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Sample records for clone library analyses

  1. Succession of microbial communities during a biostimulation process as evaluated by DGGE and clone library analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, A.; Nakahara, T.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the indigenous bacterial community structure for assessing the impact of biostimulation on spilled oil. Methods and Results: Changes in the bacterial community structure were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library methods based on 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences. The results of DGGE, coupled with the use of the Shannon index and principal component analysis (PCA) and clone library analyses, were consistent. In the treated (fertilized) area, one operational taxonomic unit (OTU) became dominant during the fertilization period, and it was most closely related to Pseudomonas putida. Conclusions: The bacterial community structure in the treated area was markedly different from that in the control (non-fertilized) area during the fertilization period, but in the two areas it became similar at 14 weeks after the end of fertilization. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results suggest that the bacterial community structure was disrupted by the biostimulation treatment, but that it recovered immediately after the end of fertilization. (Author)

  2. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  3. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  4. Efficient preparation of shuffled DNA libraries through recombination (Gateway) cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Soili I; Taskinen, Barbara; Ojala, Elina; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Rahikainen, Rolle; Riihimäki, Tiina A; Laitinen, Olli H; Kulomaa, Markku S; Hytönen, Vesa P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient and robust subcloning is essential for the construction of high-diversity DNA libraries in the field of directed evolution. We have developed a more efficient method for the subcloning of DNA-shuffled libraries by employing recombination cloning (Gateway). The Gateway cloning procedure was performed directly after the gene reassembly reaction, without additional purification and amplification steps, thus simplifying the conventional DNA shuffling protocols. Recombination-based cloning, directly from the heterologous reassembly reaction, conserved the high quality of the library and reduced the time required for the library construction. The described method is generally compatible for the construction of DNA-shuffled gene libraries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Systematic cloning of human minisatellites from ordered array charomid libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Povey, S; Jeremiah, S; Jeffreys, A J

    1990-11-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method for the isolation of minisatellite loci from human DNA. The method combines cloning a size-selected fraction of human MboI DNA fragments in a charomid vector with hybridization screening of the library in ordered array. Size-selection of large MboI fragments enriches for the longer, more variable minisatellites and reduces the size of the library required. The library was screened with a series of multi-locus probes known to detect a large number of hypervariable loci in human DNA. The gridded library allowed both the rapid processing of positive clones and the comparative evaluation of the different multi-locus probes used, in terms of both the relative success in detecting hypervariable loci and the degree of overlap between the sets of loci detected. We report 23 new human minisatellite loci isolated by this method, which map to 14 autosomes and the sex chromosomes.

  6. Comparative evaluation of prokaryotic 16S rDNA clone libraries and SSCP in groundwater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larentis, Michael; Alfreider, Albin

    2011-06-01

    A comparison of ribosomal RNA sequence analysis methods based on clone libraries and single-strand conformational polymorphism technique (SSCP) was performed with groundwater samples obtained between 523-555 meters below surface. The coverage of analyzed clones by phylotype-richness estimates was between 88-100%, confirming that the clone libraries were adequately examined. Analysis of individual bands retrieved from SSCP gels identified 1-6 different taxonomic units per band, suggesting that a single SSCP band does often represent more than one single prokaryotic species. The prokaryotic diversity obtained by both methods showed an overall difference of 42-80%. In comparison to SSCP, clone libraries underestimated the phylogenetic diversity and only 36-66% of the phylotypes observed with SSCP were also detected with the clone libraries. An exception was a sample where the SSCP analysis of Archaea identified only half of the phylotypes retrieved by the clone library. Overall, this study suggests that the clone library and the SSCP approach do not provide an identical picture of the prokaryotic diversity in groundwater samples. The results clearly show that the SSCP method, although this approach is prone to generate methodological artifacts, was able to detect significantly more phylotypes than microbial community analysis based on clone libraries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of a diverse assemblage of diazotrophic bacteria from Spartina alterniflora using DGGE and clone library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Charles R; Decker, Peter V; Bagwell, Christopher E; Thompson, Shelly; Matsui, George Y

    2008-05-01

    Methods to assess the diversity of the diazotroph assemblage in the rhizosphere of the salt marsh cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora were examined. The effectiveness of nifH PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was compared to that of nifH clone library analysis. Seventeen DGGE gel bands were sequenced and yielded 58 nonidentical nifH sequences from a total of 67 sequences determined. A clone library constructed using the GC-clamp nifH primers that were employed in the PCR-DGGE (designated the GC-Library) yielded 83 nonidentical sequences from a total of 257 nifH sequences. A second library constructed using an alternate set of nifH primers (N-Library) yielded 83 nonidentical sequences from a total of 138 nifH sequences. Rarefaction curves for the libraries did not reach saturation, although the GC-Library curve was substantially dampened and appeared to be closer to saturation than the N-Library curve. Phylogenetic analyses showed that DGGE gel band sequencing recovered nifH sequences that were frequently sampled in the GC-Library, as well as sequences that were infrequently sampled, and provided a species composition assessment that was robust, efficient, and relatively inexpensive to obtain. Further, the DGGE method permits a large number of samples to be examined for differences in banding patterns, after which bands of interest can be sampled for sequence determination.

