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Sample records for closed form expressions

  1. Estimation of Ship Motions Using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A.E.; Olsen, Anders Smærup

    2004-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions for the wave-induced motions for monohull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main dimensions: Length, breadth, draught, block...

  2. Some closed form expressions for the generalized secant integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadarajah, Saralees

    2007-01-01

    The generalized secant integrals of the form I a (ψ,b)=b a ∫ 0 ψ exp(-bsecθ)(secθ) a dθ for b>0 and 0 a (ψ,b) have been known except when both a and ψ are fixed. In this note, we provide several closed form expressions for I a (ψ,b) applicable for a wide range of values of a and b. We establish their numerical accuracy over the methods presented in Michieli [1998. Point kernel calculations of dose fields from line sources using expanded polynomial form of buildup factor data: generalized secant integral series representations. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 51, 121-128; 2001. Some properties of generalized secant integrals: extended definition and recurrence relations. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 60, 551-554]. Finally, a simple computer program is provided for I a (ψ,b) that could be used widely

  3. Closed-Form Expressions for the Matrix Exponential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Zela

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a method to obtain closed-form expressions of f(A, where f is an analytic function and A a square, diagonalizable matrix. The method exploits the Cayley–Hamilton theorem and has been previously reported using tools that are perhaps not sufficiently appealing to physicists. Here, we derive the results on which the method is based by using tools most commonly employed by physicists. We show the advantages of the method in comparison with standard approaches, especially when dealing with the exponential of low-dimensional matrices. In contrast to other approaches that require, e.g., solving differential equations, the present method only requires the construction of the inverse of the Vandermonde matrix. We show the advantages of the method by applying it to different cases, mostly restricting the calculational effort to the handling of two-by-two matrices.

  4. Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...

  5. Closed-form expressions for integrals of MKdV and sine-Gordon maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Peter H van der; Rojas, O; Quispel, G R W

    2007-01-01

    We present closed-form expressions for approximately N integrals of 2N-dimensional maps. The maps are obtained by travelling wave reductions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and of the sine-Gordon equation, respectively. We provide the integrating factors corresponding to the integrals. Moreover we show how the integrals and the integrating factors relate to the staircase method

  6. Exact closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one-sided correlated Gram matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one sided-correlated random Gram matrices. Such a question is mainly motivated by applications in signal processing and wireless communications for which evaluating this quantity is a question of major interest. This is for instance the case of the best linear unbiased estimator, in which the average estimation error corresponds to the first inverse moment of a random Gram matrix.

  7. Exact closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one-sided correlated Gram matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the inverse moments of one sided-correlated random Gram matrices. Such a question is mainly motivated by applications in signal processing and wireless communications for which evaluating this quantity is a question of major interest. This is for instance the case of the best linear unbiased estimator, in which the average estimation error corresponds to the first inverse moment of a random Gram matrix.

  8. Nondestructive Semistatic Testing Methodology for Assessing Fish Textural Characteristics via Closed-Form Mathematical Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimogianopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology based on semistatic nondestructive testing of fish for the analytical computation of its textural characteristics via closed-form mathematical expressions. The novelty is that, unlike alternatives, explicit values for both stiffness and viscoelastic textural attributes may be computed, even if fish of different size/weight are tested. Furthermore, the testing procedure may be adapted to the specifications (sampling rate and accuracy of the available equipment. The experimental testing involves a fish placed on the pan of a digital weigh scale, which is subsequently tested with a ramp-like load profile in a custom-made installation. The ramp slope is (to some extent adjustable according to the specification (sampling rate and accuracy of the equipment. The scale’s reaction to fish loading, namely, the reactive force, is collected throughout time and is shown to depend on the fish textural attributes according to a closed-form mathematical formula. The latter is subsequently used along with collected data in order to compute these attributes rapidly and effectively. Four whole raw sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax of various sizes and textures were tested. Changes in texture, related to different viscoelastic characteristics among the four fish, were correctly detected and quantified using the proposed methodology.

  9. Exact closed form expressions for outage probability of GSC receivers over Rayleigh fading channel subject to self-interference

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Hasna, Mazen Omar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2010-01-01

    in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed-form expressions for outage probability of GSC RAKE receivers subject to self-interference over independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading

  10. A closed form expression for the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give a closed-form expression for the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y ) ∈ Fq(T)[X, Y ] for arbitrary q and prove a conjecture of Schweizer. A new identity involving the Catalan numbers plays a central role.......In this paper we give a closed-form expression for the Drinfeld modular polynomial ΦT (X, Y ) ∈ Fq(T)[X, Y ] for arbitrary q and prove a conjecture of Schweizer. A new identity involving the Catalan numbers plays a central role....

  11. Exact closed form expressions for outage probability of GSC receivers over Rayleigh fading channel subject to self-interference

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2010-11-01

    Previous work on performance analyses of generalized selection combining (GSC) RAKE receivers based on the signal to noise ratio focused on the development of methodologies to derive exact closed-form expressions for various performance measures. However, some open problems related to the performance evaluation of GSC RAKE receivers still remain to be solved such that an assessment of the impact of self-interference on the performance of GSC RAKE receivers. To have a full and exact understanding of the performance of GSC RAKE receivers, the outage probability of GSC RAKE receivers needs to be analyzed as closed-form expressions. The major difficulty in this problem is to derive some joint statistics of ordered exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed-form expressions for outage probability of GSC RAKE receivers subject to self-interference over independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels. © 2010 IEEE.

  12. Closed-form Capacity Expressions for the α-μ Fading Channel with SC Diversity under Different Adaptive Transmission Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Refaat; Ismail, Mahmoud H.; Newagy, Fatma; Mourad, Heba M.

    2013-03-01

    Stemming from the fact that the α-μ fading distribution is one of the very general fading models used in the literature to describe the small scale fading phenomenon, in this paper, closed-form expressions for the Shannon capacity of the α-μ fading channel operating under four main adaptive transmission strategies are derived assuming integer values for μ. These expressions are derived for the case of no diversity as well as for selection combining diversity with independent and identically distributed branches. The obtained expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature for the Weibull as well as the Rayleigh fading cases, which are both special cases of the α-μ channel. Numerical results are presented for the capacity under the four adaptive transmission strategies and the effect of the fading parameter as well as the number of diversity branches is studied.

  13. Closed-form expressions for time-frequency operations involving Hermite functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, C.W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    The product, convolution, correlation, Wigner distribution function (WDF) and ambiguity function (AF) of two Hermite functions of arbitrary order n and m are derived and expressed as a bounded, weighted sum of n+m Hermite functions. It was already known that these mathematical operations performed

  14. A new closed form expression for the total reaction cross-section of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1989-02-01

    A new analytical expression for the HI total reaction cross-section which exhibits the macroscopic features of the transparency factor is derived. Comparison with optical model calculation are made for the 12 C+ 208 Pb and 16 O + 208 Pb at several energies. (author)

  15. Kirchhoff approximation and closed-form expressions for atom-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper an approximate solution for atom-surface scattering is presented beyond the physical optics approximation. The potential is well represented by a hard corrugated surface but includes an attractive tail in front. The calculation is carried out analytically by two different methods, and the limit of validity of our formulas is well established in the text. In contrast with other workers, I find those expressions to be exact in both limits of small (Rayleigh region) and large momenta (classical region), with the correct behavior at the threshold. The result is attained through a particular use of the extinction theorem in writing the scattered amplitudes, hitherto not employed, and not for particular boundary values of the field. An explicit evaluation of the field on the surface shows in fact the present formulas to be simply related to the well known Kirchhoff approximation (KA) or more generally to an ''extended'' KA fit to the potential model above. A possible application of the theory to treat strong resonance-overlapping effects is suggested in the last part of the work

  16. Closed-form expressions for flip angle variation that maximize total signal in T1-weighted rapid gradient echo MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnitzky, Matthias; Klose, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequences are commonly employed for T1-weighted structural brain imaging. Following a contrast preparation radiofrequency (RF) pulse, the data acquisition proceeds under nonequilibrium conditions of the relaxing longitudinal magnetization. Variation of the flip angle can be used to maximize total available signal. Simulated annealing or greedy algorithms have so far been published to numerically solve this problem, with signal-to-noise ratios optimized for clinical imaging scenarios by adhering to a predefined shape of the signal evolution. We propose an unconstrained optimization of the MPRAGE experiment that employs techniques from resource allocation theory. A new dynamic programming solution is introduced that yields closed-form expressions for optimal flip angle variation. Flip angle series are proposed that maximize total transverse magnetization (Mxy) for a range of physiologic T1 values. A 3D MPRAGE sequence is modified to allow for a controlled variation of the excitation angle. Experiments employing a T1 contrast phantom are performed at 3T. 1D acquisitions without phase encoding permit measurement of the temporal development of Mxy. Image mean signal and standard deviation for reference flip angle trains are compared in 2D measurements. Signal profiles at sharp phantom edges are acquired to access image blurring related to nonuniform Mxy development. A novel closed-form expression for flip angle variation is found that constitutes the optimal policy to reach maximum total signal. It numerically equals previously published results of other authors when evaluated under their simplifying assumptions. Longitudinal magnetization (Mz) is exhaustively used without causing abrupt changes in the measured MR signal, which is a prerequisite for artifact free images. Phantom experiments at 3T verify the expected benefit for total accumulated k-space signal when compared with published flip angle series. Describing

  17. An Exact Closed-Form Expression for the BER of Binary Modulations with Dual-Branch Selection over Generalized-K Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2012-07-31

    Error performance is one of the main performance measures and the derivation of its closed-form expression has proved to be quite involved for certain systems. In this paper, a unified closed-form expression, applicable to different binary modulation schemes, for the bit error rate of dual-branch selection diversity based systems undergoing independent but not necessarily identically distributed generalized-K fading is derived in terms of the extended generalized bivariate Meijer G-function.

  18. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, Gudrun P.

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed.......We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is backlogged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed....

  19. Developing a closed-form cost expression for an (R, s, nQ) policy where the demand process is compound generalized Erlang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian; Kiesmüller, G.P

    2007-01-01

    We derive a closed-form cost expression for an (R,s,nQ) inventory control policy where all replenishment orders have a constant lead-time, unfilled demand is back-logged and inter-arrival times of order requests are generalized Erlang distributed. For given values of Q and R we show how to compute...

  20. A Poisson-like closed-form expression for the steady-state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jane Bernadette Denise M.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2017-08-01

    An approximate but closed-form expression for a Poisson-like steady state wealth distribution in a kinetic model of gambling was formulated from a finite number of its moments, which were generated from a βa,b(x) exchange distribution. The obtained steady-state wealth distributions have tails which are qualitatively similar to those observed in actual wealth distributions.

  1. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  2. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase....... Another application area is for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies. As one application example the container ship M/S Napoli is considered....

  3. A Simple Closed-Form Expression For Calculation Of The Electrospun Nanofiber Diameter By Using ABC Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Yilmaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The producing of nanofiber tissue scaffolds is quite important for enhancing success in tissue engineering. Electrospinning method is used frequently to produce of these scaffolds. In this study a simple and novel expression derived by using artificial bee colony ABC optimization algorithm is presented to calculate the average fiber diameter AFD of the electrospun gelatinbioactive glass GtBG scaffold. The diameter of the fiber produced by electrospinning technique depends on the various parameters like process solution and environmental parameters. The experimental results previously published in the literature which include one solution parameter BG content as well as two process parameters tip to collector distance and solution flow rate related to producing of electrospun GtBG nanofiber have been used for the optimization process. At first the AFD expression has been constructed with the use of the solution and process parameters and then the unknown coefficients belonging to this expression have been accurately determined by using the ABC algorithm. From 19 experimental data 15 ones are used for the optimization phase while the other 4 data are utilized in the verification phase. The values of average percentage error between the calculated average fiber diameters and experimental ones are achieved as 2.2 and 5.7 for the optimization and verification phases respectively. The results obtained from the proposed expression have also been confirmed by comparing with those of AFD expression reported elsewhere. It is illustrated that the AFD of electrospun GtBG can be accurately calculated by the expression proposed here without requiring any complicated or sophisticated knowledge of the mathematical and physical background.

  4. A CLOSED-FORM EXPRESSION APPROXIMATING THE MIE SOLUTION FOR THE REAL-IN-LINE TRANSMISSION OF CERAMICS WITH SPHERICAL INCLUSIONS OR PORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabst W.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new closed-form expression is presented for estimating the real-in-line transmission of ceramics consisting of non-absorbing phases in dependence of the inclusion or pore size. The classic approximations to the exact Mie solution of the scattering problem for spheres are recalled (Rayleigh, Fraunhofer, Rayleigh-Gans-Debye/RGD, van de Hulst, and it is recalled that the large-size variant of the RGD approximation is the basis of the Apetz-van-Bruggen approach. All approximations and our closed-form expression are compared mutually and vis-a-vis the exact Mie solution. A parametric study is performed for monochromatic light in the visible range (600 nm for two model systems corresponding to composites of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG, refractive index 1.832 with spherical alumina inclusions (refractive index 1.767, and to porous YAG ceramics with spherical pores (refractive index 1. It is shown that for the YAG-alumina composites to achieve maximum transmission with inclusion volume fractions of 1 % (and slab thickness 1 mm, inclusion sizes of up to 100 nm can be tolerated, while pore sizes of 100 nm will be completely detrimental for porosities as low as 0.1 %. While the van-de-Hulst approximation is excellent for small phase contrast and low concentration of inclusions, it fails for principal reasons for small inclusion or pore sizes. Our closed-form expression, while less precise in the aforementioned special case, is always the safer choice and performs better in most cases of practical interest, including high phase contrasts and high concentrations of inclusions or pores.

  5. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C; Laibson, David I

    2013-06-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least [Formula: see text] In this formula W (.) is the Lambert W -function, [Formula: see text] ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods.

  6. Optimal Mortgage Refinancing: A Closed Form Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Driscoll, John C.; Laibson, David I.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the first closed-form optimal refinancing rule: Refinance when the current mortgage interest rate falls below the original rate by at least 1ψ[ϕ+W(−exp(−ϕ))]. In this formula W(.) is the Lambert W-function, ψ=2(ρ+λ)σ,ϕ=1+ψ(ρ+λ)κ∕M(1−τ), ρ is the real discount rate, λ is the expected real rate of exogenous mortgage repayment, σ is the standard deviation of the mortgage rate, κ/M is the ratio of the tax-adjusted refinancing cost and the remaining mortgage value, and τ is the marginal tax rate. This expression is derived by solving a tractable class of refinancing problems. Our quantitative results closely match those reported by researchers using numerical methods. PMID:25843977

  7. Closed forms for conformally flat Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Grove, P.G.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    A closed form is obtained for the massless scalar Green's function on Rindler space. This is related by conformal transformation to the Green's function for a massless, conformally coupled scalar field on the open Einstein universe. A closed form is also obtained for the corresponding Green's function on the Einstein static universe. (author)

  8. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...

  9. Image charges revisited: a closed form solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, T. C.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that the corrections to the classical Kelvin image theory due to finite electron screening length )λ, recently discussed by Roulet and Saint Jean, Am. J. Phys. 68(4) 319, is amenable to an exact closed form solution in terms of an integral involving Bessel functions. An error arising from an incorrect choice of boundary conditions is rectified as well, enabling also a complete solution for all potentials - both inside and outside the metal surface

  10. Closed form bound-state perturbation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollie J. Rose

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.

  11. Simple Closed-Form Expression for Penning Reaction Rate Coefficients for Cold Molecular Collisions by Non-Hermitian Time-Independent Adiabatic Scattering Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Ben-Asher, Anael; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-09

    We present a simple expression and its derivation for reaction rate coefficients for cold anisotropic collision experiments based on adiabatic variational theory and time-independent non-Hermitian scattering theory. We demonstrate that only the eigenenergies of the resulting one-dimensional Schrödinger equation for different complex adiabats are required. The expression is applied to calculate the Penning ionization rate coefficients of an excited metastable helium atom with molecular hydrogen in an energy range spanning from hundreds of kelvins down to the millikelvin regime. Except for trivial quantities like the masses of the nuclei and the bond length of the diatomic molecule participating in the collision, one needs as input data only the complex potential energy surface (CPES). In calculations, we used recently obtained ab initio CPES by D. Bhattacharya et al. ( J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2017 , 13 , 1682 - 1690 ) without fitting parameters. The results show good accord with current measurements ( Nat. Phys. 2017 , 13 , 35 - 38 ).

  12. Closed expressions for the magnetic field of toroidal multipole configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1983-04-01

    Closed analytic expressions for the vector potential and the magnetic field for the lower order toroidal multipoles are presented. These expressions can be applied in the study of tokamak plasma cross section shaping. An example of such an application is included. These expressions also allow the vacuum fields required for plasma equilibrium to be specified in a general form independent of a particular coil configuration

  13. Closed 1-forms in topology and geometric group theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, Michael; Schuetz, Dirk [University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Geoghegan, Ross [State University of New York, New York (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe relations of the topology of closed 1-forms to the group-theoretic invariants of Bieri-Neumann-Strebel-Renz. Starting with a survey, we extend these Sigma invariants to finite CW-complexes and show that many properties of the group-theoretic version have analogous statements. In particular, we show the relation between Sigma invariants and finiteness properties of certain infinite covering spaces. We also discuss applications of these invariants to the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category of a closed 1-form and to the existence of a non-singular closed 1-form in a given cohomology class on a high-dimensional closed manifold. Bibliography: 32 titles.

  14. Closed Form Aliasing Probability For Q-ary Symmetric Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetani Edirisooriya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In Built-In Self-Test (BIST techniques, test data reduction can be achieved using Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs. A faulty circuit may escape detection due to loss of information inherent to data compaction schemes. This is referred to as aliasing. The probability of aliasing in Multiple-Input Shift-Registers (MISRs has been studied under various bit error models. By modeling the signature analyzer as a Markov process we show that the closed form expression derived for aliasing probability previously, for MISRs with primitive polynomials under q-ary symmetric error model holds for all MISRs irrespective of their feedback polynomials and for group cellular automata signature analyzers as well. If the erroneous behaviour of a circuit can be modelled with q-ary symmetric errors, then the test circuit complexity and propagation delay associated with the signature analyzer can be minimized by using a set of m single bit LFSRs without increasing the probability of aliasing.

  15. Closed Form Solution of Synchronous Machine Short Circuit Transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson H.M. Sianipar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the closed form solution of the synchronous machine transients undergoing short circuit. That analytic formulation has been derived based on linearity and balanced conditions of the fault. Even though restrictive, the proposed method will serve somehow or other as a new resource for EMTP productivity. Indisputably superior, the closed-form formulation has some features inimitable by discretization such as continuity, accuracy and absolute numerical stability. Moreover, it enables us to calculate states at one specific instant independent of previous states or a snapshot, which any discretization methods cannot do.

  16. Comments on "A closed-form solution to Tensor voting: theory and applications"

    OpenAIRE

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Lotito, Pablo Andres; Manterola, Hugo Luis; del Fresno, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    We comment on a paper that describes a closed-form formulation to Tensor Voting, a technique to perceptually group clouds of points, usually applied to infer features in images. The authors proved an analytic solution to the technique, a highly relevant contribution considering that the original formulation required numerical integration, a time-consuming task. Their work constitutes the first closed-form expression for the Tensor Voting framework. In this work we first observe that the propo...

  17. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabadal, J.; Vilhena, M.T.; Segatto, C.F.; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations

  18. Determination of a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation using a fractional derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, J. E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br; Vilhena, M.T. E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Segatto, C.F. E-mail: cynthia@mat.ufrgs.br; Pazos, R.P.Ruben Panta. E-mail: rpp@mat.pucrgs.br

    2002-07-01

    In this work we construct a closed-form solution for the multidimensional transport equation rewritten in integral form which is expressed in terms of a fractional derivative of the angular flux. We determine the unknown order of the fractional derivative comparing the kernel of the integral equation with the one of the Riemann-Liouville definition of fractional derivative. We report numerical simulations.

  19. Closed expressions for specific massive multiloop self-energy integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berends, F.A.; Boehm, M.; Buza, M.; Scharf, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the class of N loop massive scalar self-energy diagrams with N + 1 propagators is studied in an arbitrary number of dimensions. As it is known these integrals cannot be expressed in terms of polylogarithms. Here it is shown, however, that they can be described by generalized hypergeometric functions of several variables, namely Laricella functions. These results represent previous small and large momentum expansions in closed form. Numerical comparisons for the finite part in four dimensions with a two-dimensional integral representation show good agreement. (orig.)

  20. On Closed Form Calculation of Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Paul; Andersen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    of characteristic polynomial zeros. The theoretical analysis is based on decomposition of sequences into symmetric and anti-symmetric polynomials defined as a series expansion of reduced Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. Two variants of closed form functions are presented — each characterised by using...

  1. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    -pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform

  2. Exact Closed-form Solutions for Lamb's Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report on an exact closedform solution for the displacement at the surfaceof an elastic halfspace elicited by a buried point source that acts at some point underneath thatsurface. This is commonly referred to as the 3D Lamb's problem, for which previous solutionswere restricted to sources and receivers placed at the free surface. By means of the reciprocitytheorem, our solution should also be valid as a means to obtain the displacements at interior pointswhen the source is placed at the free surface. We manage to obtain explicit results by expressingthe solution in terms of elementary algebraic expression as well as elliptic integrals. We anchorour developments on Poissons ratio 0.25 starting from Johnson's numerical, integral transformsolutions. Furthermore, the spatial derivatives of our solutions can be easily acquired in termsof our methods. In the end, our closed-form results agree perfectly with the numerical results ofJohnson, which strongly conrms the correctness of our explicit formulas. It is hoped that in duetime, these formulas may constitute a valuable canonical solution that will serve as a yardstickagainst which other numerical solutions can be compared and measured.In addition, we abstract some terms from our solutions as the generator of the Rayleigh waves.Some basic properties of the Rayleigh waves in the time domain will be indicated in terms of thegenerator. The fareld radiation patterns of P-wave and S-wave elicited by the double-couple forcein the uniform half-space medium could also be acquired from our results.

  3. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H M

    2012-01-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)

  4. Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhsan Eka Prasetia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desired position by Denso robot manipulator. Forward kinematics produce the desired position by the end-effector. Inverse kinematics produce joint angle, where the inverse kinematics produce eight conditions obtained from closed form solution with geometry approach to reach the desired position by the end-effector.

  5. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2012-09-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  6. Inverse Kinematics With Closed Form Solution For Denso Robot Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhsan Eka Prasetia; Trihastuti Agustinah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...

  7. A Closed Form Solution for an Unorthodox Trigonometric Integral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan

    2009-01-01

    A closed form solution for the trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2k+1]xdx, k=0,1,2,..., is presented in this article. The result will fill the gap in another trigonometric integral [integral]sec[superscript 2m+1] x tan[superscript 2n]xdx, which is neglected by most of the calculus textbooks due to its foreseeable unorthodox solution…

  8. Closed-Form Representations of the Density Function and Integer Moments of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge B. Provost

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a simplified representation of the exact density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. The odd and even moments of R are also obtained in closed forms. Being expressed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions, the resulting representations are readily computable. Some numerical examples corroborate the validity of the results derived herein.

  9. Closed form for two-photon free-free transition matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karule, Erna E-mail: karule@latnet.lv

    2000-08-01

    Two-photon free-free transitions happen in the multiphoton ionization with more than one excess photon and in Bremsstrahlung. Up to now, the configuration space free-free transition amplitudes have not been written in closed form. We propose a modified Coulomb Green's function (CGF) Sturm ian expansion which allows one to obtain expressions for two-photon radial transition matrix elements in the closed form which are easy to continue analytically to calculate free-free transitions in H.

  10. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase equations is developed to avoid matrix inversion. The allocation of constant transformations allows the position and orientation end-coordinate systems to be aligned with each other. Also, the redefinition of the DH transformations and the use of constraints allow decoupling the shared DOF between the legs and the torso. Finally, a geometric approach to avoid the singularities during the walking process is indicated. Numerical data is presented along with an experimental implementation to prove the validity of the analytical results.

  11. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.

    2014-05-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar setting, it is often desirable to design correlated waveforms such that power is transmitted only to a given set of locations, a process known as beampattern design. To design desired beam-pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform and Toeplitz matrix. The resulting covariance matrix fulfills the practical constraints and performance is similar to that of iterative methods. Next, we present a radar architecture for the desired beampattern that does not require the synthesis of covariance matrix nor the design of correlated waveforms. © 2014 IEEE.

  12. Delay chemical master equation: direct and closed-form solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leier, Andre; Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T

    2015-07-08

    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) describes the time evolution of a discrete nonlinear Markov process. This stochastic process has a probability density function that is the solution of a differential equation, commonly known as the chemical master equation (CME) or forward-Kolmogorov equation. In the same way that the CME gives rise to the SSA, and trajectories of the latter are exact with respect to the former, trajectories obtained from a delay SSA are exact representations of the underlying delay CME (DCME). However, in contrast to the CME, no closed-form solutions have so far been derived for any kind of DCME. In this paper, we describe for the first time direct and closed solutions of the DCME for simple reaction schemes, such as a single-delayed unimolecular reaction as well as chemical reactions for transcription and translation with delayed mRNA maturation. We also discuss the conditions that have to be met such that such solutions can be derived.

  13. Single-spin precessing gravitational waveform in closed form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Andrew; O'Shaughnessy, R.

    2014-02-01

    In coming years, gravitational-wave detectors should find black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries, potentially coincident with astronomical phenomena like short gamma ray bursts. These binaries are expected to precess. Gravitational-wave science requires a tractable model for precessing binaries, to disentangle precession physics from other phenomena like modified strong field gravity, tidal deformability, or Hubble flow; and to measure compact object masses, spins, and alignments. Moreover, current searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries use templates where the binary does not precess and are ill-suited for detection of generic precessing sources. In this paper we provide a closed-form representation of the single-spin precessing waveform in the frequency domain by reorganizing the signal as a sum over harmonics, each of which resembles a nonprecessing waveform. This form enables simple analytic calculations of the Fisher matrix for use in template bank generation and coincidence metrics, and jump proposals to improve the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. We have verified that for generic BH-NS binaries, our model agrees with the time-domain waveform to 2%. Straightforward extensions of the derivations outlined here (and provided in full online) allow higher accuracy and error estimates.

  14. Closed form analytic solutions describing glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, S.T.; Guo, X.M.; Zhou, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of an analytic model developed previously [S. T. Pai, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5820 (1992)], an improved version of the model for the description of dc glow discharge plasma was successfully developed. A set of closed form solutions was obtained from the governing equations. The two-dimensional, analytic solutions are functional and completely satisfy the governing equations, the actual boundary conditions, and Maxwell equations. They can be readily used to carry out numerical calculations without the necessity of employing any assumed boundary conditions. Results obtained from the model reveal that as the discharge gap spacing or pressure increases the maximum value in the electron density distribution moves toward the cathode. At a sufficiently large value of gap spacing, the positive column phenomenon begins to appear in the discharge region. The model has the capability of treating the positive column and negative glow as a continuous system without the necessity of studying them separately. The model also predicts a sharp rise of the positive ion density near the cathode and field reversal in the anode region. Variation of the electrode radius produces little effect on the axial spatial distribution of physical quantities studied. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. A New Closed Form Approximation for BER for Optical Wireless Systems in Weak Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rahul; Khandelwal, Vineet; Jain, R. C.

    2018-04-01

    Weak atmospheric turbulence condition in an optical wireless communication (OWC) is captured by log-normal distribution. The analytical evaluation of average bit error rate (BER) of an OWC system under weak turbulence is intractable as it involves the statistical averaging of Gaussian Q-function over log-normal distribution. In this paper, a simple closed form approximation for BER of OWC system under weak turbulence is given. Computation of BER for various modulation schemes is carried out using proposed expression. The results obtained using proposed expression compare favorably with those obtained using Gauss-Hermite quadrature approximation and Monte Carlo Simulations.

  16. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  17. 17 CFR 239.14 - Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N-8A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... management investment companies registered on Form N-8A. 239.14 Section 239.14 Commodity and Securities... Registration Statements § 239.14 Form N-2 for closed end management investment companies registered on Form N... closed end management investment companies registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 on form N...

  18. Modelling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviours with a Closed-Form Mixed Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form mixed Logit approach is proposed to model the stochastic route choice behaviours. It combines both the advantages of Probit and Logit to provide a flexible form in alternatives correlation and a tractable form in expression; besides, the heterogeneity in alternative variance can also be addressed. Paths are compared by pairs where the superiority of the binary Probit can be fully used. The Probit-based aggregation is also used for a nested Logit structure. Case studies on both numerical and empirical examples demonstrate that the new method is valid and practical. This paper thus provides an operational solution to incorporate the normal distribution in route choice with an analytical expression.

  19. Comments on "A Closed-Form Solution to Tensor Voting: Theory and Applications".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiori, Emmanuel; Lotito, Pablo; Manterola, Hugo Luis; del Fresno, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    We comment on a paper that describes a closed-form formulation to Tensor Voting, a technique to perceptually group clouds of points, usually applied to infer features in images. The authors proved an analytic solution to the technique, a highly relevant contribution considering that the original formulation required numerical integration, a time-consuming task. Their work constitutes the first closed-form expression for the Tensor Voting framework. In this work we first observe that the proposed formulation leads to unexpected results which do not satisfy the constraints for a Tensor Voting output, hence they cannot be interpreted. Given that the closed-form expression is said to be an analytic equivalent solution, unexpected outputs should not be encountered unless there are flaws in the proof. We analyzed the underlying math to find which were the causes of these unexpected results. In this commentary we show that their proposal does not in fact provide a proper analytic solution to Tensor Voting and we indicate the flaws in the proof.

  20. Implementation and identification of Preisach type hysteresis models with Everett Function in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Zsolt, E-mail: szabo@evt.bme.hu [Department of Broadband Infocommunications and Electromagnetic Theory, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Füzi, János [Neutron Spectroscopy Department, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs (Hungary)

    2016-05-15

    The Preisach function is considered as a product of two special one dimensional functions, which allows the closed form evaluation of the Everett integral. The deduced closed form expressions are included in Preisach models, in particular in the static model, moving model and a rate dependent hysteresis model, which can simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. The details of the freely available implementations, which are available online are presented. The identification of the model parameters and the accuracy to describe the magnetization process are discussed and demonstrated by fitting measured data. Transient electric circuit simulation with hysteresis demonstrates the applicability of the developed models. - Highlights: • Formulation of the Preisach model with Everett function in closed form. • Identification of the parameters: when the shape of the analytical Preisach function does not matches the ferromagnetic material the moving model can be applied to increase the accuracy. • Novel algorithm with Fixed Point iteration, which utilizes the closed formulation to simulate the frequency dependence of the magnetization process. • The developed hysteresis models are utilized in circuit simulation algorithm to determine the transient behavior of the current, which flows through a toroidal coil with ferromagnetic core.

  1. On the closed form mechanistic modeling of milling: Specific cutting energy, torque, and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A. E.; Yücesan, G.; Hutton, D. V.

    1994-02-01

    Specific energy in metal cutting, defined as the energy expended in removing a unit volume of workpiece material, is formulated and determined using a previously developed closed form mechanistic force model for milling operations. Cutting power is computed from the cutting torque, cutting force, kinematics of the cutter, and the volumetric material removal rate. Closed form expressions for specific cutting energy were formulated and found to be functions of the process parameters: pressure and friction for both rake and flank surfaces and chip flow angle at the rake face of the tool. Friction is found to play a very important role in cutting torque and power. Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feedrate, cutting speed, workpiece material, and flank wear land width on specific cutting energy. It was found that the specific cutting energy increases with a decrease in the chip thickness and with an increase in flank wear land.

  2. Closed form solutions of two time fractional nonlinear wave equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Akbar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear time fractional wave equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of conformable fractional derivatives. In addition, the traveling wave solutions are accomplished in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions involving free parameters. To investigate such types of solutions, we implement the new generalized (G′/G-expansion method. The extracted solutions are reliable, useful and suitable to comprehend the optimal control problems, chaotic vibrations, global and local bifurcations and resonances, furthermore, fission and fusion phenomena occur in solitons, the relativistic energy-momentum relation, scalar electrodynamics, quantum relativistic one-particle theory, electromagnetic interactions etc. The results reveal that the method is very fruitful and convenient for exploring nonlinear differential equations of fractional order treated in theoretical physics. Keywords: Traveling wave solution, Soliton, Generalized (G′/G-expansion method, Time fractional Duffing equation, Time fractional Riccati equation

  3. Closed form solutions of two time fractional nonlinear wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M. Ali; Ali, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd.; Roy, Ripan

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the exact traveling wave solutions of two nonlinear time fractional wave equations. The fractional derivatives are described in the sense of conformable fractional derivatives. In addition, the traveling wave solutions are accomplished in the form of hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions involving free parameters. To investigate such types of solutions, we implement the new generalized (G‧ / G) -expansion method. The extracted solutions are reliable, useful and suitable to comprehend the optimal control problems, chaotic vibrations, global and local bifurcations and resonances, furthermore, fission and fusion phenomena occur in solitons, the relativistic energy-momentum relation, scalar electrodynamics, quantum relativistic one-particle theory, electromagnetic interactions etc. The results reveal that the method is very fruitful and convenient for exploring nonlinear differential equations of fractional order treated in theoretical physics.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Closed-Form Planetary Gear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear purely rotational dynamic model of a multistage closed-form planetary gear set formed by two simple planetary stages is proposed in this study. The model includes time-varying mesh stiffness, excitation fluctuation and gear backlash nonlinearities. The nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved numerically using variable step-size Runge-Kutta. In order to obtain function expression of optimization objective, the nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved analytically using harmonic balance method (HBM. Based on the analytical solution of dynamic equations, the optimization mathematical model which aims at minimizing the vibration displacement of the low-speed carrier and the total mass of the gear transmission system is established. The optimization toolbox in MATLAB program is adopted to obtain the optimal solution. A case is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic model and the optimization method. The results show that the dynamic properties of the closed-form planetary gear transmission system have been improved and the total mass of the gear set has been decreased significantly.

  5. A closed form for the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, M; Abouie, J

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the electrostatic interaction between two rod-like charged objects with arbitrary orientations in three dimensions. We obtained a closed-form formula expressing the interaction energy in terms of the separation distance between the centers of the two rod-like objects, r, their lengths (denoted by 2l 1 and 2l 2 ) and their relative orientations (indicated by θ and φ). When the objects have the same length (2l 1 = 2l 2 = l), for particular values of separations, i.e. for r ≤ 0.8l, two types of minimum appear in the interaction energy with respect to θ. By employing the closed-form formula and introducing a scaled temperature t, we have also studied the thermodynamic properties of a 1D system of rod-like charged objects. For different separation distances, the dependence of the specific heat of the system to the scaled temperature has been studied. It is found that, for r < 0.8l, the specific heat has a maximum.

  6. Closed-form eigensolutions of nonviscously, nonproportionally damped systems based on continuous damping sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Mario

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, nonviscous, nonproportional, vibrating structures are considered. Nonviscously damped systems are characterized by dissipative mechanisms which depend on the history of the response velocities via hereditary kernel functions. Solutions of the free motion equation lead to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem involving mass, stiffness and damping matrices. Viscoelasticity leads to a frequency dependence of this latter. In this work, a novel closed-form expression to estimate complex eigenvalues is derived. The key point is to consider the damping model as perturbed by a continuous fictitious parameter. Assuming then the eigensolutions as function of this parameter, the computation of the eigenvalues sensitivity leads to an ordinary differential equation, from whose solution arises the proposed analytical formula. The resulting expression explicitly depends on the viscoelasticity (frequency derivatives of the damping function), the nonproportionality (influence of the modal damping matrix off-diagonal terms). Eigenvectors are obtained using existing methods requiring only the corresponding eigenvalue. The method is validated using a numerical example which compares proposed with exact ones and with those determined from the linear first order approximation in terms of the damping matrix. Frequency response functions are also plotted showing that the proposed approach is valid even for moderately or highly damped systems.

  7. Closed form solution to a second order boundary value problem and its application in fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldabe, N.T.; Elghazy, E.M.; Ebaid, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Adomian decomposition method is used by many researchers to investigate several scientific models. In this Letter, the modified Adomian decomposition method is applied to construct a closed form solution for a second order boundary value problem with singularity

  8. A Closed-Form Solution to Tensor Voting: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tai-Pang; Yeung, Sai-Kit; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung; Medioni, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    We prove a closed-form solution to tensor voting (CFTV): given a point set in any dimensions, our closed-form solution provides an exact, continuous and efficient algorithm for computing a structure-aware tensor that simultaneously achieves salient structure detection and outlier attenuation. Using CFTV, we prove the convergence of tensor voting on a Markov random field (MRF), thus termed as MRFTV, where the structure-aware tensor at each input site reaches a stationary state upon convergence...

  9. Closed expressions for $\\int_{0}^{1} t^{-1} log^{n-1}t log^{p}(1 - t) dt$

    CERN Document Server

    Kölbig, Kurt Siegfried

    1982-01-01

    Closed expressions for the integral integral /sub 0//sup 1/ t/sup -1/ log/sup n-1/t log/sup p/(1-t)dt, whose general form is given elsewhere, are listed for n=1(1)9, p=1(1)9. A formula is derived which allows an easy evaluation of these expressions by formula manipulation on a computer. The majority of the above expressions are given in a microfiche supplement to the paper.

  10. Generalized closed form solutions for feasible dimension limit and pull-in characteristics of nanocantilever under the Influences of van der Waals and Casimir forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Banibrata; Sen, Siddhartha

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents generalized closed form expressions for determining the dimension limit for the basic design parameters as well as the pull-in characteristics of a nanocantilever beam under the influences of van der Waals and Casimir forces. The coupled nonlinear electromechanical problem of electrostatic nanocantilever is formulated in nondimensional form with Galerkin’s approximation considering the effects of these intermolecular forces and fringe field. The resulting integrals and higher order polynomials are solved numerically to derive the closed form expressions for maximum permissible detachment length, minimum feasible gap spacing and critical pull-in limit. The derived expressions are compared and validated as well with several reported literature showing reasonable agreement. The major advantages of the proposed closed form expressions are that, they do not contain any complex mathematical term or operation unlike in reported literature and thus they will serve as convenient tools for the NEMS community in successful design of various electrostatically actuated nanosystems.

  11. Asymmetric Catalytic Aza-Diels-Alder/Ring-Closing Cascade Reaction Forming Bicyclic Azaheterocycles by Trienamine Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Barløse, Casper; Jørgensen, Julie; Carlsen, Bjørn Dreiø; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2017-01-01

    An asymmetric catalytic aza-Diels-Alder/ring-closing cascade reaction between acylhydrazones and in situ formed trienamines is presented. The reaction proceeds through a formal aza-Diels-Alder cycloaddition, followed by a ring-closing reaction forming the hemiaminal ring leading to chiral bicyclic azaheterocycles in moderate to good yield (up to 71 %), good enantio- (up to 92 % ee) and diastereoselectivity (up to >20:1 d.r.). Furthermore, transformations are presented to show the potential application of the formed product. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Partner cooperation with decode-and-forward: Closed-form outage analysis and comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the outage performance of "partner cooperation" based on opportunistic Decodeand- Forward with constrained partial selection and reactive relaying strategies in dual-hop cooperative Nakagami-m fading links. The source/destination, which is based on the unique knowledge of local channel state information, selects the best relay to increase the chances of cooperation in both uplink and downlink communications when the direct link is also available. After deriving new expressions for the cumulative distribution functions of the variables of interest, the outage probability of the system is obtained in closed-form. We also derive the ε-outage capacity in different particular cases, and the obtained results - when the channel model is reduced to a Rayleigh fading - either are new or correspond to those previously obtained in other works. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of our analysis for a large selection of system and fading parameters and provide a new insight into the design and optimization of cooperative configurations. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Closed-form solution for piezoelectric layer with two collinear cracks parallel to the boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Singh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the stress distribution in an infinitely long piezoelectric layer of finite width, with two collinear cracks of equal length and parallel to the layer boundaries. Within the framework of reigning piezoelectric theory under mode III, the cracked piezoelectric layer subjected to combined electromechanical loading is analyzed. The faces of the layers are subjected to electromechanical loading. The collinear cracks are located at the middle plane of the layer parallel to its face. By the use of Fourier transforms we reduce the problem to solving a set of triple integral equations with cosine kernel and a weight function. The triple integral equations are solved exactly. Closed form analytical expressions for stress intensity factors, electric displacement intensity factors, and shape of crack and energy release rate are derived. As the limiting case, the solution of the problem with one crack in the layer is derived. Some numerical results for the physical quantities are obtained and displayed graphically.

