about radioactive waste and material management. A technical appendix is provided, describing the fuel cycle (natural uranium extraction, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, irradiation, used fuel processing, reprocessed uranium recycling, plutonium recycling in MOX, waste storage), giving an overview of the international supply context (concurrence and security needs), discussing valorization perspectives for materials which are not used in the current fuel cycle, describing the various aspects of radioactive waste management for the various types of wastes (long life, low or high activity for example), describing the control performed by public authorities and organisations

  2. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  3. Microwave processing in MOX fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, G.K.; Malav, R.K.; Panakkal, J.P.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The prominent aspect of the microwave heating technique applications in nuclear material processing is its eco-friendly status. It is envisaged that no active liquid waste will be generated from microwave processing. AFFF has fabricated the (U, Pu) 2 O mixed oxide fuels for PHWRs, BWRs and PFBR. AFFF is also working for the AHWR fuel cycle. The present paper summarises about the process experiments, instrumental development, results, and future applications of microwave heating technique. (author)

  4. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  5. Reprocessing on the whole fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.

    1983-11-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing, in France, is become an industrial reality which takes an importance place in several fields: place surely essential in the fuel cycle from the energetic material economy and waste management point of view; place priority in the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) research and development programs; place in the industry where it is an important activity sector with the realizations in progress [fr

  6. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 1. Nuclear fuel cycle overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-07-01

    This educational module is an overview of the nuclear-fule-cycle. The overview covers nuclear energy resources, the present and future US nuclear industry, the industry view of nuclear power, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program, the Union of Concerned Scientists view of the nuclear-fuel-cycle, an analysis of this viewpoint, resource requirements for a model light water reactor, and world nuclear power considerations

  7. Evaluation and optimization of LWR fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbas, T.; Zabunoglu, O.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2001-01-01

    There are several options in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Discharge burn-up, length of interim storage period, choice of direct disposal or recycling and method of reprocessing in case of recycling affect the options and determine/define the fuel cycle scenarios. These options have been evaluated in viewpoint of some tangible (fuel cycle cost, natural uranium requirement, decay heat of high level waste, radiological ingestion and inhalation hazards) and intangible factors (technological feasibility, nonproliferation aspect, etc.). Neutronic parameters are calculated using versatile fuel depletion code ORIGEN2.1. A program is developed for calculation of cost related parameters. Analytical hierarchy process is used to transform the intangible factors into the tangible ones. Then all these tangible and intangible factors are incorporated into a form that is suitable for goal programming, which is a linear optimization technique and used to determine the optimal option among alternatives. According to the specified objective function and constraints, the optimal fuel cycle scenario is determined using GPSYS (a linear programming software) as a goal programming tool. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed for some selected important parameters

  8. Suggestions for future Pu fuel cycle designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfontein, Dawid E.; Mulder, Eben J.; Reitsma, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Recommended follow-up Pu Studies: • Verification of VSOP-A vs. VSOP 99/05, by comparison with MCNP. • DLOFC temperatures with Multi-group Tinte. • Redesign of the reactor: - Replace small concentrated Pu fuel kernels with large (500 μm diameter) diluted kernels to reduce burn-up. - Switch from the direct Brayton cycle to the indirect Rankine steam cycle to reduce fuel temperatures. - Add neutron poisons to the reflectors to suppress power and temperature peaks and to produce negative uniform temperature reactivity coefficients

  9. Reprocessing in the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the authors personal view is presented on open questions in regard to still required research and development work for the thorium fuel cycle before its application in a technical-industrial scale may be tackled. For a better understanding, all stations of the back-end of the thorium fuel cycle are briefly illustrated and their special features discussed. They include storage and transportation measures, all steps of reprocessing, as well as the entire radioactive waste treatment. Knowledge gaps are, as far as they are obvious, identified and proposals put forward for additional worthwile investigations. (orig.) [de

  10. Emergency planning for fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In April 1989, NRC published new emergency planning regulations which apply to certain by-product, source, and special nuclear materials licensees including most fuel cycle facilities. In addition to these NRC regulations, other regulatory agencies such as EPA, OSHA, and DOT have regulations concerning emergency planning or notification that may apply to fuel cycle facilities. Emergency planning requirements address such areas as emergency classification, organization, notification and activation, assessment, corrective and protective measures, emergency facilities and equipment, maintaining preparedness, records and reports, and recovery. This article reviews applicable regulatory requirements and guidance, then concentrates on implementation strategies to produce an effective emergency response capability

  11. Report of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In order to secure stable energy supply over a long period of time, the development and utilization of atomic energy have been actively promoted as the substitute energy for petroleum. Accordingly, the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle is indispensable to support this policy, and efforts have been exerted to promote the technical development and to put it in practical use. The Tokai reprocessing plant has been in operation since the beginning of 1981, and the pilot plant for uranium enrichment is about to start the full scale operation. Considering the progress in the refining and conversion techniques, plutonium fuel fabrication and son on, the prospect to technically establish the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan has been bright. The important problem for the future is to put these techniques in practical use economically. The main point of technical development hereafter is the enlargement and rationalization of the techniques, and the cooperation of the government and the people, and the smooth transfer of the technical development results in public corporations to private organization are necessary. The important problems for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle, the securing of enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, unused resources, and the problems related to industrialization, location and fuel storing are reported. (Kako, I.)

  12. Nuclear Fuel Cycle System Analysis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kwon, Eun Ha; Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, Seong Won

    2007-04-15

    As a nation develops strategies that provide nuclear energy while meeting its various objectives, it must begin with identification of a fuel cycle option that can be best suitable for the country. For such a purpose, this paper takes four different fuel cycle options that are likely adopted by the Korean government, considering the current status of nuclear power generation and the 2nd Comprehensive Nuclear Energy Promotion Plan (CNEPP) - Once-through Cycle, DUPIC Recycle, Thermal Reactor Recycle and GEN-IV Recycle. The paper then evaluates each option in terms of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics and technologies. Like all the policy decision, however, a nuclear fuel cycle option can not be superior in all aspects of sustainability, environment-friendliness, proliferation-resistance, economics, technologies and so on, which makes the comparison of the options extremely complicated. Taking this into consideration, the paper analyzes all the four fuel cycle options using the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), methods of Multi-Attribute Decision Making (MADM), that support systematical evaluation of the cases with multi- goals or criteria and that such goals are incompatible with each other. The analysis shows that the GEN-IV Recycle appears to be most competitive.

  13. Challenge to establishment of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst. (JNC) has promoted some efforts on introduction of business management cycle system integrated on safety security and business management, planning a safety conservation system with effectiveness concept on risk, and their practice steadily and faithfully. Here were described on some characteristic items on effort of safety promotion since establishment of JNC. And, here were also introduced on outlines of some research actions, at a center of research and development on a high breeding reactor and its relating cycle technology carried out at present by JNC under aiming at establishment of the nuclear fuel recycling, that is to say the nuclear fuel cycle, in Japan to upgrade the nuclear security more and more. (G.K.)

  14. Monitored Retrievable Storage conceptual system studies: closed-cycle vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, J.A.; Ganley, J.T.

    1984-02-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 requires the DOE to submit a proposal to Congress by June 1985 for the construction of one or more Monitored Retrieval Storage (MRS) facilities. In response, the DOE initiated studies to develop system descriptions and cost estimates for preconceptual designs of storage concepts suitable for use at MRS facilities. This report provides a system description and cost estimates for a Closed-Cycle Vault (CCV) MRS facility. The facility description is divided into four parts: (1) the R and H area, (2) the interface facility, (3) the on-site transport system, and (4) the storage system. The MRS facility has been designed to meet handling rates of 1800 and 3000 MTU/yr. The corresponding peak inventories are 15,000 and 72,000 MTU. Three types of cases were considered, based on the material to be stored: (1) Spent fuel only; (2) HLW and TRU waste; and (3) HLW only. For each of these three types, a cost estimate was done for a 15,000 and a 72,000 MTU facility, resulting in six different cost estimates. Section 4 presents the cost analysis of the CCV MRS system. Tables 4-2 through 4-7 give the construction or capital costs for the six cases. Tables 4-8 through 4-13 show the total discounted life-cycle costs for each of the six cases. These life-cycle costs include operating and decommissioning costs. These tables also show the time distribution of the capital costs. Table 2-1 summarizes the capital, operating, and discounted costs for the six cases studied. 2 references, 15 figures, 18 tables

  15. Solvent extraction in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, H.; Naylor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction techniques have been used in the uranium nuclear fuel cycle in three main areas; concentration of uranium from ore leach liquor, purification of ore concentrates and fuel reprocessing. Solvent extraction has been extended to the removal of transuranic elements from active waste liquor, the recovery of uranium from natural sources and the recovery of noble metals from active waste liquor. Schemes are presented for solvent extraction of uranium using the Amex or Dapex process; spent fuel reprocessing and the Purex process. Recent and future developments of the techniques are outlined. (UK)

  16. The economy of the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, W [Alpha Chemie und Metallurgie G.m.b.H. (ALKEM), Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-07-01

    Heat extracted from nuclear fuel costs by a factor of 3 to 7 less than heat from conventional fossile fuel. So, nuclear fuel per se has an economical advantage, decreased however partly by higher nuclear plant investment costs. The standard LWR design does not allow all the fission energy stored in the fuel during on cycle to be used. It is therefore the most natural approach to separate fissionable species from fission products and consume them by fissioning. Whether this is economically justified as opposed by storing them indefinitely with spent fuel has widely been debated. The paper outlines the different approaches taken by nuclear communities worldwide and their perceived or proven rational arguments. It will balance economic and other factors for the near and distant future including advanced reactor concepts. The specific solution within the German nuclear programme will be explained, including foreseeable future trends. (orig.).

  17. Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION): A Tool for Analyzing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Shropshire, David E.; Jeffers, Robert F.; Yacout, A.M.; Schweitzer, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a set of complex components that are intended to work together. To support the nuclear renaissance, it is necessary to understand the impacts of changes and timing of events in any part of the fuel cycle system such as how the system would respond to each technological change, a series of which moves the fuel cycle from where it is to a postulated future state. The system analysis working group of the United States research program on advanced fuel cycles (formerly called the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing, and changes in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model components and some examples of how to use VISION. For example, VISION users can now change yearly the selection of separation or reactor technologies, the performance characteristics of those technologies, and/or the routing of material among separation and reactor types - with the model still operating on a PC in <5 min.