  8. Cloning of low dose radiation induced gene RIG1 by RACE based on non-cloned cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ying; Sui Jianli; Tie Yi; Zhang Yuanping; Zhou Pingkun; Sun Zhixian

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To obtain full-length cDNA of radiation induced new gene RIG1 based on its EST fragment. Methods: Based on non-cloned cDNA library, enhanced nested RACE PCR and biotin-avidin labelled probe for magnetic bead purification was used to obtain full-length cDNA of RIG1. Results: About 1 kb of 3' end of RIG1 gene was successfully cloned by this set of methods and cloning of RIG1 5' end is proceeding well. Conclusion: The result is consistent with the design of experiment. This set of protocol is useful for cloning of full-length gene based on EST fragment

  9. The first report: An analysis of bacterial flora of the first voided urine specimens of patients with male urethritis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chunlin; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the bacterial flora of urine from patients with male urethritis using the clone library method. Urine specimens from patients with urethritis were used. The bacterial flora was analysed according to the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method. In addition, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum were detected by the conventional PCR methods (TMA or real-time PCR) and data from the clone library and conventional PCR methods were compared. Among 58 urine specimens, 38 were successfully analysed using the clone library method. From the specimens, 2427 clones were evaluated and 95 bacterial phylotypes were detected. N. gonorrhoeae was detected from 6 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 5 specimens. M. genitalium was detected from 5 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 3 specimens. C. trachomatis was detected from 15 specimens using the TMA method, but was detected from only 1 specimen using the clone library method. U. parvum was detected from only 2 specimens using the clone library method. In addition, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were also detected in 8 and 1 specimens, respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is a potential pathogen for bacterial vaginitis in women, was detected in 10 specimens. The clone library method can detect the occupancy rate of each bacteria species among the bacterial flora and may be a new method for bacterial analyses in male urethritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of a pooled strategy for high-throughput sequencing of cosmid clones from metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kathy N; Hall, Michael W; Engel, Katja; Vey, Gregory; Cheng, Jiujun; Neufeld, Josh D; Charles, Trevor C

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have been instrumental in the growing field of metagenomics, with technological improvements enabling greater throughput at decreased costs. Nonetheless, the economy of high-throughput sequencing cannot be fully leveraged in the subdiscipline of functional metagenomics. In this area of research, environmental DNA is typically cloned to generate large-insert libraries from which individual clones are isolated, based on specific activities of interest. Sequence data are required for complete characterization of such clones, but the sequencing of a large set of clones requires individual barcode-based sample preparation; this can become costly, as the cost of clone barcoding scales linearly with the number of clones processed, and thus sequencing a large number of metagenomic clones often remains cost-prohibitive. We investigated a hybrid Sanger/Illumina pooled sequencing strategy that omits barcoding altogether, and we evaluated this strategy by comparing the pooled sequencing results to reference sequence data obtained from traditional barcode-based sequencing of the same set of clones. Using identity and coverage metrics in our evaluation, we show that pooled sequencing can generate high-quality sequence data, without producing problematic chimeras. Though caveats of a pooled strategy exist and further optimization of the method is required to improve recovery of complete clone sequences and to avoid circumstances that generate unrecoverable clone sequences, our results demonstrate that pooled sequencing represents an effective and low-cost alternative for sequencing large sets of metagenomic clones.

  11. Strong spurious transcription likely contributes to DNA insert bias in typical metagenomic clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kathy N; Charles, Trevor C

    2015-01-01

    Clone libraries provide researchers with a powerful resource to study nucleic acid from diverse sources. Metagenomic clone libraries in particular have aided in studies of microbial biodiversity and function, and allowed the mining of novel enzymes. Libraries are often constructed by cloning large inserts into cosmid or fosmid vectors. Recently, there have been reports of GC bias in fosmid metagenomic libraries, and it was speculated to be a result of fragmentation and loss of AT-rich sequences during cloning. However, evidence in the literature suggests that transcriptional activity or gene product toxicity may play a role. To explore possible mechanisms responsible for sequence bias in clone libraries, we constructed a cosmid library from a human microbiome sample and sequenced DNA from different steps during library construction: crude extract DNA, size-selected DNA, and cosmid library DNA. We confirmed a GC bias in the final cosmid library, and we provide evidence that the bias is not due to fragmentation and loss of AT-rich sequences but is likely occurring after DNA is introduced into Escherichia coli. To investigate the influence of strong constitutive transcription, we searched the sequence data for promoters and found that rpoD/σ(70) promoter sequences were underrepresented in the cosmid library. Furthermore, when we examined the genomes of taxa that were differentially abundant in the cosmid library relative to the original sample, we found the bias to be more correlated with the number of rpoD/σ(70) consensus sequences in the genome than with simple GC content. The GC bias of metagenomic libraries does not appear to be due to DNA fragmentation. Rather, analysis of promoter sequences provides support for the hypothesis that strong constitutive transcription from sequences recognized as rpoD/σ(70) consensus-like in E. coli may lead to instability, causing loss of the plasmid or loss of the insert DNA that gives rise to the transcription. Despite

  12. Creating libraries for commercial yeast strains through miniaturization of cloning and transformations using the BioRAPTR FRD Microfluidic workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to miniaturize molecular reactions can lead to significant cost savings when creating libraries of thousands of clones. For this application Beckman Coulter partnered with the USDA to provide a low-volume automated solution for library cloning for use in the development of yeast strains...