  14. A realistic closed-form radiobiological model of clinical tumor-control data incorporating intertumor heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Stephen A.; Hendry, Jolyon H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of intertumor heterogeneity in clinical tumor control datasets and the relationship to in vitro measurements of tumor biopsy samples. Specifically, to develop a modified linear-quadratic (LQ) model incorporating such heterogeneity that it is practical to fit to clinical tumor-control datasets. Methods and Materials: We developed a modified version of the linear-quadratic (LQ) model for tumor control, incorporating a (lagged) time factor to allow for tumor cell repopulation. We explicitly took into account the interpatient heterogeneity in clonogen number, radiosensitivity, and repopulation rate. Using this model, we could generate realistic TCP curves using parameter estimates consistent with those reported from in vitro studies, subject to the inclusion of a radiosensitivity (or dose)-modifying factor. We then demonstrated that the model was dominated by the heterogeneity in α (tumor radiosensitivity) and derived an approximate simplified model incorporating this heterogeneity. This simplified model is expressible in a compact closed form, which it is practical to fit to clinical datasets. Using two previously analysed datasets, we fit the model using direct maximum-likelihood techniques and obtained parameter estimates that were, again, consistent with the experimental data on the radiosensitivity of primary human tumor cells. This heterogeneity model includes the same number of adjustable parameters as the standard LQ model. Results: The modified model provides parameter estimates that can easily be reconciled with the in vitro measurements. The simplified (approximate) form of the heterogeneity model is a compact, closed-form probit function that can readily be fitted to clinical series by conventional maximum-likelihood methodology. This heterogeneity model provides a slightly better fit to the datasets than the conventional LQ model, with the same numbers of fitted parameters. The parameter estimates of the clinically

  15. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendy, Robert. F.

    2016-05-01

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, Em. It's anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  16. A subsequent closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendy, Robert F., E-mail: rfmelendy@liberty.edu [School of Engineering and Computational Science, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia, 24515 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    I recently introduced a closed-form description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon [R.F. Melendy, Journal of Applied Physics 118, 244701 (2015)]. Those results demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation, function together in generating an action potential in a unified, closed-form description. At present, I report on a subsequent closed-form model that unifies intracellular conductance and the thermodynamics of magnetization, with the membrane electric field, E{sub m}. It’s anticipated this work will compel researchers in biophysics, physical biology, and the computational neurosciences, to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling, informed by the computational features of this subsequent model.

  17. An efficient closed-form solution for acoustic emission source location in three-dimensional structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient closed-form solution (ECS for acoustic emission(AE source location in three-dimensional structures using time difference of arrival (TDOA measurements from N receivers, N ≥ 6. The nonlinear location equations of TDOA are simplified to linear equations. The unique analytical solution of AE sources for unknown velocity system is obtained by solving the linear equations. The proposed ECS method successfully solved the problems of location errors resulting from measured deviations of velocity as well as the existence and multiplicity of solutions induced by calculations of square roots in existed close-form methods.

  18. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  19. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-01-01

    them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used

  20. A closed analytic form for p-d elastic scattering at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Lo, S.

    1983-01-01

    Using a simple harmonic oscillator wave function for deuteron it is possible to give an analytic solution in closed form for p-d elastic scattering. It has the advantage of displaying clearly all the contributions separately (D-wave, spin flip etc.). It can also fit experimental data

  1. Closed-form critical earthquake response of elastic-plastic structures on compliant ground under near-fault ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro eKojima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The double impulse is introduced as a substitute of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. A closed-form solution of the elastic-plastic response of a structure on compliant (flexible ground by the ‘critical double impulse’ is derived for the first time based on the solution for the corresponding structure with fixed base. As in the case of fixed-base model, only the free-vibration appears under such double impulse and the energy approach plays an important role in the derivation of the closed-form solution of a complicated elastic-plastic response on compliant ground. It is remarkable that no iteration is needed in the derivation of the critical elastic-plastic response. It is shown via the closed-form expression that, in the case of a smaller input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes larger, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. On the other hand, in the case of a larger input level of double impulse to the structural strength, as the ground stiffness becomes smaller, the maximum plastic deformation becomes larger. The criticality and validity of the proposed theory are investigated through the comparison with the response analysis to the corresponding one-cycle sinusoidal input as a representative of the fling-step near-fault ground motion. The applicability of the proposed theory to actual recorded pulse-type ground motions is also discussed.

  2. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation

  3. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Achenbach, Jan D. [Northwestern Univ., Everston (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation.

  4. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  5. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic viscous flow over a nonlinearly moving surface: Closed-form solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a nonlinearly (power-law velocity) moving surface is investigated analytically and solutions are presented for a few special conditions. The solutions are obtained in closed forms with hyperbolic functions. The effects of the magnetic, the wall moving, and the mass transpiration parameters are discussed. These solutions are important to show the flow physics as well as to be used as bench mark problems for numerical validation and development of new solution schemes.

  7. A new closed-form thermodynamic model for thermal simulation of spark ignition internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjaneh, Afshin; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new closed-form thermal model was developed for SI engines. • Various irreversibilities of real engines were integrated into the model. • The accuracy of the model was examined on two real SI engines. • The superiority of the model to previous closed-form models was shown. • Accuracy and losses were studied over the operating range of engines. - Abstract: A closed form model based on finite speed thermodynamics, FST, modified to consider various losses was developed on Otto cycle. In this regard, the governing equations of the finite speed thermodynamics were developed for expansion/compression processes while heat absorption/rejection of the Otto cycle was determined based on finite time thermodynamics, FTT. In addition, other irreversibility including power loss caused by heat transfer through the cylinder walls and irreversibility due to throttling process was integrated into the model. The developed model was verified by implementing on two different spark ignition internal combustion engines and the results of modeling were compared with experimental results as well as FTT model. It was found that the developed model was not only very simple in use like a closed form thermodynamic model, but also it models a real spark ignition engine with reasonable accuracy. The error in predicting the output power at rated operating range of the engine was 39%, while in the case of the FTT model, this figure was 167.5%. This comparison for predicting thermal efficiency was +7% error (as difference) for the developed model compared to +39.4% error of FTT model.

  8. Closed-form solution of a two-dimensional fuel temperature model for TRIGA-type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, J B [Sandia Laboratories (United States)

    1974-07-01

    If azimuthal power density variations are ignored, the steady-state temperature distribution within a TRIGA-type fuel element is given by the solution of the Poisson equation in two dimensions (r and z) . This paper presents a closed-form solution of this equation as a function of the axial and radial power density profiles, the conductivity of the U-ZrH, the inlet temperature, specific heat and flow rate of the coolant, and the overall heat transfer coefficient. The method begins with the development of a system of linear ordinary differential equations describing mass and energy balances in the fuel and coolant. From the solution of this system, an expression for the second derivative of the fuel temperature distribution in the axial (z) direction is found. Substitution of this expression into the Poisson equation for T(r,z) reduces it from a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation in r, which is subsequently solved in closed-form. The results of typical calculations using the model are presented. (author)

  9. Closed-Form Formula of the Transverse Dynamic Stiffness of a Shallowly Inclined Taut Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-hui Dan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmented vibration-governed equations and their general solutions for cables acted upon by intermediate transverse forces are derived by applying Hamilton’s principle. Including the effects of sagging, flexible stiffness, clamped boundary conditions, and inclination angle of the cable, the element-wise dynamic stiffness for each cable segment, split into segments having unique transverse forces, is derived. By using methods from the global stiffness assembly process of FEM, the global level of the cables’ dynamic equilibrium equation is obtained, and, as a result, the final closed-form formula of transverse dynamic stiffness is derived. Additionally, the corresponding analytic form, without considering sagging effects, is also obtained. Case studies are conducted on the aspects of accuracy, rationality of the distribution on the spatial field, and frequency domains of dynamic stiffness calculations. By comparison with the Guyan-based static FEM reduction method, it is shown that the result obtained from the proposed closed-form solution, which includes sagging effects, is exact and rational, thus creating a powerful tool in transverse vibration analysis.

  10. A Closed-Form Technique for the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a closed-form method to evaluate wind turbine system reliability and associated failure consequences. Monte Carlo simulation, a widely used approach for system reliability assessment, usually requires large numbers of computational experiments, while existing analytical methods are limited to simple system event configurations with a focus on average values of reliability metrics. By analyzing a wind turbine system and its components in a combinatorial yet computationally efficient form, the proposed approach provides an entire probability distribution of system failure that contains all possible configurations of component failure and survival events. The approach is also capable of handling unique component attributes such as downtime and repair cost needed for risk estimations, and enables sensitivity analysis for quantifying the criticality of individual components to wind turbine system reliability. Applications of the technique are illustrated by assessing the reliability of a 12-subassembly turbine system. In addition, component downtimes and repair costs of components are embedded in the formulation to compute expected annual wind turbine unavailability and repair cost probabilities, and component importance metrics useful for maintenance planning and research prioritization. Furthermore, this paper introduces a recursive solution to closed-form method and applies this to a 45-component turbine system. The proposed approach proves to be computationally efficient and yields vital reliability information that could be readily used by wind farm stakeholders for decision making and risk management.

  11. Resolving the biophysics of axon transmembrane polarization in a single closed-form description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendy, Robert F., E-mail: rfmelendy@liberty.edu [School of Engineering and Computational Sciences, Liberty University, Lynchburg, Virginia 24515 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    When a depolarizing event occurs across a cell membrane there is a remarkable change in its electrical properties. A complete depolarization event produces a considerably rapid increase in voltage that propagates longitudinally along the axon and is accompanied by changes in axial conductance. A dynamically changing magnetic field is associated with the passage of the action potential down the axon. Over 75 years of research has gone into the quantification of this phenomenon. To date, no unified model exist that resolves transmembrane polarization in a closed-form description. Here, a simple but formative description of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon is presented in closed-form. The focus is on using both biophysics and mathematical methods for elucidating the fundamental mechanisms governing transmembrane polarization. The results presented demonstrate how to resolve electromagnetic and thermodynamic factors that govern transmembrane potential. Computational results are supported by well-established quantitative descriptions of propagated signaling phenomena in the membrane of an axon. The findings demonstrate how intracellular conductance, the thermodynamics of magnetization, and current modulation function together in generating an action potential in a unified closed-form description. The work presented in this paper provides compelling evidence that three basic factors contribute to the propagated signaling in the membrane of an axon. It is anticipated this work will compel those in biophysics, physical biology, and in the computational neurosciences to probe deeper into the classical and quantum features of membrane magnetization and signaling. It is hoped that subsequent investigations of this sort will be advanced by the computational features of this model without having to resort to numerical methods of analysis.

  12. Close Companion Friends, Self-Expression, and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    This study has two central aims. Both are associated with self-expression, which is defined as the ability to fully utilize one's own talents and abilities. The first goal is to see if self-expression reduces depressive symptoms over time whereas the second aim is to see whether close companion friends help older people more fully utilize their…

  13. Comparison of closed-form and finite-element solutions of thick laminated anisotropic rectangular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, J N; Chao, W C [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics

    1981-04-01

    In this study the effects of reduced integration, mesh size, and element type (i.e. linear or quadratic) on the accuracy of a penalty-finite element based on the theory governing thick, laminated, anisotropic composite plates are investigated. In order to assess the accuracy of the present finite element, exact closed-form solutions are developed for cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply rectangular plates simply supported and subjected to sinusoidally distributed mechanical and/or thermal loadings, and free vibration.

  14. Closed-form confidence intervals for functions of the normal mean and standard deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2012-08-01

    Confidence interval methods for a normal mean and standard deviation are well known and simple to apply. However, the same cannot be said for important functions of these parameters. These functions include the normal distribution percentiles, the Bland-Altman limits of agreement, the coefficient of variation and Cohen's effect size. We present a simple approach to this problem by using variance estimates recovered from confidence limits computed for the mean and standard deviation separately. All resulting confidence intervals have closed forms. Simulation results demonstrate that this approach performs very well for limits of agreement, coefficients of variation and their differences.

  15. Closed-form pricing formula for exchange option with credit risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Geonwoo; Koo, Eunho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the valuation of Exchange option with credit risk. Since the over-the-counter (OTC) markets have grown rapidly in size, the counterparty default risk is very important and should be considered for the valuation of options. For modeling of credit risk, we use the structural model of Klein [13]. We derive the closed-form pricing formula for the price of the Exchange option with credit risk via the Mellin transform and provide the experiment results to illustrate the important properties of option with numerical graphs.

  16. The Analysis of Closed-form Solution for Energy Detector Dynamic Threshold Adaptation in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bozovic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectrum sensing is the most important process in cognitive radio in order to ensure interference avoidance to primary users. For optimal performance of cognitive radio, it is substantial to monitor and promptly react to dynamic changes in its operating environment. In this paper, energy detector based spectrum sensing is considered. Under the assumption that detected signal can be modelled according to an autoregressive model, noise variance is estimated from that noisy signal, as well as primary user signal power. A closed-form solution for optimal decision threshold in dynamic electromagnetic environment is proposed and analyzed.

  17. Closed-Form Solutions for Gradient Elastic Beams with Geometric Discontinuities by Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Özgür Yayli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The static bending solution of a gradient elastic beam with external discontinuities is presented by Laplace transform. Its utility lies in the ability to switch differential equations to algebraic forms that are more easily solved. A Laplace transformation is applied to the governing equation which is then solved for the static deflection of the microbeam. The exact static response of the gradient elastic beam with external discontinuities is obtained by applying known initial conditions when the others are derived from boundary conditions. The results are given in a series of figures and compared with their classical counterparts. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a closed-form solution for the static deflection of microbeams under geometric discontinuities.

  18. Exact closed-form solutions of a fully nonlinear asymptotic two-fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2018-05-01

    A fully nonlinear model of Choi and Camassa (1999) describing one-dimensional incompressible dynamics of two non-mixing fluids in a horizontal channel, under a shallow water approximation, is considered. An equivalence transformation is presented, leading to a special dimensionless form of the system, involving a single dimensionless constant physical parameter, as opposed to five parameters present in the original model. A first-order dimensionless ordinary differential equation describing traveling wave solutions is analyzed. Several multi-parameter families of physically meaningful exact closed-form solutions of the two-fluid model are derived, corresponding to periodic, solitary, and kink-type bidirectional traveling waves; specific examples are given, and properties of the exact solutions are analyzed.

  19. Closed-form kinetic parameter estimation solution to the truncated data problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Gengsheng L; Kadrmas, Dan J; Gullberg, Grant T

    2010-01-01

    In a dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system, the detectors are focused on the heart and the background is truncated in the projections. Reconstruction using truncated data results in biased images, leading to inaccurate kinetic parameter estimates. This paper has developed a closed-form kinetic parameter estimation solution to the dynamic emission imaging problem. This solution is insensitive to the bias in the reconstructed images that is caused by the projection data truncation. This paper introduces two new ideas: (1) it includes background bias as an additional parameter to estimate, and (2) it presents a closed-form solution for compartment models. The method is based on the following two assumptions: (i) the amount of the bias is directly proportional to the truncated activities in the projection data, and (ii) the background concentration is directly proportional to the concentration in the myocardium. In other words, the method assumes that the image slice contains only the heart and the background, without other organs, that the heart is not truncated, and that the background radioactivity is directly proportional to the radioactivity in the blood pool. As long as the background activity can be modeled, the proposed method is applicable regardless of the number of compartments in the model. For simplicity, the proposed method is presented and verified using a single compartment model with computer simulations using both noiseless and noisy projections.

  20. A closed-form solution to tensor voting: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tai-Pang; Yeung, Sai-Kit; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung; Medioni, Gérard

    2012-08-01

    We prove a closed-form solution to tensor voting (CFTV): Given a point set in any dimensions, our closed-form solution provides an exact, continuous, and efficient algorithm for computing a structure-aware tensor that simultaneously achieves salient structure detection and outlier attenuation. Using CFTV, we prove the convergence of tensor voting on a Markov random field (MRF), thus termed as MRFTV, where the structure-aware tensor at each input site reaches a stationary state upon convergence in structure propagation. We then embed structure-aware tensor into expectation maximization (EM) for optimizing a single linear structure to achieve efficient and robust parameter estimation. Specifically, our EMTV algorithm optimizes both the tensor and fitting parameters and does not require random sampling consensus typically used in existing robust statistical techniques. We performed quantitative evaluation on its accuracy and robustness, showing that EMTV performs better than the original TV and other state-of-the-art techniques in fundamental matrix estimation for multiview stereo matching. The extensions of CFTV and EMTV for extracting multiple and nonlinear structures are underway.

  1. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration in modern structural and mechanical systems can be reduced in amplitude by increasing stiffness, redistributing stiffness and mass, and/or adding damping if design techniques are available to do so. Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in modern multivariable control design, attacks the general dissipative elastic system design problem in a global formulation. The optimal design, however, allows electronic connections and phase relations which are not physically practical or possible in passive structural-mechanical devices. The restriction of LQR solutions (to the Algebraic Riccati Equation) to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers is addressed. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical system. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist.

  2. A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow using the Lambert-W function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A J; Minchin, P E H

    2013-12-01

    A closed-form solution for steady-state coupled phloem/xylem flow is presented. This incorporates the basic Münch flow model of phloem transport, the cohesion model of xylem flow, and local variation in the xylem water potential and lateral water flow along the transport pathway. Use of the Lambert-W function allows this solution to be obtained under much more general and realistic conditions than has previously been possible. Variation in phloem resistance (i.e. viscosity) with solute concentration, and deviations from the Van't Hoff expression for osmotic potential are included. It is shown that the model predictions match those of the equilibrium solution of a numerical time-dependent model based upon the same mechanistic assumptions. The effect of xylem flow upon phloem flow can readily be calculated, which has not been possible in any previous analytical model. It is also shown how this new analytical solution can handle multiple sources and sinks within a complex architecture, and can describe competition between sinks. The model provides new insights into Münch flow by explicitly including interactions with xylem flow and water potential in the closed-form solution, and is expected to be useful as a component part of larger numerical models of entire plants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmale, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic expressions which remain untreated, i. e. where no subsequent activity might provide a clue as to the understanding of the idiom in question. The study thus concentrates on co(ntextual or semantic indicators which might facilitate the understanding and interpretation of untreated idioms. Finally the hypothesis is put forward that not the correct understanding of an idiom is decisive but rather the production of a next activity meeting the idiom producer's expectations. The idiom may even be misinterpreted as long as its host turn can be interpreted adequately in order to produce a conditionally relevant following turn.

  4. Corruption in Education: Rise of Reasons and Expressive Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay is devoted to the problem corruption in education. Corruption in any system is one of the key factors that slow down the country’s economical and social development. It harms law implementation and working order of government institutions, of which the country’s economical development and confidence in government depends so much.Corruption in education system is special because it denies a substantial human right, stated in Human Rights Declaration (1948 – a right to free, quality and objective education. It’s incompatible with the main objective of education, which is to raise citizens respectful to justice and human right. If the education system isn’t based on estimation of equal merits and concept of justice, there is a threat to country’s social, economical and political future. There are four main levels of expression: in education politics, in ministry of education, administrational and school level. Corruption in all of these levels expresses it self in particular manners. We analyze main reasons of corruption-economical, social, cultural, legal, and of course non-existence of measurable criterion and inadequate organizational structure of educational system. Which exists because of the lack of attention and sanctions and incompetent administration, there is a background for teachers to exploit their status unrestrictedly. The most common bribing forms in education are: presents to teachers, favouritism, protection in relation to links with family. It’s noticeable that determination of peculiarity of corruption forms of expression in separate levels of education system requires a sound and purposeful social research.

  5. A closed form solution for the response of a long elastic beam to dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Closed form solutions have been obtained using Fourier transform method for the deflection, curvature and particle velocity of a long elastic beam when it is subjected to a concentrated transverse force which is varying with time. These solutions have been illustrated with the help of two force histories, i.e. a half-sine pulse and a rectangular pulse. Dimensionless parameters representing deflection, curvature and particle velocity have been plotted as functions of dimensionless distance and dimensionless time. Furthermore, the particular case of constant velocity impact which has been studied by other authors using different techniques has also been considered in the present paper and the results compare within numerical errors involved in the evaluation of integrals. (orig.) [de

  6. A closed form solution for vulnerable options with Heston’s stochastic volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Ku; Yang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Over-the-counter stock markets in the world have been growing rapidly and vulnerability to default risks of option holders traded in the over-the-counter markets became an important issue, in particular, since the global finance crisis and Eurozone crisis. This paper studies the pricing of European-type vulnerable options when the underlying asset follows the Heston dynamics. In this paper, we obtain a closed form analytic formula of the option price as a stochastic volatility extension of the classical Heston formula and find how the stochastic volatility effect on the Black–Scholes price as well as on the decreasing speed of the option price with credit risk depends on moneyness.

  7. Closed-form solution to directly design frequency modulated waveforms for beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2018-03-12

    The targets image performance depends on the transmit beampattern and power-spectral-density of the probing signal. To design such probing signals for multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) radar, conventional algorithms are iterative in nature, therefore high computational complexity restricts their use in real time applications. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a novel closed-form algorithm to design frequency-modulated (FM) waveforms for MIMO radar is proposed. The proposed algorithm has negligible computational complexity and yields unity peak-to-average power ratio constant envelope waveforms. Moreover, in contrast to the narrow band algorithms, it has almost flat main and side lobes. In the proposed algorithm, a relationship between the width of symmetric beampattern and the product of initial frequency and duration of the baseband FM waveforms is developed.

  8. Memristor Multiport Readout: A Closed-Form Solution for Sneak Paths

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Eltawil, Ahmed M.; Fahmy, Hossam A.H.; Kurdahi, Fadi; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce for the first time, a closed-form solution for the memristor-based memory sneak paths without using any gating elements. The introduced technique fully eliminates the effect of sneak paths by reading the stored data using multiple access points and evaluating a simple addition/subtraction on the different readings. The new method requires fewer reading steps compared to previously reported techniques, and has a very small impact on the memory density. To verify the underlying theory, the proposed system is simulated using Synopsys HSPICE showing the ability to achieve a 100% sneak-path error-free memory. In addition, the effect of quantization bits on the system performance is studied.

  9. Unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid with Newtonian heating: Closed form solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussanan Abid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid over a vertical plate oscillating in its own plane with Newtonian heating condition. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with some physical conditions. Closed form solutions in terms of exponential and complementary error functions of Gauss are obtained by using the Laplace transform technique. They satisfy the governing equations and impose boundary and initial conditions. The present solution in the absence of microrotation reduces to well-known solutions of Newtonian fluid. Graphs are plotted to study the effects of various physical parameters on velocity and microrotation. Numerical results for skin friction and wall couple stress is computed in tables. Apart from the engineering point of view, the present article has strong advantage over the published literature as the exact solutions obtained here can be used as a benchmark for comparison with numerical/ approximate solutions and experimental data.

  10. Memristor Multiport Readout: A Closed-Form Solution for Sneak Paths

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2014-06-18

    In this paper, we introduce for the first time, a closed-form solution for the memristor-based memory sneak paths without using any gating elements. The introduced technique fully eliminates the effect of sneak paths by reading the stored data using multiple access points and evaluating a simple addition/subtraction on the different readings. The new method requires fewer reading steps compared to previously reported techniques, and has a very small impact on the memory density. To verify the underlying theory, the proposed system is simulated using Synopsys HSPICE showing the ability to achieve a 100% sneak-path error-free memory. In addition, the effect of quantization bits on the system performance is studied.

  11. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  12. Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Michio; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures.

  13. The Artificial Hamiltonian, First Integrals, and Closed-Form Solutions of Dynamical Systems for Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rehana; Naeem, Imran

    2018-03-01

    The non-standard Hamiltonian system, also referred to as a partial Hamiltonian system in the literature, of the form {\\dot q^i} = {partial H}/{partial {p_i}},\\dot p^i = - {partial H}/{partial {q_i}} + {Γ ^i}(t,{q^i},{p_i}) appears widely in economics, physics, mechanics, and other fields. The non-standard (partial) Hamiltonian systems arise from physical Hamiltonian structures as well as from artificial Hamiltonian structures. We introduce the term `artificial Hamiltonian' for the Hamiltonian of a model having no physical structure. We provide here explicitly the notion of an artificial Hamiltonian for dynamical systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Also, we show that every system of second-order ODEs can be expressed as a non-standard (partial) Hamiltonian system of first-order ODEs by introducing an artificial Hamiltonian. This notion of an artificial Hamiltonian gives a new way to solve dynamical systems of first-order ODEs and systems of second-order ODEs that can be expressed as a non-standard (partial) Hamiltonian system by using the known techniques applicable to the non-standard Hamiltonian systems. We employ the proposed notion to solve dynamical systems of first-order ODEs arising in epidemics.

  14. DFT-Based Closed-form Covariance Matrix and Direct Waveforms Design for MIMO Radar to Achieve Desired Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    optimization problems. The computational complexity of these algorithms is very high, which makes them difficult to use in practice. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a low complexity discrete-Fourier-transform based closed-form covariance

  15. 17 CFR 274.11a-1 - Form N-2, registration statement of closed end management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of closed end management investment companies. 274.11a-1 Section 274.11a-1 Commodity and... management investment companies. This form shall be used as the registration statement to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by closed end management investment companies...

  16. A Closed-Form Error Model of Straight Lines for Improved Data Association and Sensor Fusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Sommer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear regression is a basic tool in mobile robotics, since it enables accurate estimation of straight lines from range-bearing scans or in digital images, which is a prerequisite for reliable data association and sensor fusing in the context of feature-based SLAM. This paper discusses, extends and compares existing algorithms for line fitting applicable also in the case of strong covariances between the coordinates at each single data point, which must not be neglected if range-bearing sensors are used. Besides, in particular, the determination of the covariance matrix is considered, which is required for stochastic modeling. The main contribution is a new error model of straight lines in closed form for calculating quickly and reliably the covariance matrix dependent on just a few comprehensible and easily-obtainable parameters. The model can be applied widely in any case when a line is fitted from a number of distinct points also without a priori knowledge of the specific measurement noise. By means of extensive simulations, the performance and robustness of the new model in comparison to existing approaches is shown.

  17. Decreased expression of Beclin 1 correlates closely with Bcl-xL expression and poor prognosis of ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Xin Lin

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that autophagy-related Beclin 1 plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor development and/or progression, but its prognostic significance and relationship with Bcl-xL expression in ovarian carcinoma are unclear.In the present study, the methods of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC were utilized to investigate the expression status of Beclin 1 and Bcl-xL in fresh ovarian tissues and paraffin-embedded epithelial ovarian tumor tissues. Decreased expression of Beclin 1 was examined by IHC in 8.3% of normal ovaries, in 15.4% of cystadenomas, in 20.0% of borderline tumors, and in 55.6% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. In ovarian carcinomas, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was correlated closely with ascending histological grade, later pT/pN/pM status and/or advanced clinical stage (P<0.05. In univariate survival analysis, a highly significant association between low-expressed Beclin 1 and shortened patient survival was evaluated in ovarian carcinoma patients (P<0.01, and Beclin 1 expression was an independent prognostic factor as evidenced by multivariate analysis (P = 0.013. In addition, decreased expression of Beclin 1 was inversely correlated with altered expression of Bcl-xL in ovarian carcinoma cohort, and combined analysis further showed that the low Beclin 1/high Bcl-xL group had the lowest survival rate.Our findings suggest that Beclin 1 expression, as examined by IHC, could be served as an additional tool in identifying ovarian carcinoma patients at risk of tumor progression, and predicting patient survival in ovarian carcinomas with increased expression of Bcl-xL.

  18. SU-F-T-144: Analytical Closed Form Approximation for Carbon Ion Bragg Curves in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomanen, S; Moskvin, V; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Semi-empirical modeling is a powerful computational method in radiation dosimetry. A set of approximations exist for proton ion depth dose distribution (DDD) in water. However, the modeling is more complicated for carbon ions due to fragmentation. This study addresses this by providing and evaluating a new methodology for DDD modeling of carbon ions in water. Methods: The FLUKA, Monte Carlo (MC) general-purpose transport code was used for simulation of carbon DDDs for energies of 100–400 MeV in water as reference data model benchmarking. Based on Thomas Bortfeld’s closed form equation approximating proton Bragg Curves as a basis, we derived the critical constants for a beam of Carbon ions by applying models of radiation transport by Lee et. al. and Geiger to our simulated Carbon curves. We hypothesized that including a new exponential (κ) residual distance parameter to Bortfeld’s fluence reduction relation would improve DDD modeling for carbon ions. We are introducing an additional term to be added to Bortfeld’s equation to describe fragmentation tail. This term accounts for the pre-peak dose from nuclear fragments (NF). In the post peak region, the NF transport will be treated as new beams utilizing the Glauber model for interaction cross sections and the Abrasion- Ablation fragmentation model. Results: The carbon beam specific constants in the developed model were determined to be : p= 1.75, β=0.008 cm-1, γ=0.6, α=0.0007 cm MeV, σmono=0.08, and the new exponential parameter κ=0.55. This produced a close match for the plateau part of the curve (max deviation 6.37%). Conclusion: The derived semi-empirical model provides an accurate approximation of the MC simulated clinical carbon DDDs. This is the first direct semi-empirical simulation for the dosimetry of therapeutic carbon ions. The accurate modeling of the NF tail in the carbon DDD will provide key insight into distal edge dose deposition formation.

  19. Analytic Closed-Form Solution of a Mixed Layer Model for Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Bengu Ozge

    Stratocumulus clouds play an important role in climate cooling and are hard to predict using global climate and weather forecast models. Thus, previous studies in the literature use observations and numerical simulation tools, such as large-eddy simulation (LES), to solve the governing equations for the evolution of stratocumulus clouds. In contrast to the previous works, this work provides an analytic closed-form solution to the cloud thickness evolution of stratocumulus clouds in a mixed-layer model framework. With a focus on application over coastal lands, the diurnal cycle of cloud thickness and whether or not clouds dissipate are of particular interest. An analytic solution enables the sensitivity analysis of implicitly interdependent variables and extrema analysis of cloud variables that are hard to achieve using numerical solutions. In this work, the sensitivity of inversion height, cloud-base height, and cloud thickness with respect to initial and boundary conditions, such as Bowen ratio, subsidence, surface temperature, and initial inversion height, are studied. A critical initial cloud thickness value that can be dissipated pre- and post-sunrise is provided. Furthermore, an extrema analysis is provided to obtain the minima and maxima of the inversion height and cloud thickness within 24 h. The proposed solution is validated against LES results under the same initial and boundary conditions. Then, the proposed analytic framework is extended to incorporate multiple vertical columns that are coupled by advection through wind flow. This enables a bridge between the micro-scale and the mesoscale relations. The effect of advection on cloud evolution is studied and a sensitivity analysis is provided.

  20. Regulatory Competition and the Evolution of Closely Held Business Forms in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Close corporations have become the preferred vehicle for small and medium-sized enterprises in Europe. While scholars have debated the advantages of close corporation statutes for more than a decade, some who favor reform suggest that lawmakers devise new business organization statutes that are more

  1. Closed-Form Algorithm for 3-D Near-Field OFDM Signal Localization under Uniform Circular Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolong; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Xin; Wei, Xizhang

    2018-01-14

    Due to its widespread application in communications, radar, etc., the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal has become increasingly urgent in the field of localization. Under uniform circular array (UCA) and near-field conditions, this paper presents a closed-form algorithm based on phase difference for estimating the three-dimensional (3-D) location (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range) of the OFDM signal. In the algorithm, considering that it is difficult to distinguish the frequency of the OFDM signal's subcarriers and the phase-based method is always affected by errors of the frequency estimation, this paper employs sparse representation (SR) to obtain the super-resolution frequencies and the corresponding phases of subcarriers. Further, as the phase differences of the adjacent sensors including azimuth angle, elevation angle and range parameters can be expressed as indefinite equations, the near-field OFDM signal's 3-D location is obtained by employing the least square method, where the phase differences are based on the average of the estimated subcarriers. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by several simulations.

  2. Modeling of Filament Deposition Rapid Prototyping Process with a Closed form Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Steven Leon

    Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM(TM)) or fused filament fabrication (FFF) systems are extrusion-based technologies used to produce functional or near functional parts from a wide variety of plastic materials. First patented by S. Scott Crump and commercialized by Stratasys, Ltd in the early 1990s, this technology, like many additive manufacturing systems, offers significant opportunities for the design and production of complex part structures that are difficult if not impossible to produce using traditional manufacturing methods. Standing on the shoulders of a twenty-five year old invention, a rapidly growing open-source development community has exponentially driven interest in FFF technology. However, part quality often limits use in final product commercial markets. Development of accurate and repeatable methods for determining material strength in FFF produced parts is essential for wide adoption into mainstream manufacturing. This study builds on the empirical, squeeze flow and intermolecular diffusion model research conducted by David Grewell and Avraham Benatar, applying a combined model to predict auto adhesion or healing to FFF part samples. In this research, an experimental study and numerical modeling were performed in order to drive and validate a closed form heat transfer solution for extrusion processes to develop temperature field models. An extrusion-based 3D printing system, with the capacity to vary deposition speeds and temperatures, was used to fabricate the samples. Standardized specimens of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) filament were used to fabricate the samples with different speeds and temperatures. Micro-scanning of cut and lapped specimens, using an optical microscope, was performed to find the effect of the speed and the temperature on the geometry of the cross-sections. It was found that by increasing the speed of the extrusion printing, the area of the cross-section and the maximum thickness decrease

  3. Closed-form dynamics of a hexarot parallel manipulator by means of the principle of virtual work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrammehr, Siamak; Nahavandi, Saeid; Abdi, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    In this research, a systematic approach to solving the inverse dynamics of hexarot manipulators is addressed using the methodology of virtual work. For the first time, a closed form of the mathematical formulation of the standard dynamic model is presented for this class of mechanisms. An efficient algorithm for solving this closed-form dynamic model of the mechanism is developed and it is used to simulate the dynamics of the system for different trajectories. Validation of the proposed model is performed using SimMechanics and it is shown that the results of the proposed mathematical model match with the results obtained by the SimMechanics model.

  4. A new technique in constructing closed-form solutions for nonlinear PDEs appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotounakos D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a new unique technique in constructing closed-form solutions for several nonlinear partial differential systems appearing in fluid mechanics and gas dynamics. The obtained solutions include fewer arbitrary functions than needed for general solutions, fact that permits us to specify them according to the initial state, or the geometry, of each specific problem under consideration. In order to apply the before mentioned technique we construct closed-form solutions concerning the gas-dynamic equations with constant pressure, the dynamic equations of an ideal gas in isentropic flow, and the two-dimensional incompressible boundary layer flow.

  5. Partner cooperation with decode-and-forward: Closed-form outage analysis and comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Benjillali, Mustapha; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    /destination, which is based on the unique knowledge of local channel state information, selects the best relay to increase the chances of cooperation in both uplink and downlink communications when the direct link is also available. After deriving new expressions

  6. Forming a constant density medium close to long gamma-ray burst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle, A.J.; Langer, N.; Achterberg, A; Garia-Segura, G.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. The progenitor stars of long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are thought to be Wolf-Rayet stars, which generate a massive and energetic wind. Nevertheless, about 25 percent of all GRB afterglows light curves indicate a constant density medium close to the exploding star. We explore various ways to

  7. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  8. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Closed form formula for the exchange integrals in the impact-parameter treatment of heavy-particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, Ladislav; Liska, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The three-dimensional exchange integrals in the impact-parameter treatment of heavy particle collisions can be transformed to one-dimensional integrals over finite range. The closed form formula for the integrands of these one-dimensional integrals is derived. (Author)

  10. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., it must be delivered to the above address no later than that time. I WISH TO CANCEL Consumer's... contents, and adding new forms H-17(A) and H-17(B), effective July 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user...

  11. Closed form solution for a double quantum well using Groebner basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acus, A [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Dargys, A, E-mail: dargys@pfi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Semiconductor Physics Institute, A Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2011-07-01

    Analytical expressions for the spectrum, eigenfunctions and dipole matrix elements of a square double quantum well (DQW) are presented for a general case when the potential in different regions of the DQW has different heights and the effective masses are different. This was achieved by using a Groebner basis algorithm that allowed us to disentangle the resulting coupled polynomials without explicitly solving the transcendental eigenvalue equation.

  12. Forming Facial Expressions Influences Assessment of Others' Dominance but Not Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Nagoya, Kie; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Nomura, Michio

    2017-01-01

    Forming specific facial expressions influences emotions and perception. Bearing this in mind, studies should be reconsidered in which observers expressing neutral emotions inferred personal traits from the facial expressions of others. In the present study, participants were asked to make happy, neutral, and disgusted facial expressions: for "happy," they held a wooden chopstick in their molars to form a smile; for "neutral," they clasped the chopstick between their lips, making no expression; for "disgusted," they put the chopstick between their upper lip and nose and knit their brows in a scowl. However, they were not asked to intentionally change their emotional state. Observers judged happy expression images as more trustworthy, competent, warm, friendly, and distinctive than disgusted expression images, regardless of the observers' own facial expression. Observers judged disgusted expression images as more dominant than happy expression images. However, observers expressing disgust overestimated dominance in observed disgusted expression images and underestimated dominance in happy expression images. In contrast, observers with happy facial forms attenuated dominance for disgusted expression images. These results suggest that dominance inferred from facial expressions is unstable and influenced by not only the observed facial expression, but also the observers' own physiological states.

  13. How do closed-compact multi-lamellar droplets form under shear flow? A possible mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Pons, R.; Rouch, J.; Panizza, P.

    2003-01-01

    The formation of closed-compact multi-lamellar droplets obtained upon shearing both a lamellar phase (Lα) and a two-phase separated lamellar-sponge (Lα-L3) mixture is investigated as a function of the shear rate dot gamma, using small-angle light scattering (SALS) and cross-polarized optical microscopy. In both systems the formation of droplets occurs homogeneously in the cell at a well-defined wave vector qe propto dot gamma1/3 via a strain-controlled process. These results suggest that the formation of droplets may be monitored in both systems by a buckling instability of the lamellae as predicted from a recent theory.

  14. Renal cells express different forms of vimentin: the independent expression alteration of these forms is important in cell resistance to osmotic stress and apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina S Buchmaier

    Full Text Available Osmotic stress has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal protein expression. It is generally known that vimentin is rapidly degraded during apoptosis by multiple caspases, resulting in diverse vimentin fragments. Despite the existence of the known apoptotic vimentin fragments, we demonstrated in our study the existence of different forms of vimentin VIM I, II, III, and IV with different molecular weights in various renal cell lines. Using a proteomics approach followed by western blot analyses and immunofluorescence staining, we proved the apoptosis-independent existence and differential regulation of different vimentin forms under varying conditions of osmolarity in renal cells. Similar impacts of osmotic stress were also observed on the expression of other cytoskeleton intermediate filament proteins; e.g., cytokeratin. Interestingly, 2D western blot analysis revealed that the forms of vimentin are regulated independently of each other under glucose and NaCl osmotic stress. Renal cells, adapted to high NaCl osmotic stress, express a high level of VIM IV (the form with the highest molecular weight, besides the three other forms, and exhibit higher resistance to apoptotic induction with TNF-α or staurosporin compared to the control. In contrast, renal cells that are adapted to high glucose concentration and express only the lower-molecular-weight forms VIM I and II, were more susceptible to apoptosis. Our data proved the existence of different vimentin forms, which play an important role in cell resistance to osmotic stress and are involved in cell protection against apoptosis.

  15. Closed-form solutions for linear regulator-design of mechanical systems including optimal weighting matrix selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brantley R.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the restriction of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) solutions to the algebraic Riccati Equation to design spaces which can be implemented as passive structural members and/or dampers. A general closed-form solution to the optimal free-decay control problem is presented which is tailored for structural-mechanical systems. The solution includes, as subsets, special cases such as the Rayleigh Dissipation Function and total energy. Weighting matrix selection is a constrained choice among several parameters to obtain desired physical relationships. The closed-form solution is also applicable to active control design for systems where perfect, collocated actuator-sensor pairs exist. Some examples of simple spring mass systems are shown to illustrate key points.

  16. Gesture and form in the Neolithic graphic expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe HAMEAU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The parietal painted sign keeps on the memory of gesture that produces it. It is one of the distinctive features of this particular artefact. However, it is not possible to reconstruct this gesture if we do not give the context of the sign, if we do not present the numerous physical and cultural parameters which are in charge of their production. About schematic paintings of Neolithic age, we must take the union of criterions into account such as the parietal and site topography, the cultural constraints that appoint the location of figures and the ritual practices originally the graphical expression. The painter perceives, adapts and behaves according to this spatial and social environment. We refer here to several strategies: the attention for the parietal microtopography in accordance with the signs to draw, the respect of some criterions that specify the choice of the site like the hygrophily of places and the rubefaction of rock walls, the need to paint at the limits of the accessibility of site and wall, the use of drawing-tools for increase the capacities of the body. The efficiency of the gesture consists in realizing a sign bearing a meaning because in harmony with the features of its support.