  18. Improving fuel cycle design and safety characteristics of a gas cooled fast reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, W.F.G.

    2006-01-01

    This research concerns the fuel cycle and safety aspects of a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor, one of the so-called "Generation IV" nuclear reactor designs. The Generation IV Gas Cooled Fast Reactor uses helium as coolant at high temperature. The goal of the GCFR is to obtain a "closed nuclear fuel cycle",

  19. Fuel performance and operation experience of WWER-440 fuel in improved fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Proselkov, V.; Semchenkov, Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes WWER-440 second-generation fuel operation experience in improved fuel cycles using the example of Kola NPP units 3 and 4. Basic parameters of fuel assemblies, fuel rods and uranium-gadolinium fuel rods, as well as the principal neutronic parameters and burn-up achieved in fuel assemblies are presented. The paper also contains some data concerning the activity of coolant during operation (Authors)

  20. Nuclear fuel cycle simulation system (VISTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA) is a simulation system which estimates long term nuclear fuel cycle material and service requirements as well as the material arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors. The VISTA model needs isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel in order to make estimations of the material arisings from the nuclear reactor operation. For this purpose, in accordance with the requirements of the VISTA code, a new module called Calculating Actinide Inventory (CAIN) was developed. CAIN is a simple fuel depletion model which requires a small number of input parameters and gives results in a very short time. VISTA has been used internally by the IAEA for the estimation of: spent fuel discharge from the reactors worldwide, Pu accumulation in the discharged spent fuel, minor actinides (MA) accumulation in the spent fuel, and in the high level waste (HLW) since its development. The IAEA decided to disseminate the VISTA tool to Member States using internet capabilities in 2003. The improvement and expansion of the simulation code and the development of the internet version was started in 2004. A website was developed to introduce the simulation system to the visitors providing a simple nuclear material flow calculation tool. This website has been made available to Member States in 2005. The development work for the full internet version is expected to be fully available to the interested parties from IAEA Member States in 2007 on its website. This publication is the accompanying text which gives details of the modelling and an example scenario

  1. 77 FR 19278 - Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Informational Meeting on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options AGENCY: Office of Fuel... activities leading to a comprehensive evaluation and screening of nuclear fuel cycle options in 2013. At this... fuel cycle options developed for the evaluation and screening provides a comprehensive representation...

  2. An economic analysis code used for PWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dingqin

    1989-01-01

    An economic analysis code used for PWR fuel cycle is developed. This economic code includes 12 subroutines representing vavious processes for entire PWR fuel cycle, and indicates the influence of the fuel cost on the cost of the electricity generation and the influence of individual process on the sensitivity of the fuel cycle cost

  3. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  4. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  5. Future fuel cycle and reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    Within the framework of the 1997 IAEA Symposium 'Future Fuel Cycle and Reactor Strategies Adjusting to New Realities', Working Group No.3 produced a Key Issues paper addressing the title of the symposium. The scope of the Key Issues paper included those factors that are expected to remain or become important in the time period from 2015 to 2050, considering all facets of nuclear energy utilization from ore extraction to final disposal of waste products. The paper addressed the factors influencing the choice of reactor and fuel cycle. It then addressed the quantitatively largest category of reactor types expected to be important during the period; that is, thermal reactors burning uranium and plutonium fuel. The fast reactor then was discussed both as a stand-alone technology and as might be used in combination with thermal reactors. Thorium fuel use was discussed briefly. The present paper includes of a digest of the Key Issues Paper. Some comparisons arc made between the directions suggested in that paper and those indicated by the Abstracts of this Technical Committee Meeting- Recommendations are made for work which might be undertaken in the short and medium time frames, to ensure that fuel cycle technologies and processes established by the year 2050 will support the continuation of nuclear energy applications in the long term. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle cost and cost calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, P.; Schricker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Four different methods of calculating the cost of the fuel cycle are explained, starting from the individual cost components with their specific input data. The results (for LWRs) are presented in tabular form and in the form of diagrams. (RB) [de

  7. Nuclear fuel cycle and no proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra Delgado, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The worry produced by the possibility of new countries acquiring nuclear weapons through the forbidden use of sensitive installations for the production of fissionable materials, had arisen proposals intended to restrict activities related to the full nuclear fuel cycle, even when these activities are allowed in the frame of rules in force for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. (author) [es

  8. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  9. Criticality safety evaluation of the fuel cycle facility electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Fujita, E.K.; Benedict, R.W.; Turski, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal cooled reactors and a closed-loop fuel cycle. Some of the primary advantages are passive safety for the reactor and resistance to diversion for the heavy metal in the fuel cycle. in addition, the IFR pyroprocess recycles all the long-lived actinide activation products for casting into new fuel pins so that they may be burned in the reactor. A key component in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) recycling process is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the process, the metal fuel is electrochemically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt, and electrorefined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. This report addresses the new and innovative aspects of the criticality analysis ensuing from processing metallic fuel, rather than metal oxide fuel, and from processing the spent fuel in batch operations. in particular, the criticality analysis employed a mechanistic approach as opposed to a probabilistic one. A probabilistic approach was unsuitable because of a lack of operational experience with some of the processes, rendering the estimation of accident event risk factors difficult. The criticality analysis also incorporated the uncertainties in heavy metal content attending the process items by defining normal operations envelopes (NOES) for key process parameters. The goal was to show that reasonable process uncertainties would be demonstrably safe toward criticality for continuous batch operations provided the key process parameters stayed within their NOES. Consequently the NOEs became the point of departure for accident events in the criticality analysis

  10. Fusion fuel cycle solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gore, B.F.; Kaser, J.D.; Kabele, T.J.

    1978-06-01

    Eight conceptual deuterium-tritium fueled fusion power plant designs have been analyzed to identify waste sources, materials and quantities. All plant designs include the entire D-T fuel cycle within each plant. Wastes identified include radiation-damaged structural, moderating, and fertile materials; getter materials for removing corrosion products and other impurities from coolants; absorbents for removing tritium from ventilation air; getter materials for tritium recovery from fertile materials; vacuum pump oil and mercury sludge; failed equipment; decontamination wastes; and laundry waste. Radioactivity in these materials results primarily from neutron activation and from tritium contamination. For the designs analyzed annual radwaste volume was estimated to be 150 to 600 m 3 /GWe. This may be compared to 500 to 1300 m 3 /GWe estimated for the LMFBR fuel cycle. Major waste sources are replaced reactor structures and decontamination waste

  11. Future reactors and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastoin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Known world reserves of oil and natural gas may only last another 50 years and therefore nuclear energy will become more important in the future. Industrialised countries should also be encouraged to conserve their oil reserves to make better use of them and share them with less developed countries. France already produces 30% or more of its primary energy from uranium in the form of nuclear generated electricity. France has therefore accumulated considerable expertise in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Each stage of the fuel cycle, extraction, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fissile material utilisation, reprocessing and waste storage is discussed. The utilisation of fissile material is the most important stage and this is considered in more detail under headings: increase in burn-up, spectral shift, plutonium utilisation including recycling in pressurized water reactors and fast reactors and utilisation of reprocessed uranium. It is concluded that nuclear power for electricity production will be widely used throughout the world in the future. (UK)

  12. Fuel cycle options for light water reactors in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broecking, D.; Mester, W.

    1999-01-01

    In Germany 19 nuclear power plants with an electrical output of 22 GWe are in operation. Annually about 450 t of spent fuel are unloaded from the reactors. Currently most of the spent fuel elements are shipped to France and the United Kingdom for reprocessing according to contracts which have been signed since the late 70es. By the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1994 the previous priority for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was substituted by a legal equivalency of the reprocessing and direct disposal option. As a consequence some utilities take into consideration the direct disposal of their spent fuel for economical reasons. The separated plutonium will be recycled as MOX fuel in light water reactors. About 30 tons of fissile plutonium will be available to German utilities for recycling by the year 2000. Twelve German reactors are already licensed for the use of MOX fuel, five others have applied for MOX use. Eight reactors are currently using MOX fuel or used it in the past. The spent fuel elements which shall be disposed of without reprocessing will be stored in two interim dry storage facilities at Gorleben and Ahaus. The storage capacities are 3800 and 4200 tHM, respectively. The Gorleben salt dome is currently investigated to prove its suitability as a repository for high level radioactive waste, either in a vitrified form or as conditioned spent fuel. The future development of the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management depends on the future role of nuclear energy in Germany. According to estimations of the German utilities no additional nuclear power plants are needed in the near future. Around the middle of the next decade it will have to be decided whether existing plants should be substituted by new ones. For the foreseeable time German utilities are interested in a highly flexible approach to the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management keeping open both spent fuel management options: the closed fuel cycle and direct disposal of

  13. Integration of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the close integration of the civil and military nuclear fuel cycles in Russia. Individual processing facilities, as well as the flow of nuclear material, are described as they existed in the 1980s and as they exist today. The end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union weakened the ties between the two nuclear fuel cycles, but did not separate them. Separation of the military and civilian nuclear fuel cycles would facilitate Russia's integration into the world's nuclear fuel cycle and its participation in international non-proliferation regimes

  14. Advanced fuel cycles: a rationale and strategy for adopting the low-enriched-uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A two-year study of alternatives to the natural uranium fuel cycle in CANDU reactors is summarized. The possible advanced cycles are briefly described. Selection criteria for choosing a cycle for development include resource utilization, economics, ease of implementaton, and social acceptability. It is recommended that a detailed study should be made with a view to the early implementation of the low-enriched uranium cycle. (LL)

  15. Environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-09-01

    This paper considers the environmental impact of nuclear fuel cycle operations, particularly those operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc, which include uranium conversion, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, irradiated fuel transport and storage, reprocessing, uranium recycle and waste treatment and disposal. Quantitative assessments have been made of the impact of the liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment from all stages in the fuel cycle. An upper limit to the possible health effects is readily obtained using the codified recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This contrasts with the lack of knowledge concerning the health effects of many other pollutants, including those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels. Most of the liquid and gaseous discharges result at the reprocessing stage and although their impact on the environment and on human health is small, they have given rise to much public concern. Reductions in discharges at Sellafield over the last few years have been quite dramatic, which shows what can be done provided the necessary very large investment is undertaken. The cost-effectiveness of this investment must be considered. Some of it has gone beyond the point of justification in terms of health benefit, having been undertaken in response to public and political pressure, some of it on an international scale. The potential for significant off-site impact from accidents in the fuel cycle has been quantitatively assessed and shown to be very limited. Waste disposal will also have an insignificant impact in terms of risk. It is also shown that it is insignificant in relation to terrestrial radioactivity and therefore in relation to the human environment. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog: FY16 Improvements and Additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2016 fiscal year.