  13. Corruption of phage display libraries by target-unrelated clones: diagnosis and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William D; Golomb, Miriam; Smith, George P

    2010-12-15

    Phage display is used to discover peptides or proteins with a desired target property-most often, affinity for a target selector molecule. Libraries of phage clones displaying diverse surface peptides are subject to a selection process designed to enrich for the target behavior and subsequently propagated to restore phage numbers. A recurrent problem is enrichment of clones, called target-unrelated phages or peptides (TUPs), that lack the target behavior. Many TUPs are propagation related; they have mutations conferring a growth advantage and are enriched during the propagations accompanying selection. Unlike other filamentous phage libraries, fd-tet-based libraries are relatively resistant to propagation-related TUP corruption. Their minus-strand origin is disrupted by a large cassette that simultaneously confers resistance to tetracycline and imposes a rate-limiting growth defect that cannot be bypassed with simple mutations. Nonetheless, a new type of propagation-related TUP emerged in the output of in vivo selections from an fd-tet library. The founding clone had a complex rearrangement that restored the minus-strand origin while retaining tetracycline resistance. The rearrangement involved two recombination events, one with a contaminant having a wild-type minus-strand origin. The founder's infectivity advantage spread by simple recombination to clones displaying different peptides. We propose measures for minimizing TUP corruption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Corruption of phage-display libraries by target-unrelated clones: Diagnosis and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William D.; Golomb, Miriam; Smith, George P.

    2010-01-01

    Phage display is used to discover peptides or proteins with a desired target property—most often, affinity for a target selector molecule. Libraries of phage clones displaying diverse surface peptides are subject to a selection process designed to enrich for the target behavior, and subsequently propagated to restore phage numbers. A recurrent problem is enrichment of clones, called target-unrelated phage (TUPs), that lack the target behavior. Many TUPs are propagation-related; they have mutations conferring a growth advantage, and are enriched during the propagations accompanying selection. Unlike other filamentous phage libraries, fd-tet-based libraries are relatively resistant to propagation-related TUP corruption. Their minus strand origin is disrupted by a large cassette that simultaneously confers resistance to tetracycline and imposes a rate-limiting growth defect that cannot be bypassed with simple mutations. Nonetheless, a new type of propagation-related TUP emerged in the output of in vivo selections from an fd-tet library. The founding clone had a complex rearrangement that restored the minus strand origin while retaining tetracycline resistance. The rearrangement involved two recombination events, one with a contaminant having a wild-type minus strand origin. The founder’s infectivity advantage spread by simple recombination to clones displaying different peptides. We propose measures for minimizing TUP corruption. PMID:20692225

  15. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  16. Differential distribution and abundance of diazotrophic bacterial communities across different soil niches using a gene-targeted clone library approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Basit; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-11-01

    Diazotrophs are key players of the globally important biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, having a significant role in maintaining ecosystem sustainability. Saline soils are pristine and unexplored habitats representing intriguing ecosystems expected to harbour potential diazotrophs capable of adapting in extreme conditions, and these implicated organisms are largely obscure. Differential occurrence of diazotrophs was studied by the nifH gene-targeted clone library approach. Four nifH gene clone libraries were constructed from different soil niches, that is saline soils (low and high salinity; EC 3.8 and 7.1 ds m(-1) ), and agricultural and rhizosphere soil. Additionally, the abundance of diazotrophic community members was assessed using quantitative PCR. Results showed environment-dependent metabolic versatility and the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. The analyses unveiled the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Halorhodospira, Ectothiorhodospira, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, Amorphomonas) as nitrogen fixers in coastal-saline soil ecosystems, and Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium, Azohydromonas, Azospirillum, Ideonella) in agricultural/rhizosphere ecosystems. The results revealed a repertoire of novel nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds particularly in saline soil ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the Composition of Drinking Water Bacterial Clone Libraries Introduced by Using Two Different 16S rRNA Gene PCR Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries is a popular tool used to describe the composition of natural microbial communities. Commonly, clone libraries are developed by direct cloning of 16S rRNA gene PCR products. Different primers are often employed in the initial amp...

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF ACTIVE BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN A MODEL DRINKING WATER BIOFILM SYSTEM USING 16S RRNA-BASED CLONE LIBRARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent phylogenetic studies have used DNA as the target molecule for the development of environmental 16S rDNA clone libraries. As DNA may persist in the environment, DNA-based libraries cannot be used to identify metabolically active bacteria in water systems. In this study, a...