  17. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  18. A close view of all forms of abuse among mentally ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Hernández de Cadena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of common knowledge, that mentally ill patients are frequently subjected to physical and mental abuse. However, there is little information about this topic. Patients with mental disorders may be subjected to physical, sexual, psychological, and economical, as well as, negligence abuse by folks and people from community, due to fact, of prejudice towards people with mental disorders. Therefore abuse in all forms, constitutes an additional stressor event and changes prognosis of preexistent disorder. Diagnosis of abuse is a complex process and it is necessary a full clinical history, including physical and mental evaluation.

  19. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  20. Closed form of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula for the generators of semisimple complex Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matone, Marco [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Recently it has been introduced an algorithm for the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, which extends the Van-Brunt and Visser recent results, leading to new closed forms of BCH formula. More recently, it has been shown that there are 13 types of such commutator algebras. We show, by providing the explicit solutions, that these include the generators of the semisimple complex Lie algebras. More precisely, for any pair, X, Y of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find W, linear combination of X, Y, such that exp(X) exp(Y) = exp(W). The derivation of such closed forms follows, in part, by using the above mentioned recent results. The complete derivation is provided by considering the structure of the root system. Furthermore, if X, Y, and Z are three generators of the Cartan-Weyl basis, we find, for a wide class of cases, W, a linear combination of X, Y and Z, such that exp(X) exp(Y) exp(Z) = exp(W). It turns out that the relevant commutator algebras are type 1c-i, type 4 and type 5. A key result concerns an iterative application of the algorithm leading to relevant extensions of the cases admitting closed forms of the BCH formula. Here we provide the main steps of such an iteration that will be developed in a forthcoming paper. (orig.)

  1. Four Closely Related HIV-1 CRF01_AE/CRF07_BC Recombinant Forms Identified in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Li, Yuxueyun; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ruan, Yuhua; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming

    2017-07-01

    Five near full-length genomes of novel second-generation HIV-1 recombinant virus (JS150021, JS150029, JS150129, JS150132, and AH150183) were identified from five HIV-positive people in Jiangsu and Anhui province, east China. Phylogenic analyses showed that these five sequences are all composed of two well-established circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE, grouped into four new discovered recombinant forms, which show several very similar but not identical recombinant breakpoints. The four recombinant forms are also identified to be a sort of family or related viruses, seems to be the results of different recombination events. The emergence of a serious new closely related CRF07_BC/CRF01_AE recombinant strain indicates the increasing complexity of sexual transmission of the HIV-1 epidemic in China.

  2. Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae

    2006-01-01

    Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed

  3. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  4. Abundant closed form solutions of the conformable time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito equation using (G‧ / G) -expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawba, Altaf Abdulkarem; Gepreel, K. A.; Abdullah, F. A.; Azmi, A.

    2018-06-01

    In current study, we use the (G‧ / G) -expansion method to construct the closed form solutions of the seventh order time fractional Sawada-Kotera-Ito (TFSKI) equation based on conformable fractional derivative. As a result, trigonometric, hyperbolic and rational functions solutions with arbitrary constants are obtained. When the arbitrary constants are taken some special values, the periodic and soliton solutions are obtained from the travelling wave solutions. The obtained solutions are new and not found elsewhere. The effect of the fractional order on some of these solutions are represented graphically to illustrate the behavior of the exact solutions when the parameter take some special choose.

  5. Closed-form estimates of the domain of attraction for nonlinear systems via fuzzy-polynomial models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, José Luis; Sala, Antonio; Ariño, Carlos Vicente

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the domain of attraction of the origin of a nonlinear system is estimated in closed form via level sets with polynomial boundaries, iteratively computed. In particular, the domain of attraction is expanded from a previous estimate, such as a classical Lyapunov level set. With the use of fuzzy-polynomial models, the domain of attraction analysis can be carried out via sum of squares optimization and an iterative algorithm. The result is a function that bounds the domain of attraction, free from the usual restriction of being positive and decrescent in all the interior of its level sets.

  6. Non-Gaussian Closed Form Solutions for Geometric Average Asian Options in the Framework of Non-Extensive Statistical Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider pricing problems of the geometric average Asian options under a non-Gaussian model, in which the underlying stock price is driven by a process based on non-extensive statistical mechanics. The model can describe the peak and fat tail characteristics of returns. Thus, the description of underlying asset price and the pricing of options are more accurate. Moreover, using the martingale method, we obtain closed form solutions for geometric average Asian options. Furthermore, the numerical analysis shows that the model can avoid underestimating risks relative to the Black-Scholes model.

  7. Computationally simple, analytic, closed form solution of the Coulomb self-interaction problem in Kohn Sham density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonis, Antonios; Daene, Markus W.; Nicholson, Don M.; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and tested in terms of atomic calculations an exact, analytic and computationally simple procedure for determining the functional derivative of the exchange energy with respect to the density in the implementation of the Kohn Sham formulation of density functional theory (KS-DFT), providing an analytic, closed-form solution of the self-interaction problem in KS-DFT. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method through ground-state calculations of the exchange potential and energy for atomic He and Be atoms, and comparisons with experiment and the results obtained within the optimized effective potential (OEP) method.

  8. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-01-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U 6+ -secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10 5 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings

  9. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.T.; Ewing, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; b) formation and properties of U 6+ - secondary phases; c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10 5 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings. (authors)

  10. Dependence of cell adhesion on extracellular matrix materials formed on pore bridge boundaries by nanopore opening and closing geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sueon; Han, Dong Yeol; Chen, Zhenzhong; Lee, Won Gu

    2018-04-30

    In this study, we report experimental results for characterization of the growth and formation of pore bridge materials that modified the adhesion structures of cells cultured on nanomembranes with opening and closing geometry. To perform the proof-of-concept experiments, we fabricated two types of anodized alumina oxide substrates with single-sided opening (i.e., one side open, but closed at the other side) and double-sided opening (i.e., both sides open). In our experiment, we compared the densities of pores formed and of bridge materials which differently act as connective proteins depending on the size of pores. The results show that the pore opening geometry can be used to promote the net contact force between pores, resulting in the growth and formation of pore bridge materials before and after cell culture. The results also imply that the bridge materials can be used to attract the structural protrusion of filopodia that can promote the adhesion of cell-to-cell and cell-to-pore bridge. It is observed that the shape and size of cellular structures of filopodia depend on the presence of pore bridge materials. Overall, this observation brought us a significant clue that cells cultured on nanopore substrates would change the adhesion property depending on not only the formation of nanopores formed on the surface of topological substrates, but also that of pore bridge materials by its morphological growth.

  11. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  12. DFT-Based Closed-form Covariance Matrix and Direct Waveforms Design for MIMO Radar to Achieve Desired Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2017-01-23

    In multiple-input multiple-out (MIMO) radar, for desired transmit beampatterns, appropriate correlated waveforms are designed. To design such waveforms, conventional MIMO radar methods use two steps. In the first step, the waveforms covariance matrix, R, is synthesized to achieve the desired beampattern. While in the second step, to realize the synthesized covariance matrix, actual waveforms are designed. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these constrained optimization problems. The computational complexity of these algorithms is very high, which makes them difficult to use in practice. In this paper, to achieve the desired beampattern, a low complexity discrete-Fourier-transform based closed-form covariance matrix design technique is introduced for a MIMO radar. The designed covariance matrix is then exploited to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for the desired beampattern. The proposed technique can be used to design waveforms for large antenna array to change the beampattern in real time. It is also shown that the number of transmitted symbols from each antenna depends on the beampattern and is less than the total number of transmit antenna elements.

  13. A Closed-Form Approximation Solution for an Inventory Model with Supply Disruptions and Non-ZIO Reorder Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heimann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In supply chains, domestic and global, a producer must decide on an optimal quantity of items to order from suppliers and at what inventory level to place this order (the EOQ problem. We discuss how to modify the EOQ in the face of failures and recoveries by the supplier. This is the EOQ with disruption problem (EOQD. The supplier makes transitions between being capable and not being capable of filling an order in a Markov failure and recovery process. The producer adjusts the reorder point and the inventories to provide a margin of safety. Numerical solutions to the EOQD problem have been developed. In addition, a closed-form approximate solution has been developed for the zero inventory option (ZIO, where the inventory level on reordering is set to be zero. This paper develops a closed-form approximate solution for the EOQD problem when the reorder point can be non-zero, obtaining for that situation an optimal reorder quantity and optimal reorder point that represents an improvement on the optimal ZIO solution. The paper also supplies numerical examples demonstrating the cost savings against the ZIO situation, as well as the accuracy of the approximation technique.

  14. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  15. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  16. A closed-form solution for moving source localization using LBI changing rate of phase difference only

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Min

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the deficiencies in the conventional multiple-receiver localization systems based on direction of arrival (DOA such as system complexity of interferometer or array and amplitude/phase unbalance between multiple receiving channels and constraint on antenna configuration, a new radiated source localization method using the changing rate of phase difference (CRPD measured by a long baseline interferometer (LBI only is studied. To solve the strictly nonlinear problem, a two-stage closed-form solution is proposed. In the first stage, the DOA and its changing rate are estimated from the CRPD of each observer by the pseudolinear least square (PLS method, and then in the second stage, the source position and velocity are found by another PLS minimization. The bias of the algorithm caused by the correlation between the measurement matrix and the noise in the second stage is analyzed. To reduce this bias, an instrumental variable (IV method is derived. A weighted IV estimator is given in order to reduce the estimation variance. The proposed method does not need any initial guess and the computation is small. The Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB and mean square error (MSE are also analyzed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be close to the CRLB with moderate Gaussian measurement noise.

  17. Express penetration of hydrogen on Mg(10͞13) along the close-packed-planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liuzhang; Tang, Jiajun; Zhao, Yujun; Wang, Hui; Yao, Xiangdong; Liu, Jiangwen; Zou, Jin; Zhu, Min

    2015-06-01

    Metal atoms often locate in energetically favorite close-packed planes, leading to a relatively high penetration barrier for other atoms. Naturally, the penetration would be much easier through non-close-packed planes, i.e. high-index planes. Hydrogen penetration from surface to the bulk (or reversely) across the packed planes is the key step for hydrogen diffusion, thus influences significantly hydrogen sorption behaviors. In this paper, we report a successful synthesis of Mg films in preferential orientations with both close- and non-close-packed planes, i.e. (0001) and a mix of (0001) and (10͞13), by controlling the magnetron sputtering conditions. Experimental investigations confirmed a remarkable decrease in the hydrogen absorption temperature in the Mg (10͞13), down to 392 K from 592 K of the Mg film (0001), determined by the pressure-composition-isothermal (PCI) measurement. The ab initio calculations reveal that non-close-packed Mg(10͞13) slab is advantageous for hydrogen sorption, attributing to the tilted close-packed-planes in the Mg(10͞13) slab.

  18. A parallel offline CFD and closed-form approximation strategy for computationally efficient analysis of complex fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allphin, Devin

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution approximations for complex fluid flow problems have become a common and powerful engineering analysis technique. These tools, though qualitatively useful, remain limited in practice by their underlying inverse relationship between simulation accuracy and overall computational expense. While a great volume of research has focused on remedying these issues inherent to CFD, one traditionally overlooked area of resource reduction for engineering analysis concerns the basic definition and determination of functional relationships for the studied fluid flow variables. This artificial relationship-building technique, called meta-modeling or surrogate/offline approximation, uses design of experiments (DOE) theory to efficiently approximate non-physical coupling between the variables of interest in a fluid flow analysis problem. By mathematically approximating these variables, DOE methods can effectively reduce the required quantity of CFD simulations, freeing computational resources for other analytical focuses. An idealized interpretation of a fluid flow problem can also be employed to create suitably accurate approximations of fluid flow variables for the purposes of engineering analysis. When used in parallel with a meta-modeling approximation, a closed-form approximation can provide useful feedback concerning proper construction, suitability, or even necessity of an offline approximation tool. It also provides a short-circuit pathway for further reducing the overall computational demands of a fluid flow analysis, again freeing resources for otherwise unsuitable resource expenditures. To validate these inferences, a design optimization problem was presented requiring the inexpensive estimation of aerodynamic forces applied to a valve operating on a simulated piston-cylinder heat engine. The determination of these forces was to be found using parallel surrogate and exact approximation methods, thus evidencing the comparative

  19. Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on unconfined sloping island aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnaux, R.

    2016-04-01

    Closed-form analytical solutions for assessing the consequences of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater oceanic island lenses are provided for the cases of both strip and circular islands. Solutions are proposed for directly calculating the change in the thickness of the lens, the changes in volume and the changes in travel time of fresh groundwater within island aquifers. The solutions apply for homogenous aquifers recharged by surface infiltration and discharged by a down-gradient, fixed-head boundary. They also take into account the inland shift of the ocean due to land surface inundation, this shift being determined by the coastal slope of inland aquifers. The solutions are given for two simple island geometries: circular islands and strip islands. Base case examples are presented to illustrate, on one hand, the amplitude of the change of the fresh groundwater lens thickness and the volume depletion of the lens in oceanic island with sea-level rise, and on the other hand, the shortening of time required for groundwater to discharge into the ocean. These consequences can now be quantified and may help decision-makers to anticipate the effects of sea-level rise on fresh groundwater availability in oceanic island aquifers.

  20. Closed Form Representations of Some Series in Darling’s Model for Squeeze Film Damping with a Rectangular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gugat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Compressible squeeze film damping is a phenomenon of great importance for micromachines. For example, for the optimal design of an electrostatically actuated micro-cantilever mass sensor that operates in air, it is essential to have a model for the system behavior that can be evaluated efficiently. An analytical model that is based upon a solution of the linearized Reynolds equation has been given by R.B. Darling. In this paper we explain how some infinite sums that appear in Darling’s model can be evaluated analytically. As an example of applications of these closed form representations, we compute an approximation for the critical frequency where the spring component of the reaction force on the microplate, due to the motion through the air, is equal to a certain given multiple of the damping component. We also show how some double series that appear in the model can be reduced to a single infinite series that can be approximated efficiently.

  1. Transgenic Mice Expressing an Inhibitory Truncated Form of p300 Exhibit Long-Term Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Wood, Marcelo A.; McDonough, Conor B.; Abel, Ted

    2007-01-01

    The formation of many forms of long-term memory requires several molecular mechanisms including regulation of gene expression. The mechanisms directing transcription require not only activation of individual transcription factors but also recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. CBP and p300 are transcriptional coactivators that interact with…

  2. Differential cytokine gene expression profiles in the three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhind Susan M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP. Symptoms include wasting, diarrhoea, loss of condition and eventual death. Three forms of Johne's disease have been described in sheep – paucibacillary, multibacillary and asymptomatic. The paucibacillary form is characterized by an inflammatory, Th1-type immune response. The multibacillary form of the disease, which disseminates the infection, is characterized by macrophage infiltration mediated by a Th2-type immune response, and asymptomatic animals have no clinical symptoms or pathology but are infected with MAP. What determines these three forms of the disease is unknown. To further understand these differences, we used real-time RT-PCR to compare the expression of thirteen cytokine and cytokine-related genes in ileal tissue from sheep with the three forms of the disease. Results Three pathological forms of sheep paratuberculosis were defined on the basis of histopathology, cytochemistry (Zeihl-Neelsen and IS900 PCR. Paucibacillary lesions have largely T cell and eosinophil infiltration and are ZN negative; multibacillary lesions have macrophage infiltration and large numbers of acid-fast bacteria. The pauci- and multibacillary forms are linked to the differential expression of IFNγ and IL-10 respectively. In addition the increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNFα, IL-8, IL-18 and TRAF-1 in both diseased forms is indicative of persistent inflammatory lesions. No changes were seen in IL-1α in any sheep ileum tissues. Asymptomatic animals are IS900+ with normal histology but have significantly decreased levels of IL-18 and increased levels TNFα. Conclusion We have quantified the expression levels of thirteen cytokine and cytokine related genes in three forms of ovine paratuberculosis using real-time PCR analyses and confirm that sheep pauci- and

  3. Malignant Tregs express low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 in Sézary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsgaard, T; Gjerdrum, L M; Ralfkiaer, E

    2008-01-01

    Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. During disease progression, immunodeficiency develops; however, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we study the regulatory T cell (Treg) function and the expression of FOXP3...... in SS. We demonstrate that malignant T cells in 8 of 15 patients stain positive with an anti-FOXP3 antibody. Western blotting analysis shows expression of two low molecular splice forms of FOXP3, but not of wild-type (wt) FOXP3. The malignant T cells produce interleukin-10 and TGF-beta and suppress...... the growth of non-malignant T cells. The Treg phenotype and the production of suppressive cytokines are driven by aberrant activation of Jak3 independent of the FOXP3 splice forms. In contrast to wt FOXP3, the low molecular splice forms of FOXP3 have no inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF...

  4. Analysis of fourth-grade flat machines with movable close-cycle formed by the rods and two complex links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.О. Koshel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex multielement mechanisms are increasingly used in the technical equipment of consumer industry. The lack of a universal method of kinematic research of these mechanisms asserts the relevance of work on the kinematic analysis of multielement mechanisms. Aim: The aim of this research is to develop an algorithm kinetic research of velocities of the points that coincide with geometric centers kinematic pairs of structure group of the 4th class and 3rd order with movable close-cycle formed by connecting rod and two complex links. Materials and Methods: The graphic-analytical method of a kinematic research will be used to achieve the goals of research. Development of an algorithm is based on provisions of the theory of mechanisms and engines about property of high classes mechanisms to change its class depending on another possible initial mechanism chosen conditionally which comes to structure of the conducted structural groups of the mechanism links and provisions of theoretical mechanics relatively to instantaneous center of speeds. Results: Velocity vectors of points of Assur group links of the 4th class and 3rd order of the composite flat mechanism are determined by a graphic-analytical method, where the initial mechanism speeds that led to decrease of a class of the mechanism and allowed to investigate it. Unlike the known erroneous statements method which is applied to research the structural groups of the 3rd class, the offered algorithm of the kinematic analysis allows to investigate mechanisms of the 4th class without need to rebuild the plan which was constructed in a uncertain scale, with the subsequent calculation of the real scale parameter of provided plotting of a graph.

  5. Expression of full-length and splice forms of FoxP3 in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryder, L R; Woetmann, A; Madsen, H O

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to compare the presence of full-length and alternative splice forms of FoxP3 mRNA in CD4 cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used to measure...... the amount of FoxP3 mRNA full-length and splice forms. CD4-positive T cells were isolated from peripheral blood from 50 RA patients by immunomagnetic separation, and the FoxP3 mRNA expression was compared with the results from 10 healthy controls. RESULTS: We observed an increased expression of full......-length FoxP3 mRNA in RA patients when compared to healthy controls, as well as an increase in CD25 mRNA expression, but no corresponding increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The presence of an alternative splice form of FoxP3 lacking exon 2 was confirmed in both RA patients and healthy controls...

  6. Biofilm-Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressing Vancomycin Resistance Early after Adhesion to a Metal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated biofilm formation and time of vancomycin (VCM resistance expression after adhesion to a metal surface in Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis with a VCM MIC of 1 μg/mL was used. The bacteria were made to adhere to a stainless steel washer and treated with VCM at different times and concentrations. VCM was administered 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours after adhesion. The amount of biofilm formed was evaluated based on the biofilm coverage rates (BCRs before and after VCM administration, bacterial viability in biofilm was visually observed using the fluorescence staining method, and the viable bacterial count in biofilm was measured. The VCM concentration required to decrease BCR significantly compared with that of VCM-untreated bacteria was 4 μg/mL, even in the 0 hr group. In the 4 and 8 hr groups, VCM could not inhibit biofilm growth even at 1,024 μg/mL. In the 8 hr group, viable bacteria remained in biofilm at a count of 104 CFU even at a high VCM concentration (1,024 μg/mL. It was suggested that biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis expresses resistance to VCM early after adhesion to a metal surface. Resistance increased over time after adhesion as the biofilm formed, and strong resistance was expressed 4–8 hours after adhesion.

  7. Explicit analytical expression for the condition number of polynomials in power form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Heinz-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    In his influential papers [1-3] W. Gautschi has defined and reshaped the condition number κ∞ of polynomials Pn of degree ≤ n which are represented in power form on a zero-symmetric interval [-ω, ω]. Basically, κ∞ is expressed as the product of two operator norms: an explicit factor times an implicit one (the l∞-norm of the coefficient vector of the n-th Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind relative to [-ω, ω]). We provide a new proof, economize the second factor and express it by an explicit analytical formula.

  8. Older adults and the arts: the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in a randomly selected Swedish population age 65 to 89. Data were based on semi-structured interviews with 166 participants. Results revealed dance, music, literature, and pictures were important for this group of elderly individuals in promoting successful aging, and the connection to their everyday life was apparent. Participants considered viewing natural scenes and looking in a photo album as important aesthetic activities. The aesthetic forms of expression contributed to physical and intellectual activities, as well as to interaction with other individuals. Aesthetic experiences were related to feelings of timelessness and spacelessness, and served as sources of gratification.

  9. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G

    2009-01-01

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants α, β and γ into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants α, β and γ the values appropriate to each system

  10. [Differential expression of DTSsa4 Tc1-like transposons in closely related populations of Baikal ciscoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychenko, O S; Sukhanova, L V; Azhikina, T L; Sverdlov, E D

    2009-01-01

    Two representatives of Baikal ciscoes - lake cisco and omul - diverged from a common ancestor as recently as 10-20 thousand years ago. We have found an increasing expression level of DTSsa4 Tc1-like DNA transposons in cisco and omul brains. The mapping of the sequences of these transposons from Salmo salar and Danio rerio genomes has shown that in some cases, these transposons are located in the 5' and 3' regions, as well as in the promoter regions of various genes. Probably, Tc1-like transposons affect the activity of neighboring genes, providing the adaptive divergence of the cisco population.

  11. Closing the loop: Considerations for integrating multiple applications that implement the same Express specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, R. Jr.

    1998-06-01

    This paper is a post-mortem report on one phase of a complex project, the Advanced Reservoir Management (ARM) project, more commonly known as the ``Oil and Gas`` project. This particular phase, developing an Express-to-IDL compiler, was a high-risk/high-return attempt to implement a solution for the Oil and Gas project that would greatly ease the development of the virtual organization tools, and could be easily re-used in a weapons-related project (i.e., Global Weapons Information System). The potential leverage between these two projects was the major motivation for the task. Section 1 briefly describes the two projects, and the consequent motivation for developing the compiler. Section 2 describes the development process for the compiler and some of the minor difficulties along the way. Section 3 elaborates on the major difficulty uncovered once the author had the compiler. Section 4 outlines considerations for projects that might want to use the technology. Express is a data definition language and IDL is the Interface Definition Language, which is used to define the interfaces between the distributed objects.

  12. Human melanocytes form a PAX3-expressing melanocyte cluster on Matrigel by the cell migration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunjung; Jin, Sun Hee; Han, Mi Hwa; Lee, Jinyoung; Ahn, Seyeon; Seong, Minjeong; Choi, Hyun; Han, Jiyeon; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Lee, Tae Ryong; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-10-01

    The interactions between human epidermal melanocytes and their cellular microenvironment are important in the regulation of human melanocyte functions or in their malignant transformation into melanoma. Although the basement membrane extracellular matrix (BM-ECM) is one of major melanocyte microenvironments, the effects of BM-ECM on the human melanocyte functions are not fully explained at a molecular level. This study was aimed to characterize the molecular and cellular interactions between normal human melanocytes (NHMs) and BM-ECM. We investigated cell culture models of normal human melanocytes or melanoma cells on three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel to understand the roles of the basement membrane microenvironment in human melanocyte functions. Melanogenesis and melanobast biomarker expression in both primary human melanocytes and melanoma cells on 3D Matrigel were evaluated. We found that NHMs migrated and formed reversible paired box 3 (PAX3) expressing cell clusters on three-dimensional (3D) Matrigel. The melanogenesis was significantly decreased in the PAX3 expressing cell cluster. The expression profile of PAX3, SOX10, and MITF in the melanocyte cluster on 3D Matrigel was similar to that of melanoblasts. Interestingly, PAX3 and SOX10 showed an inverse expression profile in NHMs, whereas the inverse expression pattern of PAX3 and SOX10 was disrupted in melanoma MNT1 and WM266-4 cells. The human melanocyte culture on 3D Matrigel provides an alternative model system to study functions of human melanoblasts. In addition, this system will contribute to the elucidation of PAX3-related tumorigenic mechanisms to understand human melanoma. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Gemelli, Claudia; Pirondi, Sara; Testa, Anna; Montanari, Monica; Parenti, Sandra; Tenedini, Elena; Grande, Alexis; Ferrari, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage

  14. Validation of a 16-Item Short Form of the Czech Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire in a Representative Sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaščáková, N.; Husárová, D.; Hašto, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Tavel, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 3 (2016), s. 804-825 ISSN 0033-2941 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Short form of the ECR-R * Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire * validation * attachment anxiety * attachment avoidance * attachment styles * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.629, year: 2016

  15. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Ko, Young-Chai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels

  16. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  17. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  18. Contaminant Release from Residual Waste in Closed Single-Shell Tanks and Other Waste Forms Associated with the Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the release of contaminants from the various waste forms that are anticipated to be associated with closure of the single-shell tanks. These waste forms include residual sludge or saltcake that will remain in the tanks after waste retrieval. Other waste forms include engineered glass and cementitious materials as well as contaminated soil impacted by previous tank leaks. This chapter also describes laboratory testing to quantify contaminant release and how the release data are used in performance/risk assessments for the tank waste management units and the onsite waste disposal facilities. The chapter ends with a discussion of the surprises and lessons learned to date from the testing of waste materials and the development of contaminant release models

  19. Human embryonic stem cell derived mesenchymal progenitors express cardiac markers but do not form contractile cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe M Raynaud

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitors or stromal cells have shown promise as a therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases including heart failure. In this context, we explored the growth and differentiation potential of mesenchymal progenitors (MPs derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Similar to MPs isolated from bone marrow, hESC derived MPs (hESC-MPs efficiently differentiated into archetypical mesenchymal derivatives such as chondrocytes and adipocytes. Upon treatment with 5-Azacytidine or TGF-β1, hESC-MPs modified their morphology and up-regulated expression of key cardiac transcription factors such as NKX2-5, MEF2C, HAND2 and MYOCD. Nevertheless, NKX2-5+ hESC-MP derivatives did not form contractile cardiomyocytes, raising questions concerning the suitability of these cells as a platform for cardiomyocyte replacement therapy. Gene profiling experiments revealed that, although hESC-MP derived cells expressed a suite of cardiac related genes, they lacked the complete repertoire of genes associated with bona fide cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that whilst agents such as TGF-β1 and 5-Azacytidine can induce expression of cardiac related genes, but treated cells retain a mesenchymal like phenotype.

  20. Single-subject structural networks with closed-form rotation invariant matching mprove power in developmental studies of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Benjamin M; Wang, Danny J J; Gee, James C; Avants, Brian B

    2014-01-01

    Although much attention has recently been focused on single-subject functional networks, using methods such as resting-state functional MRI, methods for constructing single-subject structural networks are in their infancy. Single-subject cortical networks aim to describe the self-similarity across the cortical structure, possibly signifying convergent developmental pathways. Previous methods for constructing single-subject cortical networks have used patch-based correlations and distance metrics based on curvature and thickness. We present here a method for constructing similarity-based cortical structural networks that utilizes a rotation-invariant representation of structure. The resulting graph metrics are closely linked to age and indicate an increasing degree of closeness throughout development in nearly all brain regions, perhaps corresponding to a more regular structure as the brain matures. The derived graph metrics demonstrate a four-fold increase in power for detecting age as compared to cortical thickness. This proof of concept study indicates that the proposed metric may be useful in identifying biologically relevant cortical patterns.

  1. PRAGMATICS OF GRAMMATICAL FORMS: MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC MEANS IN THE SERVICE OF EXPRESSING POLITENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Matešić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Politeness can be expressed verbally, non-verbally or by merging the verbal and nonverbal means through various strategies in both written and oral (direct and indirect communication. The foundations of the theory of politeness in linguistic terms were laid in the works of Robin T. Lakoff in the 1970’s and those of Penelope Brown and Steven Levinson in the 1980’s. The phenomenon of verbal, or linguistic, politeness is related to the idea of pragmalinguistic competence as one of the basic elements of communicative competence concerning the choice of adequate means of expression in various linguistic situations. As a pragmalinguistic phenomenon, politeness is achieved through various functions and social meanings of linguistic structures. That is why the theory of (linguistic politeness is concerned, in addition to other issues, with the typology of linguistic means used for the expression of politeness in different languages and in various communicative situations. The paper analyses the means and methods used to express politeness in the Croatian language on the morphological and the syntactic level. Certain mechanisms for the implementation of politeness strategies are detected, such as the choice between different verb forms (i.e. for the purpose of statement de-imperativization, the choice of morphological means (i.e. the use of personal and reflexive pronouns, especially in pseudo paremiological units, or the use of diminutive, the choice between the syntactic transformations (i.e. the use of interrogatives, and syntactic structures in general, especially with respect to the difference between the syntax of a sentence and that of an utterance. In addition to contributing to the development of the politeness theory, the analysis of morphological and syntactic means also contributes to a more complete description of certain grammatical categories in language manuals.

  2. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (PROMEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo, E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DMPA/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS{sub N} method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS{sub N} nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  3. A closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy for photons and electrons in the Compton energy range in Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tullio; Fernandes, Julio Cesar Lombaldo

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we report on a closed-form formulation for the build-up factor and absorbed energy, in one and two dimensional Cartesian geometry for photons and electrons, in the Compton energy range. For the one-dimensional case we use the LTS N method, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel for the determination of the angular radiation intensity for photons. We apply the two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for the averaged angular radiation evaluation for the two-dimensional case, using the Klein-Nishina kernel for photons and the Compton kernel for electrons. From the angular radiation intensity we construct a closed-form solution for the build-up factor and evaluate the absorbed energy. We present numerical simulations and comparisons against results from the literature. (author)

  4. Stress concentration during pellet cladding interaction: Comparison of closed-form solutions with 2D(r,θ) finite element simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sercombe, Jérôme; Masson, Renaud; Helfer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents closed-formed solutions concerning pellet cladding interaction. • First, the opening of a radial crack in a pellet fragment is estimated. • Second, the stresses in the cladding in front of the pellet crack are calculated. • The closed-formed solutions are found in good agreement with 2D FE simulations. • They are then used in the fuel code ALCYONE to model PCI during power ramps. -- Abstract: This paper presents two closed-form solutions that can be used to enrich the mechanical description of fuel pellets and cladding behavior in standard one-dimensional based fuel performance codes. The first one is concerned with the estimation of the opening of a radial crack in a pellet fragment induced by the radial thermal gradient in the pellet and limited by the pellet-clad contact pressure. The second one describes the stress distribution in a cladding bore in front of an opening pellet crack. A linear angular variation of the pellet-clad contact pressure and a constant prescribed radial displacement are considered. The closed-form solutions are checked by comparison to independent finite element models of the pellet fragment and of the cladding. Their ability to describe non-axisymmetric displacement and stress fields during loading histories representative of base irradiation and power ramps is then demonstrated by cross-comparison with the 2D pellet fragment-cladding model of the multi-dimensional fuel performance code ALCYONE. The calculated radial crack opening profiles at different times and the hoop stress concentration in the cladding at the top of the ramp are found in good agreement with ALCYONE

  5. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-06-19

    Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading.

  6. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  7. Formulation and experimental evaluation of closed-form control laws for the rapid maneuvering of reactor neutronic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    This report describes both the theoretical development and the experimental evaluation of a novel, robust methodology for the time-optimal adjustment of a reactor's neutronic power under conditions of closed-loop digital control. Central to the approach are the 'MIT-SNL Period-Generated Minimum Time Control Laws' which determine the rate at which reactivity should be changed in order to cause a reactor's neutronic power to conform to a specified trajectory. Using these laws, reactor power can be safely raised by five to seven orders of magnitude in a few seconds. The MIT-SNL laws were developed to facilitate rapid increases of neutronic power on spacecraft reactors operating in an SDI environment. However, these laws are generic and have other applications including the rapid recovery of research and test reactors subsequent to an unanticipated shutdown, power increases following the achievement of criticality on commercial reactors, power adjustments on commercial reactors so as to minimize thermal stress, and automated startups. The work reported here was performed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the Sandia National Laboratories. Support was also provided by the US Department of Energy's Division of University and Industry Programs. The work described in this report is significant in that a novel solution to the problem of time-optimal control of neutronic power was identified, in that a rigorous description of a reactor's dynamics was derived in that the rate of change of reactivity was recognized as the proper control signal, and in that extensive experimental trials were conducted of these newly developed concepts on actual nuclear reactors. 43 refs., 118 figs., 11 tabs

  8. Cadherin-8 expression, synaptic localization, and molecular control of neuronal form in prefrontal corticostriatal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lauren G; Riemslagh, Fréderike W; Sullivan, Josefa M; Mesias, Roxana; Williams, Frances M; Huntley, George W; Benson, Deanna L

    2015-01-01

    Neocortical interactions with the dorsal striatum support many motor and executive functions, and such underlying functional networks are particularly vulnerable to a variety of developmental, neurological, and psychiatric brain disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Relatively little is known about the development of functional corticostriatal interactions, and in particular, virtually nothing is known of the molecular mechanisms that control generation of prefrontal cortex-striatal circuits. Here, we used regional and cellular in situ hybridization techniques coupled with neuronal tract tracing to show that Cadherin-8 (Cdh8), a homophilic adhesion protein encoded by a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders and learning disability susceptibility, is enriched within striatal projection neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and in striatal medium spiny neurons forming the direct or indirect pathways. Developmental analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot data show that Cdh8 expression peaks in the prefrontal cortex and striatum at P10, when cortical projections start to form synapses in the striatum. High-resolution immunoelectron microscopy shows that Cdh8 is concentrated at excitatory synapses in the dorsal striatum, and Cdh8 knockdown in cortical neurons impairs dendritic arborization and dendrite self-avoidance. Taken together, our findings indicate that Cdh8 delineates developing corticostriatal circuits where it is a strong candidate for regulating the generation of normal cortical projections, neuronal morphology, and corticostriatal synapses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Che a 1: recombinant expression, purification and correspondence to the natural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barderas, Rodrigo; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía

    2004-12-01

    Pollinosis to chenopods is one of the main causes of allergy in desertic regions and it is increasing in the South of Europe and Western USA. Che a 1 is a major allergen for chenopod-allergic subjects and belongs to the Ole-e-1-like family of proteins. Pichia pastoris yeast has been used as expression system to produce the recombinant form of Che a 1 (rChe a 1). The allergen was isolated using a gel permeation column and reverse-phase/high-performance liquid chromatography. Molecular characterization was performed using Edman degradation, mass spectrometry and concanavalin A staining. Sera from patients allergic to chenopod pollen, as well as polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies raised against Ole e 1, were used in immunoblotting, ELISA and inhibition assays for immunological characterization of rChe a 1. The allergen was purified to homogeneity with a final yield of 15 mg/l of cell culture and showed a glycosylated character. N-terminal amino acid sequence of rChe a 1 and molecular mass were according to those of the protein isolated from chenopod pollen. The recombinant allergen maintained the IgG and IgE epitopes of the natural allergen deduced from the immunological assays. Structural and in vitro immunological properties of rChe a 1 produced in P. pastoris were equivalent to those of the natural form of the allergen and, thus, it could be used in testing patients allergic to chenopods. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Characterization of canine mitochondrial protein expression in natural and induced forms of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosana; Solter, Philip F; Sisson, D David; Oyama, Mark A; Prosek, Robert

    2006-06-01

    To map canine mitochondrial proteins and identify qualitative and quantitative differences in heart mitochondrial protein expression between healthy dogs and dogs with naturally occurring and induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Left ventricle samples were obtained from 7 healthy dogs, 7 Doberman Pinschers with naturally occurring DCM, and 7 dogs with induced DCM. Fresh and frozen mitochondrial fractions were isolated from the left ventricular free wall and analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots that increased or decreased in density by >or= 2-fold between groups were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Within narrow pH gradients of control canine heart mitochondrial samples, a total of 1,528 protein spots were revealed. Forty subunits of heart mitochondrial proteins that differ significantly from control tissues were altered in tissue specimens from dogs with naturally occurring and induced forms of DCM. The most affected heart mitochondrial proteins in both groups were those of oxidative phosphorylation (55%). Upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase was suggestive of heart oxidative injury in tissue specimens from dogs with both forms of DCM. Evidence of apoptosis was associated with overexpression of the heart mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel-2 protein and endonuclease G in tissue specimens from dogs with induced DCM. Alterations of heart mitochondrial proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction were more prevalent in tissue specimens from dogs with induced or naturally occurring DCM, compared with those of control dogs.

  11. Extracellular calcium controls the expression of two different forms of ripple-like hippocampal oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivar, Paloma; Valero, Manuel; Bellistri, Elisa; Menendez de la Prida, Liset

    2014-02-19

    Hippocampal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are prominent in physiological and pathological conditions. During physiological ripples (100-200 Hz), few pyramidal cells fire together coordinated by rhythmic inhibitory potentials. In the epileptic hippocampus, fast ripples (>200 Hz) reflect population spikes (PSs) from clusters of bursting cells, but HFOs in the ripple and the fast ripple range are vastly intermixed. What is the meaning of this frequency range? What determines the expression of different HFOs? Here, we used different concentrations of Ca(2+) in a physiological range (1-3 mM) to record local field potentials and single cells in hippocampal slices from normal rats. Surprisingly, we found that this sole manipulation results in the emergence of two forms of HFOs reminiscent of ripples and fast ripples recorded in vivo from normal and epileptic rats, respectively. We scrutinized the cellular correlates and mechanisms underlying the emergence of these two forms of HFOs by combining multisite, single-cell and paired-cell recordings in slices prepared from a rat reporter line that facilitates identification of GABAergic cells. We found a major effect of extracellular Ca(2+) in modulating intrinsic excitability and disynaptic inhibition, two critical factors shaping network dynamics. Moreover, locally modulating the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration in an in vivo environment had a similar effect on disynaptic inhibition, pyramidal cell excitability, and ripple dynamics. Therefore, the HFO frequency band reflects a range of firing dynamics of hippocampal networks.

  12. Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP): ultra-fast kernel ELM-based classification with non-iterative closed-form weight calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Manuel; Cernadas, Eva; Barro, Senén; Ribeiro, Jorge; Neves, José

    2014-02-01

    The Direct Kernel Perceptron (DKP) (Fernández-Delgado et al., 2010) is a very simple and fast kernel-based classifier, related to the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and to the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) (Huang, Wang, & Lan, 2011), whose α-coefficients are calculated directly, without any iterative training, using an analytical closed-form expression which involves only the training patterns. The DKP, which is inspired by the Direct Parallel Perceptron, (Auer et al., 2008), uses a Gaussian kernel and a linear classifier (perceptron). The weight vector of this classifier in the feature space minimizes an error measure which combines the training error and the hyperplane margin, without any tunable regularization parameter. This weight vector can be translated, using a variable change, to the α-coefficients, and both are determined without iterative calculations. We calculate solutions using several error functions, achieving the best trade-off between accuracy and efficiency with the linear function. These solutions for the α coefficients can be considered alternatives to the ELM with a new physical meaning in terms of error and margin: in fact, the linear and quadratic DKP are special cases of the two-class ELM when the regularization parameter C takes the values C=0 and C=∞. The linear DKP is extremely efficient and much faster (over a vast collection of 42 benchmark and real-life data sets) than 12 very popular and accurate classifiers including SVM, Multi-Layer Perceptron, Adaboost, Random Forest and Bagging of RPART decision trees, Linear Discriminant Analysis, K-Nearest Neighbors, ELM, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function neural networks and Generalized ART. Besides, despite its simplicity and extreme efficiency, DKP achieves higher accuracies than 7 out of 12 classifiers, exhibiting small differences with respect to the best ones (SVM, ELM, Adaboost and Random Forest), which are much slower. Thus, the DKP provides an easy and fast way

  13. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A., E-mail: barbararodriguez@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Vilhena, M.T., E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hoff, G., E-mail: hoff@pucrs.b [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bodmann, B.E.J., E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    In the present work we report on a closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Compton transport equation by the LTS{sub N} nodal method in the energy range of Compton effect. The solution is determined using the LTS{sub N} nodal approach for homogeneous and heterogeneous rectangular domains, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel and a multi-group model. The solution is obtained by two one-dimensional S{sub N} equation systems resulting from integrating out one of the orthogonal variables of the S{sub N} equations in the rectangular domain. The leakage angular fluxes are approximated by exponential forms, which allows to determine a closed-form solution for the photons transport equation. The angular flux and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the absorbed energy in rectangular domains with different dimensions and compositions. In this study, only the absorbed energy by Compton effect is considered. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using the simulation platform GEANT4 (version 9.1) with its low energy libraries.