  17. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog FY15 Improvements and Additions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barela, Amanda Crystal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walkow, Walter M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Program sponsors nuclear fuel cycle research and development. As part of its Fuel Cycle Options campaign, the DOE has established the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog. The catalog is intended for use by the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program in planning its research and development activities and disseminating information regarding nuclear energy to interested parties. The purpose of this report is to document the improvements and additions that have been made to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Catalog in the 2015 fiscal year.

  18. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Technical and economic analysis-Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans-Ribas, J.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle has been analyzed under current conditions in the United States, including the constraints imposed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and its amendments. The scenarios for two closed cycles, a regular reprocessing cycle and a reprocessing scheme with cesium and strontium fractionation, are described. The storage of spent fuel discharged from the reactors and the disposal of reprocessed waste are studied for both reprocessing cycles. The economics of waste storage and disposal for the two closed cycles are compared with each other and with the reference once-through cycle. The results show that a standard reprocessing cycle results in the minimum cost for storage and disposal. When reporcessing costs are considered, the closed cycles can compete economically with the once-through cycle only if net reprocessing costs are very low

  19. Nuclear fuel cycles : description, demand and supply estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadallah, A.A.; Abou Zahra, A.A.; Hammad, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with various nuclear fuel cycles description as well as the world demand and supply estimates of materials and services. Estimates of world nuclear fuel cycle requirements: nuclear fuel, heavy water and other fuel cycle services as well as the availability and production capabilities of these requirements, are discussed for several reactor fuel cycle strategies, different operating and under construction fuel cycle facilities in some industrialized and developed countries are surveyed. Various uncertainties and bottlenecks which are recently facing the development of some fuel cycle components are also discussed, as well as various proposals concerning fuel cycle back-end concepts. finally, the nuclear fuel cycles activities in some developing countries are reviewed with emphasis on the egyptian plans to introduce nuclear power in the country. 11 fig., 16 tab

  20. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the (WOCA) World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix E includes aggregated domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper References cases and through 2037, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. Annual projections of spent fuel discharges through the year 2037 for individual US reactors in the No New Orders cases are included for the first time in Appendix H. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  1. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  2. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under two nuclear supply scenarios. These two scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas (WOCA). A No New Orders scenarios is also presented for the Unites States. This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the WOCA projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel; discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2036, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case

  3. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Akira; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Miki, Atsushi.

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish the stable supply of nuclear fuel as an important energy source, Hitachi ltd. has advanced the technical development aiming at the heightening of reliability, the increase of capacity, upgrading and the heightening of performance of the facilities related to nuclear fuel cycle. As for fuel reprocessing, Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Ltd. is promoting the construction of a commercial fuel reprocessing plant which is the first in Japan. The verification of the process performance, the ensuring of high reliability accompanying large capacity and the technical development for recovering effective resources from spent fuel are advanced. Moreover, as for uranium enrichment, Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association was founded mainly by electric power companies, and the development of the next generation enrichment technology using laser is promoted. The development of spent fuel reprocessing technology, the development of the basic technology of atomic process laser enrichment and so on are reported. In addition to the above technologies recently developed by Hitachi Ltd., the technology of reducing harm and solidification of radioactive wastes, the molecular process laser enrichment and others are developed. (K.I.)

  4. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  5. IAEA Activities in the Area of Fast Reactors and Related Fuels and Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, S.; Basak, U.; Dyck, G.; Inozemtsev, V.; Toti, A.; Zeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • The IAEA role to support fast reactors and associated fuel cycle development programmes; • Main IAEA activities on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology; • Main IAEA deliverables on fast reactors and related fuel and fuel cycle technology

  6. Fuel cycle and waste management: A perspective from British nuclear fuels plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.G.G.; Fairhall, G.A.; Robbins, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The phrase fuel cycle and waste management implies two separate and distinct activities. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has adopted a holistic approach to the fuel cycle that integrates the traditional fuel cycle activities of conversion to uranium hexafluoride, fuel fabrication, power generation, and reprocessing with waste arisings, its subsequent treatment, and disposal

  7. Open and closed fuel cycle of HWR and PWR. How large is the high-level radioactive wastes repository; Ciclos de combustible abierto y cerrado con HWR y PWR. ?Cuanto mas grande es el repositorio de residuos radiactivos de alta actividad?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual analysis was carried out on the size of a high-level wastes (HLW) repository for the waste arising from once-through and closed fuel cycles with (HLW) and PWR. The mass, the activity and thermal loading was calculated with the ORIGEN2.1 computer code for the spent fuel and for the high-level liquid wastes. It was considered a minimum burnup of 7.000 MW.d/t U and 33.000 MW.d/t U for HWR and PWR respectively, cooling times of 20 and 55 years, reprocessing recovery ratios of 99% and 99.7% and a total electricity production of 81.6 GW(e).a. It was concluded that the cooling time is the most important repository size reproduction parameter for the closed cycles. On the other hand, the spent fuel mass for the once-through cycles does not depend on the cooling time what prevents repository size reduction once a cooling time of 55 years is reached. The repository size reduction in the case of HWR is larger than in the case of PWR, owing to the larger fuel mass required to produce the specific electricity amount. (author)

  8. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. (author)

  9. IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D.; Herceg, J.E.; Holtz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. 5 refs., 4 figs

  10. Life-cycle of fuel peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.; Silvo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The share of peat in the primary energy supply in Finland in 1996 was about 6.5 % and the area used for peat production was about 535 km 2 , corresponding to about 0.5 % of the original peatland area of Finland. Fuel peat production is hence a significant form of using natural resources. About 1.4 % of the total peatland area has been reserved for peat production. Approximately 95 % of the peat excavated in Finland is used as fuel peat, and 5 % as horticultural peat. As raw material and fuel peat can be considered to be slowly renewable material. The environmental impacts of fuel peat production, transportation and peat combustion were evaluated in this research by methods used in life-cycle assessment. Preparation and production phases of peat production areas, fuel peat transportation to power plants, combustion of peat in power plants, and disposal of the ashes formed the basis for the investigation. Data collected in 1994-1996 was used as the basic material in the research. Special attention was paid to the estimation of greenhouse gas balance when using a virgin bog and the forest drained peatland areas as starting points. Post-production use of peatlands were not inspected in the life-cycle assessment. The work was carried out in 1997 in cooperation with Vapo Oy. The regional environmental centers, VTT and Helsinki and Joensuu Universities assisted significantly in acquisition of the material and planning of the work 3 refs

  11. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Smelov, V.S.; Nenarokomov, E.A.; Mukhin, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  12. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solonin, M I; Polyakov, A S; Zakharkin, B S; Smelov, V S; Nenarokomov, E A; Mukhin, I V [SSC, RF, A.A. Bochvar ALL-Russia Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  13. Economics analysis of fuel cycle cost of fusion–fission hybrid reactors based on different fuel cycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zu, Tiejun, E-mail: tiejun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Cao, Liangzhi

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Economics analysis of fuel cycle cost of FFHRs is carried out. • The mass flows of different fuel cycle strategies are established based on the equilibrium fuel cycle model. • The levelized fuel cycle costs of different fuel cycle strategies are calculated, and compared with current once-through fuel cycle. - Abstract: The economics analysis of fuel cycle cost of fusion–fission hybrid reactors has been performed to compare four fuel cycle strategies: light water cooled blanket burning natural uranium (Strategy A) or spent nuclear fuel (Strategy B), sodium cooled blanket burning transuranics (Strategy C) or minor actinides (Strategy D). The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC) which does not include the capital cost, operation and maintenance cost have been calculated based on the equilibrium mass flows. The current once-through (OT) cycle strategy has also been analyzed to serve as the reference fuel cycle for comparisons. It is found that Strategy A and Strategy B have lower LFCCs than OT cycle; although the LFCC of Strategy C is higher than that of OT cycle when the uranium price is at its nominal value, it would become comparable to that of OT cycle when the uranium price reaches its historical peak value level; Strategy D shows the highest LFCC, because it needs to reprocess huge mass of spent nuclear fuel; LFCC is sensitive to the discharge burnup of the nuclear fuel.

  14. Financing of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, P.

    1975-01-01

    Fuels account for only a modest share of the cost of nuclear energy: approximatively one-fourth whereas the capital financing charges exceed one-half. But it is necessary to take account of the combined effect of the magnitude of the needs in coming years and of the resulting acceleration due to the coming on stream of increasingly numerous nuclear power plants and to take account of the characteristics of the fuel cycle which is especially long because of technical requirements and the necessity to establish safety stocks [fr

  15. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  16. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  17. Nuclear-fuel-cycle optimization: methods and modelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1982-01-01

    This book present methods applicable to analyzing fuel-cycle logistics and optimization as well as in evaluating the economics of different reactor strategies. After an introduction to the phases of a fuel cycle, uranium cost trends are assessed in a global perspective. Subsequent chapters deal with the fuel-cycle problems faced by a power utility. The fuel-cycle models cover the entire cycle from the supply of uranium to the disposition of spent fuel. The chapter headings are: Nuclear Fuel Cycle, Uranium Supply and Demand, Basic Model of the LWR (light water reactor) Fuel Cycle, Resolution of Uncertainties, Assessment of Proliferation Risks, Multigoal Optimization, Generalized Fuel-Cycle Models, Reactor Strategy Calculations, and Interface with Energy Strategies. 47 references, 34 figures, 25 tables

  18. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the nuclear spent fuel that is discharged from the reactors in OECD countries is destined currently for long term interim storage before final processing or direct disposal. There are at least three basic considerations affecting the dicision on spent fuel, that is, the capacity of prompt reprocessing is insufficient at present, reprocessing is not urgent for the reason of economy or plutonium availability, and the cooling of spent fuel in controlled storage is economically advantageous. The basic technology of reprocessing has been commercially available for several decades, but political problems and the lack of immediate incentive for reprocessing slowed the buildup of new capacity. To avoid the problems related to plutonium storage, it is reasonable to postpone reprocessing. Some OECD countries plan the direct disposal of spent fuel elements instead of reprocessing. The technology, supply and demand and cost of the storage and transport of spent fuel, reprocessing and waste disposal are discussed. The share of the back end in the total levelized fuel cycle cost is expected to be between 10 and 20 %. The impact of the choice of back end options on the cost of power generation will be only 2 %. (Kako, I.)