  19. Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M N; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Maeda, H; Wada, N; Akamine, A; Yamashita, Y

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the microbial composition of persistent periapical lesions of root filled teeth using a molecular genetics approach. Apical lesion samples were collected from 12 patients (23-80 years old) who visited the Kyushu University Hospital for apicectomy with persistent periapical lesions associated with root filled teeth. DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analysed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and specific fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with specific primers. Bacteria were detected in all samples, and the dominant findings were P. gingivalis (19.9%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.2%) and Propionibacterium acnes (9%). Bacterial diversity was greater in symptomatic lesions than in asymptomatic ones. In addition, the following bacteria or bacterial combinations were characteristic to symptomatic lesions: Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113, Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Selemonas infelix, P. gingivalis with type IV fimA, and a combination of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113 and predominance of Streptococcus spp. On the other hand, neither Enterococcus faecalis nor C. albicans were detected in any of the samples. Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. The diverse variation of community indicates that bacterial combinations as a community may cause persistent inflammation in periapical tissues rather than specific bacterial species. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Isolation of Specific Clones from Nonarrayed BAC Libraries through Homologous Recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Nefedov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new approach to screen bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries by recombination selection. To test this method, we constructed an orangutan BAC library using an E. coli strain (DY380 with temperature inducible homologous recombination (HR capability. We amplified one library segment, induced HR at 42∘C to make it recombination proficient, and prepared electrocompetent cells for transformation with a kanamycin cassette to target sequences in the orangutan genome through terminal recombineering homologies. Kanamycin-resistant colonies were tested for the presence of BACs containing the targeted genes by the use of a PCR-assay to confirm the presence of the kanamycin insertion. The results indicate that this is an effective approach for screening clones. The advantage of recombination screening is that it avoids the high costs associated with the preparation, screening, and archival storage of arrayed BAC libraries. In addition, the screening can be conceivably combined with genetic engineering to create knockout and reporter constructs for functional studies.

  1. Phylogenetic characterization of a biogas plant microbial community integrating clone library 16S-rDNA sequences and metagenome sequence data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Magdalena; Bekel, Thomas; Diaz, Naryttza N; Goesmann, Alexander; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Krause, Lutz; Miller, Dimitri; Runte, Kai J; Viehöver, Prisca; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    The phylogenetic structure of the microbial community residing in a fermentation sample from a production-scale biogas plant fed with maize silage, green rye and liquid manure was analysed by an integrated approach using clone library sequences and metagenome sequence data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing. Sequencing of 109 clones from a bacterial and an archaeal 16S-rDNA amplicon library revealed that the obtained nucleotide sequences are similar but not identical to 16S-rDNA database sequences derived from different anaerobic environments including digestors and bioreactors. Most of the bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences could be assigned to the phylum Firmicutes with the most abundant class Clostridia and to the class Bacteroidetes, whereas most archaeal 16S-rDNA sequences cluster close to the methanogen Methanoculleus bourgensis. Further sequences of the archaeal library most probably represent so far non-characterised species within the genus Methanoculleus. A similar result derived from phylogenetic analysis of mcrA clone sequences. The mcrA gene product encodes the alpha-subunit of methyl-coenzyme-M reductase involved in the final step of methanogenesis. BLASTn analysis applying stringent settings resulted in assignment of 16S-rDNA metagenome sequence reads to 62 16S-rDNA amplicon sequences thus enabling frequency of abundance estimations for 16S-rDNA clone library sequences. Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier processing of metagenome 16S-rDNA reads revealed abundance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Euryarchaeota and the orders Clostridiales, Bacteroidales and Methanomicrobiales. Moreover, a large fraction of 16S-rDNA metagenome reads could not be assigned to lower taxonomic ranks, demonstrating that numerous microorganisms in the analysed fermentation sample of the biogas plant are still unclassified or unknown.

  2. Cdna cloning and expression analyses of the isoflavone reductase-like gene of dendrobium officinale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Xu, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)

  3. Flow Cytometry-Assisted Cloning of Specific Sequence Motifs from Complex 16S rRNA Gene Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Schramm, Andreas; Bernhard, Anne E.

    2004-01-01

    for Systems Biology,3 Seattle, Washington, and Department of Ecological Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany2 A flow cytometry method was developed for rapid screening and recovery of cloned DNA containing common sequence motifs. This approach, termed fluorescence-activated cell sorting......  FLOW CYTOMETRY-ASSISTED CLONING OF SPECIFIC SEQUENCE MOTIFS FROM COMPLEX 16S RRNA GENE LIBRARIES Jeppe L. Nielsen,1 Andreas Schramm,1,2 Anne E. Bernhard,1 Gerrit J. van den Engh,3 and David A. Stahl1* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington,1 and Institute......-assisted cloning, was used to recover sequences affiliated with a unique lineage within the Bacteroidetes not abundant in a clone library of environmental 16S rRNA genes.  ...

  4. Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Bays, Samuel E.; Hoffman, Edward A.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.(Piet2008) The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: (1) Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. (2) For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. (3) Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. (4) Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. (5) Eliminate the need for either ''fission product other'' or ''actinide other'' while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use ''fission product other'' or ''actinide other'' as their chemical behavior is undefined. (6) Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. (7) Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: (1) Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. (2) Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo

  5. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  6. Determining the Possible Etiology of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Using a Clone Library Analysis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatera, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Shingo; Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Naito, Keisuke; Akata, Kentaro; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Noriho; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining precise etiological information regarding causative bacteria is important for the proper use of antimicrobials in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the bacterial diversity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in Japanese patients with HAP by the clone library method using the 16S rRNA gene. This study included Japanese patients with HAP who were treated at our hospital and referring hospitals. BALF specimens were obtained from pneumonia lesions identified on chest radiographs and/or computed tomography. Sputum specimens were also evaluated in patients with sputum production. Sixty-eight patients were ultimately enrolled. BALF cultivation revealed bacterial positivity in 53 of 68 (77.9%) patients, and Staphylococcus aureus (30.9%) was the most frequently isolated, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.2%), and Escherichia coli (10.3%). In contrast, the clone library analysis identified the presence of some bacterial phenotype in 65 of 68 (95.6%) patients, and streptococci (16.2%), Corynebacterium species (11.8%), anaerobes (10.3%) were frequently detected as the predominant phylotypes. Both methods tended to detect S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli in patients with late-onset pneumonia. In addition, the cases that phylotypes of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa were found to account for > 5% of the bacterial flora of each case were 42.9% and 72.7%, respectively. These results indicate that attention should be paid to the roles of gram-positive bacilli such as streptococci, Corynebacterium species and anaerobes, in addition to Gram-negative bacilli, in the pathogenesis of HAP.

  7. T-cell libraries allow simple parallel generation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theaker, Sarah M; Rius, Cristina; Greenshields-Watson, Alexander; Lloyd, Angharad; Trimby, Andrew; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J; Cole, David K; Peakman, Mark; Sewell, Andrew K; Dolton, Garry

    2016-03-01

    Isolation of peptide-specific T-cell clones is highly desirable for determining the role of T-cells in human disease, as well as for the development of therapies and diagnostics. However, generation of monoclonal T-cells with the required specificity is challenging and time-consuming. Here we describe a library-based strategy for the simple parallel detection and isolation of multiple peptide-specific human T-cell clones from CD8(+) or CD4(+) polyclonal T-cell populations. T-cells were first amplified by CD3/CD28 microbeads in a 96U-well library format, prior to screening for desired peptide recognition. T-cells from peptide-reactive wells were then subjected to cytokine-mediated enrichment followed by single-cell cloning, with the entire process from sample to validated clone taking as little as 6 weeks. Overall, T-cell libraries represent an efficient and relatively rapid tool for the generation of peptide-specific T-cell clones, with applications shown here in infectious disease (Epstein-Barr virus, influenza A, and Ebola virus), autoimmunity (type 1 diabetes) and cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. C4P cross-section libraries for safety analyses with SIMMER and related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rineiski, A.; Sinitsa, V.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.

    2011-01-01

    A code and data system, C 4 P, is under development at KIT. It includes fine-group master libraries and tools for generating problem-oriented cross-section libraries, primarily for safety studies with the SIMMER code and related analyses. In the paper, the 560-group master library and problem oriented 40-group and 72-group cross-section libraries, for thermal and fast systems, respectively, are described and their performances are investigated. (author)

  9. A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Method for Isolating Clones from a Complimentary DNA Library in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Thor Einar; Stephenson, Sally; Xiao, Yin; Whitehead, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The sheep (Ovis aries) is favored by many musculoskeletal tissue engineering groups as a large animal model because of its docile temperament and ease of husbandry. The size and weight of sheep are comparable to humans, which allows for the use of implants and fixation devices used in human clinical practice. The construction of a complimentary DNA (cDNA) library can capture the expression of genes in both a tissue- and time-specific manner. cDNA libraries have been a consistent source of gene discovery ever since the technology became commonplace more than three decades ago. Here, we describe the construction of a cDNA library using cells derived from sheep bones based on the pBluescript cDNA kit. Thirty clones were picked at random and sequenced. This led to the identification of a novel gene, C12orf29, which our initial experiments indicate is involved in skeletal biology. We also describe a polymerase chain reaction-based cDNA clone isolation method that allows the isolation of genes of interest from a cDNA library pool. The techniques outlined here can be applied in-house by smaller tissue engineering groups to generate tools for biomolecular research for large preclinical animal studies and highlights the power of standard cDNA library protocols to uncover novel genes. PMID:24447069

  10. Practical Tips for Construction of Custom Peptide Libraries and Affinity Selection by Using Commercially Available Phage Display Cloning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fukunaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display technology is undoubtedly a powerful tool for affinity selection of target-specific peptide. Commercially available premade phage libraries allow us to take screening in the easiest way. On the other hand, construction of a custom phage library seems to be inaccessible, because several practical tips are absent in instructions. This paper focuses on what should be born in mind for beginners using commercially available cloning kits (Ph.D. with type 3 vector and T7Select systems for M13 and T7 phage, respectively. In the M13 system, Pro or a basic amino acid (especially, Arg should be avoided at the N-terminus of peptide fused to gp3. In both systems, peptides containing odd number(s of Cys should be designed with caution. Also, DNA sequencing of a constructed library before biopanning is highly recommended for finding unexpected bias.

  11. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  12. GALARIO: a GPU accelerated library for analysing radio interferometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazzari, Marco; Beaujean, Frederik; Testi, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    We present GALARIO, a computational library that exploits the power of modern graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate the analysis of observations from radio interferometers like Atacama Large Millimeter and sub-millimeter Array or the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. GALARIO speeds up the computation of synthetic visibilities from a generic 2D model image or a radial brightness profile (for axisymmetric sources). On a GPU, GALARIO is 150 faster than standard PYTHON and 10 times faster than serial C++ code on a CPU. Highly modular, easy to use, and to adopt in existing code, GALARIO comes as two compiled libraries, one for Nvidia GPUs and one for multicore CPUs, where both have the same functions with identical interfaces. GALARIO comes with PYTHON bindings but can also be directly used in C or C++. The versatility and the speed of GALARIO open new analysis pathways that otherwise would be prohibitively time consuming, e.g. fitting high-resolution observations of large number of objects, or entire spectral cubes of molecular gas emission. It is a general tool that can be applied to any field that uses radio interferometer observations. The source code is available online at http://github.com/mtazzari/galario under the open source GNU Lesser General Public License v3.