  14. Closed-Form Solutions of the Thomas-Fermi in Heavy Atoms and the Langmuir-Blodgett in Current Flow ODEs in Mathematical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios E. Theotokoglou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of second-order nonlinear, ordinary differential equations (ODEs appearing in mathematical physics are analyzed in this paper. The first one concerns the Thomas-Fermi (TF equation, while the second concerns the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB equation in current flow. According to a mathematical methodology recently developed, the exact analytic solutions of both TF and LB ODEs are proposed. Both of these are nonlinear of the second order and by a series of admissible functional transformations are reduced to Abel’s equations of the second kind of the normal form. The closed form solutions of the TF and LB equations in the phase and physical plane are given. Finally a new interesting result has been obtained related to the derivative of the TF function at the limit.

  15. Use of the reciprocity theorem for a closed form solution of scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional wave mode by a defect in a pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesun; Achenbach, Jan D; Cho, Younho

    2018-03-01

    Guided waves can effectively be used for inspection of large scale structures. Surface corrosion is often found as major defect type in large scale structures such as pipelines. Guided wave interaction with surface corrosion can provide useful information for sizing and classification. In this paper, the elastodynamic reciprocity theorem is used to formulate and solve complicated scattering problems in a simple manner. The approach has already been applied to scattering of Rayleigh and Lamb waves by defects to produce closed form solutions of amplitude of scattered waves. In this paper, the scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional mode, which is widely used in commercial applications, is analyzed by the reciprocity theorem. In the present paper, the theorem is used to determine the scattering of the lowest torsional mode by a tapered defect that was earlier considered experimentally and numerically by the finite element method. It is shown that by the presented method it is simple to obtain the ratio of amplitudes of scattered torsional modes for a tapered notch. The results show a good agreement with earlier numerical results. The wave field superposition technique in conjunction with the reciprocity theorem simplifies the solution of the scattering problem to yield a closed form solution which can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Form-deprivation myopia induces decreased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, 5 in guinea pig sclera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the presence of various bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs and their receptors in normal sclera of human, rat and guinea pigs, and to determine whether their expression changed with form-deprivation myopia (FDM in guinea pig sclera. METHODS: The expression of BMPs and BMP receptors were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Two-week-old guinea pigs were monocularly form-deprived with a translucent lens. After fourteen days induction of FDM, total RNA was isolated and subjected to RT-PCR to examine the changes of BMPs and BMP receptors in tissues from the posterior sclera. Western blotting analysis was used to investigate their changes in protein levels. RESULTS: Human sclera expressed mRNAs for BMP-2, -4, -5, -7, -RIA, -RIB and BMP-RII. Conversely, rat sclera only expressed mRNA for BMP-7 and BMP-RIB, while the expression of BMPs and BMP receptors in guinea pigs were similar to that of humans. Human sclera also expresses BMP-2, -4, -5,-7 in protein level. Fourteen days after the induction of myopia, significant decreased expressions for BMP-2 and BMP-5 in the posterior sclera of FDM-affected eyes (PCONCLUSION: Various BMPs were expressed in human and guinea pig sclera. In the posterior sclera, expressions of BMP-2 and BMP-5 significantly decreased in FDM eyes. This finding indicates that various BMPs as components of the scleral cytokines regulating tissue homeostasis and provide evidence that alterations in the expression of BMP-2 and BMP-5 are associated with sclera remodeling during myopia induction.

  17. Increased expression of MERTK is associated with a unique form of canine retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija J Ahonen

    Full Text Available Progressive retinal degenerations are among the most common causes of blindness both in human and in dogs. Canine progressive retinal atrophy (PRA resembles human retinitis pigmentosa (RP and is typically characterized by a progressive loss of rod photoreceptors followed by a loss of cone function. The disease gradually progress from the loss of night and day vision to a complete blindness. We have recently described a unique form of retinopathy characterized by the multifocal gray/brown discoloration and thinning of the retina in the Swedish Vallhund (SV breed. We aimed to identify the genetic cause by performing a genome wide association analysis in a cohort of 18 affected and 10 healthy control dogs using Illumina's canine 22k SNP array. We mapped the disease to canine chromosome 17 (p = 7.7×10(-5 and found a 6.1 Mb shared homozygous region in the affected dogs. A combined analysis of the GWAS and replication data with additional 60 dogs confirmed the association (p = 4.3×10(-8, OR = 11.2 for homozygosity. A targeted resequencing of the entire associated region in four cases and four controls with opposite risk haplotypes identified several variants in the coding region of functional candidate genes, such as a known retinopathy gene, MERTK. However, none of the identified coding variants followed a compelling case- or breed-specific segregation pattern. The expression analyses of four candidate genes in the region, MERTK, NPHP1, ANAPC1 and KRCC1, revealed specific upregulation of MERTK in the retina of the affected dogs. Collectively, these results indicate that the retinopathy is associated with overexpression of MERTK, however further investigation is needed to discover the regulatory mutation for the better understanding of the disease pathogenesis. Our study establishes a novel gain-of-function model for the MERTK biology and provides a therapy model for retinopathy MERTK inhibitors. Meanwhile, a marker-based genetic

  18. Violence against Teachers in Comprehensive Schools: Reasons of Origin, Forms of Expression and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The violence against teachers discussed in this article is a phenomenon realistically existing in schools and it reflects the processes of modern society and their outcome for the youth as well as the interpersonal value priorities and relation with the surrounding world. This article shows the significantly changed situation in schools and the changed teachers’ work conditions. Teachers working at schools do not feel safe. The pupils’ violence influences not only motivation of teacher’s work but also the quality of education service. The appearance and development of pupils’ violence against teachers is stimulated by both objective (social-psychological situation promoting the provisions of aggressiveness in the country, prolonged Education reform and constant reconstruction of schools, derogation and degradation of teacher’s job and subjective preconditions and first of all – the pupils’ structured model of behaviour with the surrounding people, which is influenced by negative impact of school and peer groups as well as by propagation of violence in mass media and experience of violence in the family. In modern school pupils use both kinds of violence – physical and psychological. Physical violence can be used against a the personality of the teacher and b teacher’s possession, thing or animal. This kind of violence can be committed by a single person (pupil when an offended pupil uses violence against the teacher or his possession or by a group of persons (pupils when a group of pupils on agreement or spontaneously uses violence against the teacher or his possession. Actually, physical violence against teachers (the usage of physical power is rather rare. The most frequently met in the relations between pupils and teachers is the psychological violence and such its forms as teachers’ derogation, devaluation, harassment, assault, isolation, rejection, alienation, terrorizing, etc. The violence against teachers is specific

  19. Species-Specific Expression of Full-Length and Alternatively Spliced Variant Forms of CDK5RAP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Y Park

    Full Text Available CDK5RAP2 is one of the primary microcephaly genes that are associated with reduced brain size and mental retardation. We have previously shown that human CDK5RAP2 exists as a full-length form (hCDK5RAP2 or an alternatively spliced variant form (hCDK5RAP2-V1 that is lacking exon 32. The equivalent of hCDK5RAP2-V1 has been reported in rat and mouse but the presence of full-length equivalent hCDK5RAP2 in rat and mouse has not been examined. Here, we demonstrate that rat expresses both a full length and an alternatively spliced variant form of CDK5RAP2 that are equivalent to our previously reported hCDK5RAP2 and hCDK5RAP2-V1, repectively. However, mouse expresses only one form of CDK5RAP2 that is equivalent to the human and rat alternatively spliced variant forms. Knowledge of this expression of different forms of CDK5RAP2 in human, rat and mouse is essential in selecting the appropriate model for studies of CDK5RAP2 and primary microcephaly but our findings further indicate the evolutionary divergence of mouse from the human and rat species.

  20. Studies of the composition, tribology and wetting behavior of silicon nitride films formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zh.Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Wang, J.; Wen, F.; Leng, Y.X.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were formed by pulsed reactive closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering of high purity Si targets in an Ar-N 2 mixture. The effects of N 2 fraction on the chemical composition, and tribological and wetting behaviors were investigated. The films deposited at a high N 2 fraction were consistently N-rich. The surface microstructure changed from continuous granular surrounded by tiny void regions to a homogeneous and dense microstructure, and densitied as the N 2 fraction is increased. The as-deposited films have a relatively low friction coefficient and better wear resistance than 316L stainless steel under dry sliding friction and experienced only abrasive wear. The decreased surface roughness and increased nitrogen incorporation in the film give rise to increased contact angle with double-stilled water from 24 deg. to 49.6 deg. To some extent, the silicon nitride films deposited are hydrophilic in nature

  1. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. R. Sanal; Sankar, Vigneshwaran; Chandrasekaran, Nichith; Saravanan, Vignesh; Natarajan, Vishnu; Padmanabhan, Sathyan; Sukumaran, Ajith; Mani, Sivabalan; Rameshkumar, Tharikaa; Nagaraju Doddi, Hema Sai; Vysaprasad, Krithika; Sharan, Sharad; Murugesh, Pavithra; Shankar, S. Ganesh; Nejaamtheen, Mohammed Niyasdeen; Baskaran, Roshan Vignesh; Rahman Mohamed Rafic, Sulthan Ariff; Harisrinivasan, Ukeshkumar; Srinivasan, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  2. Closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, H T; Thrane, L; Andersen, P E

    2000-12-01

    Within the paraxial approximation, a closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived for diffuse reflection and small-angle scattering in a random medium. This solution is based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle for the optical field, which is widely used in studies of wave propagation through random media. The results are general in that they apply to both an arbitrary small-angle volume scattering function, and arbitrary (real) ABCD optical systems. Furthermore, they are valid in both the single- and multiple-scattering regimes. Some general features of the Wigner phase-space distribution function are discussed, and analytic results are obtained for various types of scattering functions in the asymptotic limit s > 1, where s is the optical depth. In particular, explicit results are presented for optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. On this basis, a novel way of creating OCT images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase-space distribution is suggested, and the advantage over conventional OCT images is discussed. Because all previous published studies regarding the Wigner function are carried out in the transmission geometry, it is important to note that the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the ABCD matrix formalism may be used successfully to describe this geometry (within the paraxial approximation). Therefore for completeness we present in an appendix the general closed-form solution for the Wigner phase-space distribution function in ABCD paraxial optical systems for direct propagation through random media, and in a second appendix absorption effects are included.

  3. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Sanal Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  4. The association of an inability to form and maintain close relationships due to a medical condition with anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simning, Adam; Seplaki, Christopher L; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-03-15

    While low social support is a risk factor for mental illness, anxiety and depression's relationship with social impairment specifically resulting from a medical condition is poorly understood. We hypothesize that when a medical illness makes it difficult for people to form and maintain close relationships with others, they will be at increased risk for anxiety and depression. Two nationally representative surveys, the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication and National Latino and Asian American Study, included 6805 adults with at least one medical illness and information on social impairment attributed to a medical condition. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview evaluated a 12-month history of anxiety and depressive disorders. 8.2% of our sample had at least moderate difficulty in forming and maintaining close relationships due to a medical condition. In bivariate analyses, younger age, Latino ethnicity, less education, worse financial status, more chronic illnesses, physical health and discomfort, and problems with mobility, home management, and self-care were associated with this social impairment. In multivariable analyses accounting for possible confounders, there was a dose-dependent relationship between social impairment and the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Data are cross-sectional and our analyses are therefore unable to determine cause-and-effect relationships. Among adults with one or more medical conditions, social impairment attributed to medical illness was associated with a significantly greater odds of anxiety and depression. Further clarification of this relationship could inform more targeted, personalized interventions to prevent and/or alleviate mental illness in those with chronic medical conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  6. Effect of helicobacter pylori L-form infection on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion molecule expression in gastric cancer tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Helicobacter pylori L-form infection on proliferation, apoptosis and invasion molecule expression in gastric cancer tissue. Methods: The gastric cancer tissues surgically removed in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2016 were collected and divided into Hp negative, Hp-L negative and Hp-L positive according to the condition of helicobacter pylori infection. The proliferation, apoptosis and invasion gene expression were detected. Results: LOXL2, PCNA, CyclinD1, Rab1A, Bcl-2, Snail, N-cadherin, UHRF1 and AnnexinII mRNA expression in Hp-L-positive gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in Hp-L-negative and Hp-negative gastric cancer tissues while ING5, PTPN13, Beclin1 and Mst1 mRNA expression were significantly lower than those in Hp-L-negative and Hp-negative gastric cancer tissues; LOXL2, PCNA, CyclinD1, Rab1A, Bcl-2, ING5, PTPN13, Beclin1, Mst1, Snail, N-cadherin, UHRF1 and AnnexinII mRNA expression in Hp-L-negative gastric cancer tissues were not different from those in Hpnegative gastric cancer tissues. Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori L-form infection can influence the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion gene expression to promote cell proliferation and invasion, and inhibit cell apoptosis.

  7. Stable tetrabenzo-Chichibabin's hydrocarbons: Tunable ground state and unusual transition between their closed-shell and open-shell resonance forms

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2012-09-05

    Stable open-shell polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of fundamental interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and promising applications in materials sciences. Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbon as a classical open-shell PAH has been investigated for a long time. However, most of the studies are complicated by their inherent high reactivity. In this work, two new stable benzannulated Chichibabin\\'s hydrocarbons 1-CS and 2-OS were prepared, and their electronic structure and geometry in the ground state were studied by various experiments (steady-state and transient absorption spectra, NMR, electron spin resonance (ESR), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), FT Raman, X-ray crystallographic etc.) and density function theory (DFT) calculations. 1-CS and 2-OS exhibited tunable ground states, with a closed-shell quinoidal structure for 1-CS and an open-shell biradical form for 2-OS. Their corresponding excited-state forms 1-OS and 2-CS were also chemically approached and showed different decay processes. The biradical 1-OS displayed an unusually slow decay to the ground state (1-CS) due to a large energy barrier (95 ± 2.5 kJ/mol) arising from severe steric hindrance during the transition from an orthogonal biradical form to a butterfly-like quinoidal form. The quick transition from the quinoidal 2-CS (excited state) to the orthogonal biradicaloid 2-OS (ground state) happened during the attempted synthesis of 2-CS. Compounds 1-CS and 2-OS can be oxidized into stable dications by FeCl 3 and/or concentrated H 2SO 4. The open-shell 2-OS also exhibited a large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross section (760 GM at 1200 nm). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Haemonchus contortus: Characterization of the baculovirus expressed form of aminopeptidase H11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reszka, N.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Zelnik, V.; Moskwa, B.; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, K.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant form of Haemonchus contortus aminopeptidase H11, an intestinal membrane glycoprotein considered to be in its native form the most promising vaccine candidate, was produced in insect cells, characterised and tested in pilot vaccination-challenge trial on sheep. The sequence of the cloned

  9. Arginase-1 expressing microglia in close proximity to motor neurons were increased early in disease progression in canine degenerative myelopathy, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Christine M; Snyder, John C; Jones, Maria R; Garcia, Virginia B; Johnson, Gayle C; Villalón, Eric L; Coates, Joan R; Garcia, Michael L

    2018-04-01

    Toxicity within superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1)-associated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is non-cell autonomous with direct contribution from microglia. Microglia exhibit variable expression of neuroprotective and neurotoxic molecules throughout disease progression. The mechanisms regulating microglial phenotype within ALS are not well understood. This work presents a first study to examine the specific microglial phenotypic response in close association to motor neurons in a naturally occurring disease model of ALS, canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Microglia closely associated with motor neurons were increased in all stages of DM progression, although only DM Late reached statistical significance. Furthermore, the number of arginase-1 expressing microglia per motor neuron were significantly increased in early stages of DM, whereas the number of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-expressing microglia per motor neuron was indistinguishable from aged controls at all stages of disease. Fractalkine, a chemotactic molecule for microglia, was expressed in motor neurons, and the fractalkine receptor was specifically localized to microglia. However, we found no correlation between microglial response and lumbar spinal cord fractalkine levels. Taken together, these data suggest that arginase-1-expressing microglia are recruited to the motor neuron early in DM disease through a fractalkine-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ABC gene expression profiles have clinical importance and possibly form a new hallmark of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Pavel; Pesta, Martin; Soucek, Pavel

    2017-05-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins constitute a large family of active transporters through extracellular and intracellular membranes. Increased drug efflux based on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein activity is related to the development of cancer cell chemoresistance. Several articles have focused on adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles (signatures), based on the expression of all 49 human adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette genes, in individual tumor types and reported connections to established clinicopathological features. The aim of this study was to test our theory about the existence of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles common to multiple types of tumors, which may modify tumor progression and provide clinically relevant information. Such general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette profiles could constitute a new attribute of carcinogenesis. Our combined cohort consisted of tissues from 151 cancer patients-breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. Standard protocols for RNA isolation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were followed. Gene expression data from individual tumor types as well as a merged tumor dataset were analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Several general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette profiles, with differences in gene functions, were established and shown to have significant relations to clinicopathological features such as tumor size, histological grade, or clinical stage. Genes ABCC7, A3, A8, A12, and C8 prevailed among the most upregulated or downregulated ones. In conclusion, the results supported our theory about general adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette gene expression profiles and their importance for cancer on clinical as well as research levels. The presence of ABCC7 (official symbol CFTR) among the genes with key roles in the profiles supports the emerging evidence about its crucial role in various

  11. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  12. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Kayano, Hidekazu [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Koyama, Isamu [Department of Digestive and General Surgery, Saitama International Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8584 (United States); Akatsuka, Toshitaka, E-mail: akatsuka@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell

  13. Forming a complex with MHC class I molecules interferes with mouse CD1d functional expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renukaradhya J Gourapura

    Full Text Available CD1d molecules are structurally similar to MHC class I, but present lipid antigens as opposed to peptides. Here, we show that MHC class I molecules physically associate with (and regulate the functional expression of mouse CD1d on the surface of cells. Low pH (3.0 acid stripping of MHC class I molecules resulted in increased surface expression of murine CD1d on antigen presenting cells as well as augmented CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. Consistent with the above results, TAP1-/- mice were found to have a higher percentage of type I NKT cells as compared to wild type mice. Moreover, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells from TAP1-/- mice showed increased antigen presentation by CD1d compared to wild type mice. Together, these results suggest that MHC class I molecules can regulate NKT cell function, in part, by masking CD1d.

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 and transglutaminase 2 expression at the ocular surface in patients with different forms of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Pasquale; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Sommario, Margherita Serena; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; De Pasquale, Maria Grazia; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) in different forms of dry eye. Case control study. Seventy-five female subjects divided into 3 groups: group 1, 15 healthy controls; group 2, 30 subjects with Sjögren syndrome (SS); and group 3, 30 subjects with Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). A clinical assessment was carried out and impression cytologic specimens were processed for immunoperoxidase staining for MMP9 and TG2 and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were carried out for MMP9, TG2, interleukin-6, interferon-γ, B-cell lymphoma 2, and caspase 3. To study MMP9 and TG2 expression after anti-inflammatory treatment, patients were divided into 2 subgroups, one treated with saline and the other treated with saline plus topical corticosteroid eye drops (0.5% loteprednol etabonate) 4 times daily for 15 days. For statistical analysis, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used as appropriate. Conjunctival expression of MMP9 and TG2. MMP9 and TG2 expression were higher in both patient groups than in controls (P < 0.0001). Group 2 patients showed higher expression than group 3 (P < 0.0001). The Spearman's correlation coefficient showed in group 2 a positive correlation between MMP9 and TG2 expression (ρ = 0.437; P = 0.01), but no correlation in group 3 (ρ = 0.143; P = 0.45). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced MMP9 and TG2 expression in both groups, ameliorating symptoms and signs. A much higher percentage reduction was observed in SS. The pathogenic mechanisms of the 2 forms of dry eye give an account for the different MMP9 and TG2 expressions in the 2 groups of patients. The higher expression in SS is determined by the direct autoimmune insult to the ocular surface epithelia, whereas in MGD patients, with an epithelial damage due to an unbalanced tear secretion, the molecules expression is significantly lower, although higher than in controls. The

  15. Reduced expression of ASS is closely related to clinicopathological features and post-resectional survival of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lin, Ming; Xiong, Fu Xia; Yang, Yu; Nie, Xiu; Zhou, Rou Li

    2010-01-01

    Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) has previously been proven to be reductively expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and various types of HCC cell lines. Arginine, the product of ASS, has been used as a target in HCC by recombinant human arginase or arginine deiminase, which is now in the phase II clinical trial stage. This study aimed to present the levels of ASS expression in HCCs and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients. Immunohistochemical detection of ASS was performed on samples from 71 patients with HCC. Positive staining was found in 21 HCCs, with a score of 2, as well as in normal liver tissues. Reduced ASS staining was found in 70.4% (50/71) of HCC tissues, including 21 with a score of 0 and 29 with a score of 1. The staining score in cancer tissues was significantly associated with gender, background liver, histopathological differentiation, recurrence, TNM staging and portal vein invasion (PASS expression had significantly poorer overall and disease-free survival (PASS was reductively or negatively expressed in a large portion of HCC, and that ASS levels in HCCs correlated inversely with prognosis. In conclusion, a high expression of ASS may be a novel marker of poor prognosis of patients presenting with HCC.

  16. LPL gene expression is associated with poor prognosis in CLL and closely related to NOTCH1 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Abildgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    these markers. AIM: To evaluate LPL gene expression together with the well-established prognostic markers of CLL and investigate correlations with more recently identified prognostic markers, NOTCH1 and TP53 mutations. METHODS: On 149 patients LPL gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Exon 34...... of NOTCH1 was PCR amplified and directly sequenced. RESULTS: LPL gene expression could be measured as a categorical variable (LPL+/LPL-) and was associated with time to treatment (p... and new prognostic markers, 3 out of 4 patients, who received treatment within 24 months after diagnosis, were LPL+ (p=0.03). There was a strong correlation between NOTCH1 mutation and LPL+ (p=0.005). The unfavorable prognosis of LPL+ was maintained in CLL with wild-type NOTCH1. CONCLUSIONS: NOTCH1...

  17. Closed-form approximation and numerical validation of the influence of van der Waals force on electrostatic cantilevers at nano-scale separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Asghar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbari, Javad [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-09

    In this paper the two-point boundary value problem (BVP) of the cantilever deflection at nano-scale separations subjected to van der Waals and electrostatic forces is investigated using analytical and numerical methods to obtain the instability point of the beam. In the analytical treatment of the BVP, the nonlinear differential equation of the model is transformed into the integral form by using the Green's function of the cantilever beam. Then, closed-form solutions are obtained by assuming an appropriate shape function for the beam deflection to evaluate the integrals. In the numerical method, the BVP is solved with the MATLAB BVP solver, which implements a collocation method for obtaining the solution of the BVP. The large deformation theory is applied in numerical simulations to study the effect of the finite kinematics on the pull-in parameters of cantilevers. The centerline of the beam under the effect of electrostatic and van der Waals forces at small deflections and at the point of instability is obtained numerically. In computing the centerline of the beam, the axial displacement due to the transverse deformation of the beam is taken into account, using the inextensibility condition. The pull-in parameters of the beam are computed analytically and numerically under the effects of electrostatic and/or van der Waals forces. The detachment length and the minimum initial gap of freestanding cantilevers, which are the basic design parameters, are determined. The results of the analytical study are compared with the numerical solutions of the BVP. The proposed methods are validated by the results published in the literature.

  18. The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations expressed in a form independent of specific units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heras, Jose A; Baez, G [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Col. Reynosa, 02200 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: herasgomez@gmail.com, E-mail: gbaez@correo.azc.uam.mx

    2009-01-15

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving the constants {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} the values appropriate to each system.

  19. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional transport equation by the LTSN nodal method in the range of Compton Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Barbara D.A.; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco; Hoff, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report a two-dimensional LTS N nodal solution for homogeneous and heterogeneous rectangular domains, assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel and multigroup model. The main idea relies on the solution of the two one-dimensional S N equations resulting from transverse integration of the S N equations in the rectangular domain by the LTS N nodal method, considering the leakage angular fluxes approximated by exponential, which allow us to determine a closed-form solution for the photons transport equation. The angular flux and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the absorbed energy in rectangular domains with different dimensions and compositions. The incoming photons will be tracked until their whole energy is deposited and/or they leave the domain of interest. In this study, the absorbed energy by Compton Effect will be considered. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 9.1) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the Klein-Nishina scattering kernel. (authors)

  20. VARIANTS IMPERATIVE FORMS OF SECOND PERSON IN CENTURIES XIX AND XX: SOCIAL EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina de Brito Rumeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this text, looking to trace the synchronic reality of Brazilian Portuguese on the variable imperative grammatical expression of the second person singular ((“fala você” vs. (“Agora seja tu o laso de união...”,1919. Based on the analysis of 19th and 20th century personal letters,written by educated Brazilians, members of a same Brazilian family (the Pedreira Ferraz-Magalhaes family, whose sociolinguistic profiles have beenidentified (CONDE SILVEST RE, 2007; ROMAINE, 2010; HERNÀNDEX-CAMPOY; CONDE SILVESTRE, 2014, the results expound the representativeness of Gender and Age group as significant social categories for research on the variable imperative grammatical expression of the second person singular. Following the orientation of Labov’s methodological quantitative sociolinguistic analysis (LABOV, 1994,2001, is confirmed the hypothesis that the abrasileirado imperative, in terms of Scherre (2007, tends become established in Brazilian Portugueseas young people seemed be heading in the historic direction of change inprogress.

  1. Burning velocity of the heterogeneous flame propagation in the SHS process expressed in explicit form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, A.; Law, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The combustion behavior of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process has been the subject of many analytical and experimental investigations. Recently, a theory based on spray combustion was proposed for the SHS flame structure and propagation. In contrast to previous studies based on the homogeneous premixed flame, this theory accounts for the premixed-mode of propagation of the bulk flame and the non-premixed reaction of the dispersed nonmetal (or higher melting-point metal) particles which supports the bulk flame. Finite-rate reaction at the particle surface and the temperature-dependent, Arrhenius nature of mass diffusion are both incorporated. The heterogeneous nature of the theory has satisfactorily captured the effects of particle size on the flame propagation speed. The final solution of Makino and Law was obtained numerically and hence presented parametrically. The authors have since then derived an approximate analytical expression for the burning velocity, which explicitly displays the functional dependence of the burning velocity on the various system parameters. This result is presented herein. Applicability of this expression is examined by comparing it with the numerical results for Ti-C, Ti-B, Zr-B, Hf-B, and Co-Ti systems. A fair degree of agreement has been shown as far as the general trend and approximate magnitude are concerned

  2. Intrauterine growth restriction and placental gene expression in severe preeclampsia, comparing early-onset and late-onset forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevalainen, Jaana; Skarp, Sini; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Ryynänen, Markku; Järvenpää, Jouko

    2017-10-26

    To evaluate placental gene expression in severe early- or late-onset preeclampsia with intrauterine growth restriction compared to controls. Chorionic villus sampling was conducted after cesarean section from the placentas of five women with early- or late-onset severe preeclampsia and five controls for each preeclampsia group. Microarray analysis was performed to identify gene expression differences between the groups. Pathway analysis showed over-representation of gene ontology (GO) biological process terms related to inflammatory and immune response pathways, platelet development, vascular development, female pregnancy and reproduction in early-onset preeclampsia. Pathways related to immunity, complement and coagulation cascade were overrepresented in the hypergeometric test for the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Ten genes (ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G, IL2RB, KRBOX1, LRRC15, METTL7B, MPP5, RFLNB and SLC20A) had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to early controls. There were 362 genes that had a ≥±1 fold expression difference in severe early-onset preeclampsia group compared to late-onset preeclampsia group including ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB. There are significant differences in placental gene expression between severe early- and late-onset preeclampsia when both are associated with intrauterine growth restriction. ABI3BP, C7, HLA-G and IL2RB might contribute to the development of early form of severe preeclampsia.

  3. Subordination and domination in the work spaces. Study on the discipline and its forms of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montes Cató

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about domination in the workplace, focussing on discipline as a means, available to capital, of subordinating labour. Such domination is the key to understanding how employment relations have been affected by the profound transformation in the labour market over recent decades. This article is based on the case of the telecommunications industry in Argentina. The objective is to show how discipline operates in a modern commercial company, focussing not only on direct control, but on its symbolic "modern" forms.

  4. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. G-autonomy of EEG recordings of psychotic patients undergoing the primitive expression form of dance therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventouras, E.-C.; Lardi, I.; Dimitriou, S.; Margariti, A.; Chondraki, P.; Kalatzis, I.; Economou, N.-T.; Tsekou, H.; Paparrigopoulos, T.; Ktonas, P. Y.

    2015-09-01

    Primitive expression (PE) is a form of dance therapy (DT) that involves an interaction of ethologically and socially based forms which are supplied for re-enactment. Brain connectivity has been measured in electroencephalographic (EEG) data of patients with schizophrenia undergoing PE DT, using the correlation coefficient and mutual information. These parameters do not measure the existence or absence of directionality in the connectivity. The present study investigates the use of the G-autonomy measure of EEG electrode voltages of the same group of schizophrenic patients. G-autonomy is a measure of the “autonomy” of a system. It indicates the degree by which prediction of the system's future evolution is enhanced by taking into account its own past states, in comparison to predictions based on past states of a set of external variables. In the present research, “own” past states refer to voltage values in the time series recorded at a specific electrode and “external” variables refer to the voltage values recorded at other electrodes. Indication is provided for an acute effect of early-stage PE DT expressed by the augmentation of G-autonomy in the delta rhythm and an acute effect of late- stage PE DT expressed by the reduction of G-autonomy in the theta and alpha rhythms.

  6. Development and Retrospective Clinical Assessment of a Patient-Specific Closed-Form Integro-Differential Equation Model of Plasma Dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Glen; Li, John K-J; Amin, Shawn; Hahn, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    A closed-form integro-differential equation (IDE) model of plasma dilution (PD) has been derived which represents both the intravenous (IV) infusion of crystalloid and the postinfusion period. Specifically, PD is mathematically represented using a combination of constant ratio, differential, and integral components. Furthermore, this model has successfully been applied to preexisting data, from a prior human study, in which crystalloid was infused for a period of 30 minutes at the beginning of thyroid surgery. Using Euler's formula and a Laplace transform solution to the IDE, patients could be divided into two distinct groups based on their response to PD during the infusion period. Explicitly, Group 1 patients had an infusion-based PD response which was modeled using an exponentially decaying hyperbolic sine function, whereas Group 2 patients had an infusion-based PD response which was modeled using an exponentially decaying trigonometric sine function. Both Group 1 and Group 2 patients had postinfusion PD responses which were modeled using the same combination of hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine functions. Statistically significant differences, between Groups 1 and 2, were noted with respect to the area under their PD curves during both the infusion and postinfusion periods. Specifically, Group 2 patients exhibited a response to PD which was most likely consistent with a preoperative hypovolemia. Overall, this IDE model of PD appears to be highly "adaptable" and successfully fits clinically-obtained human data on a patient-specific basis, during both the infusion and postinfusion periods. In addition, patient-specific IDE modeling of PD may be a useful adjunct in perioperative fluid management and in assessing clinical volume kinetics, of crystalloid solutions, in real time.

  7. Parental Expressed Emotion During Two Forms of Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Erica; Le Grange, Daniel; Sawyer, Susan M; McLean, Louise A; Hughes, Elizabeth K

    2018-01-01

    High parental expressed emotion (EE), reflected by criticism or emotional over-involvement, has been related to poorer outcome in family-based treatment (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa. This study assessed EE in 89 mothers and 64 fathers at baseline and end of treatment in a randomised trial comparing conjoint FBT to parent-focused FBT (PFT). Compared with conjoint FBT, PFT was associated with a decrease in maternal criticism, regardless of adolescent remission. Furthermore, an increase in maternal criticism was more likely to be observed in conjoint FBT (80%) than PFT (20%, p = 0.001). Adolescents of mothers who demonstrated an increase in EE, or remained high in EE, were less likely to remit compared with adolescents for whom EE decreased or remained low (33% and 0% vs. 43% and 50%, p = 0.03). There were no significant effects for paternal EE. The results highlight the importance of considering EE when implementing FBT for adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Cross-species comparison of the gut: Differential gene expression sheds light on biological differences in closely related tenebrionids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppert, Brenda; Perkin, Lindsey; Martynov, Alexander G; Elpidina, Elena N

    2018-04-01

    The gut is one of the primary interfaces between an insect and its environment. Understanding gene expression profiles in the insect gut can provide insight into interactions with the environment as well as identify potential control methods for pests. We compared the expression profiles of transcripts from the gut of larval stages of two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. These tenebrionids have different life cycles, varying in the duration and number of larval instars. T. castaneum has a sequenced genome and has been a model for coleopterans, and we recently obtained a draft genome for T. molitor. We assembled gut transcriptome reads from each insect to their respective genomes and filtered mapped reads to RPKM>1, yielding 11,521 and 17,871 genes in the T. castaneum and T. molitor datasets, respectively. There were identical GO terms in each dataset, and enrichment analyses also identified shared GO terms. From these datasets, we compiled an ortholog list of 6907 genes; 45% of the total assembled reads from T. castaneum were found in the top 25 orthologs, but only 27% of assembled reads were found in the top 25 T. molitor orthologs. There were 2281 genes unique to T. castaneum, and 2088 predicted genes unique to T. molitor, although improvements to the T. molitor genome will likely reduce these numbers as more orthologs are identified. We highlight a few unique genes in T. castaneum or T. molitor that may relate to distinct biological functions. A large number of putative genes expressed in the larval gut with uncharacterized functions (36 and 68% from T. castaneum and T. molitor, respectively) support the need for further research. These data are the first step in building a comprehensive understanding of the physiology of the gut in tenebrionid insects, illustrating commonalities and differences that may be related to speciation and environmental adaptation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, Yukiko, E-mail: ytomi@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Morimatsu, Masami, E-mail: mmorimat@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Disease Model Innovation, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815 (Japan); Laboratory of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Nishijima, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nishijma@nubio.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Usui, Tatsufumi, E-mail: usutatsu@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Yamamoto, Sayo, E-mail: ysayo@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Suyama, Haruka, E-mail: sharuka@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ozaki, Kinuyo, E-mail: k-ozaki@anim.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center of Biomedical Research, Research Center for Human Disease Modeling, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ito, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshiito@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation.

  10. A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides an antitumor benefit against mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Nishijima, Ken-ichi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Sayo; Suyama, Haruka; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tumor-associated antigen MUC1 binds to Siglec-9. • Soluble Siglec-9 reduced proliferation of MUC1-positive tumor in transgenic mice. • Soluble Siglec-9 and MUC1 on tumor cells were colocalized in transgenic mice. • MUC1 expression on tumor cells were reduced in soluble Siglec-9 transgenic mice. - Abstract: Tumor-associated MUC1 binds to Siglec-9, which is expected to mediate tumor cell growth and negative immunomodulation. We hypothesized that a soluble form of Siglec-9 (sSiglec-9) competitively inhibits a binding of MUC1 to its receptor molecules like human Siglec-9, leading to provide antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor, and generated transgenic mouse lines expressing sSiglec-9 (sSiglec-9 Tg). When mammary tumor cells expressing MUC1 were intraperitoneally transplanted into sSiglec-9 Tg, tumor proliferation was slower with the lower histological malignancy as compared with non-transgenic mice. The sSiglec-9 was detected in the ascites caused by the tumor in the sSiglec-9 Tg, and sSiglec-9 and MUC1 were often colocalized on surfaces of the tumor cells. PCNA immunohistochemistry also revealed the reduced proliferation of the tumor cells in sSiglec-9 Tg. In sSiglec-9 Tg with remarkable suppression of tumor proliferation, MUC1 expressions were tend to be reduced. In the ascites of sSiglec-9 Tg bearing the tumor, T cells were uniformly infiltrated, whereas aggregations of degenerative T cells were often observed in the non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that sSiglec-9 has an antitumor benefit against MUC1-expressing tumor in the transgenic mice, which may avoid the negative immunomodulation and/or suppress tumor-associated MUC1 downstream signal transduction, and subsequent tumor proliferation

  11. Correlation of mitochondrial protein expression in complexes I to V with natural and induced forms of canine idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rosana; Solter, Philip F; Sisson, D David; Oyama, Mark A; Prosek, Robert

    2006-06-01

    To identify qualitative and quantitative differences in cardiac mitochondrial protein expression in complexes I to V between healthy dogs and dogs with natural or induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Left ventricle samples were obtained from 7 healthy dogs, 7 Doberman Pinschers with naturally occurring DCM, and 7 dogs with DCM induced by rapid right ventricular pacing. Fresh and frozen mitochondrial fractions were isolated from the left ventricular free wall and analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. Protein spots that increased or decreased in density by 2-fold or greater between groups were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 22 altered mitochondrial proteins were identified in complexes I to V. Ten and 12 were found in complex I and complexes II to V, respectively. Five were mitochondrial encoded, and 17 were nuclear encoded. Most altered mitochondrial proteins in tissue specimens from dogs with naturally occurring DCM were associated with complexes I and V, whereas in tissue specimens from dogs subjected to rapid ventricular pacing, complexes I and IV were more affected. In the experimentally induced form of DCM, only nuclear-encoded subunits were changed in complex I. In both disease groups, the 22-kd subunit was downregulated. Natural and induced forms of DCM resulted in altered mitochondrial protein expression in complexes I to V. However, subcellular differences between the experimental and naturally occurring forms of DCM may exist.

  12. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band patterns that could be attributable to gene silencing, novel expression, and/or maternal/paternal effects between T. mirus and its diploid parents. Subsequent cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that 20 of the 30 genes identified through cDNA-AFLP analysis showed additivity, whereas nine of the 30 exhibited the loss of one parental homeolog in at least one individual. Homeolog loss (versus loss of a restriction site was confirmed via sequencing. The remaining gene (ADENINE-DNA GLYCOSYLASE showed ambiguous patterns in T. mirus because of polymorphism in the diploid parent T. dubius. Most (63.6% of the homeolog loss events were of the T. dubius parental copy. Two genes, NUCLEAR RIBOSOMAL DNA and GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE, showed differential expression of the parental homeologs, with the T. dubius copy silenced in some individuals of T. mirus. Conclusions Genomic and cDNA CAPS analyses indicated that plants representing multiple populations of this young natural allopolyploid have experienced frequent and preferential elimination of homeologous loci. Comparable analyses of synthetic F1 hybrids showed only

  13. The Radiation Problem from a Vertical Hertzian Dipole Antenna above Flat and Lossy Ground: Novel Formulation in the Spectral Domain with Closed-Form Analytical Solution in the High Frequency Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ioannidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of radiation from a vertical short (Hertzian dipole above flat lossy ground, which represents the well-known “Sommerfeld radiation problem” in the literature. The problem is formulated in a novel spectral domain approach, and by inverse three-dimensional Fourier transformation the expressions for the received electric and magnetic (EM field in the physical space are derived as one-dimensional integrals over the radial component of wavevector, in cylindrical coordinates. This formulation appears to have inherent advantages over the classical formulation by Sommerfeld, performed in the spatial domain, since it avoids the use of the so-called Hertz potential and its subsequent differentiation for the calculation of the received EM field. Subsequent use of the stationary phase method in the high frequency regime yields closed-form analytical solutions for the received EM field vectors, which coincide with the corresponding reflected EM field originating from the image point. In this way, we conclude that the so-called “space wave” in the literature represents the total solution of the Sommerfeld problem in the high frequency regime, in which case the surface wave can be ignored. Finally, numerical results are presented, in comparison with corresponding numerical results based on Norton’s solution of the problem.

  14. Enhanced resistance to herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in transgenic mice expressing a soluble form of herpesvirus entry mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Etsuro; Yoshino, Saori; Amagai, Keiko; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Kimura, Chiemi; Morimoto, Junko; Inobe, Manabu; Uenishi, Tomoko; Uede, Toshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family used as a cellular receptor by virion glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Both human and mouse forms of HVEM can mediate entry of HSV-1 but have no entry activity for pseudorabies virus (PRV). To assess the antiviral potential of HVEM in vivo, three transgenic mouse lines expressing a soluble form of HVEM (HVEMIg) consisting of an extracellular domain of murine HVEM and the Fc portion of human IgG1 were generated. All of the transgenic mouse lines showed marked resistance to HSV-1 infection when the mice were challenged intraperitoneally with HSV-1, but not to PRV infection. The present results demonstrate that HVEMIg is able to exert a significant antiviral effect against HSV-1 infection in vivo

  15. Closely related glycosylation patterns of recombinant human IL-2 expressed in a CHO cell line and natural IL-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vita, N.; Magazin, M.; Marchese, E.; Lupker, J.; Ferrara, P.