  19. CIEMAT analyses of transition fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient design of strategies for the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy or the phase-out of this technology is possible after the study of transition scenarios from the current fuel cycle to a future one with advanced technologies and concepts. CIEMAT has participated in numerous fuel cycle scenarios studies for more than a decade and, from some years ago, special attention has been put in the study of transition scenarios. In this paper, the main characteristics of each studied transition scenario are described. The main results and partial conclusions of each scenario are also analyzed. As general conclusions of transition studies, we highlight that the advantages of advanced technologies in transition scenarios can be obtained by countries or regions with sufficiently large nuclear parks, with a long-term implementation of the strategy. For small countries, these advantages are also accessible with an affordable cost, by means of the regional collaboration during several decades. (authors)

  20. Survey of nuclear fuel-cycle codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.R.; de Saussure, G.; Marable, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    A two-month survey of nuclear fuel-cycle models was undertaken. This report presents the information forthcoming from the survey. Of the nearly thirty codes reviewed in the survey, fifteen of these codes have been identified as potentially useful in fulfilling the tasks of the Nuclear Energy Analysis Division (NEAD) as defined in their FY 1981-1982 Program Plan. Six of the fifteen codes are given individual reviews. The individual reviews address such items as the funding agency, the author and organization, the date of completion of the code, adequacy of documentation, computer requirements, history of use, variables that are input and forecast, type of reactors considered, part of fuel cycle modeled and scope of the code (international or domestic, long-term or short-term, regional or national). The report recommends that the Model Evaluation Team perform an evaluation of the EUREKA uranium mining and milling code

  1. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation (INFCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlupp, C.

    1986-07-01

    The study describes and analyzes the structures, the procedures and decision making processes of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE). INFCE was agreed by the Organizing Conference to be a technical and analytical study and not a negotiation. The results were to be transmitted to governments for their consideration in developing their nuclear energy policies and in international discussions concerning nuclear energy cooperation and related controls and safeguards. Thus INFCE provided a unique example for decision making by consensus in the nuclear world. It was carried through under mutual respect for each country's choices and decisions, without jeopardizing their respective fuel cycle policies or international co-operation agreements and contracts for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, provided that agreed safeguards are applied. (orig.)

  2. ATALANTE, innovation for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    At Marcoule (France) CEA has been operating a facility called ATALANTE since the beginning of the eighties and dedicated to research on the nuclear fuel cycle. 4 lines of research are pursued: a technical support for nuclear industry, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, the recycling of minor actinides, and the vitrification of high level radioactive wastes. ATALANTE facility consists of 17 laboratories working on 250 glove boxes and 11 shielded hot cells. The latter allow the handling of highly gamma emitting materials through 59 workstations equipped with remote manipulatory arms, while the former allow the handling of contaminating (but low irradiating) materials like most actinides. In 2013 ATALANTE was rewarded the 'Nuclear historic landmark' by the American Nuclear Society that awards facilities that have led to major advances in scientific knowledge

  3. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2

  4. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Leigh, I.W.; Jeffs, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide (1) an overview of worldwide nuclear power and fuel cycle programs and (2) current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs and key personnel. Additional information on each country's program is available in the International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development, PNL-2478, Rev. 2.

  5. Status and development of the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weijing; Wei Renjie

    2003-01-01

    A perspective view of the thorium fuel cycle is provided in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of the thorium fuel cycle are given and the development of thorium fuel cycle in several types of reactors is introduced. The main difficulties in developing the thorium fuel cycle lie in the reprocessing and disposal of the waste and its economy, and the ways tried by foreign countries to solve the problems are presented in the paper

  6. Proliferation prevention in the commercial fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    This website contains the papers presented on November 17, 1998 during the session, ''Proliferation Prevention in the Commercial Fuel Cycle,'' at the American Nuclear Society meeting in Washington, DC. The abstracts are in a separate section; individual papers also contain the author's bio and e-mail address. In the session planning phase, it was suggested that the following questions and other relevant issues be addressed: * What are the difficulties and issues with defining and enforcing international standards for the physical protection of Pu and HEU (beyond the Convention on the Physical protection of Nuclear Material, which primarily addresses transportation)? * How do we (or can we) keep nuclear technology in general, and reprocessing and enrichment technologies in particular, from spreading to undesirable organizations (including governments), in light of Article IV of the NPT? Specifically, can we (should we) prevent the construction of light-water reactors in Iran; and should we support the construction of light-water reactors in North Korea? * Are there more proliferation-resistant fuel cycles that would be appropriate in developing countries? * Can the concept of ''nonproliferation credentials'' be defined in a useful way? * Is there historical evidence to indicate that reprocessing (or enrichment of HEU) in the US, Japan, or the EURATOM countries has impacted the acquisition (or attempted acquisition) of nuclear weapons by other nations or groups? * What is the impact of a fissile material cutoff treaty (FMCT) be on commercial nuclear fuel cycles? * Does MOX spent fuel present a greater proliferation risk than LEU spent fuel? Although the authors did not explicitly attempt to answer all these questions, they did enlighten us about a number of these and related issues

  7. Developing safety in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle had its origins in the new technology developed in the 1940s and 50s involving novel physical and chemical processes. At the front end of the cycle, mining, milling and fuel fabrication all underwent development, but in general the focus of process development and safety concerns was the reprocessing stage, with radiation, contamination and criticality the chief hazards. Safety research is not over and there is still work to be done in advancing technical knowledge to new generation nuclear fuels such as Mixed Oxide Fuel and in refining knowledge of margins and of potential upset conditions. Some comments are made on potential areas for work. The NUCEF facility will provide many useful data to aid safety analysis and accident prevention. The routine operations in such plants, basically chemical factories, requires industrial safety and in addition the protection of workers against radiation or contamination. The engineering and management measures for this were novel and the early operation of such plants pioneering. Later commissioning and operating experience has improved routine operating safety, leading to a new generation of factories with highly developed worker protection, engineering safeguards and safety management systems. Ventilation of contamination control zones, remote operation and maintenance, and advanced neutron shielding are engineering examples. In safety management, dose control practices, formally controlled operating procedures and safety cases, and audit processes are comparable with, or lead, best industry practice in other hazardous industries. Nonetheless it is still important that the knowledge and experience from operating plants continue to be gathered together to provide a common basis for improvement. The NEA Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety provides a forum for much of this interchange. Some activities in the Group are described in particular the FINAS incident reporting system. (J.P.N.)

  8. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity

  9. Overview of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactors to provide electrical energy has shown considerable growth since the first nuclear plant started commercial operation in the mid 1950s. Although the main purpose of this paper is to review the fuel cycle capabilities in the United States, the introduction is a brief review of the types of nuclear reactors in use and the world-wide nuclear capacity

  10. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-01-01

    To help meet our nation's energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy

  11. International trade in nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses general trends in international trade in nuclear fuel cycle services with particular emphasis on the development of trading patterns between Europe, North America and the Far East. The paper also examines the role of collaborative ventures in the development of the nuclear industry. Barriers to international trade, the effect of government regulations and restrictions and the impact of non-proliferation issues are discussed. (author)

  12. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program's understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power's cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-irradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  14. Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornard, Trond; Garcia, Humberto; Desmond, William; Demuth, Scott

    2010-01-01

    International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

  15. The fuel cycle industry of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devilliers, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    When the energy crisis arose, experts asserted that uranium was abundant and well distributed and that consumer countries need not fear a lasting crisis in supply. In point of fact, the decisions announced in 1974 to accelerate nuclear programmes have upset the natural uranium market and have deeply modified commercial prospects respecting enrichment and retreatment. The demand for fuel is most sensitive to changes made in reactor construction programmes. As a result of the deadline for setting up production units in certain phases of the fuel cycle, fluctuations will probably again occur during the next 15 years. Taken as a whole, the fuel cycle industry calls for heavy investments, compared with the added value that they generate. It might therefore be feared that hesitancy on the part of the industry could compromise its ability to adapt itself to the needs of utilities producing electricity, and one can understand the vigilance of the latter when their security of supply is involved. The many projects now being carried out in the various phases of the cycle show, however, that this adaptation should continue under satisfactory conditions [fr

  16. The nuclear fuel cycle is complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildenbrand, G.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany has a firm base. Its entry stages, natural uranium, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication, have not only been put on solid grounds in terms of supplies, but have also attained a high degree of technical maturity and a high quality level. Further efforts are being devoted to cost reductions. Especially higher burnups and the recycling of plutonium in the form of MOX fuel assemblies in light water reactors must be mentioned under this heading. In the field of back end fuel cycle steps, the important sector of interim storage has now found a practical solution, which is also fully sufficient with respect to capacity. The project of a German reprocessing plant has now entered its decisive stage with the filling of the licensing applications and the awarding of the planning contracts. The study on alternative waste management techniques entitled ''Direct Final Storage'' is about to be concluded, and a work on the exploration and development of a repository proceeds on schedule. (orig.) [de

  17. Exploratory Design of a Reactor/Fuel Cycle Using Spent Nuclear Fuel Without Conventional Reprocessing - 13579

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertch, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Robert W.; Rawls, John D.