  13. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocarova, Eva; Fischer, Lukas

    2009-04-22

    Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. The majority ( approximately 90%) of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is highly advisable to use transgenes tagged with

  14. An optimized lentiviral vector system for conditional RNAi and efficient cloning of microRNA embedded short hairpin RNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Felix F; Heckl, Dirk; Hoffmann, Thomas; Talbot, Steven R; Kloos, Arnold; Thol, Felicitas; Heuser, Michael; Zuber, Johannes; Schambach, Axel; Schwarzer, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR-Cas9-based screening systems have emerged as powerful and complementary tools to unravel genetic dependencies through systematic gain- and loss-of-function studies. In recent years, a series of technical advances helped to enhance the performance of virally delivered RNAi. For instance, the incorporation of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) into endogenous microRNA contexts (shRNAmiRs) allows the use of Tet-regulated promoters for synchronous onset of gene knockdown and precise interrogation of gene dosage effects. However, remaining challenges include lack of efficient cloning strategies, inconsistent knockdown potencies and leaky expression. Here, we present a simple, one-step cloning approach for rapid and efficient cloning of miR-30 shRNAmiR libraries. We combined a human miR-30 backbone retaining native flanking sequences with an optimized all-in-one lentiviral vector system for conditional RNAi to generate a versatile toolbox characterized by higher doxycycline sensitivity, reduced leakiness and enhanced titer. Furthermore, refinement of existing shRNA design rules resulted in substantially improved prediction of powerful shRNAs. Our approach was validated by accurate quantification of the knockdown potency of over 250 single shRNAmiRs. To facilitate access and use by the scientific community, an online tool was developed for the automated design of refined shRNA-coding oligonucleotides ready for cloning into our system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-Throughput Cloning and Expression Library Creation for Functional Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Fernanda; Steel, Jason; Bian, Xiaofang; Labaer, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The study of protein function usually requires the use of a cloned version of the gene for protein expression and functional assays. This strategy is particular important when the information available regarding function is limited. The functional characterization of the thousands of newly identified proteins revealed by genomics requires faster methods than traditional single gene experiments, creating the need for fast, flexible and reliable cloning systems. These collections of open reading frame (ORF) clones can be coupled with high-throughput proteomics platforms, such as protein microarrays and cell-based assays, to answer biological questions. In this tutorial we provide the background for DNA cloning, discuss the major high-throughput cloning systems (Gateway® Technology, Flexi® Vector Systems, and Creator™ DNA Cloning System) and compare them side-by-side. We also report an example of high-throughput cloning study and its application in functional proteomics. This Tutorial is part of the International Proteomics Tutorial Programme (IPTP12). Details can be found at http://www.proteomicstutorials.org. PMID:23457047

  16. Bacterial community composition in different sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a comparison of four 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Bertilsson, Stefan; Tselepides, Anastasios; Stephanou, Euripides G

    2005-10-01

    The regional variability of sediment bacterial community composition and diversity was studied by comparative analysis of four large 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries from sediments in different regions of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Thermaikos Gulf, Cretan Sea, and South lonian Sea). Amplified rDNA restriction analysis of 664 clones from the libraries indicate that the rDNA richness and evenness was high: for example, a near-1:1 relationship among screened clones and number of unique restriction patterns when up to 190 clones were screened for each library. Phylogenetic analysis of 207 bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the sediment libraries demonstrated that Gamma-, Delta-, and Alphaproteobacteria, Holophaga/Acidobacteria, Planctomycetales, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia were represented in all four libraries. A few clones also grouped with the Betaproteobacteria, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetales, Chlamydiae, Firmicutes, and candidate division OPl 1. The abundance of sequences affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria was higher in libraries from shallow sediments in the Thermaikos Gulf (30 m) and the Cretan Sea (100 m) compared to the deeper South Ionian station (2790 m). Most sequences in the four sediment libraries clustered with uncultured 16S rDNA phylotypes from marine habitats, and many of the closest matches were clones from hydrocarbon seeps, benzene-mineralizing consortia, sulfate reducers, sulk oxidizers, and ammonia oxidizers. LIBSHUFF statistics of 16S rDNA gene sequences from the four libraries revealed major differences, indicating either a very high richness in the sediment bacterial communities or considerable variability in bacterial community composition among regions, or both.