    1990-01-01

    We report here the study of the glycosylation pattern of human recombinant (r) IL2 expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. The human rIL2 secreted by this high-producing recombinant CHO cell line was metabolically radiolabelled with [35S]-methionine, or with [3H]-glucosamine and [3H]-galactose, purified to homogeneity, and then characterized. The electrophoretic analysis of the [35S]-methionine-labelled proteins present in the culture medium of the CHO cell line showed that the rIL2 represents approximately 12% of the total secreted proteins. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments showed that the glycosylated rIL2 is synthesized and secreted within 30 min. The point of attachment and the structure of the carbohydrate moiety of the rIL2 was determined by: amino-terminal sequencing and fingerprint analysis of the 3H-labelled rIL2, mass spectroscopy of the amino-terminal tryptic octapeptide, and carbohydrate analysis after enzymatic (Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase and Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidase) or sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The results indicate that the recombinant protein possesses a sugar moiety O-linked to the threonine residue at position 3 of the polypeptide chain, and that sialic acid, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine are components of this carbohydrate moiety. Taken together these results suggest that the recombinant molecule is identical to natural IL2

  16. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Y. Nishikawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ54 co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL. A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH4Cl but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  17. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-01-27

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ{sup 54} factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH{sub 4}Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  18. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, C Y; Araújo, L M; Kadowaki, M A S; Monteiro, R A; Steffens, M B R; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M; Chubatsu, L S

    2012-02-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ(54) co-factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH(4)Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription.

  19. Expression and characterization of an N-truncated form of the NifA protein of Azospirillum brasilense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, C.Y.; Araújo, L.M.; Kadowaki, M.A.S.; Monteiro, R.A.; Steffens, M.B.R.; Pedrosa, F.O.; Souza, E.M.; Chubatsu, L.S.

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with important agricultural crops such as rice, wheat and maize. The expression of genes responsible for nitrogen fixation (nif genes) in this bacterium is dependent on the transcriptional activator NifA. This protein contains three structural domains: the N-terminal domain is responsible for the negative control by fixed nitrogen; the central domain interacts with the RNA polymerase σ 54 factor and the C-terminal domain is involved in DNA binding. The central and C-terminal domains are linked by the interdomain linker (IDL). A conserved four-cysteine motif encompassing the end of the central domain and the IDL is probably involved in the oxygen-sensitivity of NifA. In the present study, we have expressed, purified and characterized an N-truncated form of A. brasilense NifA. The protein expression was carried out in Escherichia coli and the N-truncated NifA protein was purified by chromatography using an affinity metal-chelating resin followed by a heparin-bound resin. Protein homogeneity was determined by densitometric analysis. The N-truncated protein activated in vivo nifH::lacZ transcription regardless of fixed nitrogen concentration (absence or presence of 20 mM NH 4 Cl) but only under low oxygen levels. On the other hand, the aerobically purified N-truncated NifA protein bound to the nifB promoter, as demonstrated by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, implying that DNA-binding activity is not strictly controlled by oxygen levels. Our data show that, while the N-truncated NifA is inactive in vivo under aerobic conditions, it still retains DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the oxidized form of NifA bound to DNA is not competent to activate transcription

  20. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  1. Characterization and differential expression of three GnRH forms during reproductive development in cultured turbot Schophthalmus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Xu, Shihong; Feng, Chengcheng; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, Yongshuang; Song, Zongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Turbots (Schophthalmus maximus), one of the most important economic marine flatfish species, fail to undergo final spawning and spermiation naturally under artificial farming conditions. In vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis (BPG-axis), and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of its key components. Therefore, to better understand the physiology of reproduction in the turbot, three of the genes encoding GnRH subtypes—sbGnRH, cGnRH-II and sGnRH—were cloned and sequenced by isolating the cDNA sequences. The localizations and patterns of expression of their mRNAs were also evaluated during seasonal gonadal development. All three mRNAs were expressed abundantly in the brain; sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs were also detected in the gonads and pituitary gland, and sbGnRH expression was much higher than that of sGnRH, indicating the critical role of sbGnRH in regulating the BPG-axis. Moreover, the brain expression patterns of sbGnRH and sGnRH mRNAs showed an increased trend during gonadal development, peaking in mature stages. This indicated the direct regulation of gonadal development by the GnRH system. In addition, cGnRH-II mRNA expression showed no significant variations, suggesting that cGnRH-II is not critically involved in the control of reproduction. Further, the mRNA abundances of the three GnRH forms in the breeding season were significantly higher than those in immature and post-breeding stages in all analyzed brain areas. Therefore, we propose that sbGnRH is the most important hormone for the regulation of reproduction in turbot via the BPG-axis. These results will help in better understanding the reproductive endocrine mechanisms of turbots and lay the groundwork for additional studies aimed at comparing the reproductive physiology of wild individuals with those raised under artificial conditions.

  2. Over-expression of two different forms of the alpha-secretase ADAM10 affects learning and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Fahrenholz, Falk; Schroeder, Anja

    2006-12-15

    Members of the ADAM family (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) are the main candidates for physiologically relevant alpha-secretases. The alpha-secretase cleaves in the non-amyloidogenic pathway the amyloid precursor protein within the region of the Abeta peptides preventing their aggregation in the brain. The increase of alpha-secretase activity in the brain provides a plausible strategy to prevent Abeta formation. Concerning this possibility two transgenic mouse lines (FVB/N) have been created: mice over-expressing the bovine form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10) and mice over-expressing an inactive form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10-E348A-HA; ADAM10-dn). For behavioral examination a F1 generation of transgenic mice (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N (tg)) was generated and compared to wild type F1 generation (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N). Behavior was characterized in the following tasks: standard open field, enriched open field, elevated plus-maze, and the Morris water maze hidden platform task. Concerning basal activity, exploration, and anxiety, transgenic mice behaved similar to controls. With respect to learning and memory both transgenic lines showed a significant deficit compared to controls. ADAM10 mice however, showed thigmotaxis with passive floating behavior in the Morris water maze indicating differences in motivation, whereas, ADAM10-dn mice displayed an inconspicuous but limited goal-directed search pattern. Thus variation of the enzymatic activity of alpha-secretase ADAM10 alters learning and memory differentially. Nevertheless, it could be concluded that both, ADAM10 and ADAM10-dn mice are suitable control mice for the assessment of alpha-secretase-related effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Heterologous expression of a truncated form of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its biological activity in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Mohsen; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Baazm, Maryam; Babaei, Saeed; Molaee, Neda; Abtahi, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most effective proteins in angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation and wound healing. These abilities are therapeutic potential of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and other tissue damage circumstances. In this study, recombinant VEGF was produced in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) system and then biological activity of this protein was evaluated in animal wound healing. E. coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells were transformed with pET32a-VEGF clone and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thio-galactoside (IPTG). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Recombinant VEGF-A-based ointment (VEGF/Vaseline 0.8 mg/100 w/w) was used for external wound (25×15mm thickness) healing in animal model. In vivo activity of ointment was evaluated by clinical evidences and cytological microscopic assessment. The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 45 kilodaltons (kDa) and concentration of 0.8 mg/ml was produced. Immunoblotting data showed that the antigenic region of VEGF can be expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein has similar epitopes with close antigenic properties to the natural form. Macroscopic findings and microscopic data showed that the recombinant VEGF-A ointment was effective on excisional wound healing. Recombinant VEGF-A produced by pET32a in E. coli , possesses acceptable structure and has wound healing capability.

  4. Heterologous expression of a truncated form of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its biological activity in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is one of the most effective proteins in angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiation and wound healing. These abilities are therapeutic potential of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and other tissue damage circumstances. In this study, recombinant VEGF was produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli system and then biological activity of this protein was evaluated in animal wound healing. Materials and Methods: E. coli BL21 (DE3 competent cells were transformed with pET32a-VEGF clone and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thio-galactoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was purified byaffinity chromatography. Recombinant VEGF-A-based ointment (VEGF/Vaseline 0.8 mg/100 w/w was used for external wound (25×15mm thickness healing in animal model. In vivo activity of ointment was evaluated by clinical evidences and cytological microscopic assessment. Results: The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 45 kilodaltons (kDa and concentration of 0.8 mg/ml was produced.Immunoblotting data showed that the antigenic region of VEGF can be expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein has similar epitopes with close antigenic properties to the natural form. Macroscopic findings and microscopic data showed that the recombinant VEGF-A ointment was effective on excisional wound healing. Conclusion: Recombinant VEGF-A produced by pET32a in E. coli, possesses acceptable structure and has wound healing capability.

  5. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Smith

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is an important viral agent causing severe respiratory tract disease in infants and children as well as in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The lack of a safe and effective RSV vaccine represents a major unmet medical need. RSV fusion (F surface glycoprotein was modified and cloned into a baculovirus vector for efficient expression in Sf9 insect cells. Recombinant RSV F was glycosylated and cleaved into covalently linked F2 and F1 polypeptides that formed homotrimers. RSV F extracted and purified from insect cell membranes assembled into 40 nm protein nanoparticles composed of multiple RSV F oligomers arranged in the form of rosettes. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified RSV F nanoparticles was compared to live and formalin inactivated RSV in cotton rats. Immunized animals induced neutralizing serum antibodies, inhibited virus replication in the lungs, and had no signs of disease enhancement in the respiratory track of challenged animals. RSV F nanoparticles also induced IgG competitive for binding of palivizumab neutralizing monoclonal antibody to RSV F antigenic site II. Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate.

  6. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of three different crystal forms of human saposin C heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz-Heienbrok, Robert; Remmel, Natascha; Klingenstein, R.; Rossocha, Maksim; Sandhoff, Konrad; Saenger, Wolfram; Maier, Timm

    2006-01-01

    Three different crystal forms were obtained of human saposin C. The structures could not be determined by molecular replacement using known solution structures of the protein as search models, supporting the notion of a highly flexible protein. The amphiphilic saposin proteins (A, B, C and D) act at the lipid–water interface in lysosomes, mediating the hydrolysis of membrane building blocks by water-soluble exohydrolases. Human saposin C activates glucocerebrosidase and β-galactosylceramidase. The protein has been expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms, diffracting to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å. Hexagonal crystals grew from 2-propanol-containing solution and contain a single molecule in the asymmetric unit according to the Matthews coefficient. Orthorhombic and tetragonal crystals were both obtained with pentaerythritol ethoxylate and are predicted to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Attempts to determine the respective crystal structures by molecular replacement using either the known NMR structure of human saposin C or a related crystal structure as search models have so far failed. The failure of the molecular-replacement method is attributed to conformational changes of the protein, which are known to be required for its biological activity. Crystal structures of human saposin C therefore might be the key to mapping out the conformational trajectory of saposin-like proteins

  8. Calculation of temperature fields formed in induction annealing of closing welded joint of jacket of steam generator for WWER 440 type nuclear power plant using ICL 2960 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajnar, P.; Fiala, J.

    1983-01-01

    The problems are discussed of the mathematical description and simulation of temperature fields in annealing the closing weld of the steam generator jacket of the WWER 440 nuclear power plant. The basic principles are given of induction annealing, the method of calculating temperature fields is indicated and the mathematical description is given of boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the steam generator jacket for the computation of temperature fields arising during annealing. Also described are the methods of determining the temperature of exposed parts of heat exchange tubes inside the steam generator and the technical possibilities are assessed of the annealing equipment from the point of view of its computer simulation. Five alternatives are given for the computation of temperature fields in the area around the weld for different boundary conditions. The values are given of maximum differences in the temperatures of the metal in the annealed part of the steam generator jacket which allow the assessment of individual computation variants, this mainly from the point of view of observing the course of annealing temperature in the required width of the annealed jacket of the steam generator along both sides of the closing weld. (B.S.)

  9. Mice Expressing a "Hyper-Sensitive" Form of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1 Are Neither Obese Nor Diabetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence implicate the endocannabinoid signaling system in the modulation of metabolic disease. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 in rodents leads to reduced body weight, resistance to diet-induced obesity, decreased intake of highly palatable food, and increased energy expenditure. Cannabinoid agonists stimulate feeding in rodents and increased levels of endocannabinoids can disrupt lipid metabolism. Therefore, the hypothesis that sustained endocannabinoid signaling can lead to obesity and diabetes was examined in this study using S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant CB1 receptor. These mice display exaggerated and prolonged responses to acute administration of phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids. As a consequence these mice represent a novel model for determining the effect of enhanced endocannabinoid signaling on metabolic disease. S426A/S430A mutants consumed equivalent amounts of both high fat (45% and low fat (10% chow control diet compared to wild-type littermate controls. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice fed either high or low fat control diet displayed similar fasting blood glucose levels and normal glucose clearance following a 2 g/kg glucose challenge. Furthermore, S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of chow following an overnight fast. While both THC and JZL195 significantly increased food intake two hours after injection, this increase was similar between the S426A/S430A mutant and wildtype control mice Our results indicate that S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing the desensitization-resistant form of CB1 do not exhibit differences in body weight, food intake, glucose homeostasis, or re-feeding following a fast.

  10. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Calcium-dependent Protein Kinase and Its Closely Related Kinase Genes in Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanyang ecai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As Ca2+ sensors and effectors, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs play important roles in regulating the downstream components of calcium signaling, which are ubiquitously involved in plant growth, development, and response to environmental cues. However, no CDPKs have been characterized in Capsicum annuum thus far. Herein, a comprehensive analysis of genes encoding pepper CDPKs and CDPK-related protein kinases (CRKs was performed, and 31 CDPK genes and five closely related kinase genes were identified, which were phylogenetically divided into four distinct subfamilies and unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes. Conserved sequence and exon-intron structures were found to be shared by pepper CDPKs within the same subfamily, and the expansion of the CaCPK family in pepper was found to be due to segmental duplication events. Five CDPKs in the Capsicum annuum variety CM334 were found to be mutated in the Chiltepin variety, and one CDPK present in CM334 was lost in Chiltepin. The majority of CDPK and CRK genes were expressed in different pepper tissues and developmental stages, and 10, 12, and eight CDPK genes were transcriptionally modified by salt, heat, and Ralstonia solanacearum stresses, respectively. Furthermore, these genes were found to respond specifically to one stress as well as respond synergistically to two stresses or three stresses, suggesting that these CDPK genes might be involved in the specific or synergistic response of pepper to salt, heat, and R. solanacearum. Our results lay the foundation for future functional characterization of pepper CDPK and its closely related gene families.

  11. Closed-form solution for static pull-in voltage of electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped micro/nano beams under the effect of fringing field and van der Waals force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojawala, V. M.; Vakharia, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation provides an accurate prediction of static pull-in voltage for clamped-clamped micro/nano beams based on distributed model. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used adapting geometric non-linearity of beam, internal (residual) stress, van der Waals force, distributed electrostatic force and fringing field effects for deriving governing differential equation. The Galerkin discretisation method is used to make reduced-order model of the governing differential equation. A regime plot is presented in the current work for determining the number of modes required in reduced-order model to obtain completely converged pull-in voltage for micro/nano beams. A closed-form relation is developed based on the relationship obtained from curve fitting of pull-in instability plots and subsequent non-linear regression for the proposed relation. The output of regression analysis provides Chi-square (χ 2) tolerance value equals to 1  ×  10-9, adjusted R-square value equals to 0.999 29 and P-value equals to zero, these statistical parameters indicate the convergence of non-linear fit, accuracy of fitted data and significance of the proposed model respectively. The closed-form equation is validated using available data of experimental and numerical results. The relative maximum error of 4.08% in comparison to several available experimental and numerical data proves the reliability of the proposed closed-form equation.

  12. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A.; Vilhena, M.T.; Borges, V.; Hoff, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P N approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section

  13. Establishment of a luciferase assay-based screening system: Fumitremorgin C selectively inhibits cellular proliferation of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Sasai, Ken; Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    The AKT pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma, and as such, inhibitors of this pathway could prove very useful as anti-glioblastoma therapies. Here we established immortalized astrocytes expressing Renilla luciferase as well as those expressing both an active form of AKT and firefly luciferase. Since both luciferase activities represent the numbers of corresponding cell lines, novel inhibitors of the AKT pathway can be identified by treating co-cultures containing the two types of luciferase-expressing cells with individual compounds. Indeed, such a screening system succeeded in identifying fumitremorgin C as an efficient inhibitor of the AKT pathway, which was further confirmed by the ability of fumitremorgin C to selectively inhibit the growth of immortalized astrocytes expressing an active form of AKT. The present study proposes a broadly applicable approach for identifying therapeutic agents that target the pathways and/or molecules responsible for cancer development

  14. Determining the closed forms of the O(α3s) anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients from Mellin moments by means of computer algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian; Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten

    2009-02-01

    Single scale quantities, as anomalous dimensions and hard scattering cross sections, in renormalizable Quantum Field Theories are found to obey difference equations of finite order in Mellin space. It is often easier to calculate fixed moments for these quantities compared to a direct attempt to derive them in terms of harmonic sums and their generalizations involving the Mellin parameter N. Starting from a sufficiently large number of given moments, we establish linear recurrence relations of lowest possible order with polynomial coefficients of usually high degree. Then these recurrence equations are solved in terms of d'Alembertian solutions where the involved nested sums are represented in optimal nested depth. Given this representation, it is then an easy task to express the result in terms of harmonic sums. In this process we compactify the result such that no algebraic relations occur among the sums involved. We demonstrate the method for the QCD unpolarized anomalous dimensions and massless Wilson coefficients to 3-loop order treating the contributions for individual color coefficients. For the most complicated subproblem 5114 moments were needed in order to produce a recurrence of order 35 whose coefficients have degrees up to 938. About four months of CPU time were needed to establish and solve the recurrences for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients on a 2 GHz machine requiring less than 10 GB of memory. No algorithm is known yet to provide such a high number of moments for 3-loop quantities. Yet the method presented shows that it is possible to establish and solve recurrences of rather large order and degree, occurring in physics problems, uniquely, fast and reliably with computer algebra. (orig.)

  15. Determining the closed forms of the O({alpha}{sup 3}{sub s}) anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients from Mellin moments by means of computer algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2009-02-15

    Single scale quantities, as anomalous dimensions and hard scattering cross sections, in renormalizable Quantum Field Theories are found to obey difference equations of finite order in Mellin space. It is often easier to calculate fixed moments for these quantities compared to a direct attempt to derive them in terms of harmonic sums and their generalizations involving the Mellin parameter N. Starting from a sufficiently large number of given moments, we establish linear recurrence relations of lowest possible order with polynomial coefficients of usually high degree. Then these recurrence equations are solved in terms of d'Alembertian solutions where the involved nested sums are represented in optimal nested depth. Given this representation, it is then an easy task to express the result in terms of harmonic sums. In this process we compactify the result such that no algebraic relations occur among the sums involved. We demonstrate the method for the QCD unpolarized anomalous dimensions and massless Wilson coefficients to 3-loop order treating the contributions for individual color coefficients. For the most complicated subproblem 5114 moments were needed in order to produce a recurrence of order 35 whose coefficients have degrees up to 938. About four months of CPU time were needed to establish and solve the recurrences for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients on a 2 GHz machine requiring less than 10 GB of memory. No algorithm is known yet to provide such a high number of moments for 3-loop quantities. Yet the method presented shows that it is possible to establish and solve recurrences of rather large order and degree, occurring in physics problems, uniquely, fast and reliably with computer algebra. (orig.)

  16. A closed-form solution for the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport in the range of Compton Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.D.A. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: barbara.arodriguez@gmail.com; Vilhena, M.T. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Matematica Pura e Aplicada, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.br; Borges, V. [Universidade Federal Rio Grande do Sul, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Portuguesa 218/304, 90650-12 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br; Hoff, G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Fisica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: hoff@pucrs.br

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we solve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, an alternative approach for the Boltzmann transport equation for charged particles in a rectangular domain. To construct the solution we begin applying the P{sub N} approximation in the angular variable and the Laplace Transform in the x-variable, thus obtaining a first order linear differential equation in y-variable, which the solution is straightforward. The angular flux of electrons and the parameters of the medium are used for the calculation of the energy deposited by the secondary electrons generated by Compton Effect. The remaining effects will not be taken into account. The results will be presented under absorbed energy form in several points of interested. We present numerical simulations and comparisons with results obtained by using Geant4 (version 8) program which applies the Monte Carlo's technique to low energy libraries for a two-dimensional problem assuming the screened Rutherford differential scattering cross-section.

  17. Closed-form solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in a scalar-vector field cosmological model by Lie symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Vakili, Babak

    2016-01-01

    We apply as selection rule to determine the unknown functions of a cosmological model the existence of Lie point symmetries for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of quantum gravity. Our cosmological setting consists of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric having the scale factor a( t), a scalar field with potential function V(φ ) minimally coupled to gravity and a vector field of its kinetic energy is coupled with the scalar field by a coupling function f(φ ). Then, the Lie symmetries of this dynamical system are investigated by utilizing the behavior of the corresponding minisuperspace under the infinitesimal generator of the desired symmetries. It is shown that by applying the Lie symmetry condition the form of the coupling function and also the scalar field potential function may be explicitly determined so that we are able to solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Finally, we show how we can use the Lie symmetries in order to construct conservation laws and exact solutions for the field equations.

  18. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  19. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  20. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  1. Closed-time path formalism of quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoukian, E.B.

    1988-01-01

    The closed-time path formalism of quantum mechanics, first introduced by Schwinger, is developed starting from a second-quantized formalism by using a functional calculus. An exact functional expression for the closed-time amplitude for a particle state (not just of the vacuum state)is derived from which time-dependent expectation value of observables may be written in closed functional form. In particular, this leads directly to the expression for transition probabilities for scattering theory without computing first the corresponding amplitudes. Finally it is made a comparison with the standard approach

  2. Baculoviral expression and characterization of human recombinant PGCP in the form of an active mature dimer and an inactive precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Tajana; Suban, Dejan; Rajković, Jelena; Dolenc, Iztok

    2011-02-01

    The human-blood plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase (PGCP) is a proteinase that acts on the unsubstituted N- and C-termini of dipeptides. It has been suggested that this PGCP is involved in the release of thyroxine. Furthermore, research has suggested that its activity is up-regulated in hepatitis-C-virus-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study expressed human PGCP in the baculovirus expression system was produced by a Sf9 insect cell line with aim to prepare sufficient amounts of active recombinant enzyme for a subsequent biological characterization. Recombinant PGCP was expressed and secreted into the medium in the form of an inactive proenzyme. It was gradually converted into an active form in the medium after three days, with the highest expression of the active form on day six. The protein was sequentially purified by a combination of various liquid chromatographies, such as hydroxyapatite, ion exchange, and gel chromatography, and as final step with affinity chromatography on Phe-Leu-Sepharose. The human PGCP was purified as an active enzyme in the dimer form and as inactive precursor protein. The dipeptidase activity was confirmed by measuring the hydrolysis of the Ser-Met dipeptide at a slightly acidic pH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High-level expression of an antimicrobial peptide histonin as a natural form by multimerization and furin-mediated cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min; Jang, Su A; Yu, Byung Jo; Sung, Bong Hyun; Cho, Ju Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2008-02-01

    Direct expression of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in Escherichia coli causes several problems such as the toxicity of AMP to the host cell, its susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and decreased antimicrobial activity due to the additional residue(s) introduced after cleavage of AMPs from fusion partners. To overcome these problems and produce a large quantity of a potent AMP histonin (RAGLQFPVGKLLKKLLKRLKR) in E. coli, an efficient expression system was developed, in which the toxicity of histonin was neutralized by a fusion partner F4 (a truncated fragment of PurF protein) and the productivity was increased by a multimeric expression of a histonin gene. The expression level of the fusion proteins reached a maximum with a 12-mer of a histonin gene. In addition, because of the RLKR residues present at the C terminus of histonin, furin cleavage of the multimeric histonin expressed produces an intact, natural histonin. The AMP activity of the histonin produced in E. coli was identical to that of a synthetic histonin. With our expression system, 167 mg of histonin was obtained from 1 l of E. coli culture. These results may lead to a cost-effective solution for the mass production of AMPs that are toxic to a host.

  4. Open and Closed Form in Interactive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can be expan......Performing music includes substantial listening skills on part of the performer. Performing with an interactive computer requires the performer to interact with the computer and intuitively and consciously include this information in the responsiveness of his playing. The interaction can...

  5. The Generation of Turnip Crinkle Virus-Like Particles in Plants by the Transient Expression of Wild-Type and Modified Forms of Its Coat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Keith; Lomonossoff, George P

    2015-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a member of the genus carmovirus of the Tombusviridae family, has a genome consisting of a single positive-sense RNA molecule that is encapsidated in an icosahedral particle composed of 180 copies of a single type of coat protein. We have employed the CPMV-HT transient expression system to investigate the formation of TCV-like particles following the expression of the wild-type coat protein or modified forms of it that contain either deletions and/or additions. Transient expression of the coat protein in plants results in the formation of capsid structures that morphologically resemble TCV virions (T = 3 structure) but encapsidate heterogeneous cellular RNAs, rather than the specific TCV coat protein messenger RNA. Expression of an amino-terminal deleted form of the coat protein resulted in the formation of smaller T = 1 structures that are free of RNA. The possibility of utilizing TCV as a carrier for the presentation of foreign proteins on the particle surface was also explored by fusing the sequence of GFP to the C-terminus of the coat protein. The expression of coat protein-GFP hybrids permitted the formation of VLPs but the yield of particles is diminished compared to the yield obtained with unmodified coat protein. Our results confirm the importance of the N-terminus of the coat protein for the encapsidation of RNA and show that the coat protein's exterior P domain plays a key role in particle formation.

  6. Non-conventional forms of HLA-B27 are expressed in spondyloarthritis joints and gut tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rysnik, Oliwia; McHugh, Kirsty; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie; van Tok, Melissa; Guggino, Giuliana; Taurog, Joel; Kollnberger, Simon; Ciccia, Francesco; Baeten, Dominique; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 (B27) is the strongest genetic factor associated with development of Ankylosing Spondylitis and other spondyloarthropathies (SpA), yet the role it plays in disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated the expression of potentially pathogenic

  7. Differences in Cartilage-Forming Capacity of Expanded Human Chondrocytes From Ear and Nose and Their Gene Expression Profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, C.A.; Verwiel, E.T.P.; Slagt, I.; Koevoet, W.; Poublon, R.M.L.; Nolst-Trenite, G.J.; de Jong, R.J.B.; Jahr, H.; van Osch, G.J.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  8. Differences in cartilage-forming capacity of expanded human chondrocytes from ear and nose and their gene expression profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A.; Verwiel, Eugène T. P.; Slagt, Inez; Koevoet, Wendy; Poublon, René M. L.; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Jahr, Holger; van Osch, Gerjo J. V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of culture-expanded human auricular and nasoseptal chondrocytes as cell source for regeneration of stable cartilage and to analyze the differences in gene expression profile of expanded chondrocytes from these specific locations. Auricular

  9. Increased understanding of the biochemistry and biosynthesis of MUC2 and other gel-forming mucins through the recombinant expression of their protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Malin; Ambort, Daniel; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2013-06-01

    The gel-forming mucins are large and heavily O-glycosylated proteins which build up mucus gels. The recombinant production of full-length gel-forming mucins has not been possible to date. In order to study mucin biosynthesis and biochemistry, we and others have taken the alternative approach of constructing different recombinant proteins consisting of one or several domains of these large proteins and expressing them separately in different cell lines. Using this approach, we have determined that MUC2, the intestinal gel-forming mucin, dimerizes via its C-terminal cysteine-knot domain and also trimerizes via one of the N-terminal von Willebrand D domains. Both of these interactions are disulfide bond mediated. Via this assembly, a molecular network is built by which the mucus gel is formed. Here we discuss not only the functional understanding obtained from studies of the recombinant proteins, but also highlight the difficulties encountered when these proteins were produced recombinantly. We often found an accumulation of the proteins in the ER and consequently no secretion. This was especially apparent when the cysteine-rich domains of the N- and C-terminal parts of the mucins were expressed. Other proteins that we constructed were either not secreted or not expressed at all. Despite these problems, the knowledge of mucin biosynthesis and assembly has advanced considerably through the studies of these recombinant proteins.

  10. Pancreatic beta cells express two autoantigenic forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, a 65-kDa hydrophilic form and a 64-kDa amphiphilic form which can be both membrane-bound and soluble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, S; Schierbeck, H; Aanstoot, H J

    1991-01-01

    The 64-kDa pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen, which is a target of autoantibodies associated with early as well as progressive stages of beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) in humans, has been identified as the gamma-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic...... acid decarboxylase. We have identified two autoantigenic forms of this protein in rat pancreatic beta-cells, a Mr 65,000 (GAD65) hydrophilic and soluble form of pI 6.9-7.1 and a Mr 64,000 (GAD64) component of pI 6.7. GAD64 is more abundant than GAD65 and has three distinct forms with regard to cellular...

  11. A study of the cytoplasmic expression of a form of human prolactin and of its solubilization and renaturation from bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso, Regina

    2000-01-01

    Different vector elements, that can determine a high expression level of a form of human prolactin (taghPrl) in bacterial cytoplasm, were studied. Expression conditions were first optimized for a reference vector, which was used to transform different strains of E. coli: HB2151, RRI and RB791. The highest expression level (113 ±16 μg/mL.A 600 ) was obtained in HB2151, after activation with only 0.1 mM IPTG. At this point the influence of the transcription terminator (g32 from bacteriophage T4), of the translation enhancer (g10 from bacteriophage T7), of the promoter (λP L or tac) and of the antibiotic resistance gene (amp r or kan r ) were studied. The first three elements did not show any significant influence, at least in our systems. On the contrary, the analysis of the influence of amp r and kan r genes showed, unexpectedly, that the presence of the last one provides an approximately 5-fold higher expression for taghPrl in E. coli cytoplasm. Finally, an appropriate extraction, solubilization, renaturation and purification process, able to provide a monomeric form of taghPrl, was studied. A method utilizing urea and mercaptoethanol as solubilizing agents and a dialysis as a renaturation procedure, provided with some modifications, one of the highest yields ever reported in the literature: 35.4 ± 4.5% of total recovery. Moreover, the biological activity of the taghPrl obtained, when tested in the Nb2 cell proliferation assay, was of the same order of that shown by the International Standard of human prolactin of pituitary origin. These data show that the cytoplasmic expression system here described, which can provide an expression efficiency 50-100 - fold higher than the periplasmic expression, can represent a valid alternative for the production of this and of other hormones of pharmaceutical interest and grade. (author)

  12. Conifer R2R3-MYB transcription factors: sequence analyses and gene expression in wood-forming tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grima-Pettenati Jacqueline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several members of the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors act as regulators of lignin and phenylpropanoid metabolism during wood formation in angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The angiosperm Arabidopsis has over one hundred R2R3-MYBs genes; however, only a few members of this family have been discovered in gymnosperms. Results We isolated and characterised full-length cDNAs encoding R2R3-MYB genes from the gymnosperms white spruce, Picea glauca (13 sequences, and loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (five sequences. Sequence similarities and phylogenetic analyses placed the spruce and pine sequences in diverse subgroups of the large R2R3-MYB family, although several of the sequences clustered closely together. We searched the highly variable C-terminal region of diverse plant MYBs for conserved amino acid sequences and identified 20 motifs in the spruce MYBs, nine of which have not previously been reported and three of which are specific to conifers. The number and length of the introns in spruce MYB genes varied significantly, but their positions were well conserved relative to angiosperm MYB genes. Quantitative RTPCR of MYB genes transcript abundance in root and stem tissues revealed diverse expression patterns; three MYB genes were preferentially expressed in secondary xylem, whereas others were preferentially expressed in phloem or were ubiquitous. The MYB genes expressed in xylem, and three others, were up-regulated in the compression wood of leaning trees within 76 hours of induction. Conclusion Our survey of 18 conifer R2R3-MYB genes clearly showed a gene family structure similar to that of Arabidopsis. Three of the sequences are likely to play a role in lignin metabolism and/or wood formation in gymnosperm trees, including a close homolog of the loblolly pine PtMYB4, shown to regulate lignin biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco.

  13. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Kang, H.N.; Babiuk, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation, ELISPOT for the number of interferon-gamma secreting cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays...... and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets. CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response......AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without...

  14. Neutral Sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) Deficiency Causes a Novel Form of Chondrodysplasia and Dwarfism That Is Rescued by Col2A1-Driven smpd3 Transgene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Jenke, Britta; Holz, Barbara; Binczek, Erika; Günter, Robert Heinz; Knifka, Jutta; Koebke, Jürgen; Niehoff, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase SMPD3 (nSMase2), a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, resides in the Golgi apparatus and is ubiquitously expressed. Gene ablation of smpd3 causes a generalized prolongation of the cell cycle that leads to late embryonic and juvenile hypoplasia because of the SMPD3 deficiency in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. We show here that this novel form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency is characterized by the perturbation of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis, ass...

  15. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  16. Molecular Analysis and Expression of bap Gene in Biofilm-Forming Multi-Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azizi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is commonly resistant to nearly all antibiotics due to presence of antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. In this study we determined the presence of certain antibiotic-resistance genes associated with biofilm production and the influence of low iron concentration on expression of the biofilm-associated protein gene (bap in development of biofilm among multi-drug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB. Methods: Sixty-five MDRAB isolates from clinical samples were collected. Molecular typing was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR. Biofilm formation was assayed by the microtiter method. Results: The sequence of bap was determined and deposited in the GenBank database (accession no. KR080550.1. Expression of bap in the presence of low iron was analyzed by relative quantitative real time PCR (rqRT-PCR. Nearly half of the isolates belonged to RAPD-types A and B remaining were either small clusters or singleton. The results of biofilm formation revealed that 23 (35.4%, 18 (27.7%, 13 (20%, and 11 (16.9% of the isolates had strong, moderate, weak, and no biofilm activities, respectively. ompA and csuE genes were detected in all, while bap and blaPER-1 were detected in 43 (66% and 42 (64% of the isolates that showed strong and moderate biofilm activities (p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Analysis of bap expression by rqRT-PCR revealed five isolates with four-fold bap overexpression in the presence of low iron concentration (20 μM. Conclusion: The results suggest that bap overexpression may influence biofilm formation in presence of low iron concentration.

  17. Nucleus-specific expression in the multinuclear mushroom-forming fungus Agaricus bisporus reveals different nuclear regulatory programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F; Ohm, Robin A; Vos, Aurin M; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Baars, Johan J P; Wösten, Han A B; Reinders, Marcel J T; Abeel, Thomas

    2018-04-24

    Many fungi are polykaryotic, containing multiple nuclei per cell. In the case of heterokaryons, there are different nuclear types within a single cell. It is unknown what the different nuclear types contribute in terms of mRNA expression levels in fungal heterokaryons. Each cell of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus contains two to 25 nuclei of two nuclear types originating from two parental strains. Using RNA-sequencing data, we assess the differential mRNA contribution of individual nuclear types and its functional impact. We studied differential expression between genes of the two nuclear types, P1 and P2, throughout mushroom development in various tissue types. P1 and P2 produced specific mRNA profiles that changed through mushroom development. Differential regulation occurred at the gene level, rather than at the locus, chromosomal, or nuclear level. P1 dominated mRNA production throughout development, and P2 showed more differentially up-regulated genes in important functional groups. In the vegetative mycelium, P2 up-regulated almost threefold more metabolism genes and carbohydrate active enzymes (cazymes) than P1, suggesting phenotypic differences in growth. We identified widespread transcriptomic variation between the nuclear types of A. bisporus Our method enables studying nucleus-specific expression, which likely influences the phenotype of a fungus in a polykaryotic stage. Our findings have a wider impact to better understand gene regulation in fungi in a heterokaryotic state. This work provides insight into the transcriptomic variation introduced by genomic nuclear separation. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  19. Abnormal iron metabolism and oxidative stress in mice expressing a mutant form of the ferritin light polypeptide gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeito, Ana G.; Garringer, Holly J.; Baraibar, Martin A.; Gao, Xiaoying; Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Marco T.; Smith, Mark A.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Insertional mutations in exon 4 of the ferritin light chain (FTL) gene are associated with hereditary ferritinopathy (HF) or neuroferritinopathy, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive impairment of motor and cognitive functions. To determine the pathogenic mechanisms by which mutations in FTL lead to neurodegeneration, we investigated iron metabolism and markers of oxidative stress in the brain of transgenic (Tg) mice that express the mutant human FTL498-499InsTC cDNA. Compared with wild-type mice, brain extracts from Tg (FTL-Tg) mice showed an increase in the cytoplasmic levels of both FTL and ferritin heavy chain polypeptides, a decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of transferrin receptor-1, and a significant increase in iron levels. Transgenic mice also showed the presence of markers for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, and nitrone–protein adducts in the brain. However, gene expression analysis of iron management proteins in the liver of Tg mice indicates that the FTL-Tg mouse liver is iron deficient. Our data suggest that disruption of iron metabolism in the brain has a primary role in the process of neurodegeneration in HF and that the pathogenesis of HF is likely to result from a combination of reduction in iron storage function and enhanced toxicity associated with iron-induced ferritin aggregates in the brain. PMID:19519778

  20. Tandem repeats, high copy number and remarkable diel expression rhythm of form II RuBisCO in Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Shi

    Full Text Available Gene structure and expression regulation of form II RuBisCO (rbcII in dinoflagellates are still poorly understood. Here we isolated this gene (Pdrbc and investigated its diel expression pattern in a harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense. We obtained cDNA sequences with triple tandem repeats of the coding unit (CU; the 5' region has the sequence of a typical dinoflagellate plastid gene, encoding an N-terminus with two transmembrane regions separated by a plastid transit peptide. The CUs (1,455 bp except 1464 bp in last CU are connected through a 63 bp spacer. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rbcII CUs within species formed monophyletic clusters, indicative of intraspecific gene duplication or purifying evolution. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR we estimated 117±40 CUs of Pdrbc in the P. donghaiense genome. Although it is commonly believed that most dinoflagellate genes lack transcriptional regulation, our RT-qPCR analysis on synchronized cultures revealed remarkable diel rhythm of Pdrbc expression, showing significant correlations of transcript abundance with the timing of the dark-to-light transition and cell cycle G2M-phase. When the cultures were shifted to continuous light, Pdrbc expression remained significantly correlated with the G2M-phase. Under continuous darkness the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, and the rhythm of Pdrbc transcription disappeared. Our results suggest that dinoflagellate rbcII 1 undergoes duplication or sequence purification within species, 2 is organized in tandem arrays in most species probably to facilitate efficient translation and import of the encoded enzyme, and 3 is regulated transcriptionally in a cell cycle-dependent fashion at least in some dinoflagellates.

  1. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0 and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0.

  2. Efficient expression of a soluble lipid transfer protein (LTP) of Platanus orientalis using short peptide tags and structural comparison with the natural form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Farhad; Vahedi, Fatemeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Ketabdar, Hanieh; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Successful recombinant allergen-based immunotherapy has drawn a great deal of attention to use recombinant allergens for new therapeutic and/or diagnostic strategies. The Escherichia coli expression system is frequently used to produce recombinant allergens; however, protein expression in E. coli often results in inclusion bodies. Here, we focused on the expression of two recombinant soluble forms of Pla or 3 using solubility-enhancing peptide tags, human immune deficiency virus type 1 transactivator of transcription core domain and poly-arginine-lysine: rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3. Structural characteristics and IgE reactivity of purified recombinant proteins were compared with natural Pla or 3 (nPla or 3) isolated from Platanus orientalis using circular dichroism spectra, fluorescence spectroscopy, and immunoblotting. Likewise, intrinsic viscosity and Stokes radius of the natural and recombinant Pla or 3 allergens were determined to analyze structural compactness in aqueous media. The results indicate high-level solubility and efficient expression of the fusion proteins (rTAT-Pla or 3 and rPoly-Arg-Lys-Pla or 3) compared with the wild-type recombinant. Furthermore, the similar structural characteristics and IgE-binding activities of the fusion proteins to nPla or 3 provide a promising tool for allergy diagnosis and treatment. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  4. Cloning, characterisation, and comparative quantitative expression analyses of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) transcript forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenczak, Katharina A; Willenbrock, Saskia; Barann, Matthias; Klemke, Markus; Soller, Jan T; Eberle, Nina; Nolte, Ingo; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Murua Escobar, Hugo

    2009-04-01

    RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules playing key roles in pathophysiological processes, e.g. immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic arteriosclerosis and tumourigenesis. In humans 19 naturally occurring RAGE splicing variants resulting in either N-terminally or C-terminally truncated proteins were identified and are lately discussed as mechanisms for receptor regulation. Accordingly, deregulation of sRAGE levels has been associated with several diseases e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Administration of recombinant sRAGE to animal models of cancer blocked tumour growth successfully. In spite of its obvious relationship to cancer and metastasis data focusing sRAGE deregulation and tumours is rare. In this study we screened a set of tumours, healthy tissues and various cancer cell lines for RAGE splicing variants and analysed their structure. Additionally, we analysed the ratio of the mainly found transcript variants using quantitative Real-Time PCR. In total we characterised 24 previously not described canine and 4 human RAGE splicing variants, analysed their structure, classified their characteristics, and derived their respective protein forms. Interestingly, the healthy and the neoplastic tissue samples showed in majority RAGE transcripts coding for the complete receptor and transcripts showing insertions of intron 1.