    2013-01-01

    discharge reuse. The EM2 waste disposal profile is effectively only fission products, which reduces the mass (about 3% vs LWR), average half life, heat and long term radio-toxicity of the disposal. Widespread implementation of EM2 fuel cycle is highly significant as it would increase world energy reserves; the remaining energy in U.S. LWR SNF alone exceeds that in the U.S. natural gas reserves. Unlike many LWR SNF disposition concepts, the EM2 fuel cycle conversion of SNF produces energy and associated revenue such that the overall project is cost effective. By providing conversion of SNF to fission products the fuel cycle is closed and a non-repository LWR SNF disposition path is created and overall repository requirements are significantly reduced. (authors)

  18. Exploratory Design of a Reactor/Fuel Cycle Using Spent Nuclear Fuel Without Conventional Reprocessing - 13579

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertch, Timothy C.; Schleicher, Robert W.; Rawls, John D. [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    discharge reuse. The EM2 waste disposal profile is effectively only fission products, which reduces the mass (about 3% vs LWR), average half life, heat and long term radio-toxicity of the disposal. Widespread implementation of EM2 fuel cycle is highly significant as it would increase world energy reserves; the remaining energy in U.S. LWR SNF alone exceeds that in the U.S. natural gas reserves. Unlike many LWR SNF disposition concepts, the EM2 fuel cycle conversion of SNF produces energy and associated revenue such that the overall project is cost effective. By providing conversion of SNF to fission products the fuel cycle is closed and a non-repository LWR SNF disposition path is created and overall repository requirements are significantly reduced. (authors)

  19. Post operation: The changing characteristics of nuclear fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental changes have occurred in the nuclear fuel cycle. These changes forged by market forces, legislative action, and regulatory climate appear to be a long term characteristic of the nuclear fuel cycle. The nature of these changes and the resulting emerging importance of post-operation and its impact on fuel cycle costs are examined

  20. Fast breeder fuel cycle, worldwide and French prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of fast breeder fuel cycle development from both the technological and the economical points of view. LMFBR fuel fabrication, reactor operation, spent fuel storage and transportation, reprocessing and fuel cycle economics are topics considered. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 10. Environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethington, J.A.; Razvi, J.; Grier, C.; Myrick, T.

    1981-12-01

    This educational module is devoted to the environmental considerations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Eight chapters cover: National Environmental Policy Act; environmental impact statements; environmental survey of the uranium fuel cycle; the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant; transport mechanisms; radiological hazards in uranium mining and milling operations; radiological hazards of uranium mill tailings; and the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel

  2. Thermal Cycling of Uranium Dioxide - Tungsten Cermet Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripshover, P.J.; Peterson, J.H.

    1969-12-08

    In phase I tungsten clad cermet fuel specimens were thermal cycled, to study the effects of fuel loading, fuel particle size, stablized fuel, duplex coatings, and fabrication techniques on dimensional stability during thermal cycling. In phase II the best combination of the factors studies in phase I were combined in one specimen for evaluation.

  3. Politics of nuclear power and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, R.

    2007-01-01

    -is likely to remain evolving depending on regional and global affairs. Opposition or support for nuclear technology is also likely to be a function of regional and global politics. In response to such pressures, IAEA is organizing a workshop of 140 countries to discuss proposals to guarantee countries' supply of nuclear fuel (September 19-21-, 2006; Vienna). Premise and Question: A single nuclear power plant in a country may be good for the prestige of the country, but such units are unlikely to make a major impact on the energy scene. Hence, in order for nuclear power to play a significant role, countries that decide to 'go nuclear,' would most likely want to diversify a significant fraction of their electricity generating capacity (and possibly heating and, in the future, hydrogen production) to nuclear, possibly requiring at least few and possibly many nuclear power plants. In order to proceed with the nuclear option, these countries would expect a certain level of long term assurance on the fuel supply. What is the kind of options that would satisfy the needs of these countries and at the same time addressing the non-proliferation concerns? Options: The options available to countries for their nuclear program can be categorized as follows. A. Fully indigenous program with complete development of power plants and fuel cycle. B. Fully or partly indigenous program for power plant development; while depending on international consortium for fuel supply and waste treatment. C. Rely on international consortia to build and operate all aspects of nuclear power plants (with local manpower). Others: A total of around fifty to seventy five countries are likely to be interested in nuclear power in the next fifty years. These can be divided in to the three groups (A-C) given above. It is likely that, with time, there will be some expectation to move to higher levels (C to B and B to A). Countries already in group A and those willing to start in group C do not pose an issue. It is

  4. Current options for the back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sue Ion

    2000-01-01

    Two strategic issues facing the nuclear industry are the claimed risks of (a) weapons proliferation, and (b) environmental contamination; both affect the choice between open and closed fuel cycles. The choice for plutonium lies between supposedly permanent disposal and bumming/utilisation as a fuel. Disposal while never irretrievable could create an economically decisive obstacle to constructive use of material of great value for future global energy. Utilisation in energy supply will both restrict access to separated stockpiles and allow the inventory size to be managed with efficient use of this energy resource. Recycling recovers valuable materials for further use and allows the spent fuel stockpile to be managed. However, risk of diversion to weapon proliferation depends not on the extent of plutonium stocks but on access to a minute proportion of them, and would not be directly altered by any foreseeable increase or reduction in the well managed inventory. A key issue is to decide how in future to recover from the fuel cycle the accessible stock required to sustain it. The fear of environmental contamination is principally based on increasingly disputed health risks from radiation well below the variation in natural levels. Neither this nor the proliferation issue appears to justify insisting on the once through cycle and so wasting a finite resource that will almost certainly be needed in the coming decades. (author)

  5. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered. The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle and legal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji; Kaneko, Koji.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle is regulated as a whole in Japan by the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors (hereafter referred to as ''the law concerning regulation of reactors''), which was published in 1957, and has been amended 13 times. The law seeks to limit the use of atomic energy to peaceful objects, and nuclear fuel materials are controlled centering on the regulation of enterprises which employ nuclear fuel materials, namely regulating each enterprise. While the permission and report of uses are necessary for the employment of nuclear materials under Article 52 and 61 of the law concerning regulation of reactors, the permission provisions are not applied to three kinds of enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors as the exceptions in Article 52, when nuclear materials are used for the objects of the enterprises themselves. The enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors are stipulated respectively in the law. Accordingly the nuclear material regulations are applied only to the users of small quantity of such materials, namely universities, research institutes and hospitals. The nuclear fuel materials used in Japan which are imported under international contracts including the nuclear energy agreements between two countries are mostly covered by the security measures of IAEA as internationally controlled substances. (Okada, K.)

  7. The uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, A.; Allardice, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    All power-producing systems have an associated fuel cycle covering the history of the fuel from its source to its eventual sink. Most, if not all, of the processes of extraction, preparation, generation, reprocessing, waste treatment and transportation are involved. With thermal nuclear reactors more than one fuel cycle is possible, however it is probable that the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle will become predominant; in this cycle the fuel is mined, usually enriched, fabricated, used and then reprocessed. The useful components of the fuel, the uranium and the plutonium, are then available for further use, the waste products are treated and disposed of safely. This particular thermal reactor fuel cycle is essential if the fast breeder reactor (FBR) using plutonium as its major fuel is to be used in a power-producing system, because it provides the necessary initial plutonium to get the system started. In this paper the authors only consider the FBR using plutonium as its major fuel, at present it is the type envisaged in all, current national plans for FBR power systems. The corresponding fuel cycle, the uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle, is basically the same as the thermal reactor fuel cycle - the fuel is used and then reprocessed to separate the useful components from the waste products, the useful uranium and plutonium are used again and the waste disposed of safely. However the details of the cycle are significantly different from those of the thermal reactor cycle. (Auth.)

  8. Advanced fuel cycles options for LWRs and IMF benchmark definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breza, J.; Darilek, P.; Necas, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the paper, different advanced nuclear fuel cycles including thorium-based fuel and inert-matrix fuel are examined under light water reactor conditions, especially VVER-440, and compared. Two investigated thorium based fuels include one solely plutonium-thorium based fuel and the second one plutonium-thorium based fuel with initial uranium content. Both of them are used to carry and burn or transmute plutonium created in the classical UOX cycle. The inert-matrix fuel consist of plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent UOX fuel fixed in Yttria-stabilised zirconia matrix. The article shows analysed fuel cycles and their short description. The conclusion is concentrated on the rate of Pu transmutation and Pu with minor actinides cumulating in the spent advanced thorium fuel and its comparison to UOX open fuel cycle. Definition of IMF benchmark based on presented scenario is given. (authors)

  9. Health effects attributable to coal and nuclear fuel cycle alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation in approximately the 1975-1985 period. It was concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel cycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public

  10. Prospective studies of HTR fuel cycles involving plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Greneche, D.; Carre, F.; Damian, F.; Doriath, J.Y.