  17. Analyses of criticality and reactivity for TRACY experiments based on JENDL-3.3 data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sono, Hiroki; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The parameters on criticality and reactivity employed for computational simulations of the TRACY supercritical experiments were analyzed using a recently revised nuclear data library, JENDL-3.3. The parameters based on the JENDL-3.3 library were compared to those based on two former-used libraries, JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. In the analyses computational codes, MVP, MCNP version 4C and TWOTRAN, were used. The following conclusions were obtained from the analyses: (1) The computational biases of the effective neutron multiplication factor attributable to the nuclear data libraries and to the computational codes do not depend the TRACY experimental conditions such as fuel conditions. (2) The fractional discrepancies in the kinetic parameters and coefficients of reactivity are within ∼5% between the three libraries. By comparison between calculations and measurements of the parameters, the JENDL-3.3 library is expected to give closer values to the measurements than the JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI libraries. (3) While the reactivity worth of transient rods expressed in the $ unit shows ∼5% discrepancy between the three libraries according to their respective β eff values, there is little discrepancy in that expressed in the Δk/k unit. (author)

  18. Analysis of microbiota associated with peri-implantitis using 16S rRNA gene clone library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Koyanagi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peri-implantitis (PI is an inflammatory disease which leads to the destruction of soft and hard tissues around osseointegrated implants. The subgingival microbiota appears to be responsible for peri-implant lesions and although the complexity of the microbiota has been reported in PI, the microbiota responsible for PI has not been identified. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the microbiota in subjects who have PI, clinically healthy implants, and periodontitis-affected teeth using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis to clarify the microbial differences. Design: Three subjects participated in this study. The conditions around the teeth and implants were evaluated based on clinical and radiographic examinations and diseased implants, clinically healthy implants, and periodontally diseased teeth were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the deepest pockets using sterile paper points. Prevalence and identity of bacteria was analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene clone library technique. Results: A total of 112 different species were identified from 335 clones sequenced. Among the 112 species, 51 (46% were uncultivated phylotypes, of which 22 were novel phylotypes. The numbers of bacterial species identified at the sites of PI, periodontitis, and periodontally healthy implants were 77, 57, and 12, respectively. Microbiota in PI mainly included Gram-negative species and the composition was more diverse when compared to that of the healthy implant and periodontitis. The phyla Chloroflexi, Tenericutes, and Synergistetes were only detected at PI sites, as were Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, and Solobacterium moorei. Low levels of periodontopathic bacteria, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were seen in peri-implant lesions. Conclusions: The biofilm in PI showed a more complex microbiota when compared to periodontitis and

  19. Bibliometric analyses on repository contents as a library service for the evaluation of research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veller, van M.G.P.; Gerritsma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Since the last two decennia, the library of Wageningen University and Research (or Wageningen UR) has been involved in several bibliometric analyses for the evaluation of scientific output of staff, chair groups, research institutes and graduate schools. In these bibliometric analyses several

  20. Functional cloning using pFB retroviral cDNA expression libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Katherine A; Chen, Keith; Zaharee, Kim; Sundar, Latha; Limjoco, Jamie; Miller, Anna; Vaillancourt, Peter

    2002-09-01

    Retroviral cDNA expression libraries allow the efficient introduction of complex cDNA libraries into virtually any mitotic cell type for screening based on gene function. The cDNA copy number per cell can be easily controlled by adjusting the multiplicity of infection, thus cell populations may be generated in which >90% of infected cells contain one to three cDNAs. We describe the isolation of two known oncogenes and one cell-surface receptor from a human Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cDNA library inserted into the high-titer retroviral vector pFB.

  1. Cloning of oleosin, a putative new hazelnut allergen, using a hazelnut cDNA library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Schocker, Frauke; Vieths, Stefan; Versteeg, Serge; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Hefle, Sue L.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Richter, Klaus; Ferreira, Fatima; van Ree, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation of non-pollen related allergy to hazelnut can be severe and systemic. So far, only a limited number of non-pollen related hazelnut allergens have been identified and characterized. The aim of this study was to identify and clone new hazelnut allergens. A lambda ZAP cDNA

  2. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  3. Application of clone library analysis and real-time PCR for comparison of microbial communities in a low-grade copper sulfide ore bioheap leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowei, Chen; Xingyu, Liu; Wenyan, Liu; Jiankang, Wen

    2009-11-01

    The microbial communities of leachate from a bioleaching heap located in China were analyzed using the 16S rRNA gene clone library and real-time quantitative PCR. Both methods showed that Leptospirillum spp. were the dominant bacteria, and Ferroplasma acidiphilum were the only archaea detected in the leachate. Clone library results indicated that nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, which fell into four divisions, the Nitrospirae (74%), the gamma-Proteobacteria (14%), the Actinobacteria (6%) and the Euryarchaeota (6%). The results obtained by real-time PCR in some ways were the same as clone library analysis. Furthermore, Sulfobacillus spp., detected only by real-time PCR, suggests that real-time PCR was a reliable technology to study the microbial communities in bioleaching environments. It is a useful tool to assist clone library analysis, to further understand microbial consortia and to have comprehensive and exact microbiological information about bioleaching environments. Finally, the interactions among the microorganisms detected in the leachate were summarized according to the characteristics of these species.