  5. Human Colon Tumors Express a Dominant-Negative Form of SIGIRR That Promotes Inflammation and Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Bulek, Katarzyna; Gulen, Muhammet F; Zepp, Jarod A; Karagkounis, Georgio; Martin, Bradley N; Zhou, Hao; Yu, Minjia; Liu, Xiuli; Huang, Emina; Fox, Paul L; Kalady, Matthew F; Markowitz, Sanford D; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-12-01

    Single immunoglobulin and toll-interleukin 1 receptor (SIGIRR), a negative regulator of the Toll-like and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathways, controls intestinal inflammation and suppresses colon tumorigenesis in mice. However, the importance of SIGIRR in human colorectal cancer development has not been determined. We investigated the role of SIGIRR in development of human colorectal cancer. We performed RNA sequence analyses of pairs of colon tumor and nontumor tissues, each collected from 68 patients. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to determine levels of SIGIRR protein in primary human colonic epithelial cells, tumor tissues, and colon cancer cell lines. We expressed SIGIRR and mutant forms of the protein in Vaco cell lines. We created and analyzed mice that expressed full-length (control) or a mutant form of Sigirr (encoding SIGIRR(N86/102S), which is not glycosylated) specifically in the intestinal epithelium. Some mice were given azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis-associated cancer. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and gene expression profile analyses. RNA sequence analyses revealed increased expression of a SIGIRR mRNA isoform, SIGIRR(ΔE8), in colorectal cancer tissues compared to paired nontumor tissues. SIGIRR(ΔE8) is not modified by complex glycans and is therefore retained in the cytoplasm-it cannot localize to the cell membrane or reduce IL1R signaling. SIGIRR(ΔE8) interacts with and has a dominant-negative effect on SIGIRR, reducing its glycosylation, localization to the cell surface, and function. Most SIGIRR detected in human colon cancer tissues was cytoplasmic, whereas in nontumor tissues it was found at the cell membrane. Mice that expressed SIGIRR(N86/102S) developed more inflammation and formed larger tumors after administration of azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium than control mice; colon tissues from these mutant mice expressed

  6. ESR1 Is Co-Expressed with Closely Adjacent Uncharacterised Genes Spanning a Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus at 6q25.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbier, Anita K.; Anderson, Helen; Ghazoui, Zara; Lopez-Knowles, Elena; Pancholi, Sunil; Ribas, Ricardo; Drury, Suzanne; Sidhu, Kally; Leary, Alexandra; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve) disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1) on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase) inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs = 0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDRaccount for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be important influences on the recently identified relationship between SNPs in this region and breast cancer risk. PMID:21552322

  7. ESR1 is co-expressed with closely adjacent uncharacterised genes spanning a breast cancer susceptibility locus at 6q25.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Dunbier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 80% of human breast carcinomas present as oestrogen receptor α-positive (ER+ve disease, and ER status is a critical factor in treatment decision-making. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the region immediately upstream of the ER gene (ESR1 on 6q25.1 have been associated with breast cancer risk. Our investigation of factors associated with the level of expression of ESR1 in ER+ve tumours has revealed unexpected associations between genes in this region and ESR1 expression that are important to consider in studies of the genetic causes of breast cancer risk. RNA from tumour biopsies taken from 104 postmenopausal women before and after 2 weeks treatment with an aromatase (oestrogen synthase inhibitor was analyzed on Illumina 48K microarrays. Multiple-testing corrected Spearman correlation revealed that three previously uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs located immediately upstream of ESR1, C6ORF96, C6ORF97, and C6ORF211 were highly correlated with ESR1 (Rs =  0.67, 0.64, and 0.55 respectively, FDR<1 × 10(-7. Publicly available datasets confirmed this relationship in other groups of ER+ve tumours. DNA copy number changes did not account for the correlations. The correlations were maintained in cultured cells. An ERα antagonist did not affect the ORFs' expression or their correlation with ESR1, suggesting their transcriptional co-activation is not directly mediated by ERα. siRNA inhibition of C6ORF211 suppressed proliferation in MCF7 cells, and C6ORF211 positively correlated with a proliferation metagene in tumours. In contrast, C6ORF97 expression correlated negatively with the metagene and predicted for improved disease-free survival in a tamoxifen-treated published dataset, independently of ESR1. Our observations suggest that some of the biological effects previously attributed to ER could be mediated and/or modified by these co-expressed genes. The co-expression and function of these genes may be

  8. Closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    2007-01-01

    Good afternoon. Before providing the closing remarks on behalf of the NEA, I would like to take this opportunity and make some personal reflections, if you allow me Mr. Chairman. I have had the opportunity to take part in the three workshops on public communication organised by the NEA. In the first one in Paris in 2000, representing my country, Spain, and in the two last ones in Ottawa in 2004 and Tokyo today, on behalf of the NEA. The topics for the three workshops follow a logical order, first the focus was on investing in trust in a time when public communication was becoming a big challenge for the regulators. Second, maintaining and measuring public confidence to assess how credible regulators are in front of the public; and finally here in Tokyo, transparency, which is a basic element to achieve trust and credibility. In my view, a regulatory decision has three main components, it has to be technically sound. legally correct and well communicated. The emphasis in the early years was in the technical matters, till legal issues became a key element to achieve the political acceptance from governments and local authorities. Finally the public communication aspects resulted into a major effort and challenge to achieve social acceptance. (author)

  9. Differential expression of interleukin-8 by polymorphonuclear leukocytes of two closely related species, Ovis canadensis and Ovis aries, in response to Mannheimia haemolytica infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Caroline N; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-08-01

    The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.

  10. PD-1 expression on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA subsets closely correlated with HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight correlation between host circulating CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response and control of viral replication is classical characteristic of long-term HCV infection. CD8+ T cell maturation/activation markers are expected to be associated with viral replication and disease progression in chronic HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to explore novel markers on CD8+ T cells with ability to evaluate HCV viral replication and disease progression. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 37 chronic HCV-infected patients and 17 healthy controls. Distributed pattern of CD8+ T cells subsets and expression of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD127 were analyzed by flow cytometry. The correlation between expression of surface markers and HCV viral load or ALT was studied. Results Declined naïve and increased TEMRA CD8+ T subsets were found in HCV-infected individuals compared with healthy controls. Percentage and MFI of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR on all CD8+ T cell subsets were higher in HCV-infected patients than healthy controls. In contrast, CD127 expression on CD8+ TCM showed an opposite trend as PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR did. In chronic HCV infection, MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ TEM (p Conclusion PD-1 level on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made PD-1 a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  11. Expression of an enzymatically active Yb3 glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli and identification of its natural form in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, M; Ishigaki, S; Felix, A M; Listowsky, I

    1988-11-25

    Glutathione S-transferases containing Yb3 subunits are relatively uncommon forms that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and have not been identified unequivocally or characterized. A cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of Yb3 glutathione S-transferase mRNA was incorporated into a pIN-III expression vector used to transform Escherichia coli. A fusion Yb3-protein containing 14 additional amino acid residues at its N terminus was purified to homogeneity. Recombinant Yb3 was enzymatically active with both 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene as substrates but lacked glutathione peroxidase activity. Substrate specificity patterns of recombinant Yb3 were more limited than those of glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes containing Yb1- or Yb2-type subunits. Peptides corresponding to unique amino acid sequences of Yb3 as well as a peptide from a region of homology with Yb1 and Yb2 subunits were synthesized. These synthetic peptides were used to raise antibodies specific to Yb3 and others that cross-reacted with all Yb forms. Immunoblotting was utilized to identify the natural counterpart of recombinant Yb3 among rat glutathione transferases. Brain and testis glutathione S-transferases were rich in Yb3 subunits, but very little was found in liver or kidney. Physical properties, substrate specificities, and binding patterns of the recombinant protein paralleled properties of the natural isoenzyme isolated from brain.

  12. Telomeric repeat-containing RNA/G-quadruplex-forming sequences cause genome-wide alteration of gene expression in human cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Kyotaro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Telomere erosion causes cell mortality, suggesting that longer telomeres enable more cell divisions. In telomerase-positive human cancer cells, however, telomeres are often kept shorter than those of surrounding normal tissues. Recently, we showed that cancer cell telomere elongation represses innate immune genes and promotes their differentiation in vivo. This implies that short telomeres contribute to cancer malignancy, but it is unclear how such genetic repression is caused by elongated telomeres. Here, we report that telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) induces a genome-wide alteration of gene expression in telomere-elongated cancer cells. Using three different cell lines, we found that telomere elongation up-regulates TERRA signal and down-regulates innate immune genes such as STAT1, ISG15 and OAS3 in vivo. Ectopic TERRA oligonucleotides repressed these genes even in cells with short telomeres under three-dimensional culture conditions. This appeared to occur from the action of G-quadruplexes (G4) in TERRA, because control oligonucleotides had no effect and a nontelomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide phenocopied the TERRA oligonucleotide. Telomere elongation and G4-forming oligonucleotides showed similar gene expression signatures. Most of the commonly suppressed genes were involved in the innate immune system and were up-regulated in various cancers. We propose that TERRA G4 counteracts cancer malignancy by suppressing innate immune genes. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Cloning and Expression of Three New Azotobacter vinelandii Genes Closely Related to a Previously Described Gene Family Encoding Mannuronan C-5-Epimerases

    OpenAIRE

    Svanem, Britt Iren Glærum; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund; Ertesvåg, Helga; Valla, Svein

    1999-01-01

    The cloning and expression of a family of five modular-type mannuronan C-5-epimerase genes from Azotobacter vinelandii (algE1 to -5) has previously been reported. The corresponding proteins catalyze the Ca2+-dependent polymer-level epimerization of β-d-mannuronic acid to α-l-guluronic acid (G) in the commercially important polysaccharide alginate. Here we report the identification of three additional structurally similar genes, designated algE6, algE7, and algY. All three genes were sequenced...

  14. Characterization of a cancer cell line that expresses a splicing variant form of 53BP1: Separation of checkpoint and repair functions in 53BP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi; Matsui, Tadashi; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Kurihara, Takayuki; Date, Takayasu

    2008-01-01

    53BP1 plays important roles in checkpoint signaling and repair for DNA double-strand breaks. We found that a colon cancer cell line, SW48, expressed a splicing variant form of 53BP1, which lacks the residues corresponding to exons 10 and 11. Activation of ATM and phosphorylation of ATM and ATR targets occurred in SW48 cells in response to X-irradiation, and these X-ray-induced responses were not enhanced by expression of full-length 53BP1 in SW48 cells, indicating that this splicing variant fully activates the major checkpoint signaling in SW48 cells. In contrast, the expression of full-length 53BP1 in SW48 cells promoted the repair of X-ray-induced DNA damage, evidenced by faster disappearance of X-ray-induced γ-H2AX foci, a marker for DNA damage, and less residual chromosomal aberrations after X-irradiation. We conclude that the two major roles of 53BP1, the checkpoint signaling and repair for DNA damage, can be functionally separated

  15. Higher-order Zeeman and spin terms in the electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian; their description in irreducible form using Cartesian, tesseral spherical tensor and Stevens' operator expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead

    2009-01-01

    In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS 3 and BS 5 . Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, 1-bar Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present.

  16. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC.

  18. Minding the close relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J H; Omarzu, J

    1997-01-01

    In this theoretical analysis, we argue that a process referred to as minding is essential for a couple to feel mutually close and satisfied in a close relationship over a long period Minding represents a package of mutual self-disclosure, other forms of goal-oriented behavior aimed at facilitating the relationship, and attributions about self's and other's motivations, intentions, and Mort in the relationship. Self-disclosure and attribution activities in minding are aimed at getting to know the other, trying to understand the other's motivations and deeper disposition as they pertain to the relationship, and showing respect and acceptance for knowledge gained about other. We link the concept of minding to other major ideas and literatures about how couples achieve closeness: self-disclosure and social penetration, intimacy, empathy and empathic accuracy, and love and self-expansion. We argue that the minding process articulated here has not previously been delineated and that it is a useful composite notion about essential steps in bonding among humans. We also argue that the minding concept stretches our understanding of the interface of attribution and close relationships. We present research possibilities and implications and consider possible alternative positions and counter arguments about the merits of the minding idea for close relationship satisfaction.

  19. Uneven Expressive Language Development in Mandarin-Exposed Preschool Children with ASD: Comparing Vocabulary, Grammar, and the Decontextualized Use of Language via the PCDI-Toddler Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Naigles, Letitia R; Su, Lin-Yan

    2018-05-21

    Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD. In particular, they could be divided into three distinct subgroups (high verbal, middle verbal, low verbal), all of which manifested relative strengths in lexical and grammatical language compared to pragmatic usage of decontextualized language.

  20. Pollution hazard closes neutrino lab

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    "A leading astrophysics laboratory in Italy has closed down all but one of its experiments over concerns that toxic polluants could leak form the underground lab into the local water supply" (0.5 page)

  1. Construction of a plasmid for co-expression of mouse membrane-bound form of IL-15 and RAE-1ε and its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li; Ji, Ming-Chun; Pan, Xin-Yuan; Gong, Wei-Juan; Tian, Fang; Duan, Qiu-Fang

    2011-05-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pivotal cytokine for the proliferation and activation of a specific group of immune cells such as natural killer (NK), IFN-producing killer dendritic cells (IKDC) and CD8 T cells. RAE-1ε, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor, which also play an important role in the proliferation and activation of NK cells and IKDCs. In this study, a membrane-bound form of IL-15 (termed mb15) encoding sequence and RAE-1ε gene were obtained by SOE-PCR or PCR amplification. The amplified mb15 and RAE-1ε gene were then digested and inserted into the multiple cloning site1 (MCS1) and MCS2 of pVITRO2-mcs vector, respectively. A recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for co-expression of mb15 and RAE-1ε was successfully constructed. After it was transfected to BaF3 cells, the expression of IL-15 and RAE-1ε in recombinant BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells were verified by RT-PCR, western blot and FCM analysis. Furthermore, BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells had the ability of promoting NK cells proliferation and IFN-γ secretion. In conclusion, BaF3/mb15/RAE-1ε cells were successfully constructed, which is very useful for further studies, especially for the expansion and activation of certain subsets of immune cells such as NK cells and IKDCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A soluble form of CTLA-4 is present in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and correlates with CD1d+ expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Simone

    Full Text Available CTLA-4 is a key factor in regulating and maintaining self tolerance, providing a negative signal to the T cell and thus limiting immune responses. Several polymorphisms within the CTLA-4 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune diseases and, very recently, with susceptibility to human cancer. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a clonal disorder of lymphoid progenitors representing the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Here, we show the presence at significantly elevated levels of a circulating soluble form of CTLA-4 in 70% of B-ALL pediatric patients with active disease, the positive correlation between the percentage of leukemic B lymphocytes and the amount of serum sCTLA-4, and the expression of sCTLA-4 transcript by B cells in patients. Finally, a correlation between CD1d expression (a negative prognostic marker and the sCTLA-4 in B-ALL patients was observed. This suggests a possible role of this soluble molecule as a marker of progression or severity of the neoplastic disease.

  3. Optimization of a multi-gene HIV-1 recombinant subtype CRF02AG DNA vaccine for expression of multiple immunogenic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenberger, Dennis; Li Bin; Smith, James; Yi Hong; Folks, Thomas; Robinson, Harriet; Butera, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    We developed an AIDS vaccine for Western and West-Central Africa based on a DNA plasmid vector expressing HIV-1 recombinant subtype CRF02 A G gag, pol, and env genes. To optimize the production of noninfectious HIV-like particles (VLPs) and potentially improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, we generated four potential vaccine constructs: the parental (IC2) and three modifications (IC25, IC48, and IC90) containing mutations within the HIV protease. While the parental construct IC2 expressed aggregates of Gag proteins, the IC25 construct resulted in the production of immature VLPs (the core comprises unprocessed Pr 55Gag ). The remaining two constructs (IC48 and IC90) produced mature VLPs (the core comprises processed capsid p24) in addition to immature VLPs and aggregates of Gag proteins. VLPs incorporated significant levels of mature gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Importantly, the mature VLPs were fusion competent and entered coreceptor-specific target cells. The production of multiple antigenic forms, including fusion-competent VLPs, by candidate DNA vaccine constructs may provide immunologic advantages for induction of protective cellular and humoral responses against HIV-1 proteins

  4. Bovine colostrum increases pore-forming claudin-2 protein expression but paradoxically not ion permeability possibly by a change of the intestinal cytokine milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Bodammer

    Full Text Available An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15 remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro.

  5. Mice expressing a “hyper-sensitive” form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonek, Maciej; Zee, Michael L.; Farnsworth, Jill C.; Amin, Randa A.; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Davis, Brian J.; Mackie, Ken; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a “hyper-sensitive” form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), and cocaine (10 mg/kg), demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model. PMID:28426670

  6. Neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) deficiency causes a novel form of chondrodysplasia and dwarfism that is rescued by Col2A1-driven smpd3 transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Jenke, Britta; Holz, Barbara; Binczek, Erika; Günter, Robert Heinz; Knifka, Jutta; Koebke, Jürgen; Niehoff, Anja

    2007-07-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase SMPD3 (nSMase2), a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, resides in the Golgi apparatus and is ubiquitously expressed. Gene ablation of smpd3 causes a generalized prolongation of the cell cycle that leads to late embryonic and juvenile hypoplasia because of the SMPD3 deficiency in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. We show here that this novel form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency is characterized by the perturbation of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis, associated with retarded chondrocyte development and enchondral ossification in the epiphyseal growth plate. To study the contribution by combined pituitary hormone deficiency and by the local SMPD3 deficiency in the epiphyseal growth plate to the skeletal phenotype, we introduced the full-length smpd3 cDNA transgene under the control of the chondrocyte-specific promoter Col2a1. A complete rescue of the smpd3(-/-) mouse from severe short-limbed skeletal dysplasia was achieved. The smpd3(-/-) mouse shares its dwarf and chondrodysplasia phenotype with the most common form of human achondrodysplasia, linked to the fibroblast-growth-factor receptor 3 locus, not linked to deficits in the hypothalamic-pituitary epiphyseal growth plate axis. The rescue of smpd3 in vivo has implications for future research into dwarfism and, particularly, growth and development of the skeletal system and for current screening and future treatment of combined dwarfism and chondrodysplasia.

  7. Neutral Sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) Deficiency Causes a Novel Form of Chondrodysplasia and Dwarfism That Is Rescued by Col2A1-Driven smpd3 Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Jenke, Britta; Holz, Barbara; Binczek, Erika; Günter, Robert Heinz; Knifka, Jutta; Koebke, Jürgen; Niehoff, Anja

    2007-01-01

    Neutral sphingomyelinase SMPD3 (nSMase2), a sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, resides in the Golgi apparatus and is ubiquitously expressed. Gene ablation of smpd3 causes a generalized prolongation of the cell cycle that leads to late embryonic and juvenile hypoplasia because of the SMPD3 deficiency in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. We show here that this novel form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency is characterized by the perturbation of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis, associated with retarded chondrocyte development and enchondral ossification in the epiphyseal growth plate. To study the contribution by combined pituitary hormone deficiency and by the local SMPD3 deficiency in the epiphyseal growth plate to the skeletal phenotype, we introduced the full-length smpd3 cDNA transgene under the control of the chondrocyte-specific promoter Col2a1. A complete rescue of the smpd3−/− mouse from severe short-limbed skeletal dysplasia was achieved. The smpd3−/− mouse shares its dwarf and chondrodysplasia phenotype with the most common form of human achondrodysplasia, linked to the fibroblast-growth-factor receptor 3 locus, not linked to deficits in the hypothalamic-pituitary epiphyseal growth plate axis. The rescue of smpd3 in vivo has implications for future research into dwarfism and, particularly, growth and development of the skeletal system and for current screening and future treatment of combined dwarfism and chondrodysplasia. PMID:17591962

  8. Mice expressing a "hyper-sensitive" form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6% but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg, morphine (10 mg/kg, and cocaine (10 mg/kg, demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model.

  9. 7 CFR 1927.56 - Scheduling loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TITLE CLEARANCE AND LOAN CLOSING Real Estate Title Clearance and Loan Closing § 1927.56 Scheduling loan closing. The agency, in coordination with the closing agent, will arrange a loan closing and send loan closing instructions, on an agency form to the closing agent when the agency determines that the...

  10. Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue 2 envelope forms virus-like particles without pre-membrane protein and induces high titer neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Mani

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease with a global prevalence. It is caused by four closely-related dengue viruses (DENVs 1-4. A dengue vaccine that can protect against all four viruses is an unmet public health need. Live attenuated vaccine development efforts have encountered unexpected interactions between the vaccine viruses, raising safety concerns. This has emphasized the need to explore non-replicating dengue vaccine options. Virus-like particles (VLPs which can elicit robust immunity in the absence of infection offer potential promise for the development of non-replicating dengue vaccine alternatives. We have used the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to develop DENV envelope (E protein-based VLPs. We designed a synthetic codon-optimized gene, encoding the N-terminal 395 amino acid residues of the DENV-2 E protein. It also included 5' pre-membrane-derived signal peptide-encoding sequences to ensure proper translational processing, and 3' 6× His tag-encoding sequences to facilitate purification of the expressed protein. This gene was integrated into the genome of P. pastoris host and expressed under the alcohol oxidase 1 promoter by methanol induction. Recombinant DENV-2 protein, which was present in the insoluble membrane fraction, was extracted and purified using Ni(2+-affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. Amino terminal sequencing and detection of glycosylation indicated that DENV-2 E had undergone proper post-translational processing. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of discrete VLPs in the purified protein preparation after dialysis. The E protein present in these VLPs was recognized by two different conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Low doses of DENV-2 E VLPs formulated in alum were immunogenic in inbred and outbred mice eliciting virus neutralizing titers >1,1200 in flow cytometry based assays and protected AG129 mice against lethal challenge (p<0.05. The formation of immunogenic DENV-2 E

  11. Neonatal lethality in knockout mice expressing the kinase-dead form of the gefitinib target GAK is caused by pulmonary dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroe Tabara

    Full Text Available Gefitinib (Iressa is an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR that has shown promising activity in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, adverse side effects of gefitinib treatment, such as respiratory dysfunction, have limited the therapeutic benefit of this targeting strategy. The present results show that this adverse effect can be attributed to the inhibition of the novel gefitinib target GAK (Cyclin G-associated kinase, which is as potently inhibited by the drug as the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR. Knockout mice expressing the kinase-dead form of GAK (GAK-kd died within 30 min after birth primarily due to respiratory dysfunction. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that surfactant protein A (SP-A was abundant within alveolar spaces in GAK-kd(+/+ mice but not in GAK-kd(-/- pups. E-cadherin and phosphorylated EGFR signals were also abnormal, suggesting the presence of flat alveolar cells with thin junctions. These results suggest that inhibition of GAK by gefitinib may cause pulmonary alveolar dysfunction, and the present study may help prevent side effects associated with gefitinib therapy in NSCLC patients.

  12. Cloning and expression of acidstable, high maltose-forming, Ca2+-independent α-amylase from an acidophile Bacillus acidicola and its applicability in starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Archana; Satyanarayana, T

    2012-05-01

    The α-amylase encoding gene from acidophilic bacterium Bacillus acidicola was cloned into pET28a(+) vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant E. coli produced a 15-fold higher α-amylase than B. acidicola strain. The recombinant α-amylase was purified to homogeneity by one-step nickel affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-NTA resin with molecular mass of 62 KDa. It is active in the pH range between 3.0 and 7.0 and 30 and 100 °C with optimum at pH 4.0 and 60 °C. The enzyme is Ca(2+)-independent with K (m) and k (cat) values (on soluble starch) of 1.6 mg ml(-1) and 108.7 s(-1), respectively. The α-amylase of B. acidicola is acidstable, high maltose forming and Ca(2+)-independent, and therefore, is a suitable candidate for starch hydrolysis and baking.

  13. Expression and comparative characterization of complete and C-terminally truncated forms of saccharifying α-amylase from Lactobacillus plantarum S21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Haltrich, Dietmar; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum S21 α-amylase possesses 475 amino acids at the C-terminal region identified as the starch-binding domain (SBD) and has been previously reported to play a role in raw starch degradation. To understand the specific roles of this SBD, cloning and expression of the complete (AmyL9) and C-terminally truncated (AmyL9Δ SBD ) forms of α-amylase were conducted for enzyme purification and comparative characterization. AmyL9 and AmyL9Δ SBD were overproduced in Escherichia coli at approximately 10- and 20-times increased values of volumetric productivity when compared to α-amylase produced by the wild type, respectively. AmyL9Δ SBD was unable to hydrolyze raw starch and exhibited substrate specificity in a similar manner to that of AmyL9, but it was weakly active toward amylopectin and glycogen. The hydrolysis products obtained from the amylaceous substrates of both enzymes were the same. In addition, AmyL9Δ SBD showed comparatively higher K m values than AmyL9 when it reacted with starch and amylopectin, and lower values for other kinetic constants namely v max , k cat , and k cat /K m . The results indicated that the C-terminal SBDs of L. plantarum S21 α-amylase contribute to not only substrate preference but also substrate affinity and the catalytic efficiency of the α-amylase without any changes in the degradation mechanisms of the enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M.; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer s...

  15. ON NANO Λg-CLOSED SETS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, Ilangovan; Nethaji, Ochanan

    2017-01-01

    Abstaract−In this paper, we introduce nano ∧g-closed sets in nano topological spaces. Some properties of nano ∧g-closed sets and nano ∧g-open sets are weaker forms of nano closed sets and nano open sets

  16. Association of Gel-Forming Mucins and Aquaporin Gene Expression With Hearing Loss, Effusion Viscosity, and Inflammation in Otitis Media With Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Tina L; Yan, Justin C; Khampang, Pawjai; Dettmar, Peter W; MacKinnon, Alexander; Hong, Wenzhou; Johnston, Nikki; Papsin, Blake C; Chun, Robert H; McCormick, Michael E; Kerschner, Joseph E

    2017-08-01

    Persistent, viscous middle ear effusion in pediatric otitis media (OM) contributes to increased likelihood of anesthesia and surgery, conductive hearing loss, and subsequent developmental delays. Biomarkers of effusion viscosity and hearing loss have not yet been identified despite the potential that such markers hold for targeted therapy and screening. To investigate the association of gel-forming mucins and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) gene expression with inflammation, effusion viscosity, and hearing loss in pediatric OM with effusion (OME). Case-control study of 31 pediatric patients (aged 6 months to 12 years) with OME undergoing tympanostomy tube placement and control individuals (aged 1 to 10 years) undergoing surgery for cochlear implantation from February 1, 2013, through November 30, 2014. Those with 1 or more episodes of OM in the previous 12 months, immunologic abnormality, anatomical or physiologic ear defect, OM-associated syndrome (ie, Down syndrome, cleft palate), chronic mastoiditis, or history of cholesteatoma were excluded from the study. All patients with OME and 1 control were recruited from Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. The remainder of the controls were recruited from Sick Kids Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Two to 3 middle ear biopsy specimens, effusions, and preoperative audiometric data (obtained effusions was assayed using rheometry. Of the 31 study participants, 24 patients had OME (mean [SD] age, 50.4 [31.9] months; 15 [62.5%] male; 16 [66.7%] white) and 7 acted as controls (mean [SD] age, 32.6 [24.4] months; 2 [26.6%] male; 6 [85.7%] white). Mucins and AQP5 gene expression were significantly higher in patients with OME relative to controls (MUC2: ratio, 127.6 [95% CI, 33.7-482.7]; MUC5AC: ratio, 3748.8 [95% CI, 558.1-25 178.4]; MUC5B: ratio, 471.1 [95% CI, 130.7-1697.4]; AQP5: ratio, 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1-5.6]). A 2-fold increase in MUC5B correlated with increased hearing loss (air-bone gap: 7.45 dB [95% CI, 2.65-12.24 d

  17. Experience and advantages in implementation of educational program in network form at Department «Closed nuclear fuel cycle Technologies» of National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygel‧, A. G.; Kutsenko, K. V.; Lavrukhin, A. A.; Magomedbekov, E. P.; Pershukov, V. A.; Sofronov, V. L.; Tyupina, E. A.; Zhiganov, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    The experience of implementation of the basic educational program of magistracy on direction «Nuclear Physics and Technologies» in a network form is presented. Examples of joint implementation of the educational process with employers organizations, other universities and intranet mobility of students are given.

  18. Experience and advantages in implementation of educational program in network form at Department «Closed nuclear fuel cycle Technologies» of National Research Nuclear University «MEPhI»

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beygel', A G; Kutsenko, K V; Lavrukhin, A A; Pershukov, V A; Sofronov, V L; Tyupina, E A; Zhiganov, A N; Magomedbekov, E P

    2017-01-01

    The experience of implementation of the basic educational program of magistracy on direction «Nuclear Physics and Technologies» in a network form is presented. Examples of joint implementation of the educational process with employers organizations, other universities and intranet mobility of students are given. (paper)

  19. Co-dominant expression of the HLA-G gene and various forms of alternatively spliced HLA-G mRNA in human first trimester trophoblast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Møller, C; Sørensen, S

    1998-01-01

    imprinting of the HLA-G locus could have implications for the interaction in the feto-maternal relationship. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), allele-specific amplification and Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) analysis followed by DNA sequencing were performed on Reverse...... Transcription (RT) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products of HLA-G mRNA to examine the expression of maternal and paternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that HLA-G is co-dominantly expressed in first trimester trophoblast cells. A "new" non-synonymous base substitution in exon 4 was detected. We also...

  20. Microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of Eucalyptus grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. The researchers used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis in combination with expression...

  1. Against Logical Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Johnson-Laird

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An old view in logic going back to Aristotle is that an inference is valid in virtue of its logical form. Many psychologists have adopted the same point of view about human reasoning: the first step is to recover the logical form of an inference, and the second step is to apply rules of inference that match these forms in order to prove that the conclusion follows from the premises. The present paper argues against this idea. The logical form of an inference transcends the grammatical forms of the sentences used to express it, because logical form also depends on context. Context is not readily expressed in additional premises. And the recovery of logical form leads ineluctably to the need for infinitely many axioms to capture the logical properties of relations. An alternative theory is that reasoning depends on mental models, and this theory obviates the need to recover logical form.

  2. School Closings in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  3. Complementation Studies of Bacteriophage λ O Amber Mutants by Allelic Forms of O Expressed from Plasmid, and O-P Interaction Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sidney; Rajamanickam, Karthic; Hayes, Connie

    2018-04-05

    λ genes O and P are required for replication initiation from the bacteriophage λ origin site, ori λ, located within gene O . Questions have persisted for years about whether O-defects can indeed be complemented in trans . We show the effect of original null mutations in O and the influence of four origin mutations (three are in-frame deletions and one is a point mutation) on complementation. This is the first demonstration that O proteins with internal deletions can complement for O activity, and that expression of the N-terminal portion of gene P can completely prevent O complementation. We show that O-P co-expression can limit the lethal effect of P on cell growth. We explore the influence of the contiguous small RNA OOP on O complementation and P-lethality.

  4. Noncommutative differential forms on the kappa-deformed space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Kresic-Juric, Sasa

    2009-01-01

    We construct a differential algebra of forms on the kappa-deformed space. For a given realization of noncommutative coordinates as formal power series in the Weyl algebra we find an infinite family of one-forms and nilpotent exterior derivatives. We derive explicit expressions for the exterior derivative and one-forms in covariant and noncovariant realizations. We also introduce higher order forms and show that the exterior derivative satisfies the graded Leibniz rule. The differential forms are generally not graded commutative, but they satisfy the graded Jacobi identity. We also consider the star-product of classical differential forms. The star-product is well defined if the commutator between the noncommutative coordinates and one-forms is closed in the space of one-forms alone. In addition, we show that in certain realizations the exterior derivative acting on the star-product satisfies the undeformed Leibniz rule.

  5. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT expression in an ELISA-based system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wing-Lok Ho

    Full Text Available Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA, and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER. Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP. Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2 in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10(-9-10(-7M dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05, which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different

  6. The closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  7. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... of type 2 diabetes, and this occurs both in early-onset and in classical type 2 diabetes....

  8. Expression of p89c-Mybex9b, an alternatively spliced form of c-Myb, is required for proliferation and survival of p210BCR/ABL-expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzotti, G; Mariani, S A; Corradini, F; Bussolari, R; Cesi, V; Vergalli, J; Ferrari-Amorotti, G; Fragliasso, V; Soliera, A R; Cattelani, S; Raschellà, G; Holyoake, T L; Calabretta, B

    2012-01-01

    The c-Myb gene encodes the p75 c-Myb isoform and less-abundant proteins generated by alternatively spliced transcripts. Among these, the best known is p c-Mybex9b , which contains 121 additional amino acids between exon 9 and 10, in a domain involved in protein–protein interactions and negative regulation. In hematopoietic cells, expression of p c-Mybex9b accounts for 10–15% of total c-Myb; these levels may be biologically relevant because modest changes in c-Myb expression affects proliferation and survival of leukemic cells and lineage choice and frequency of normal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we assessed biochemical activities of p c-Mybex9b and the consequences of perturbing its expression in K562 and primary chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitor cells. Compared with p75 c-Myb , p c-Mybex9b is more stable and more effective in transactivating Myb-regulated promoters. Ectopic expression of p c-Mybex9b enhanced proliferation and colony formation and reduced imatinib (IM) sensitivity of K562 cells; conversely, specific downregulation of p c-Mybex9b reduced proliferation and colony formation, enhanced IM sensitivity of K562 cells and markedly suppressed colony formation of CML CD34 + cells, without affecting the levels of p75 c-Myb . Together, these studies indicate that expression of the low-abundance p c-Mybex9b isoform has an important role for the overall biological effects of c-Myb in BCR/ABL-transformed cells

  9. A Plea for "Close Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstok, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    There is a personal, human element to liberal education, what john Henry Newman once called the "living voice, the breathing form, the expressive countenance" Those who cherish personalized instruction would benefit from a phrase to defend and promote the practice. Author Scott Newstok proposes in this article that we begin calling it…

  10. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eradication of damaged keratinocytes in cutaneous lichen planus forms demonstrated by evaluation of epidermal and follicular expression of CK15, indices of apoptosis and regulatory protein S100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upeniece, Ilze; Groma, Valerie; Skuja, Sandra; Cauce, Vinita

    The study of cytoskeleton arrangement and its contribution to survival of cell-to-cell contacts appears to be essential for understanding of numerous cellular and tissue processes. Applying CK15, S100 labeling and TUNEL reaction to cutaneous lichen planus subtypes, we found CK15 expression in the outer and inner root sheath of hair follicles, the basal epidermal layer, and eccrine glands. Its follicular expression was decreased in nearby inflammatory infiltrates. The CK15 immunopositivity was mostly described as weak (92.3%) for lichen planus but equally subdivided into weak, moderate and strong in lichen planopilaris (2 = 32.514; df = 4; p lichen planopilaris involving the scalp: 81.2 ±10.7; 87.8 ±10.7 and 88.0 ±10.5 for the basal, spinous and upper epidermal layers, respectively. S100 positive epidermal and follicular cells did not differ in the lesions demonstrated in the study groups; still immunoreactivity was more pronounced in the scalp region of lichen planopilaris. Damage of cell-to-cell contacts was confirmed by electron microscopy. Apart from immunocyte-mediated keratinocyte death, cytoskeleton-based injury and loss of cell-to-cell and matrix contacts may be of great importance, leading to eradication of degrading cells and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of lichen planus.

  12. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  13. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in the newly formed Leydig cells after ethane dimethanesulphonate treatment of adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Georgieva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD catalyzes the reversible conversion of physiologically active corticosterone to the biologically inert 11beta-dehydrocorticosterone in rat testis and protect the Leydig cells (LCs against the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The developmental pathway of the adult LCs population is accompanied with an increase in the 11beta-HDS activity. Thus, 11beta-HDS together with its role in controlling the toxicological effect of glucocorticoids on LCs can be used as a marker for their functional maturity. Ethane 1,2-dimethanesulphonate (EDS treatment of adult rats become unique appropriate model, which enable to answer many questions related to the differentiation of adult LCs in the prepubertal rat testis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific changes in the 11beta-HDS type 2 immunoreactivity in tandem with the expression of androgen receptor (AR during renewal of LCs population after EDS treatment. In the present study, we observed the first appearance of immunostaining for 11beta-HSD2 in new LCs population on day 14 after EDS administration when the progenitor LCs were detected. Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed progressive increases in the 11beta-HSD2 reaction intensity on 21 days after EDS treatment and reached a maximum on day 35. AR immunoexpression was found in new LCs on day 14 and 21 after EDS injection with an increasing curve of intensity. The most prominent AR immunostaining in new population LCs was evident by 35 days after EDS and that coincided with the increased number of LCs and restoration of adult LCs population. Our results demonstrated similar pattern of immunoreactivity for 11beta-HSD2 and AR in new LCs population after EDS treatment and suggested that the changes in 11beta-HSD2 expression can be used for evaluation of adult LCs differentiation in rat testis.

  14. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in plant cell culture: Kinetics of antigen accumulation in batch culture and its intracellular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark L; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-12-30

    The production of edible vaccines in transgenic plants and plant cell culture may be improved through a better understanding of antigen processing and assembly. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was chosen for study because it undergoes substantial and complex post-translational modifications, which are necessary for its immunogenicity. This antigen was expressed in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) and tobacco NT1 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures, and HBsAg production in batch culture was characterized. The plant-derived antigen consisted predominantly of disulfide cross-linked HBsAg protein (p24(s)) dimers, which were all membrane associated. Similar to yeast, the plant-expressed HBsAg was retained intracellularly. The maximal HBsAg titers were obtained with soybean suspension cultures (20-22 mg/L) with titers in tobacco cultures being approximately 10-fold lower. For soybean cells, electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that all the HBsAg was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and provoked dilation and proliferation of the ER network. Sucrose gradient analysis of crude extracts showed that HBsAg had a complex size distribution uncharacteristic of the antigen's normal structure of uniform 22-nm virus-like particles. The extent of authentic epitope formation was assessed by comparing total p24(s) synthesized to that reactive by polyclonal and monoclonal immunoassays. Depending on culture age, between 40% and 100% of total p24(s) was polyclonal antibody reactive whereas between 6% and 37% was recognized by a commercial monoclonal antibody assay. Possible strategies to increase HBsAg production and improve post-translational processing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Complexity in differentiating the expression of truncated or matured forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through zymography in rat brain tissues after acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mustafa; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2013-05-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. In particular, the mature forms of MMPs 2 and 9 have similar sizes and share gelatine as a common substrate. Both MMPs are upregulated in ischaemic stroke and play detrimental roles during stroke pathogenesis. Throughout this study, we demonstrated that pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 from ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate is detected either through immunoblotting or zymography because of the remarkable size difference between these enzymes (72 versus 95 kDa, respectively). However, the mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 cannot be discriminated through zymography because of the almost identical sizes of these forms (66 and 67 kDa, respectively). The use of gelatine zymography on ischaemic rat brain tissue homogenate revealed a 65-kDa MMP band, corresponding to the heterogeneous band of mature MMP-2 and/or MMP-9. Furthermore, we also detected mature MMPs of 65 kDa generated from both recombinant human MMP-2 and MMP-9. Using a pull down assay in rat brain tissue homogenate with gelatine-agarose beads, we showed increased activities for both the pro and mature forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9. However, we could not determine the origin of the respective mature MMPs from the heterogeneous band. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that the identification and quantification of mature MMP-2 and MMP-9 could not be achieved using zymography alone. Therefore, the development of a reliable technique to identify and measure the respective MMPs is needed to test new stroke therapies targeting MMP-2 and MMP-9. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananth, Sudarshan; Brink, Lars; Majumdar, Sucheta; Mali, Mahendra; Shah, Nabha

    2017-01-01

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  17. Three forms of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The physical sense of three forms of the relativity is discussed. The first - instant from - respects in fact the traditional approach based on the concept of instant distance. The normal form corresponds the radar formulation which is based on the light or retarded distances. The front form in the special case is characterized by 'observable' variables, and the known method of k-coefficient is its obvious expression. 16 refs

  18. Gravitation and quadratic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananth, Sudarshan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Brink, Lars [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,S-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Institute of Advanced Studies and Department of Physics & Applied Physics,Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Majumdar, Sucheta [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India); Mali, Mahendra [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Thiruvananthapuram, Trivandrum 695016 (India); Shah, Nabha [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-31

    The light-cone Hamiltonians describing both pure (N=0) Yang-Mills and N=4 super Yang-Mills may be expressed as quadratic forms. Here, we show that this feature extends to theories of gravity. We demonstrate how the Hamiltonians of both pure gravity and N=8 supergravity, in four dimensions, may be written as quadratic forms. We examine the effect of residual reparametrizations on the Hamiltonian and the resulting quadratic form.