    2002-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled reactors (HTRs) are able to accommodate a wide variety of mixtures of fissile and fertile materials without any significant modification of the core design. This flexibility is due to an uncoupling between the parameters of cooling geometry, and the parameters which characterize neutronic optimisation (moderation ratio or heavy nuclide concentration and distribution). Among other advantageous features, an HTR core has a better neutron economy than a LWR because there is much less parasitic capture in the moderator (capture cross section of graphite is 100 times less than the one of water) and in internal structures. Moreover, thanks to the high resistance of the coated particles, HTR fuels are able to reach very high burn-ups, far beyond the possibilities offered by other fuels (except the special case of molten salt reactors). These features make HTRs especially interesting for closing the nuclear fuel cycle and stabilizing the plutonium inventory. A large number of fuel cycle studies are already available today, on 3 main categories of fuel cycles involving HTRs : i) High enriched uranium cycle, based on thorium utilization as a fertile material and HEU as a fissile material; ii) Low enriched uranium cycle, where only LEU is used (from 5% to 12%); iii) Plutonium cycle based on the utilization of plutonium only as a fissile material, with (or without) fertile materials. Plutonium consumption at high burnups in HTRs has already been tested with encouraging results under the DRAGON project and at Peach Bottom. To maximize plutonium consumption, recent core studies have also been performed on plutonium HTR cores, with special emphasis on weapon-grade plutonium consumption. In the following, we complete the picture by a core study for a HTR burning reactor-grade plutonium. Limits in burnup due to core neutronics are investigated for this type of fuel. With these limits in mind, we study in some detail the Pu cycle in the special case of a

  11. Outlook on to fuel cycle perspectives at WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, S.; Bajgl, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current internal fuel cycle in NPP Dukovany 4x440 MWe is shortly characterized with new types of fuel assemblies and advanced fuel cycles which have been introduced in the last years. The modernization activities accomplished until now might be extrapolated to the further period in fuel design - mechanic, thermal-hydraulic and neutronic respectively - with additional increase in fuel enrichments and burnups on the way to the 6-year cycle. Reaktor power up rating together with Unit thermal efficiency improvements could bring an increase in the electric output to the value nearly 500 MWe. The reasons are given for long-term cooperation with Fuel Supplier and Plant Designer in the area of fuel cycle as well as in Unit Design Basis. All innovations mentioned in the article including future fuel and fuel cycle changes might be a quite realistic perspective at the end of the first decade of the new century (Authors)

  12. Prospects for Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, S.; Hallenstein, C.

    1988-05-01

    A review of recent overseas developments in the nuclear industry by The Northern Territory Department of Mines and Energy suggests that there are market prospects in all stages of the fuel cycle. Australia could secure those markets through aggressive marketing and competitive prices. This report gives a profile of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear fuel cycle technologies, and describes the prospects of Australian involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. It concludes that the nuclear fuel cycle industry has the potential to earn around $10 billion per year in export income. It recommend that the Federal Government: (1) re-examines its position on the Slayter recommendation (1984) that Australia should develop new uranium mines and further stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, and (2) gives it's in-principle agreement to the Northern Territory to seek expressions of interest from the nuclear industry for the establishment of an integrated nuclear fuel cycle industry in the Northern Territory

  13. Closed Cycle Solar Refrigeration with the Calcium Chloride System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A closed cycle solid absorption intermittent refrigerator, using CaC12 absorbent and NH3 refrigerant, was constructed and tested to obtain the instantaneous and cumulative available overall COP. The combined collector/absorber/generator unit had double glazing of 1.14 m2 exposed areas. The system was fitted with a ...

  14. International fuel cycle centres offer large economics and easier financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    1977-01-01

    The summary report of the IAEA study project on multi-national regional nuclear fuel cycle indicates that for facilities of reasonable size such projects offer very decisive advantages in fuel cycle costs and resource availability over national facilities in general, and more markedly over the other alternative of the open ended, non-recycle fuel route. The economic evaluation of alternative fuel cycle strategies, one of the basic studies summarised in the report, is considered. (author)

  15. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  16. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevants amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs

  17. Environmentally important radionuclides in nonproliferative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.V.; Till, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Our analyses indicate that more in-depth research should be done on 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 232 U, especially because of their presence in nonproliferative fuel cycles. For increased 3 H production by fast reactors, we can only speculate that such research could show that environmental releases might be significantly greater than for LWRs. Carbon-14 will likely not be a problem if a suitable decontamination factor can be agreed upon for reprocessing facilities and if a satisfactory regulatory limit can be established for global populations. Additional experimental research is urgently needed to determine the uptake of low levels of 99 Tc by plants. These data are essential before an accurate assessment of 99 Tc releases can be made. Finally, we recommend that investigators take a closer look at the potential problems associated with 232 U and daughters. This radionuclide could contribute a significant portion of the dose in both environmental and occupational exposures from the nonproliferative fuels

  18. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Momose, T.; Furuta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. (authors)

  19. Regeneration and localization of radioactive waste in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.N.; Kudryavtsev, E.G.; Nikipelov, B.V.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Mamaev, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Normal functioning of the nuclear-power industry is only possible with a closed fuel cycle, including regeneration of the spent fuel from atomic power plants, the production and recycling of the secondary fuel, and localization of the radioactive waste. Despite the diversity of contemporary attitudes toward the structure of the nuclear fuel cycle around the world, the closure of the fuel cycle has been fundamental to the atomic-power industry in the USSR since the very beginning, and has taken on even greater significance in Russia today. From the beginning, the idea of a closed fuel cycle has been based essentially on one fundamental criterion: the concept of expanded productivity on the basis of fuel regeneration, i.e., the economic factor. Important as economic factors are, safety issues have taken on great significance in recent years: not only power-station reactors but all the ancillary stages of the fuel cycle must meet fundamentally new reliability, safety, and environmental hazards. The RT-1 plant is a versatile operation, regenerating spent fuel from VVER-440, BN-350, and BN-600 reactors, nuclear icebreakers and submarines, research reactors, and other power units. The plant can reprocess 400 ton/year of basic VVER-440 fuel. World-class modern processes have been introduced at the plant, meeting the necessary quality standards: zonal planning, remote operation to eliminate direct contact of the staff with radioactive material, extensive monitoring and control systems, multistage gas-purification systems, and new waste-treatment methods

  20. Some strategic considerations on the development of advance nuclear fuel cycle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhongmao

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the different fuel cycle options are analyzed from the view point of sustainable development of nuclear fission energy. It is pointed out that the 'once-through' option of fuel cycle does not comply with the sustainability of the nuclear energy development. For the sake of full utilization of uranium resources and the minimization of nuclear waste, the closed fuel cycle of fast breeder reactor is the fundamental way out for the sustainable development of nuclear fission energy. Based on the wide investigations on the present status and R and D trends of the key technologies of fuel cycle both at home and abroad, the strategy for developing China's fuel cycle technologies is explored, some important measures to be taken for achieving the above strategic goal are suggested. (authors)

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle requirements in WOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, P.

    1982-02-01

    OECD/NEA will publsih an updated version of its study 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle Requirements and Supply Considerations, Through the Long-Term.' The Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe (KfK) was involved in the work necessary to provide this book. Although KfK had only responsiblility for part of the required computations it performed all the calculations for its own documentation interests. This documentation was felt to be a helpful background material for the reader of the second 'Yellow Book'. In this sense the original strategy computer outprints are published now without any discussion of assumptions and results. (orig.) [de

  2. The actual state of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Masako

    2014-01-01

    The describing author's claims are as follows: a new mythology, semi made-in Japan energy, which 'the energy fundamental plan' creates; what is a nuclear fuel cycle?; operation processes in a reprocessing plant; the existing state against a recycle in dream; does a recycle reduce waste masses?; discharged liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes; an evaluation of exposure 'the value 22 μSv is irresponsible'; the putting off of waste problem in reprocessing; a guide in reprocessing; should a reprocessing be a duty of electric power companies? (M.H.)

  3. Current Comparison of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Trond Bjornard; Brent Dixon; Robert Hill; Gretchen Matthern; David Shropshire

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares potential nuclear fuel cycle strategies--once-through, recycling in thermal reactors, sustained recycle with a mix of thermal and fast reactors, and sustained recycle with fast reactors. Initiation of recycle starts the draw-down of weapons-usable material and starts accruing improvements for geologic repositories and energy sustainability. It reduces the motivation to search for potential second geologic repository sites. Recycle in thermal-spectrum nuclear reactors achieves several recycling objectives; fast nuclear reactors achieve all of them

  4. The social cost of fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.; Bann, C.; Georgiou, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the UK Department of Energy. Its purpose is to survey the available literature on the monetary estimation of the social costs of energy production and use. We focus on the social costs of electricity production. The report is not intended to convey original research. Nonetheless, the report does take various estimates of social cost and shows how they might be converted to monetary 'social cost surcharges' or externality adders in a UK context. It is also important to appreciate that the literature surveyed is on the monetary costs of fuel cycles. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle: reprocessing. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.B.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on the reprocessing portion of the nuclear fuel cycle included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  6. Overview of the CANDU fuel handling system for advanced fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, D.J.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Because of its neutron economies and on-power re-fuelling capabilities the CANDU system is ideally suited for implementing advanced fuel cycles because it can be adapted to burn these alternative fuels without major changes to the reactor. The fuel handling system is adaptable to implement advanced fuel cycles with some minor changes. Each individual advanced fuel cycle imposes some new set of special requirements on the fuel handling system that is different from the requirements usually encountered in handling the traditional natural uranium fuel. These changes are minor from an overall plant point of view but will require some interesting design and operating changes to the fuel handling system. Some preliminary conceptual design has been done on the fuel handling system in support of these fuel cycles. Some fuel handling details were studies in depth for some of the advanced fuel cycles. This paper provides an overview of the concepts and design challenges. (author)

  7. Optimization of fuel cycles: marginal loss values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Lasteyrie, B. de; Doumerc, J.

    1965-01-01

    Uranium processing from the pit to the fuel element rod entails metal losses at every step. These losses become more and more expensive with the elaboration of the metal. Some of the uranium must be accepted as definitely lost whilst the rest could be recovered and recycled. The high cost of these losses, whether they are recycled or not, and the fact that the higher the enrichment is the higher their costs are, make it necessary to take them into account when optimizing fuel cycles. It is therefore felt important to determine their most desirable level from an economic point of view at the various nuclear fuel processing stages. However, in France as in some other countries, fissile material production is a state concern, whilst fuel element fabrication is carried out by private enterprise. Optimization criteria and the economic value of losses are therefore different for each of the two links in the fabrication chain. One can try in spite of this to reach an optimum which would conform to public interest, without interfering with the firm's sales policy. This entails using the fact that for a given output marginal costs are equal at the optimum. One can therefore adjust the level of the losses to attain this equation of marginal costs, as these are easier to obtain from the firm than a justification of the actual prices. One notices moreover that, although mainly concerned with losses, this global analysis can bring both the state and the firm to a better use of other production factors. An account is given of the theory of this economic optimization method and practical applications in the field of natural uranium-graphite moderated and CO 2 cooled reactor fuel element fabrication are offered. (authors) [fr

  8. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  9. Proceeding of the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sastratenaya, A.S.; Sutarno, D.

    2000-01-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium, held on 22 February in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 35 papers indexed individually. (id)

  10. Safeguards operations in the integral fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Brumbach, S.B.; Dickerman, C.E.; Tompot, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is currently demonstrating the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The safeguards aspects of the fuel cycle demonstration must be approved by the United States Department of Energy, but a further goal of the program is to develop a safeguards system that could gain acceptance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and International Atomic Energy Agency. This fuel cycle is described with emphasis on aspects that differ from aqueous reprocessing and on its improved safeguardability due to decreased attractiveness and diversion potential of all process streams, including the fuel product

  11. Survey of nuclear fuel cycle economics: 1970--1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, B.E.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Delene, J.G.

    1977-03-01

    This report is intended to provide a coherent view of the diversity of factors that may affect nuclear fuel cycle economics through about 1985. The nuclear fuel cycle was surveyed as to past trends, current problems, and future considerations. Unit costs were projected for each step in the fuel cycle. Nuclear fuel accounting procedures were reviewed; methods of calculating fuel costs were examined; and application was made to Light Water Reactors (LWR) over the next decade. A method conforming to Federal Power Commission accounting procedures and used by utilities to account for backend fuel-cycle costs was described which assigns a zero net salvage value to discharged fuel. LWR fuel cycle costs of from 4 to 6 mills/kWhr (1976 dollars) were estimated for 1985. These are expected to reach 6 to 9 mills/kWr if the effect of inflation is included

  12. Fuel cycle cost analysis on molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro

    1976-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the fuel cycle costs for molten-salt reactors (MSR's), developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Eight combinations of conditions affecting fuel cycle costs are compared, covering 233 U-Th, 235 U-Th and 239 Pu-Th fuels, with and without on-site continuous fuel reprocessing. The resulting fuel cycle costs range from 0.61 to 1.18 mill/kWh. A discussion is also given on the practicability of these fuel cycles. The calculations indicate that somewhat lower fuel cycle costs can be expected from reactor operation in converter mode on 235 U make-up with fuel reprocessed in batches every 10 years to avoid fission product precipitation, than from operation as 233 U-Th breeder with continuous reprocessing. (auth.)

  13. Modifications to HFEF/S for IFR fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Forrester, R.J.; Carnes, M.D.; Rigg, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Modifications have begun to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) in order to demonstrate the technology of the integral fast reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. This paper describes the status of the modifications to the facility and briefly reviews the status of the development of the process equipment. The HFEF/S was the demonstration facility for the early Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) melt refining/injection-casting fuel cycle. Then called the Fuel Cycle Facility, ∼400 EBR-II fuel assemblies were recycled in the two hot cells of the facility during the 1964-69 period. Since then it has been utilized as a fuels examination facility. The objective of the IFR fuel cycle program is to upgrade HFEF/S to current standards, install new process equipment, and demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the IFR pyroprocess fuel cycle

  14. Performance review: PBMR closed cycle gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.N.; Tourlidakis, A.; Pilidis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Helium is considered as one of the ideal working fluid for closed cycle using nuclear heat source due to its low neutron absorption as well as high thermodynamic properties. The commercial viability of the Helium turbo machinery depends on operational success. The past attempts failed due to poor performances manifested in the form of drop in efficiency, inability to reach maximum load, slow response to the transients etc. Radical changes in the basic design were suggested in some instances as possible solutions. A better understanding of the operational performance is necessary for the detailed design of the plant and the control systems. This paper describes the theory behind the off design and transient modelling of a closed cycle gas turbine plant. A computer simulation model has been created specifically for this cycle. The model has been tested for various turbine entry temperatures along the steady state and its replications at various locations were observed. The paper also looks at the various control methods available for a closed cycle and some of the options were simulated. (author)

  15. Development of dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Isao; Seki, Yasushi [Department of Fusion Engineering Research, Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Shintani, Kiyonori; Kim, Yeong-Chan

    1999-02-01

    A dynamic simulation code for fuel cycle of a fusion experimental reactor has been developed. The code follows the fuel inventory change with time in the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system during 2 days pulse operation cycles. The time dependence of the fuel inventory distribution is evaluated considering the fuel burn and exhaust in the plasma chamber, purification and supply functions. For each subsystem of the plasma chamber and the fuel cycle system, the fuel inventory equation is written based on the equation of state considering the fuel burn and the function of exhaust, purification, and supply. The processing constants of subsystem for steady states were taken from the values in the ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) report. Using this code, the time dependence of the fuel supply and inventory depending on the burn state and subsystem processing functions are shown. (author)

  16. EPA requirements for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The draft Environmental Statement issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States in preparation for Proposed Rulemaking Action concerning 'Environmental radiation protection requirements for normal operations of activities in the uranium fuel cycle' is summarized and discussed. The standards proposed by the EPA limit the annual dose equivalents to any member of the public, and also the releases of radionuclides to the 'general environment' for each gigawatt year of electrical energy produced. These standards were based on cost effectiveness arguements and levels and correspond to the ICRP recommendation to keep all exposures as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. They should be clearly distinguished from dose limits, although the EPA does not make this at all clear. The EPA seems to have shown an unexpected lack of understanding of the recommendations of ICRP Publication 9 (1965) and an apparent unawareness of ICRP Publication 22 (1973), and has therefore wrongly presented the new standards as a significant change in policy. The EPA has reviewed the information on the likely level of dose equivalents to members of the public and the likely cost reductions, thereby quantifying existing principles as applied to the fuel cycle as a whole. The EPA has stated that its proposals could be achieved as a cost in the region of Pound100,000 per death (or major genetic defect). It is pointed out that the EPA's use of the term 'waste' to exclude liquid and gaseous effluents may cause confusion. (U.K.)

  17. Status of reprocessing technology in the HTGR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, G.; Merz, E.; Zimmer, E.

    1977-01-01

    For more than ten years extensive R and D work has been carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in order to develop the technology necessary for closing the fuel cycle of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The efforts are concentrated primarily on fuel elements having either highly enriched 235 U or recycled 233 U as the fissile and thorium as the fertile material embedded in a graphite matrix. They include the development of processes and equipment for reprocessing and remote preparation of coated microspheres from the recovered uranium. The paper reviews the issues and problems associated with the requirements to deal with high burn-up fuel from HTGR's of different design and composition. It is anticipated that a grind-burn-leach head-end treatment and a modified THOREX-type chemical processing are the optimum choice for the flowsheet. An overview of the present status achieved in construction of a small reprocessing facility, called JUPITER, is presented. It includes a discussion of problems which have already been solved and which have still to be solved like the treatment of feed/breed particle systems and for minimizing environmental impacts envisaged with a HTGR fuel cycle technology. Also discussed is the present status of remote fuel kernel fabrication and coating technology. Additional activities include the design of a mock-up prototype burning head-end facility, called VENUS, with a throughput equivalent to about 6000 MW installed electrical power, as well as a preliminary study for the utilisation of the Karlsruhe LWR prototype reprocessing plant (WAK) to handle HTGR fuel after remodelling of the installations. The paper concludes with an outlook of projects for the future

  18. Development of FR fuel cycle in japan (1) development scope of fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Funasaka, H.; Namekawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    A fast reactor (FR) cycle has a potential to realize a sustainable energy supply system that is harmonized with environment by fully recycling both uranium (U) and transuranium (TRU) elements. In Japan, a Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems (FS) was launched in July 1999, and through two different study phases, a final report was presented in 2006. As a result of FS, a combined system of sodium-cooled FR with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, advanced aqueous reprocessing and simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was considered to be most promising for commercialization. The advanced aqueous reprocessing system, which is called the New Extraction system for TRU recovery (NEXT), consists of a U crystallization process for the bulk of U recovery, a simplified solvent extraction process for residual U, plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np) without Pu partitioning and purification, and a process for recovering americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from the raffinate. The ratio of Pu/U concentration in the mother solution after crystallization is adequate for MOX fuel fabrication, and thus complicated powder mixing processes for adjusting Pu content in MOX fuel can be eliminated in the subsequent simplified fuel fabrication system. In this system, lubricant-mixing process can also be eliminated by adopting the advanced technology in which lubricant is coated on the inner surface of a die before fuel powder supply. Such a simplification could help us overcoming the difficulty to treat MA bearing fuel powders in a hot cell. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reviewed these results of FS in 2006 and identified the most promising FR cycle concept proposed in the FS phase II study as a mainline choice for commercialization. According to such a governmental assessment, R and D activities of FR cycle systems were decided to be concentrated mainly to the innovative technology development for the mainline concept. The stage of R and D project was

  19. Fuel-management simulations for once-through thorium fuel cycle in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, P.S.W.; Boczar, P.G.; Ellis, R.J.; Ardeshiri, F.

    1999-01-01

    High neutron economy, on-power refuelling and a simple fuel bundle design result in unsurpassed fuel cycle flexibility for CANDU reactors. These features facilitate the introduction and exploitation of thorium fuel cycles in existing CANDU reactors in an evolutionary fashion. Detailed full-core fuel-management simulations concluded that a once-through thorium fuel cycle can be successfully implemented in an existing CANDU reactor without requiring major modifications. (author)

  20. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruezière, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  1. Regional fuel cycle centres for South and South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.I.