  19. Restaurants closed over Christmas

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The restaurants will be closed during the Christmas holiday period : please note that all three CERN Restaurants will be closed from 5 p.m. on Wednesday, 21 December until Wednesday, 4 January inclusive. The Restaurants will reopen on Thursday, 5 January 2012.

  20. Polyconvexity for functions of a system of closed differential forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 26. ISSN 0944-2669 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : polyconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007 %2Fs00526-017-1298-2

  1. A CLOSED-FORM SOLUTION PROCEDURE TO THE VIBRA TION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved easily. The number of equations in the latter is double the number of modes used for the coordinate transformation. The modal coordinates cu:ethen easily determined making use of simple matrix algebra'. The technique presented is illustrated by imexample ...

  2. Conservative flight with a varying load factor and closed form ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conservative flight performance of an aircraft with constant load factor was analysed by ... Within the frame work of flat earth hypotheses the equations of motion of an aircraft as obtained by ..... load factor function if this inequality holds good.

  3. New closed-form approximation for skin chromophore mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välisuo, Petri; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Tuchin, Valery; Alander, Jarmo

    2011-04-01

    The concentrations of blood and melanin in skin can be estimated based on the reflectance of light. Many models for this estimation have been built, such as Monte Carlo simulation, diffusion models, and the differential modified Beer-Lambert law. The optimization-based methods are too slow for chromophore mapping of high-resolution spectral images, and the differential modified Beer-Lambert is not often accurate enough. Optimal coefficients for the differential Beer-Lambert model are calculated by differentiating the diffusion model, optimized to the normal skin spectrum. The derivatives are then used in predicting the difference in chromophore concentrations from the difference in absorption spectra. The accuracy of the method is tested both computationally and experimentally using a Monte Carlo multilayer simulation model, and the data are measured from the palm of a hand during an Allen's test, which modulates the blood content of skin. The correlations of the given and predicted blood, melanin, and oxygen saturation levels are correspondingly r = 0.94, r = 0.99, and r = 0.73. The prediction of the concentrations for all pixels in a 1-megapixel image would take ∼ 20 min, which is orders of magnitude faster than the methods based on optimization during the prediction.

  4. Polyconvexity for functions of a system of closed differential forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 26. ISSN 0944-2669 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : polyconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.532, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00526-017-1298-2

  5. Investigation of radiofrequency heating for a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body in 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 3.0 tesla MR imaging. Measurement of temperature by use of human body-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Higashida, Mitsuji; Kudo, Sadahiro; Ideta, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been sometimes reported due to a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, 3.0 T-MRI scanner has been widely used. However, it is considered that the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI can affect the heat of the loop because its own SAR becomes approximately 4 times as much as that of the 1.5 T-MRI scanner. With this, the change in temperature was measured with human body-equivalent loop phantom in both 1.5 T-MRI and 3.0 T-MRI. In the two scanners, the temperature during 20 min of scanning time was measured with three types of sequences such as field echo (FE), spin echo (SE), and turbo SE (TSE) set up with the same scanning condition. It was found from the result that rise in temperature depended on SAR of the scanning condition irrespective of static magnetic field intensity and any pulse sequences. Furthermore, the increase of SAR and rise in temperature were not only in proportion to each other but also were indicated to have good correlation. However, even low SAR can occasionally induce serious thermal injuries. It was found from result that we had to attempt not to form a closed conducting loop with in a part of the patient's body during MRI. (author)

  6. A unique, highly conserved secretory invertase is differentially expressed by promastigote developmental forms of all species of the human pathogen, Leishmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, Todd A.; Joshi, Manju B.; Andersen, John F.; Kelada, Andrew Y.; Owings, Joshua P.; Bates, Paul A.; Dwyer, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania are protozoan pathogens of humans that exist as extracellular promastigotes in the gut of their sand fly vectors and as obligate intracellular amastigotes within phagolysosomes of infected macrophages. Between infectious blood meal feeds, sand flies take plant juice meals that contain sucrose and store these sugars in their crop. Such sugars are regurgitated into the sand fly anterior midgut where they impact the developing promastigote parasite population. In this report we showed that promastigotes of all Leishmania species secreted an invertase/sucrase enzyme during their growth in vitro. In contrast, neither L. donovani nor L. mexicana amastigotes possessed any detectable invertase activity. Importantly, no released/secreted invertase activity was detected in culture supernatants from either Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma cruzi. Using HPLC, the L. donovani secretory invertase was isolated and subjected to amino acid sequencing. Subsequently, we used a molecular approach to identify the LdINV and LmexINV genes encoding the ~72 kDa invertases produced by these organisms. Interestingly, we identified high fidelity LdINV-like homologs in the genomes of all Leishmania sp. but none were present in either T. brucei or T. cruzi. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that these genes were developmentally/differentially expressed in promastigotes but not amastigotes of these parasites. Homologous transfection studies demonstrated that these genes in fact encoded the functional secretory invertases produced by these parasites. Cumulatively, our results suggest that these secretory enzymes play critical roles in the survival/growth/development and transmission of all Leishmania parasites within their sand fly vector hosts. PMID:25763714

  7. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  8. Closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1987-01-01

    A gauge invariant cubic action describing bosonic closed string field theory is constructed. The gauge symmetries include local spacetime diffeomorphisms. The conventional closed string spectrum and trilinear couplings are reproduced after spontaneous symmetry breaking. The action S is constructed from the usual ''open string'' field of ghost number minus one half. It is given by the associator of the string field product which is non-vanishing because of associativity anomalies. S does not describe open string propagation because open string states associate and can thereby be shifted away. A field theory of closed and open strings can be obtained by adding to S the cubic open string action. (orig.)

  9. Pipe closing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    The closing device closes the upper end of a support tube for monitoring samples. It meshes with the upper connecting piece of the monitorung sample capsule, and loads the capsule within the bore of the support tube, so that it is fixed but can be released. The closing device consists of an interlocking component with a chamber and several ratchets which hang down. The interlocking component surrounds the actuating component for positioning the ratchets. The interlocking and actuating components are movable axially relative to each other. (DG) [de

  10. The use of exterior forms in Einstein's gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirring, W.; Wallner, R.

    1978-01-01

    Cartan's calculus is used to reformulate the general variational principle and conservation laws in terms of exterior forms. In applying this method to Einstein's gravitation theory, we do not only benefit from the great economy of Cartan's formalism but also gain a deeper understanding of fundamental results already known. So the existence of superpotential-forms may be deduced from d o d identical to 0 and as a consequence the vanishing of total energy and momentum in a closed universe is affirmed in a more general way. Simple expressions for the sundry superpotential are obtained quite naturally. As a byproduct, Einstein's equations are rewritten in a form where the coderivative of a 2-form (the superpotential-form) is a current, and therefore resembles the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations. In passing from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian 4-form, the ADM formalism is immediately entered without lengthy calculations [pt

  11. The effect of closed channels on the electron impact excitation of Mg +, Cd + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueming

    2018-04-01

    Based on the developed method for solving the multi-channel equation, which had been applied to the calculations of several kinds of ions including only open-open interactions, closed channels and their interactions with open channels have been studied. The wave functions of the closed channels are also expressed in terms of their homogeneous solutions which is just the same as for open channels. The homogeneous solutions are described and solved in WKB form, therefore the regular and irregular solutions as well as the quantum defect numbers can be obtained simultaneously. Excitations of Mg +, Cd + ions impact by electrons are calculated for energies close to the thresholds. The results are compared with those of the experimental observations and previous theoretical calculations. The effect of including the closed channels, especially when the energy passes through the resonance energies, has been discussed according to the deduced formulae and the calculated results.

  12. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  13. Multimodalité et expression en langue étrangère dans une plate-forme audio-synchrone Multimodality and foreign language ouput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Chanier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Le développement actuel d'environnements audio-synchrones pose un nouveau défi, non seulement aux concepteurs et aux tuteurs de formations en langues à distance, mais encore aux chercheurs en analyse du discours. Il devient en effet indispensable de comprendre comment s'organise la communication à finalité pédagogique dans ce type d'environnement. L'article aborde ce champ encore peu exploré sous deux angles : l'un méthodologique et l'autre analytique. Nous fournissons, d'une part, un cadre méthodologique pour l'analyse conversationnelle multimodale à partir des notions de média, mode et modalité et, d'autre part, nous définissons les composantes d'une plate-forme synchrone. La partie analytique synthétise d'abord les premiers résultats quantitatifs de l'expérimentation Copéas sur l'usage combiné des modalités audio et clavardage et son impact sur la participation des apprenants. L'analyse indique ensuite, en s'appuyant sur des séquences transcrites, comment s'organise la communication pédagogique lorsque les différents modes (verbaux et non verbaux s'associent pour structurer et soutenir des conversations en L2. Elle montre que le libre choix des modes et des modalités soutient la production verbale des apprenants. Dans ces conversations, le mode parole occupe tantôt une place prépondérante, tantôt est totalement absent des échanges au profit des modes texte, graphique et iconique. Enfin, nous élargissons le champ de description du discours multimodal en considérant le mode spatial qui s'impose comme le contexte dans lequel chaque transaction doit être située. Ces différents exemples constituent l'occasion de mettre en évidence deux questions connexes : celle de la conception et de l'animation pédagogique dans ces environnements de communication multimodaux à travers le phénomène de polyfocalisation ; et celle de la transcription du discours multimodal.The current development of audio

  14. Evolution in close binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yungel'son, L.R.; Masevich, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    Duality is the property most typical of stars. If one investigates how prevalent double stars are, making due allowance for selection effects, one finds that as many as 90 percent of all stars are paired. Contrary to tradition it is single stars that are out of the ordinary, and as will be shown presently even some of these may have been formed by coalescence of the members of binary systems. This review deals with the evolution of close binaries, defined as double-star systems whose evolution entails exchange of material between the two components

  15. Expressions for linearized perturbations in ideal-fluid cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratra, B.

    1988-01-01

    We present closed-form solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations (in synchronous gauge) that govern the evolution of inhomogeneities in homogeneous, spatially flat, ideal-fluid, cosmological models. These expressions, which are valid for irregularities on any scale, allow one to analytically interpolate between the known approximate solutions which are valid at early times and at late times

  16. Close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson-Leander, G.

    1979-01-01

    Studies of close binary stars are being persued more vigorously than ever, with about 3000 research papers and notes pertaining to the field being published during the triennium 1976-1978. Many major advances and spectacular discoveries were made, mostly due to increased observational efficiency and precision, especially in the X-ray, radio, and ultraviolet domains. Progress reports are presented in the following areas: observational techniques, methods of analyzing light curves, observational data, physical data, structure and models of close binaries, statistical investigations, and origin and evolution of close binaries. Reports from the Coordinates Programs Committee, the Committee for Extra-Terrestrial Observations and the Working Group on RS CVn binaries are included. (Auth./C.F.)

  17. ArcForm - A multimodal notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allsopp, Benjamin Brink

    ArcForm (AF) is a visual notation based on a new graph-like network structure. It supports a unique approach to labeling arcs and nodes to allow diverse and grammatically normal English (or other natural language) sentences to be embedded in the network (Allsopp, 2013). In doing this AF combines...... the familiarity and expressiveness of written natural language with the visuospatial intuition of navigating geographical maps. Thus AF simultaneously exploits visual, textual, linguistic and spatial modalities. In static representations AF seems to have various benefits. We believe that AF’s multiple modalities...... support better overview, aid memory and facilitate forming new insights. At the same time, AF’s closeness to natural language allows it to remain cross-domain and multipurpose. However AF is not limited to static representations and is designed to be supported digitally. Here we expect additional benefits...

  18. NRC closing remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, F.

    1994-01-01

    This section contains the edited transcript of the NRC closing remarks made by Mr. Franklin Coffman (Chief, Human Factors Branch, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research) and Dr. Cecil Thomas (Deputy Director, Division of Reactor Controls and Human Factors, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation). This editing consisted of minimal editing to correct grammar and remove extraneous references to microphone volume, etc

  19. A Closed Universe Expanding Forever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva N. P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, the expression a ( t = e H 0 T 0 [ ( t T 0 where = 0 : 5804, was proposed for the expansion factor of our Universe. According to it, gravity dominates the expan- sion ( matter era until the age of T ⋆ = 3 : 214 Gyr and, after that, dark energy dominates ( dark energy era leading to an eternal expansion, no matter if the Universe is closed, flat or open. In this paper we consider only the closed version and show that there is an upper limit for the size of the radial comoving coordinate, beyond which nothing is observed by our fundamental observer, on Earth. Our observable Universe may be only a tiny portion of a much bigger Universe most of it unobservable to us. This leads to the idea that an endless number of other fundamental observers may live on equal number of Universes similar to ours. Either we talk about many Universes — Multiverse — or about an unique Universe, only part of it observable to us.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of multiple T helper subsets in leprosy reveals distinct patterns of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs markers expression in clinical forms and reactional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Marques, Heloisa; Binelli, Larissa Sarri; Malange, Mariana Silva Vieira; Devides, Amanda Carreira; Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Ghidella, Cassio Cesar; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Farias Fernandes; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of various targets (mRNA) related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were significantly modulated in leprosy when compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the presence of a mixed profile. In addition, the targets related to Th1 predominated in the tuberculoid pole and side and Th2 and Tregs predominated in the lepromatous pole and side; however, Th17 targets showed a mixed profile. Concerning reactional events, Tregs markers were decreased and IL-15 was increased in reversal reaction and IL-17F, CCL20 and IL-8 in erythema nodosum leprosum, when compared with the respective non-reactional leprosy patients. Additionally, ELISA analysis demonstrated that IL-22, IL-6, IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients when compared with healthy individuals, and IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were also increased in the lepromatous pole and side. Together, these results indicate that Th1, Th2 and Th17 are involved in the determination of clinical forms of leprosy and suggest that decreased Tregs activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of reactional events.

  1. Closing the loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2010-02-01

    The dream of closing the loop is actually the dream of creating an artificial pancreas and freeing the patients from being involved with the care of their own diabetes. Insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1) is a chronic incurable disease which requires constant therapy without the possibility of any 'holidays' or insulin-free days. It means that patients have to inject insulin every day of their life, several times per day, and in order to do it safely they also have to measure their blood glucose levels several times per day. Patients need to plan their meals, their physical activities and their insulin regime - there is only very small room for spontaneous activities. This is why the desire for an artificial pancreas is so strong despite the fact that it will not cure the diabetic patients. Attempts to develop a closed-loop system started in the 1960s but never got to a clinical practical stage of development. In recent years the availability of continuous glucose sensors revived those efforts and stimulated the clinician and researchers to believe that closing the loop might be possible nowadays. Many papers have been published over the years describing several different ideas on how to close the loop. Most of the suggested systems have a sensing arm that measures the blood glucose repeatedly or continuously, an insulin delivery arm that injects insulin upon command and a computer that makes the decisions of when and how much insulin to deliver. The differences between the various published systems in the literature are mainly in their control algorithms. However, there are also differences related to the method and site of glucose measurement and insulin delivery. SC glucose measurements and insulin delivery are the most studied option but other combinations of insulin measurements and glucose delivery including intravascular and intraperitoneal (IP) are explored. We tried to select recent publications that we believe had influenced and inspired people interested

  2. Evaluation of IL-12RB1, IL-12B, CXCR-3 and IL-17a expression in cases affected by a non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: an observational study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafi, Mohammad; Rezvan, Hossein; Sherkat, Roya; Taleban, Roya; Asilian, Ali; Zarkesh Esfahani, Seyed Hamid; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jaffary, Fariba; Feizi, Awat

    2017-01-27

    Seldom cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) may present as a lasting and active lesion(s), known as a non-healing form of CL (NHCL). Non-functional type 1 T helper (Th1) cells are assumed the most important factor in the outcome of the disease. The present study aims to assess some molecular defects that potentially contribute to Th1 impairment in NHCL. This prospective observational study will be implemented among five groups. The first and second groups comprise patients afflicted with non-healing and healing forms of CL, respectively. The third group consists of those recovered participants who have scars as a result of CL. Those participants who have never lived or travelled to endemic areas of leishmaniasis will comprise the fourth group. The fifth group comprises participants living in hyperendemic areas for leishmaniasis, although none of them have been afflicted by CL. The aim is to recruit 10 NHCL cases and 30 participants in each of the other groups. A leishmanin skin test (LST) will be performed to assess in vivo immunity against the Leishmania infection. The cytokine profile (interleukin (IL)-12p70, interferon (IFN)-γ, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-11 and IL-17a) of the isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) will be evaluated through ELISA. Real-time PCR will determine the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR)-3 and IL-17a gene expression and expression of IL-12Rβ1 will be assessed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, IL-12B and IL-12RB1 mutation analysis will be performed. It is anticipated that the outcome of the current study will identify IL-12B and IL-12RB1 mutations, which lead to persistent lesions of CL. Furthermore, our expected results will reveal an association between NHCL and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12p70, IFN-γ IL-17a and CXCL-11), as well as CXCR-3 expression. This study has been approved by a local ethical committee. The final results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences

  3. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-11-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 µM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  4. 'Closed Circuit' Anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its constant-flow flowmeters and accurate vaporisers, there. Department of Anaesthesia ... Enough evidence has accumulated on the dangers of long periods of ... form in the soda-lime. To understand how these problems may .be solved, one.

  5. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  6. Closing the gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a representative of the Oil Companies' European Organization for Environmental and Health Protection (CONCAWE), argues the advantages of closing the gasoline system. Because this decouples the product from the environment, health risks and environmental damage are reduced. It is also more effective than changing the composition of gasoline because it offers better cost effectiveness, energy efficiency and the minimization of carbon dioxide release into the environment. However it will take time and political will to change until all European vehicles are fitted with three way catalysts and carbon canisters: control systems to monitor such systems will also need to be set up. However CONCAWE still recommends its adoption. (UK)

  7. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Judson, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities for closing the fuel cycle in today's nuclear climate in the US are compared with those envisioned in 1977. Reprocessing, the fast breeder reactor program, and the uranium supply are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that the nuclear world is less healthy and less stable than the one previously envisioned and that the major task before the international nuclear community is to develop technologies, institutions, and accepted procedures that will allow to economically provide the huge store of energy from reprocessing and the breeder that it appears the world will desperately need

  8. Analytical expressions for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soonho; Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of a hard sphere dimer fluid. A set of integral equations is obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with Percus-Yevick approximation. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of the individual correlation functions are obtained. By the inverse Laplace transformation, the radial distribution function (RDF) is obtained in closed form out to 3D (D is the segment diameter). The analytical expression for the RDF of the hard dimer should be useful in developing the perturbation theory of dimer fluids.

  9. Analytical expression for the correlation function of a hard sphere chain fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jaeeon; Kim, Hwayong

    A closed form expression is given for the correlation function of flexible hard sphere chain fluid. A set of integral equations obtained from Wertheim's multidensity Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory with the polymer Percus-Yevick ideal chain approximation is considered. Applying the Laplace transformation method to the integral equations and then solving the resulting equations algebraically, the Laplace transforms of individual correlation functions are obtained. By inverse Laplace transformation the inter- and intramolecular radial distribution functions (RDFs) are obtained in closed forms up to 3D(D is segment diameter). These analytical expressions for the RDFs would be useful in developing the perturbation theory of chain fluids.

  10. Closed Strings From Nothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-07-25

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order {alpha}' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting.

  11. Closed Strings From Nothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Albion

    2001-01-01

    We study the physics of open strings in bosonic and type II string theories in the presence of unstable D-branes. When the potential energy of the open string tachyon is at its minimum, Sen has argued that only closed strings remain in the perturbative spectrum. We explore the scenario of Yi and of Bergman, Hori and Yi, who argue that the open string degrees of freedom are strongly coupled and disappear through confinement. We discuss arguments using open string field theory and worldsheet boundary RG flows, which seem to indicate otherwise. We then describe a solitonic excitation of the open string tachyon and gauge field with the charge and tension of a fundamental closed string. This requires a double scaling limit where the tachyon is taken to its minimal value and the electric field is taken to its maximum value. The resulting flux tube has an unconstrained spatial profile; and for large fundamental string charge, it appears to have light, weakly coupled open strings living in the core. We argue that the flux tube acquires a size or order α' through sigma model and string coupling effects; and we argue that confinement effects make the light degrees of freedom heavy and strongly interacting

  12. A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Beohar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.

  13. Classification of domains of closed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.; Timmermann, W.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of domains of determining closed operators in the Hilbert space by means of sequence spaces is investigated. The final classification provides three classes of these domains. Necessary and sufficient conditions of equivalence of these domains are obtained in the form of equivalency of corresponding sequences of natural numbers. Connection with the perturbation theory is mentioned [ru

  14. Ascorbate/menadione-induced oxidative stress kills cancer cells that express normal or mutated forms of the oncogenic protein Bcr-Abl. An in vitro and in vivo mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Raphaël; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Dejeans, Nicolas; Glorieux, Christophe; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard; Taper, Henryk; Eeckhoudt, Stéphane; Knoops, Laurent; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Verrax, Julien

    2011-10-01

    Numerous studies suggest that generation of oxidative stress could be useful in cancer treatment. In this study, we evaluated, in vitro and in vivo, the antitumor potential of oxidative stress induced by ascorbate/menadione (asc/men). This combination of a reducing agent (ascorbate) and a redox active quinone (menadione) generates redox cycling leading to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Asc/men was tested in several cell types including K562 cells (a stable human-derived leukemia cell line), freshly isolated leukocytes from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, BaF3 cells (a murine pro-B cell line) transfected with Bcr-Abl and peripheral blood leukocytes derived from healthy donors. Although these latter cells were resistant to asc/men, survival of all the other cell lines was markedly reduced, including the BaF3 cells expressing either wild-type or mutated Bcr-Abl. In a standard in vivo model of subcutaneous tumor transplantation, asc/men provoked a significant delay in the proliferation of K562 and BaF3 cells expressing the T315I mutated form of Bcr-Abl. No effect of asc/men was observed when these latter cells were injected into blood of mice most probably because of the high antioxidant potential of red blood cells, as shown by in vitro experiments. We postulate that cancer cells are more sensitive to asc/men than healthy cells because of their lack of antioxidant enzymes, mainly catalase. The mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity involves the oxidative cleavage of Hsp90 with a subsequent loss of its chaperone function thus leading to degradation of wild-type and mutated Bcr-Abl protein.

  15. La expresión corporal en la formación de maestros The Body Expression in Teachers Forming: Beginning Programs Study at Universities in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Vega María De Jesús

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como propósito indagar las orientaciones, enfoques y perspectivas de la expresión corporal en los programas de Educación Inicial en universidades de Bogotá. El método desarrollado fue el cualitativo y el tipo de estudio documental. Se diseñó y aplicó una matriz como instrumento de análisis y descripción basado en la categorización de la información teniendo en cuenta los documentos fuente: Proyecto Educativo Institucional (PEI, Proyecto Educativo del Programa (PEP y Planes de Estudio. A manera de conclusiones se puede decir que las orientaciones teórico-conceptuales están fundamentadas en el eje pedagógico, las perspectivas de formación se centran en el campo disciplinar, profesionalización específica y complementaria; y los enfoques pedagógicos y metodológicos están basados en el cuerpo y la expresión. This investigation inquires guidance, approaches and perspectives about corporal expression in beginning education at universities of Bogota. The qualitative method and documentary study type was put into practice. Information setting up from source documents: PEI, PEP and Study Plans provided a Matrix designed and applied to analyze and describe the pedagogical line. Forming perspectives are placed in the discipline field and in the specific and complementary professional activity. The pedagogic and method approaches are based on body and expression.

  16. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  17. Jealousy and Relationship Closeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Attridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study confirmed a hypothesis from the Emotion-in-Relationships conceptual model, which predicts that greater interdependence between relationship partners—or closeness—creates the potential for jealousy. The study also sought to better define the positive side of romantic jealousy in addition to its more negative attributes. College students in premarital relationships (N = 229 completed a questionnaire, including 27 different measures and the Multidimensional Jealousy Scale. Select data were obtained from 122 cases at 3-month follow-up. Each jealousy scale was tested for associations with demographic (age, sex, and race, person (life satisfaction, loneliness, romantic attachment styles, love styles, and romantic beliefs, and relationship (affective, closeness, and social exchange theory constructs. Results clearly distinguished emotional/reactive jealousy as mostly “good” and cognitive/suspicious jealousy as “bad.” Behavioral jealousy was associated with few measures. Implications are discussed for the interdependence model of relationships and the transactional model of jealousy.

  18. Closed metal supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolotov, N P; Afanas' yev, Yu V; Brednev, V A; Nuzhadikhin, A G; Tsiplakov, B V; Uskov, I T

    1980-08-30

    A closed metal support system that has a specific profile includes roof timber, ledger and roof timber. For convenience of transport, assembly, disassembly and repeated use during operation of an extraction powered system, the uprights in the central part are made sectional and are connected to one another by a hinge for folding into transport position. Longitudinal openings are made at the ends of the uprights in order to provide strength by creating flexibility in the hinged connections. The hinged connections of the sectional uprights have elastic gaskets. For convenience in folding the reinforcement, the ends of the uprights of the roof timber and ledger have the shape of a channel at junctions of their hinged connection.

  19. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2001-01-01

    We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting

  20. Closing the gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fish going through turbines at hydroelectric power plants and the growing concern over the survival rate of salmon at the US Army Corps operated Bonneville lock and dam on the Columbia river in the Pacific Northwest is discussed. The protection of the fish, the assessment of the hazards facing fish passing through turbines, the development of a new turbine, and improved turbine efficiency that reduces cavitation, turbulence and shear flow are examined. The closing of the gap between the turbine blades, hub and discharge ring to increase efficiency and reduce the risk to fish, and the development of the minimum gap runner (MGR) are described, and the lower maximum permitted power output of MGR is noted. (UK)

  1. New Organizational Forms and IT

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzer, Bettina;Zerbe, Stefan;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The availability of powerful IT/IS is percieved as a driving force as well as a necessary prerequisite for new organizational solutions. However, even though the close interre-latedness of organizational structure and IT/IS has been widely recognized for a long time, a thorough understanding of their linkage is still missing. The research project NOF (New Organizational Forms) aims at closing the gap between the organizational and IS discipline in order to further the understanding and provid...

  2. Facial dynamics and emotional expressions in facial aging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Thierry; Gassia, Véronique; Belhaouari, Lakhdar

    2015-03-01

    Facial expressions convey emotions that form the foundation of interpersonal relationships, and many of these emotions promote and regulate our social linkages. Hence, the facial aging symptomatological analysis and the treatment plan must of necessity include knowledge of the facial dynamics and the emotional expressions of the face. This approach aims to more closely meet patients' expectations of natural-looking results, by correcting age-related negative expressions while observing the emotional language of the face. This article will successively describe patients' expectations, the role of facial expressions in relational dynamics, the relationship between facial structures and facial expressions, and the way facial aging mimics negative expressions. Eventually, therapeutic implications for facial aging treatment will be addressed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Closing the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycoberry, C.; Rougeau, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive implementation of some key nuclear fuel cycle capecities in a country corresponds to a strategy for the acquisition of an independant energy source, France, Japan, and some European countries are engaged in such strategic programs. In France, COGEMA, the nuclear fuel company, has now completed the industrial demonstration of the closed fuel cycle. Its experience covers every step of the front-end and of the back-end: transportation of spent fuels, storage, reprocessing, wastes conditioning. The La Hague reprocessing plant smooth operation, as well as the large investment program under active progress can testify of full mastering of this industry. Together with other French and European companies, COGEMA is engaged in the recycling industry, both for uranium through conversion of uranyl nitrate for its further reeichment, and for plutonium through MOX fuel fabrication. Reprocessing and recycling offer the optimum solution for a complete, economic, safe and future-oriented fuel cycle, hence contributing to the necessary development of nuclear energy. (author)

  4. Novel MGF-based expressions for the average bit error probability of binary signalling over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2014-04-01

    The main idea in the moment generating function (MGF) approach is to alternatively express the conditional bit error probability (BEP) in a desired exponential form so that possibly multi-fold performance averaging is readily converted into a computationally efficient single-fold averaging - sometimes into a closed-form - by means of using the MGF of the signal-to-noise ratio. However, as presented in [1] and specifically indicated in [2] and also to the best of our knowledge, there does not exist an MGF-based approach in the literature to represent Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desired exponential form. This paper presents novel MGF-based expressions for calculating the average BEP of binary signalling over generalized fading channels, specifically by expressing Wojnar\\'s generic BEP expression in a desirable exponential form. We also propose MGF-based expressions to explore the amount of dispersion in the BEP for binary signalling over generalized fading channels.

  5. Polyphony and verb forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  6. Disjoint forms in graphical user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Achten, P.M.; Plasmeijer, M.J.; Loidl, H.W.

    Forms are parts of a graphical user interface (GUI) that show a set of values and allow the user to update them. The declarative form construction library FunctionalForms is extended with disjoint form combinators to capture some common patterns in which the form structure expresses a choice. We

  7. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  8. Close to the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Today, a new ALMA outreach and educational book was publicly presented to city officials of San Pedro de Atacama in Chile, as part of the celebrations of the anniversary of the Andean village. ESO PR Photo 50a/07 ESO PR Photo 50a/07 A Useful Tool for Schools Entitled "Close to the sky: Biological heritage in the ALMA area", and edited in English and Spanish by ESO in Chile, the book collects unique on-site observations of the flora and fauna of the ALMA region performed by experts commissioned to investigate it and to provide key initiatives to protect it. "I thank the ALMA project for providing us a book that will surely be a good support for the education of children and youngsters of San Pedro de Atacama. Thanks to this publication, we expect our rich flora and fauna to be better known. I invite teachers and students to take advantage of this educational resource, which will be available in our schools", commented Ms. Sandra Berna, the Mayor of San Pedro de Atacama, who was given the book by representatives of the ALMA global collaboration project. Copies of the book 'Close to the sky' will be donated to all schools in the area, as a contribution to the education of students and young people in northern Chile. "From the very beginning of the project, ALMA construction has had a firm commitment to environment and local culture, protecting unique flora and fauna species and preserving old estancias belonging to the Likan Antai culture," said Jacques Lassalle, who represented ALMA at the hand-over. "Animals like the llama, the fox or the condor do not only live in the region where ALMA is now being built, but they are also key elements of the ancient Andean constellations. In this sense they are part of the same sky that will be explored by ALMA in the near future." ESO PR Photo 50c/07 ESO PR Photo 50c/07 Presentation of the ALMA book The ALMA Project is a giant, international observatory currently under construction on the high-altitude Chajnantor site in Chile

  9. Closed cycle device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.E.; Witt, D.L.; Staley, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A gas dynamic laser wherein the lasing fluid is recirculated in a closed loop is described. The flow can be assumed to start with the lasing gas passing through a cascade of supersonic nozzles. This low pressure, high velocity gas is then passed through a lasing cavity where the lasing action takes place. The energy of the high velocity gas stream is converted back to static pressure in a supersonic diffuser. The diffuser is constructed with (1) variable geometry, and (2) provisions for bleeding off the boundary layer for improved efficiency. Downstream of the supersonic diffuser there is a heat exchanger which partially cools the gas in the loop. This partially cooled gas is then supplied to a compressor where the pressure and temperature are raised back to the level at the start of the flow. The lasing gas is directed from the exit of the compressor to a manifold upstream of the cascade of supersonic nozzles. The compressor only supplies a pressure rise equal to the pressure loss by inefficiencies in the nozzle, the supersonic diffuser and the pressure drop in the heatexchanger and plumbing. To provide for cooling of the compressor, the gas bled from the diffuser is cooled by a second heat exchanger and pumped back to compressor inlet pressure and introduced into the compressor for cooling. In steady state operation, both heat exchangers referred to above, are designed to regulatethe nozzle inlet gas temperature by removing the amount of heat energy added by compressing minus the amount of energy extracted in the lasing beam and energy lost to the environment. The compressor and pumping means for cooling the compressor can be driven by any means desired. (U.S.)

  10. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  11. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  12. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-06-19

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence.

  13. 75 FR 5853 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 13803

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 13803, Income Verification Express Service Application and Employee Delegation Form. DATES: Written... Application and Employee Delegation Form. OMB Number: 1545-2032. Form Number: Form 13803. Abstract: Form 13803, Income Verification Express Service Application and Employee Delegation Form, is used to submit the...

  14. Fermions on spacetimes of spatially closed hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenient compact time-like coordinate f element of [0, 1], characterizing the whole big bang-big crunch spacetime history cyclicly evolving with a 2π conformal period, we write down the Dirac-type equation in a FRW matter-dominated Universe. It turns out that, by accepting the idea of existence of an alternative time gauge, as for example in the projected Universe, one is able to derive closed form solutions, for physically meaningful cases.

  15. Closed hierarchy of correlations in Markovian open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žunkovič, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    We study the Lindblad master equation in the space of operators and provide simple criteria for closeness of the hierarchy of equations for correlations. We separately consider the time evolution of closed and open systems and show that open systems satisfying the closeness conditions are not necessarily of Gaussian type. In addition, we show that dissipation can induce the closeness of the hierarchy of correlations in interacting quantum systems. As an example we study an interacting optomechanical model, the Fermi–Hubbard model, and the Rabi model, all coupled to a fine-tuned Markovian environment and obtain exact analytic expressions for the time evolution of two-point correlations. (paper)

  16. Evolution of massive close binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masevich, A.G.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the evolution of massive close binary stars are discussed. Most of them are nonevolutionized stars with close masses of components. After filling the Roche cavity and exchange of matter between the components the Wolf-Rayet star is formed. As a result of the supernovae explosion a neutron star or a black hole is formed in the system. The system does not disintegrate but obtains high space velocity owing to the loss of the supernovae envelope. The satellite of the neutron star or black hole - the star of the O or B spectral class loses about 10 -6 of the solar mass for a year. Around the neighbouring component a disc of this matter is formed the incidence of which on a compact star leads to X radiation appearance. The neutron star cannot absorb the whole matter of the widening component and the binary system submerges into the common envelope. As a result of the evolution of massive close binary systems single neutron stars can appear which after the lapse of some time become radiopulsars. Radiopulsars with such high space velocities have been found in our Galaxy [ru

  17. Closed worlds and baryon asymmetry of the visible Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletsky, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the early Universe the large scale perturbations of energy density can form closed worlds (topological decay of the initial Universe). Due to fluctuations of density of baryonic charge these closed worlds are charge asymmetrical even if the initial Universe was symmetric [ru

  18. On some Closed Magnetic Curves on a 3-torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Marian Ioan, E-mail: marian.ioan.munteanu@gmail.com [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Faculty of Mathematics (Romania); Nistor, Ana Irina, E-mail: ana.irina.nistor@gmail.com [Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, Department of Mathematics and Informatics (Romania)

    2017-06-15

    We consider two magnetic fields on the 3-torus obtained from two different contact forms on the Euclidean 3-space and we study when their corresponding normal magnetic curves are closed. We obtain periodicity conditions analogues to those for the closed geodesics on the torus.

  19. Introducing and Sustaining Close Reading and Writing through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Karren M.; Johnson, Angie

    2017-01-01

    Close reading of poetry scaffolds readers and writers as they come to understand the form and function of poetry and transfer those skills to writing. In this teaching tip, the authors explain a way in which primary teachers can introduce close reading and move young students toward composing and presenting poetry.

  20. 晏殊词“思致”表现形态探微%The Exploratory of the Form of Expression on Yan Shu's“Best Level Thoughts of his Heart” Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹章庆

    2013-01-01

      晏殊属思深意远的“心境型”作家,故其词无论咏物、感怀或闺思,无不体现深沉澄明的“思致”。其思致形态又可分为“无心”、“有意”两类。“无心”者在直觉中隐含思致,它或描摹以烘染意蕴;或写意以潜伏哲思,甚至不着一字,尽得风流。“有意”者在直觉中显露思致,它或兴寄而言情志,或点染衬托以表意旨,虽可实指却意在象外,迷离蕴藉。“无心”、“有意”两种形态虽各有别,但在深层心理上都是作者理性观照的产物,是晏殊对人情世态、历史人生洞悟穿透的诗性智慧结晶。%Yan Shu is a kind of the “mood” type writer who has far profound thoughts ,therefore ,no matter the poems on things ,emotion or deep house thinking ,all reflect the deep clear “the best level thoughts of his heart ” .The thought form can be divided into “unintentionally”and“intentionally” .“Un‐intentional” means“the best level thoughts of his heart” is implied in the intuition ,or tracing to the deep meaning through portray ;Or latent philosophizing through freehand brushwork ,even “all having to love without a word” .“Intentionally”means“the best level thoughts of his heart”is emerged in the intuition , or expressing the emotion through prospering ,or foiling to his will through halftone ,although That de‐picts the real thing ,it real means is outside ,so as false blurred .“Unintentionally”and“intentionally” are different ,but the deep psychology is the product of rational view ,and it is the poetic wisdom crystalliza‐tion that Yan Shu enlightens the ways of the world and the history of human life .

  1. Dynamic polarization by coulomb excitation in the closed formalism for heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahn, W.E.; Hill, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    We present a closed-form treatment of the effects of dynamic polarization by Coulomb excitation on the elastic scattering of deformed heavy ions. We assume that this interaction can be represented by an absorptive polarization potential. The relatively long range of this potential entails a relatively slow variation of the associated reflection function in l-space. This feature leads to a simple generalization of the closed formula derived previously for the elastic scattering amplitude of spherical heavy nuclei. We use both the polarization potential of Love et al. and the recent improved potential of Baltz et al. to derive explicit expressions for the associated reflection functions in a Coulomb-distorted eikonal approximation. As an example we analyze the elastic scattering of 90-MeV 18 O ions by 184 W and show that both results give a quantitative description of the data. (orig.) [de

  2. Perturbative method for the derivation of quantum kinetic theory based on closed-time-path formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Jun

    2002-01-01

    Within the closed-time-path formalism, a perturbative method is presented, which reduces the microscopic field theory to the quantum kinetic theory. In order to make this reduction, the expectation value of a physical quantity must be calculated under the condition that the Wigner distribution function is fixed, because it is the independent dynamical variable in the quantum kinetic theory. It is shown that when a nonequilibrium Green function in the form of the generalized Kadanoff-Baym ansatz is utilized, this condition appears as a cancellation of a certain part of contributions in the diagrammatic expression of the expectation value. Together with the quantum kinetic equation, which can be derived in the closed-time-path formalism, this method provides a basis for the kinetic-theoretical description

  3. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  4. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  5. 13 CFR 120.194 - Use of computer forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of computer forms. 120.194... Applying to All Business Loans Computerized Sba Forms § 120.194 Use of computer forms. Any Applicant or Participant may use computer generated SBA application forms, closing forms, and other forms designated by SBA...

  6. Flexural fatigue life prediction of closed hat-section using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia

    1989-01-01

    Straight or curved hat-section members are often used as structural stiffeners in aircraft. For instance, they are employed as stiffeners for the dorsal skin as well as in the aerial refueling adjacent area structure in F-106 aircraft. The flanges of the hat-section are connected to the aircraft skin. Thus, the portion of the skin closing the hat-section interacts with the section itself when resisting the stresses due to service loads. The flexural fatigue life of such a closed section is estimated using materially nonlinear axial fatigue characteristics. It should be recognized that when a structural shape is subjected to bending, the fatigue life at the neutral axis is infinity since the normal stresses are zero at that location. Conversely, the fatigue life at the extreme fibers where the normal bending stresses are maximum can be expected to be finite. Thus, different fatigue life estimates can be visualized at various distances from the neural axis. The problem becomes compounded further when significant portions away from the neutral axis are stressed into plastic range. A theoretical analysis of the closed hat-section subjected to flexural cyclic loading is first conducted. The axial fatigue characteristics together with the related axial fatigue life formula and its inverted form given by Manson and Muralidharan are adopted for an aluminum alloy used in aircraft construction. A closed-form expression for predicting the flexural fatigue life is then derived for the closed hat-section including materially nonlinear action. A computer program is written to conduct a study of the variables such as the thicknesses of the hat-section and the skin, and the type of alloy used. The study has provided a fundamental understanding of the flexural fatigue life characteristics of a practical structural component used in aircraft when materially nonlinear action is present.