    1977-01-01

    A brief preliminary analysis of the economic feasibility of regional fuel cycle centres in South and South-East Asia is presented. The indicative break-even costs and break-even plant sizes for the various fuel cycle services are estimated and the timing for their establishment on the basis of IAEA and ESCAP nuclear power projections in the region are shown. The paper discusses the need for achieving regional self-sufficiency for nuclear fuel services and suggests that a detailed study should be undertaken by the IAEA in close co-operation with the countries of the region to find out their requirements for nuclear fuel services. (author)

  2. Hematite nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company LLC ('Westinghouse') acquired a nuclear fuel processing plant at Hematite, Missouri ('Hematite', the 'Facility', or the 'Plant') in April 2000. The plant has subsequently been closed, and its operations have been relocated to a newer, larger facility. Westinghouse has announced plans to complete its clean-up, decommissioning, and license retirement in a safe, socially responsible, and environmentally sound manner as required by internal policies, as well as those of its parent company, British Nuclear Fuels plc. ('BNFL'). Preliminary investigations have revealed the presence of environmental contamination in various areas of the facility and grounds, including both radioactive contamination and various other substances related to the nuclear fuel processing operations. The disparity in regulatory requirements for radiological and nonradiological contaminants, the variety of historic and recent operations, and the number of previous owners working under various contractual arrangements for both governmental and private concerns has resulted in a complex project. This paper discusses Westinghouse's efforts to develop and implement a comprehensive decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) strategy for the facility and grounds. (author)

  3. Fuel cycle centers revisited: Consolidation of fuel cycle activities in a few countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Despite varied expressions, the general impression remains that the international fuel cycle center concept, whatever its merits, is visionary. It also is quite possibly unattainable in light of strong national pressures toward independence and self-sufficiency in all things nuclear. Is the fuel cycle center an idea that has come and gone? Is it an idea whose time has not yet come? Or is it, as this paper suggests, an idea that has already arrived on the scene, attracting little attention or even acknowledgement of its presence? The difficult in answering this questions arises, in part, from the fact that despite its long and obvious appeal, there has been very little systematic analysis of the concept itself. Such obvious questions as how many and where fuel cycle centers should be located; what characteristics should the hot country or countries possess; and what are the institutional forms or features that endow the concept with enhanced proliferation protection have rarely been seriously and systematically addressed. The title of this paper focuses on limiting the geographic spread of fuel cycle facilities, and some may suggest that doing so does not necessarily call for any type of international or multinational arrangements applicable to those that exist. It is a premise of this paper, however, that a restriction on the number of countries possessing sensitive fuel cycle facilities necessarily involves some degree of multinationalization. This is not only because in every instance a nonproliferation pledge and international or multinational safeguards, or both, will be applied to the facility, but also because a restriction on the number of countries possessing these facilities implies that those in existence will serve a multinational market. This feature in itself is an important form of international auspices. Thus, the two concepts--limitation and multinationalization--if not necessarily one and the same, are at least de facto corollaries

  4. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M. [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Cadarache (France)

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  5. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part5) - DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hang Bok; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the economics of the DUPIC fuel cycle using unit costs of fuel cycle components estimated based on conceptual designs. The fuel cycle cost (FCC) was calculated by a deterministic method in which reference values of fuel cycle components are used. The FCC was then analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation to get the uncertainty of the FCC associated with the unit costs of the fuel cycle components. From the deterministic analysis on the one-batch equilibrium fuel cycle model, the DUPIC FCC was estimated to be 6.55-6.72 mills/kWh for proposed DUPIC fuel options, which is a little smaller than that of the once-through FCC by 0.04-0.28 mills/kWh. Considering the uncertainty (0.45-0.51 mills/kWh) of the FCC estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cost difference between the DUPIC and once-through fuel cycle is negligible. On the other hand, the material balance calculation has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle can save natural uranium resources by -20% and reduce the spent fuel arising by -65%, compared with the once-through fuel cycle. In conclusion, the DUPIC fuel cycle possesses a strong advantage over the once-through fuel cycle from the viewpoint of the environmental effect

  6. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part5) - DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hang Bok; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-08-01

    This study examines the economics of the DUPIC fuel cycle using unit costs of fuel cycle components estimated based on conceptual designs. The fuel cycle cost (FCC) was calculated by a deterministic method in which reference values of fuel cycle components are used. The FCC was then analyzed by a Monte Carlo simulation to get the uncertainty of the FCC associated with the unit costs of the fuel cycle components. From the deterministic analysis on the one-batch equilibrium fuel cycle model, the DUPIC FCC was estimated to be 6.55-6.72 mills/kWh for proposed DUPIC fuel options, which is a little smaller than that of the once-through FCC by 0.04-0.28 mills/kWh. Considering the uncertainty (0.45-0.51 mills/kWh) of the FCC estimated by the Monte Carlo simulation method, the cost difference between the DUPIC and once-through fuel cycle is negligible. On the other hand, the material balance calculation has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle can save natural uranium resources by -20% and reduce the spent fuel arising by -65%, compared with the once-through fuel cycle. In conclusion, the DUPIC fuel cycle possesses a strong advantage over the once-through fuel cycle from the viewpoint of the environmental effect.

  7. Performance concerns for high duty fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, V.J.; Gutierrez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of the nuclear industry is to achieve economic performance such that nuclear power plants are competitive in a de-regulated market. The manner in which nuclear fuel is designed and operated lies at the heart of economic viability. In this sense reliability, operating flexibility and low costs are the three major requirements of the NPP today. The translation of these three requirements to the design is part of our work. The challenge today is to produce a fuel design which will operate with long operating cycles, high discharge burnup, power up-rating and while still maintaining all design and safety margins. European Fuel Group (EFG) understands that to achieve the required performance high duty/energy fuel designs are needed. The concerns for high duty design includes, among other items, core design methods, advanced Safety Analysis methodologies, performance models, advanced material and operational strategies. The operational aspects require the trade-off and evaluation of various parameters including coolant chemistry control, material corrosion, boiling duty, boron level impacts, etc. In this environment MAEF is the design that EFG is now offering based on ZIRLO alloy and a robust skeleton. This new design is able to achieve 70 GWd/tU and Lead Test Programs are being executed to demonstrate this capability. A number of performance issues which have been a concern with current designs have been resolved such as cladding corrosion and incomplete RCCA insertion (IRI). As the core duty becomes more aggressive other new issues need to be addressed such as Axial Offset Anomaly. These new issues are being addressed by combination of the new design in concert with advanced methodologies to meet the demanding needs of NPP. The ability and strategy to meet high duty core requirements, flexibility of operation and maintain acceptable balance of all technical issues is the discussion in this paper. (authors)

  8. Analysis of environmental friendliness of DUPIC fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2001-07-01

    Some properties of irradiated DUPIC fuels are compared with those of other fuel cycles. It was indicated that the toxicity of the DUPIC option based on 1 GWe-yr is much smaller than those of other fuel cycle options, and is just about half the order of magnitude of other fuel cycles. From the activity analysis of 99 Tc and 237 Np, which are important to the long-term transport of fission products stored in geologic media, the DUPIC option, was being contained only about half of those other options. It was found from the actinide content estimation that the MOX option has the lowest plutonium arising based on 1 GWe-year and followed by the DUPIC option. However, fissile Pu content generated in the DUPIC fuel was the lowest among the fuel cycle options. From the analysis of radiation barrier in proliferation resistance aspect, the fresh DUPIC fuel can play a radiation barrier part, better than CANDU spent fuels as well as fresh MOX fuel. It is indicated that the DUPIC fuel cycle has the excellent resistance to proliferation, compared with an existing reprocessing option and CANDU once-through option. In conclusions, DUPIC fuel cycle would have good properties on environmental effect and proliferation resistance, compared to other fuel cycle cases

  9. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  10. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  11. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  12. Regulation of fuel cycle facilities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascroft-Hutton, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The UK has facilities for the production of uranium hexafluoride, its enrichment, conversion into fuel and for the subsequent reprocessing of irradiated fuel and closure of the fuel cycle. All of these facilities must be licensed under UK legislation. HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate has delegated powers to issue the licence and to attach any conditions it considers necessary in the interests of safety. The fuel cycle facilities in the UK have been licensed since 1971. This paper describes briefly the UK nuclear regulatory framework and the fuel cycle facilities involved. It considers the regulatory practices adopted together with similarities and differences between regulation of fuel cycle facilities and power reactors. The safety issues associated with the fuel cycle are discussed and NII's regulatory strategy for these facilities is set out. (author)

  13. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The coordinated research project on Improvement of Models Used For Fuel Behaviour Simulation (FUMEX II) is also presented

  14. Preparations for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility-South (HFEF/S) have been in progress since mid-1988 to ready the facility for demonstration of the unique Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) pyroprocess fuel cycle. This paper updates the last report on this subject to the American Nuclear Society and describes the progress made in the modifications to the facility and in fabrication of the new process equipment. The IFR is a breeder reactor, which is central to the capability of any reactor concept to contribute to mitigation of environmental impacts of fossil fuel combustion. As a fast breeder, fuel of course must be recycled in order to have any chance of an economical fuel cycle. The pyroprocess fuel cycle, relying on a metal alloy reactor fuel rather than oxide, has the potential to be economical even at small-scale deployment. Establishing this quantitatively is one important goal of the IFR fuel cycle demonstration

  15. International development within the spent nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggeryd, I.; Broden, K.; Gelin, R.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives a survey of the newest international development of the fuel processing and the spent nuclear fuel cycle. The transmutation technology of long lived nuclides is discussed in more details. (K.A.E)

  16. Status of the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States. The United States is undertaking a complete reexamination of its entire breeder program strategy, and the direction of the new program is not yet clear. Studies in progress to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs are summarized

  17. Part 6. Internationalization and collocation of FBR fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.G.; Abramson, P.B.; LeSage, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines some of the non-proliferation, technical, and institutional aspects of internationalization and/or collocation of major facilities of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) fuel cycle. The national incentives and disincentives for establishment of FBR Fuel Cycle Centers are enumerated. The technical, legal, and administrative considerations in determining the feasibility of FBR Fuel Cycle Centers are addressed by making comparisons with Light Water Reactor (LWR) centers which have been studied in detail by the IAEA and UNSRC

  18. Health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to give a generic description of health and environmental aspects of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Primarily the report is meant to stand alone; however, because of the content of the publication and in the context of the DECADES project, it may serve as a means of introducing specialists in other fuel cycles to the nuclear fuel cycle. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Hircq, B.; Meikle, A.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevant amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Ciclon: A neutronic fuel management program for PWR's consecutive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The program description and user's manual of a new computer code is given. Ciclon performs the neutronic calculation of consecutive reload cycles for PWR's fuel management optimization. Fuel characteristics and burnup data, region or batch sizes, loading schemes and state of previously irradiated fuel are input to the code. Cycle lengths or feed enrichments and burnup sharing for each region or batch are calculate using different core neutronic models and printed or punched in standard fuel management format. (author) [es