  7. Analysis of Multicomponent Adsorption Close to a Dew Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1998-01-01

    We develop the potential theory of multicomponent adsorption close to a dew point. The approach is based on an asymptotic adsorption equation (AAE) which is valid in a vicinity of the dew point. By this equation the thickness of the liquid film is expressed through thermodynamic characteristics...... and the direct calculations, even if the mixture is not close to a dew point.Key Words: adsorption; potential theory; multicomponent; dew point....

  8. BLM Colorado Mining Claims Closed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of closed mining claim records extracted from BLM’s LR2000 database. These records contain case attributes as well as legal...

  9. Localizing Expression of Ambiguity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bear, John; Hobbs, Sr, Jerry R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an implemented program for localizing the expression of many types of syntactic ambiguity, in the logical forms of sentences, in a manner convenient for subsequent inferential processing...

  10. Open-closed homotopy algebra in mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiura, Hiroshige; Stasheff, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss various aspects of open-closed homotopy algebras (OCHAs) presented in our previous paper, inspired by Zwiebach's open-closed string field theory, but that first paper concentrated on the mathematical aspects. Here we show how an OCHA is obtained by extracting the tree part of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory. We clarify the explicit relation of an OCHA with Kontsevich's deformation quantization and with the B-models of homological mirror symmetry. An explicit form of the minimal model for an OCHA is given as well as its relation to the perturbative expansion of open-closed string field theory. We show that our open-closed homotopy algebra gives us a general scheme for deformation of open string structures (A ∞ algebras) by closed strings (L ∞ algebras)

  11. Closed recirculation-Water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Hamza B.; Ben Ali, Salah; Saad, Mohamed A.; Traish, Massud R.

    2005-01-01

    This water treatment is a practical work applied in the center, for a closed recirculation-water system. The system had experienced a serious corrosion problem, due to the use of inadequate water. This work includes chemical preparation for the system. Water treatment, special additives, and follow-up, which resulted in the stability of the case. This work can be applied specially for closed recirculation warm, normal, and chilled water. (author)

  12. Map of open and closed chromatin domains in Drosophila genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milon, Beatrice; Sun, Yezhou; Chang, Weizhong; Creasy, Todd; Mahurkar, Anup; Shetty, Amol; Nurminsky, Dmitry; Nurminskaya, Maria

    2014-11-18

    Chromatin compactness has been considered a major determinant of gene activity and has been associated with specific chromatin modifications in studies on a few individual genetic loci. At the same time, genome-wide patterns of open and closed chromatin have been understudied, and are at present largely predicted from chromatin modification and gene expression data. However the universal applicability of such predictions is not self-evident, and requires experimental verification. We developed and implemented a high-throughput analysis for general chromatin sensitivity to DNase I which provides a comprehensive epigenomic assessment in a single assay. Contiguous domains of open and closed chromatin were identified by computational analysis of the data, and correlated to other genome annotations including predicted chromatin "states", individual chromatin modifications, nuclear lamina interactions, and gene expression. While showing that the widely trusted predictions of chromatin structure are correct in the majority of cases, we detected diverse "exceptions" from the conventional rules. We found a profound paucity of chromatin modifications in a major fraction of closed chromatin, and identified a number of loci where chromatin configuration is opposite to that expected from modification and gene expression patterns. Further, we observed that chromatin of large introns tends to be closed even when the genes are expressed, and that a significant proportion of active genes including their promoters are located in closed chromatin. These findings reveal limitations of the existing predictive models, indicate novel mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and provide important insights into genome organization and function.

  13. Electroweak form factors of the Skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, E.; Sze-Man Tse; Willcox, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electroweak form factors of baryons are studied in the semiclassical approximation to the Skyrme model. General expressions for the form factors are given for arbitrary choices of the Skyrme-model Lagrangian. They are applied to the original two-parameter Skyrme model to compute the electric, magnetic, and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon and the electromagnetic nucleon-Δ transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on the momentum transfer is compared with phenomenological dipole parametrizations

  14. Diffusion from cylindrical waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.F.

    1985-05-01

    The diffusion of a single component material from a finite cylindrical waste form, initially containing a uniform concentration of the material, is investigated. Under the condition that the cylinder is maintained in a well-stirred bath, expressions for the fractional inventory leached and the leach rate are derived with allowance for the possible permanent immobilization of the diffusant through its decay to a stable product and/or its irreversible reaction with the waste form matrix. The usefulness of the reported results in nuclear waste disposal applications is emphasized. The results reported herein are related to those previously derived at Oak Ridge National Laboratory by Bell and Nestor. A numerical scheme involving the partial decoupling of nested infinite summations and the use of rapidly converging rational approximants is recommended for the efficient implementation of the expressions derived to obtain reliable estimates of the bulk diffusion constant and the rate constant describing the diffusant-waste form interaction from laboratory data

  15. Inflation in a closed universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratra, Bharat

    2017-11-01

    To derive a power spectrum for energy density inhomogeneities in a closed universe, we study a spatially-closed inflation-modified hot big bang model whose evolutionary history is divided into three epochs: an early slowly-rolling scalar field inflation epoch and the usual radiation and nonrelativistic matter epochs. (For our purposes it is not necessary to consider a final dark energy dominated epoch.) We derive general solutions of the relativistic linear perturbation equations in each epoch. The constants of integration in the inflation epoch solutions are determined from de Sitter invariant quantum-mechanical initial conditions in the Lorentzian section of the inflating closed de Sitter space derived from Hawking's prescription that the quantum state of the universe only include field configurations that are regular on the Euclidean (de Sitter) sphere section. The constants of integration in the radiation and matter epoch solutions are determined from joining conditions derived by requiring that the linear perturbation equations remain nonsingular at the transitions between epochs. The matter epoch power spectrum of gauge-invariant energy density inhomogeneities is not a power law, and depends on spatial wave number in the way expected for a generalization to the closed model of the standard flat-space scale-invariant power spectrum. The power spectrum we derive appears to differ from a number of other closed inflation model power spectra derived assuming different (presumably non de Sitter invariant) initial conditions.

  16. Immunization with a dicistronic plasmid expressing a truncated form of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B results in reduced gB-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj, Sharmila; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Drunen Littel van-Hurk, Sylvia van den

    2003-01-01

    As an approach to create a divalent DNA vaccine, a truncated secreted version of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D (tgD) and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B (gBb) were expressed from a dicistronic plasmid, designated pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb. Intradermal immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of plasmids encoding tgD (pSLIAtgD) and gBb (pSLIAgBb) by needle injection or gene gun elicited strong tgD-specific immune responses. However, a significant reduction in gBb-specific immune responses was observed upon immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of pSLIAtgD and pSLIAgBb in comparison to immunization with pSLIAgBb alone. This reduction in gBb-specific immune responses induced by pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb was due to production of low amounts of gBb from pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb, inefficient processing and transport of gBb, and possibly competition for antigen-presenting cells by tgD and gBb. These results indicate that, although divalent plasmids may be used to express different antigens, the efficacy of vaccination with such plasmids may be influenced by the plasmid design and the characteristics of the expressed antigens

  17. A virtual closed loop method for closed loop identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüero, J.C.; Goodwin, G.C.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect methods for the identification of linear plant models on the basis of closed loop data are based on the use of (reconstructed) input signals that are uncorrelated with the noise. This generally requires exact (linear) controller knowledge. On the other hand, direct identification requires

  18. Closed Paths of Light Trapped in a Closed Fermat Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry; Naiman, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    Geometric constructions have previously been shown that can be interpreted as rays of light trapped either in polygons or in conics, by successive reflections. The same question, trapping light in closed Fermat curves, is addressed here. Numerical methods are used to study the behaviour of the reflection points of a triangle when the degree of the…

  19. Closed cycle gas dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsley, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The device includes a closed cycle gasdynamic laser wherein the lasing fluid is recirculated in a closed loop. The closed loop includes a nozzle array, a lasing cavity and a diffuser. The exit of the diffuser is connected to the inlet to the nozzle array with a fuel heat exchanger located in the lasing flow and a pumping means located between the heat exchanger and the nozzle array. To provide for cooling of the pumping means and to improve diffuser performance, gas bled from the diffuser is cooled by two heat exchangers and pumped into cooling passages in the pumping means. The heat exchangers for cooling the flow to the pumping means are located in series and carry fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor and the heat exchanger in the lasing flow cools the fluid and carries the fuel from a supply to an injector in said combustor. (U.S.)

  20. Differential gene expression during Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Krieger

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of epimastigotes into metacyclic trypomastigotes involves changes in the pattern of expressed genes, resulting in important morphological and functional differences between these developmental forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In order to identify and characterize genes involved in triggering the metacyclogenesis process and in conferring to metacyclic trypomastigotes their stage specific biological properties, we have developed a method allowing the isolation of genes specifically expressed when comparing two close related cell populations (representation of differential expression or RDE. The method is based on the PCR amplification of gene sequences selected by hybridizing and subtracting the populations in such a way that after some cycles of hybridization-amplification genes specific to a given population are highly enriched. The use of this method in the analysis of differential gene expression during T. cruzi metacyclogenesis (6 hr and 24 hr of differentiation and metacyclic trypomastigotes resulted in the isolation of several clones from each time point. Northern blot analysis showed that some genes are transiently expressed (6 hr and 24 hr differentiating cells, while others are present in differentiating cells and in metacyclic trypomastigotes. Nucleotide sequencing of six clones characterized so far showed that they do not display any homology to gene sequences available in the GeneBank.

  1. Graph topologies on closed multifunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Di Maio

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study function space topologies on closed multifunctions, i.e. closed relations on X x Y using various hypertopologies. The hypertopologies are in essence, graph topologies i.e topologies on functions considered as graphs which are subsets of X x Y . We also study several topologies, including one that is derived from the Attouch-Wets filter on the range. We state embedding theorems which enable us to generalize and prove some recent results in the literature with the use of known results in the hyperspace of the range space and in the function space topologies of ordinary functions.

  2. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  3. Closed sets of nonlocal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vertesi, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

  4. Opinion Evolution in Closed Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Sznajd, Józef

    A simple Ising spin model which can describe a mechanism of making a decision in a closed community is proposed. It is shown via standard Monte Carlo simulations that very simple rules lead to rather complicated dynamics and to a power law in the decision time distribution. It is found that a closed community has to evolve either to a dictatorship or a stalemate state (inability to take any common decision). A common decision can be taken in a ``democratic way'' only by an open community.

  5. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  6. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  7. Opening up closed policy communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic cases of closed policy communities, facing pressure to open up. However attempts to involve new stakeholders slowly move forward. This paper addresses the question why it is so difficult to open up agricultural communities and what might help to

  8. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  9. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  10. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  11. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  12. Making Sense of Close Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The term "close reading" is problematic for English teachers, yet a heightened awareness of the role that language plays in mediating experience and social relationships is fundamental to an informed and critically engaged citizenry. This essay finds that a focus on abstracted ideological content of literary texts comes at the cost of…

  13. Empirical Analysis of Closed-Loop Duopoly Advertising Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gary M. Erickson

    1992-01-01

    Closed-loop (perfect) equilibria in a Lanchester duopoly differential game of advertising competition are used as the basis for empirical investigation. Two systems of simultaneous nonlinear equations are formed, one from a general Lanchester model and one from a constrained model. Two empirical applications are conducted. In one involving Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola, a formal statistical testing procedure is used to detect whether closed-loop equilibrium advertising strategies are used by the c...

  14. Closed description of arbitrariness in resolving quantum master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A., E-mail: batalin@lpi.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119 991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Av. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-10

    In the most general case of the Delta exact operator valued generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion operator, we present a closed solution for the transformed master action in terms of the original master action in the closed form of the corresponding path integral. We show in detail how that path integral reduces to the known result in the case of being the Delta exact generators constructed of an arbitrary Fermion function.

  15. SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David

    1996-01-01

    Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.

  16. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  17. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  18. Epistemic companions: shared reality development in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignac-Milon, Maya; Higgins, E Tory

    2018-01-11

    We propose a framework outlining the development of shared reality in close relationships. In this framework, we attempt to integrate disparate close relationship phenomena under the conceptual umbrella of shared reality. We argue that jointly satisfying epistemic needs-making sense of the world together-plays an important but under-appreciated role in establishing and maintaining close relationships. Specifically, we propose that dyads progress through four cumulative phases in which new forms of shared reality emerge. Relationships are often initiated when people discover Shared Feelings, which then facilitate the co-construction of dyad-specific Shared Practices. Partners then form an interdependent web of Shared Coordination and ultimately develop a Shared Identity. Each emergent form of shared reality continues to evolve throughout subsequent phases, and, if neglected, can engender relationship dissolution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The writhe of open and closed curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane

  20. On good ETOL forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    1978-01-01

    This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....

  1. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  2. Evaluation of IL-12RB1, IL-12B, CXCR-3 and IL-17a expression in cases affected by a non-healing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: an observational study design

    OpenAIRE

    Moafi, Mohammad; Rezvan, Hossein; Sherkat, Roya; Taleban, Roya; Asilian, Ali; Zarkesh Esfahani, Seyed Hamid; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Jaffary, Fariba; Feizi, Awat

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Seldom cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) may present as a lasting and active lesion(s), known as a non-healing form of CL (NHCL). Non-functional type 1 T helper (Th1) cells are assumed the most important factor in the outcome of the disease. The present study aims to assess some molecular defects that potentially contribute to Th1 impairment in NHCL. Methods and analysis This prospective observational study will be implemented among five groups. The first and second groups comprise pa...

  3. Contact interactions of closed superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that closed light-cone superstring field theory, which is presently formulated with only cubic interaction terms, does not have a stable ground state, and that the global supersymmetry algebra is violated at second order in the coupling. Local contact interactions, of quartic (and possibly higher) order in the string fields, must be added to the light-cone Hamiltonian to restore supersymmetry and vacuum stability. (orig.)

  4. Generalized Polar Decompositions for Closed Operators in Hilbert Spaces and Some Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gesztesy, Fritz; Malamud, Mark; Mitrea, Marius; Naboko, Serguei

    2008-01-01

    We study generalized polar decompositions of densely defined, closed linear operators in Hilbert spaces and provide some applications to relatively (form) bounded and relatively (form) compact perturbations of self-adjoint, normal, and m-sectorial operators.

  5. Closed orbit analysis for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milutinovic, J.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    We examine the effects of four types of errors in the RHIC dipoles and quadrupoles on the on-momentum closed orbit in the machine. We use PATRIS both to handle statistically the effects of kick-modeled errors and to check the performance of the Fermilab correcting scheme in a framework of a more realistic modeling. On the basis of the accepted rms values of the lattice errors, we conclude that in about 40% of all studied cases the lattice must be to some extent pre-corrected in the framework of the so-called ''first turn around strategy,'' in order to get a closed orbit within the aperture limitations at all and, furthermore, for approximately 2/3 of the remaining cases we find that a single pass algorithm of the Fermilab scheme is not sufficient to bring closed orbit distortions down to acceptable levels. We have modified the scheme and have allowed repeated applications of the otherwise unchanged three bump method and in doing so we have been able to correct the orbit in a satisfactory manner. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  7. Electron form factors of deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.; Isupov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Using the smallness of the deformation parameter of the nucleus, we obtain simple explicit expressions for the form factors of electroexcitation of the low-lying rotation-vibration states of light, deformable, even-even nuclei. The expressions satisfactorily describe the experimental data on the excitation of collective nuclear states by the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

  8. Theory of Single Point Incremental Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels; Skjødt, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in-plan......-plane contact friction and is focused on the extreme modes of deformation that are likely to be found in single point incremental forming processes. The overall investigation is supported by experimental work performed by the authors and data retrieved from the literature.......This paper presents a closed-form theoretical analysis modelling the fundamentals of single point incremental forming and explaining the experimental and numerical results available in the literature for the past couple of years. The model is based on membrane analysis with bi-directional in...

  9. Voice as Form of Life and Life Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Laugier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the concept of form of life as central to ordinary language philosophy (as understood in Wittgenstein’s, Austin’s and Stanley Cavell’s work: philosophy of our language as spoken; pronounced by a human voice within a form of life. Such an approach to Wittgenstein’s later philosophy shifts the question of the common use of language – central to Wittgenstein’s Investigations – to the definition of the subject as voice, and to the reinvention of subjectivity in language. The voice is both a subjective and common expression: it is what makes it possible for my individual voice, or claim, to become shared and for our forms of life to be intertwined with a lifeform.

  10. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P DHA treatment increased (P DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  11. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass M A in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  12. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma induces mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming expression via IL-36 receptor-extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2, and p38-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chang Hoon; Choi, Yoon Seok; Na, Hyung Gyun; Song, Si-Youn; Kim, Yong-Dae

    2018-03-01

    Mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression is significantly increased in allergic and inflammatory airway diseases. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-36 gamma is induced by many inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and bacterial and viral infections. However, the association between IL-36 gamma and mucin secretion in human airway epithelial cells has not yet been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-36 gamma might play a role in the regulation of mucin secretion in airway epithelial cells. We investigated the effect and brief signaling pathway of IL-36 gamma on MUC5AC expression in human airway epithelial cells. Enzyme immunoassay, immunoblot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR were performed in mucin-producing human airway epithelial NCI-H292 cells and in human nasal epithelial cells after pretreatment with IL-36 gamma, several specific inhibitors, or small interfering RNAs (siRNA). IL-36 gamma induced MUC5AC expression and activated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, p38, and nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B). IL-36 receptor antagonist significantly attenuated these effects. The specific inhibitor and siRNA of ERK1, ERK2, p38, and NF-kappa B significantly attenuated IL-36 gamma induced MUC5AC expression. These results indicated that IL-36 gamma induced MUC5AC expression via the IL-36 receptor-mediated ERK1/2 and p38/NF-kappa B pathway in human airway epithelial cells.

  13. Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusser, Matthias; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Czech, Thomas; Prayer, Daniela; Budka, Herbert; Hainfellner, Johannes A

    2003-11-01

    Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the fourth ventricle has been reported recently as a novel type of primary CNS neoplasm. We present the case of a 35-year-old male patient with RGNT of the fourth ventricle. The tumor was found incidentally; the patient did not suffer from any neurological symptoms. The tumor mass involved the caudal cerebellar vermis, filled the fourth ventricle and protruded into the caudal part of the mesencephalic aquaeduct. Smaller tumor nodules were visible in the adjacent right cerebellar hemisphere. Histologically, prominent neurocytic rosettes with synaptophysin expression were embedded in a glial tumor component resembling pilocytic astrocytoma. Clinicopathological features of our case closely resemble those reported in the original description. Thus, our case confirms RGNT as a new distinct type of primary CNS neoplasm. Due to its distinct features, adoption of RGNT as a new entity into the WHO classification of tumors should be considered.

  14. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  15. Daimoniono įvaizdis ir subjekto raiškos formos Czesławo Miłoszo poezijoje | The concept of Daemonion and forms of subject expression in the poetry of Czesław Miłosz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Malažinskaitė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the poetry of Czesław Miłosz as a field of intersubjective relationships, referring to the aesthetics of Mikhail Bakhtin. In the collection “Oca­lenie” (1945, the subject is viewed as a mediator, and this is more fully elaborated in the later poetical works of Miłosz. Various ways of expressing the subject “I” as the mediator actualize its problematic status and intersubjective relationships, its dialogue with the ot­her characters of other poetical texts. Poetical charac­ters differ in either being dead (and thus existing only in memory related with biographical texts or acting in another world (God and Daemonion. The subject gives voice to characters of the other world and in this way becomes a mediator. A specific emphasis is given to the concept of Daemonion. The paper ana­lyses different texts in which this image appears, and morphs. A question arises whether Daemonion is a character, or whether it is related to the complicated issue of form and content. To conclude, Daemonion appearing in poetry is the form itself. Also presented are various forms of the expressed subject (subject-witness, subject-chronicler, subject-shaman, which are related to the changing poetry, and the visual development of the characters.

  16. Safety valve opening and closing operation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kunio; Takeshima, Ikuo; Takahashi, Kiyokazu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the detection of the closing of a safety valve when the internal pressure in a BWR type reactor is a value which will close the safety valve, by inputting signals from a pressure detecting device mounted directly at a reactor vessel and a safety valve discharge pressure detecting device to an AND logic circuit. Constitution: A safety valve monitor is formed of a pressure switch mounted at a reactor pressure vessel, a pressure switch mounted at the exhaust pipe of the escape safety valve and a logic circuit and the lide. When the input pressure of the safety valve is raised so that the valve and the pressure switch mounted at the exhaust pipe are operated, an alarm is indicated, and the operation of the pressure switch mounted at a pressure vessel is eliminated. If the safety valve is not reclosed when the vessel pressure is decreased lower than the pressure at which it is to be reclosed after the safety valve is operated, an alarm is generated by the logic circuit since both the pressure switches are operated. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  18. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  19. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  20. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  1. Nuclear. When Fessenheim will close..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2012-01-01

    Even if the ASN stated it could keep on operating, the Fessenheim nuclear power station is planned to be closed by 2017, notably because of its age and of its neighbourhood with Germany and Switzerland. This closure raises the question of electricity supply for the region, of job losses not automatically balanced by activities in the field of renewable energies, and of earning losses for EDF. Moreover, dismantling operations will have to be financed. The site could then become a pilot one for dismantling activities

  2. Mathematics and Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin Schroeder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Wittgenstein, mathematics is embedded in, and partly constituting, a form of life. Hence, to imagine different, alternative forms of elementary mathematics, we should have to imagine different practices, different forms of life in which they could play a role. If we tried to imagine a radically different arithmetic we should think either of a strange world (in which objects unaccountably vanish or appear or of people acting and responding in very peculiar ways. If such was their practice, a calculus expressing the norms of representation they applied could not be called false. Rather, our criticism could only be to dismiss such a practice as foolish and to dismiss their norms as too different from ours to be called ‘mathematics’.

  3. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF CLOSED CITIES IN THE ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Koz’menko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the ongoing changes in the Russian closed administrative territorial entities’ functioning under the infl uence of external factors that are expressed in the current aggravation of the international situation, and internal – long-term buildup of strategic military capabilities and strengthening of the role of defensive sector in the economy of Russia. The problem of harmonization of national security and socio-economic development priorities of the closed cities of the Russian Arctic is considered.

  4. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  5. On some properties of conjugacy closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniran, John Olusola

    2002-07-01

    It is shown that central loops are not conjugacy closed loops but instead are loops of units in their loop algebras that are conjugacy closed. It is also shown that certain inner mappings of a conjugacy closed loop are nuclear. Some invariants of left conjugacy closed loops are obtained. (author)

  6. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... information for the Agency to reconfirm approval and proceed with loan closing. (3) The Agency or closing... account will be used according to subpart B of part 761 of this chapter when these processes are not...

  7. The leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on human pre-B leukemia cells: variant glycoprotein form expression during the cell exposure to phorbol ester is blocked by a nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraj, J.; Sedlak, J.; Chorvath, B.; Rauko, P.

    1997-01-01

    The human pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line REH6 was utilized for characterization of CD45 glycoprotein by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing four distinct CD45 antigen specificities, i.e. nonrestricted CD45, restricted, CD45RA, CD45RB and CD45R0. Immunoprecipitation revealed two antigen specificities on REH6 cells of m.w. 220 kDa and 190 kDa, both presenting wide range of isoelectric point pI∼6.0-7.5. Nonrestricted CD45 epitopes were not affected by the sialyl acid cleavage with sodium meta-periodate or neuraminidase, but were sensitive to both, tunicamycin, the N-glycosylation inhibitor and monensin, an inhibitor of protein transport through the Golgi compartment. O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase from Pasteurella haemolytica A1 partially cleaved CD45RA and CD45RB epitopes, while nonrestricted CD45 determinants were not affected by this enzyme. Limited proteolysis of this antigen resulted in the appearance of 160-180 kDa peptide domains which retained CD45 epitopes. Further, the treatment of cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced marked down-regulation of 220 and 190 kDa isoforms and the appearance of new 210, 180 and 170 kDa variant glycoprotein forms which were not found on parental cells. This PMA effect was not accompanied by the programmed cell death and was markedly blocked by a nonselective protein kinase (PK) inhibitor iso-quinoline sulfonamide H7. Modulation of CD45 by phorbol esters might serve as an in vitro model for an additional insight into the function of CD45 in hematopoietic cells. (author)

  8. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieternel; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  9. A variant form of the human deleted in malignant brain tumor 1 (DMBT1 gene shows increased expression in inflammatory bowel diseases and interacts with dimeric trefoil factor 3 (TFF3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein deleted in malignant brain tumors (DMBT1 and the trefoil factor (TFF proteins have all been proposed to have roles in epithelial cell growth and cell differentiation and shown to be up regulated in inflammatory bowel diseases. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was raised against human DMBT1(gp340. Analysis of lung washings and colon tissue extracts by Western blotting in the unreduced state, two antibodies (Hyb213-1 and Hyb213-6 reacted with a double band of 290 kDa in lung lavage. Hyb213-6, in addition, reacted against a double band of 270 kDa in colon extract while Hyb213-1 showed no reaction. Hyb213-6 showed strong cytoplasmic staining in epithelial cells of both the small and large intestine whereas no staining was seen with Hyb213-1. The number of DMBT1(gp340 positive epithelial cells, stained with Hyb213-6, was significantly up regulated in inflammatory colon tissue sections from patients with ulcerative colitis (p<0.0001 and Crohn's disease (p = 0.006 compared to normal colon tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis of trefoil factor TFF1, 2 and 3 showed that TFF1 and 3 localized to goblet cells in both normal colon tissue and in tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. No staining for TFF2 was seen in goblet cells in normal colon tissue whereas the majority of tissue sections in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease showed sparse and scattered TFF2 positive goblet cells. DMBT1 and TFF proteins did therefore not co-localize in the same cells but localized in adjacent cells in the colon. The interaction between DMBT1(gp340 and trefoil TFFs proteins was investigated using an ELISA assay. DMBT1(gp340 bound to solid-phase bound recombinant dimeric TFF3 in a calcium dependent manner (p<0.0001 but did not bind to recombinant forms of monomeric TFF3, TFF2 or glycosylated TFF2. This implies a role for DMBT1 and TFF3 together in inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Variational principles for locally variational forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brajercik, J.; Krupka, D.

    2005-01-01

    We present the theory of higher order local variational principles in fibered manifolds, in which the fundamental global concept is a locally variational dynamical form. Any two Lepage forms, defining a local variational principle for this form, differ on intersection of their domains, by a variationally trivial form. In this sense, but in a different geometric setting, the local variational principles satisfy analogous properties as the variational functionals of the Chern-Simons type. The resulting theory of extremals and symmetries extends the first order theories of the Lagrange-Souriau form, presented by Grigore and Popp, and closed equivalents of the first order Euler-Lagrange forms of Hakova and Krupkova. Conceptually, our approach differs from Prieto, who uses the Poincare-Cartan forms, which do not have higher order global analogues

  11. Rabies Virus Infection Induces the Formation of Stress Granules Closely Connected to the Viral Factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Nikolic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stress granules (SGs are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of innate antiviral immune responses, and several viruses have the ability to either promote or prevent SG assembly. Here, we show that rabies virus (RABV induces SG formation in infected cells, as revealed by the detection of SG-marker proteins Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1, T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1 and poly(A-binding protein (PABP in the RNA granules formed during viral infection. As shown by live cell imaging, RABV-induced SGs are highly dynamic structures that increase in number, grow in size by fusion events, and undergo assembly/disassembly cycles. Some SGs localize in close proximity to cytoplasmic viral factories, known as Negri bodies (NBs. Three dimensional reconstructions reveal that both structures remain distinct even when they are in close contact. In addition, viral mRNAs synthesized in NBs accumulate in the SGs during viral infection, revealing material exchange between both compartments. Although RABV-induced SG formation is not affected in MEFs lacking TIA-1, TIA-1 depletion promotes viral translation which results in an increase of viral replication indicating that TIA-1 has an antiviral effect. Inhibition of PKR expression significantly prevents RABV-SG formation and favors viral replication by increasing viral translation. This is correlated with a drastic inhibition of IFN-B gene expression indicating that SGs likely mediate an antiviral response which is however not sufficient to fully counteract RABV infection.

  12. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  13. Asymptotic form of the classical one-component plasma fluid equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Monte Carlo data of Hansen for the internal energy of the classical one-component plasma in the fluid state is found to satisfy accurately a simple functional form, U/NkT = aGAMMA + bGAMMA/sup 1;4/ + c, for GAMMA > 1. The fluid static energy is very close to the bcc lattice energy of the solid, and the fluid thermal energy varies as T/sup 3;4/. Simple and accurate expressions for other thermodynamic functions for the plasma fluid are given

  14. Three-loop massive form factors: complete light-fermion corrections for the vector current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the massive quark-anti-quark-photon form factors F 1 and F 2 involving a closed loop of massless fermions. This subset is gauge invariant and contains both planar and non-planar contributions. We perform the reduction using FIRE and compute the master integrals with the help of differential equations. Our analytic results can be expressed in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. We provide analytic results for all master integrals which are not present in the large- N c calculation considered in refs. [1, 2].

  15. Elucidation of Operon Structures across Closely Related Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components. PMID:24959722

  16. Gompertz-Makeham Life Expectancies: Expressions and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon; Lenart, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz–Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived...... expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz–Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures....

  17. Dualities in ABJM matrix model from closed string viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyoshige, Kazuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University,3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2016-11-17

    We propose a new formalism to study the ABJM matrix model. Contrary to expressing the fractional brane background with the Wilson loops in the open string formalism, we formulate the Wilson loop expectation value from the viewpoint of the closed string background. With this new formalism, we can prove some duality relations in the matrix model. /includegraphics[scale=0.7]{abstract.eps}.

  18. Forms of Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Forms of Arthritis Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents Today, ... of Linda Saisselin Osteoarthritis (OA) — the form of arthritis typically occurring during middle or old age, this ...

  19. Forms Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish EPA’s Forms Management Program; to describe the requisite roles, responsibilities, and procedures necessary for the successful management of EPA forms; and to more clearly fulfill EPA’s obligations in this regard.

  20. Mining frequent binary expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.; Paredaens, J.; Kambayashi, Y.; Mohania, M.K.; Tjoa, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In data mining, searching for frequent patterns is a common basic operation. It forms the basis of many interesting decision support processes. In this paper we present a new type of patterns, binary expressions. Based on the properties of a specified binary test, such as reflexivity, transitivity

  1. FORMS OF YOUTH TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Moisã Claudia Olimpia; Moisã Claudia Olimpia

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the suite of motivation that youth has when practicing tourism, it can be said that the youth travel takes highly diverse forms. These forms are educational tourism, volunteer programs and “work and travel”, cultural exchanges or sports tourism and adventure travel. In this article, we identified and analyzed in detail the main forms of youth travel both internationally and in Romania. We also illustrated for each form of tourism the specific tourism products targeting you...

  2. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  3. Rapsodie: A closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levallet, E.H.; Costa, L.; Mougniot, J.C.; Robin, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Fortissimo Version of the core of the RAPSODIE fast reactor produces 40 MWTh. Since its start up in May 1970 in the CEN-CADARACHE its availability has stayed around 85%. Some of the mixed oxyde fuel pins UO 2 - 30% PuO 2 have already reached 150.000 MWd/t. The reprocessing is done in the pilot plant located in the La Hague Center and the plutonium obtained has already been re-used in the reactor. The Rapsodie-Fortissimo cycle is therefore now a closed cycle. This cycle is quite representative of fast reactor cycle characteristics and thus provides a remarkable research and development tool for the study of fabrication, in-reactor performances, transport, storage and reprocessing. These studies concern in particular the evolution of fission products and heavy isotopes content in fuel which controls both reprocessing schemes and intensity of emitted radiations. A program for the analysis of irradiated fuel has been developed either using samples collected all along the cycle, or following the actual reprocessing subassemblies. A set of basic data and calculation models has been established with two objectives: to give a better interpretation of the experimental program on one hand, and to extrapolate these results to the fuel cycle of fast reactors in general on the other hand. The first results have been quite encouraging up to now [fr

  4. Open and Closed Biographical Politicization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Michel-Schertges

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with political socialization with particular consideration of open and closed processes of biographical politicization, i.e. biographical alienation. Based on narrative-biographical and theme-oriented interviews with two survivors of the Holocaust, processes of consciousness are analyzed. Henri LEFEBVRE refers in the chapter "the lived and the living" in his third volume of the "Critique of Everyday Live" (1975 to the complexity of processes of consciousness. According to LEFEBVRE there is a dialectic between the "lived" and the "living", thus the "lived" cannot be characterized only as past actions but as past experiences, constituting dialectically the present—the "living." For LEFEBVRE there is an inescapable conflict between past experiences and present life, i.e. the past could be seen as a constituting part of the conditions of individual (and societal present consciousness. Following this line of thought, one could state that to analyze former biographical (extraordinary experiences, i.e. "the lived," is crucial to better understanding of the constitutional conditions of processes of political socialization. Thus former extraordinary biographical experiences might have an essential impact on political socialization and, therefore, on political attitudes. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102225

  5. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Serrano, Julian Alberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Zijlstra, Ed

    2018-04-01

    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.

  6. Unified form language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alnæs, Martin S.; Logg, Anders; Ølgaard, Kristian Breum

    2014-01-01

    We present the Unied Form Language (UFL), which is a domain-specic language for representing weak formulations of partial dierential equations with a view to numerical approximation. Features of UFL include support for variational forms and functionals, automatic dierentiation of forms and expres...... libraries to generate concrete low-level implementations. Some application examples are presented and libraries that support UFL are highlighted....

  7. Method for forming ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  8. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  9. Analyse des formes et modes traditionnels de communication en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyse des formes et modes traditionnels de communication en milieu rural ... se situe aussi bien au niveau de la forme verbale que non verbale du langage. ... In fact, expressions of message take place in verbal and no verbal language.

  10. Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornikov, M.S.; Studenikin, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino are studied in a minimally extended standard model in an arbitrary R ξ gauge and taking into account the dependence on the masses of all interacting particles. The contribution from all Feynman diagrams to the electric, magnetic, and anapole form factors, in which the dependence of the masses of all particles as well as on gauge parameters is accounted for exactly, are obtained for the first time in explicit form. The asymptotic behavior of the magnetic form factor for large negative squares of the momentum of an external photon is analyzed and the expression for the anapole moment of a massive neutrino is derived. The results are generalized to the case of mixing between various flavors of the neutrino. Explicit expressions are obtained for the electric, magnetic, and electric dipole and anapole transitional form factors as well as for the transitional electric dipole moment

  11. TIDAL EVOLUTION OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Rasio, Frederic A.; Peale, Stanton J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent discoveries of several transiting planets with clearly non-zero eccentricities and some large obliquities started changing the simple picture of close-in planets having circular and well-aligned orbits. The two major scenarios that form such close-in planets are planet migration in a disk and planet-planet interactions combined with tidal dissipation. The former scenario can naturally produce a circular and low-obliquity orbit, while the latter implicitly assumes an initially highly eccentric and possibly high-obliquity orbit, which are then circularized and aligned via tidal dissipation. Most of these close-in planets experience orbital decay all the way to the Roche limit as previous studies showed. We investigate the tidal evolution of transiting planets on eccentric orbits, and find that there are two characteristic evolution paths for them, depending on the relative efficiency of tidal dissipation inside the star and the planet. Our study shows that each of these paths may correspond to migration and scattering scenarios. We further point out that the current observations may be consistent with the scattering scenario, where the circularization of an initially eccentric orbit occurs before the orbital decay primarily due to tidal dissipation in the planet, while the alignment of the stellar spin and orbit normal occurs on a similar timescale to the orbital decay largely due to dissipation in the star. We also find that even when the stellar spin-orbit misalignment is observed to be small at present, some systems could have had a highly misaligned orbit in the past, if their evolution is dominated by tidal dissipation in the star. Finally, we also re-examine the recent claim by Levrard et al. that all orbital and spin parameters, including eccentricity and stellar obliquity, evolve on a similar timescale to orbital decay. This counterintuitive result turns out to have been caused by a typo in their numerical code. Solving the correct set of tidal

  12. Terra firma-forme dermatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Erkek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terra firma-forme dermatosis is characterized by ′dirty′ brown-grey cutaneous patches and plaques that can simply be eradicated by forceful swabbing with alcohol pads. The pathogenesis has been attributed to abnormal and delayed keratinization. Although affected patients present with typical lesions, the disorder is not well-known by dermatologists. In this report, we describe two patients with terra firma-forme dermatosis in the setting of xerosis cutis and atopic dermatitis. From a clinical point of view, we lay emphasis on its unique expression and diagnosis/treatment. From a histological perspective, we highlight its resemblance to dermatosis neglecta and speculate on the role of ′neglect′ in a patient with seemingly adequate hygiene. The role of urea containing emollients in the development of this disorder remains to be determined.

  13. Wounding coordinately induces cell wall protein, cell cycle and pectin methyl esterase genes involved in tuber closing layer and wound periderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jonathan D; Lulai, Edward C; Thompson, Asunta L; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Bolton, Melvin D

    2012-04-15

    Little is known about the coordinate induction of genes that may be involved in agriculturally important wound-healing events. In this study, wound-healing events were determined together with wound-induced expression profiles of selected cell cycle, cell wall protein, and pectin methyl esterase genes using two diverse potato genotypes and two harvests (NDTX4271-5R and Russet Burbank tubers; 2008 and 2009 harvests). By 5 d after wounding, the closing layer and a nascent phellogen had formed. Phellogen cell divisions generated phellem layers until cessation of cell division at 28 d after wounding for both genotypes and harvests. Cell cycle genes encoding epidermal growth factor binding protein (StEBP), cyclin-dependent kinase B (StCDKB) and cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit (StCKS1At) were induced by 1 d after wounding; these expressions coordinated with related phellogen formation and the induction and cessation of phellem cell formation. Genes encoding the structural cell wall proteins extensin (StExt1) and extensin-like (StExtlk) were dramatically up-regulated by 1-5 d after wounding, suggesting involvement with closing layer and later phellem cell layer formation. Wounding up-regulated pectin methyl esterase genes (StPME and StPrePME); StPME expression increased during closing layer and phellem cell formation, whereas maximum expression of StPrePME occurred at 5-14 d after wounding, implicating involvement in later modifications for closing layer and phellem cell formation. The coordinate induction and expression profile of StTLRP, a gene encoding a cell wall strengthening "tyrosine-and lysine-rich protein," suggested a role in the formation of the closing layer followed by phellem cell generation and maturation. Collectively, the genes monitored were wound-inducible and their expression profiles markedly coordinated with closing layer formation and the index for phellogen layer meristematic activity during wound periderm development; results were more

  14. 76 FR 76449 - Post Office Closing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... the closing of the Spring Dale, West Virginia post office has been filed. It identifies preliminary... Postal Service's determination to close the Spring Dale post office in Spring Dale, West Virginia. The...

  15. 27 CFR 70.485 - Closing agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Administrative Remedies § 70.485 Closing agreements... disadvantage through consummation of such an agreement. (b) Scope of closing agreement—(1) In general. A...

  16. Reheating for closed string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mazumdar, Anupam [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Physics Dept.; Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Niels Bohr Institute

    2010-05-15

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  17. Reheating for closed string inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Mazumdar, Anupam; Copenhagen Univ.

    2010-05-01

    We point out some of the outstanding challenges for embedding inflationary cosmology within string theory studying the process of reheating for models where the inflaton is a closed string mode parameterising the size of an internal cycle of the compactification manifold. A realistic model of inflation must explain the tiny perturbations in the cosmic microwave background radiation and also how to excite the ordinary matter degrees of freedom after inflation, required for the success of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We study these issues focusing on two promising inflationary models embedded in LARGE volume type IIB flux compactifications. We show that phenomenological requirements and consistency of the effective field theory treatment imply the presence at low energies of a hidden sector together with a visible sector, where the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model fields are residing. A detailed calculation of the inflaton coupling to the fields of the hidden sector, visible sector, and moduli sector, reveals that the inflaton fails to excite primarily the visible sector fields, instead hidden sector fields are excited copiously after the end of inflation. This sets severe constraints on hidden sector model building where the most promising scenario emerges as a pure N=1 SYM theory, forbidding the kinematical decay of the inflaton to the hidden sector. In this case it is possible to reheat the Universe with the visible degrees of freedom even though in some cases we discover a new tension between TeV scale SUSY and reheating on top of the well-known tension between TeV scale SUSY and inflation. (orig.)

  18. Rib forming tool for tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  19. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  20. 27 CFR 44.146 - Closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PAYMENT OF TAX, OR WITH DRAWBACK OF TAX Operations by Export Warehouse Proprietors Inventories § 44.146 Closing. A closing inventory shall be made by the export warehouse proprietor when he transfers ownership or concludes business. Where the proprietor transfers ownership the closing inventory shall be made...