  4. Speeding cis-trans regulation discovery by phylogenomic analyses coupled with screenings of an arrayed library of Arabidopsis transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castrillo

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation is an important mechanism underlying gene expression and has played a crucial role in evolution. The number, position and interactions between cis-elements and transcription factors (TFs determine the expression pattern of a gene. To identify functionally relevant cis-elements in gene promoters, a phylogenetic shadowing approach with a lipase gene (LIP1 was used. As a proof of concept, in silico analyses of several Brassicaceae LIP1 promoters identified a highly conserved sequence (LIP1 element that is sufficient to drive strong expression of a reporter gene in planta. A collection of ca. 1,200 Arabidopsis thaliana TF open reading frames (ORFs was arrayed in a 96-well format (RR library and a convenient mating based yeast one hybrid (Y1H screening procedure was established. We constructed an episomal plasmid (pTUY1H to clone the LIP1 element and used it as bait for Y1H screenings. A novel interaction with an HD-ZIP (AtML1 TF was identified and abolished by a 2 bp mutation in the LIP1 element. A role of this interaction in transcriptional regulation was confirmed in planta. In addition, we validated our strategy by reproducing the previously reported interaction between a MYB-CC (PHR1 TF, a central regulator of phosphate starvation responses, with a conserved promoter fragment (IPS1 element containing its cognate binding sequence. Finally, we established that the LIP1 and IPS1 elements were differentially bound by HD-ZIP and MYB-CC family members in agreement with their genetic redundancy in planta. In conclusion, combining in silico analyses of orthologous gene promoters with Y1H screening of the RR library represents a powerful approach to decipher cis- and trans-regulatory codes.

  5. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  6. Analysing malaria drug trials on a per-individual or per-clone basis: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas; Parry, Alice; Winter, Katherine; Hastings, Ian

    2013-07-30

    There are a variety of methods used to estimate the effectiveness of antimalarial drugs in clinical trials, invariably on a per-person basis. A person, however, may have more than one malaria infection present at the time of treatment. We evaluate currently used methods for analysing malaria trials on a per-individual basis and introduce a novel method to estimate the cure rate on a per-infection (clone) basis. We used simulated and real data to highlight the differences of the various methods. We give special attention to classifying outcomes as cured, recrudescent (infections that never fully cleared) or ambiguous on the basis of genetic markers at three loci. To estimate cure rates on a per-clone basis, we used the genetic information within an individual before treatment to determine the number of clones present. We used the genetic information obtained at the time of treatment failure to classify clones as recrudescence or new infections. On the per-individual level, we find that the most accurate methods of classification label an individual as newly infected if all alleles are different at the beginning and at the time of failure and as a recrudescence if all or some alleles were the same. The most appropriate analysis method is survival analysis or alternatively for complete data/per-protocol analysis a proportion estimate that treats new infections as successes. We show that the analysis of drug effectiveness on a per-clone basis estimates the cure rate accurately and allows more detailed evaluation of the performance of the treatment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Complementation of radiation-sensitive Ataxia telangiectasia cells after transfection of cDNA expression libraries and cosmid clones from wildtype cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, E.

    1994-06-01

    In this Ph.D.-thesis, phenotypic complementation of AT-cells (AT5BIVA) by transfection of cDNA-expression-libraries was adressed: After stable transfection of cDNA-expression-libraries G418 resistant clones were selected for enhanced radioresistance by a fractionated X-ray selection. One surviving transfectant clone (clone 514) exhibited enhanced radiation resistance in dose-response experiments and further X-ray selections. Cell cycle analysis revealed complementation of untreated and irradiated 514-cells in cell cycle progression. The rate of DNA synthesis, however, is not diminished after irradiation but shows the reverse effect. A transfected cDNA-fragment (AT500-cDNA) was isolated from the genomic DNA of 514-cells and proved to be an unknown DNA sequence. A homologous sequence could be detected in genomic DNA from human cell lines, but not in DNA from other species. The cDNA-sequence could be localized to human chromosome 11. In human cells the cDNA sequence is part of two large mRNAs. 4 different cosmid clones containing high molecular genomic DNA from normal human cells could be isolated from a library, each hybridizing to the AT500-cDNA. After stable transfection into AT-cells, one cosmid-clone was able to confer enhanced radiation resistance both in X-ray selections and dose-response experiments. The results indicate that the cloned cDNA-fragment is based on an unknown gene from human chromosome 11 which partially complements the radiosensitivity and the defective cell cycle progression in AT5BIVA cells. (orig.) [de

  8. A novel esterase gene cloned from a metagenomic library from neritic sediments of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Marine microbes are a large and diverse group, which are exposed to a wide variety of pressure, temperature, salinity, nutrient availability and other environmental conditions. They provide a huge potential source of novel enzymes with unique properties that may be useful in industry and biotechnology. To explore the lipolytic genetic resources in the South China Sea, 23 sediment samples were collected in the depth South China Sea sediments assemblage in plasmid vector containing about 194 Mb of community DNA was prepared. Screening of a part of the unamplified library resulted in isolation of 15 unique lipolytic clones with the ability to hydrolyze tributyrin. A positive recombinant clone (pNLE1), containing a novel esterase (Est_p1), was successfully expressed in E. coli and purified. In a series of assays, Est_p1 displayed maximal activity at pH 8.57, 40°C, with ρ-Nitrophenyl butyrate (C4) as substrate. Compared to other metagenomic esterases, Est_p1 played a notable role in specificity for substrate C4 (kcat/Km value 11,500 S-1m M-1) and showed no inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, suggested that the substrate binding pocket was suitable for substrate C4 and the serine active-site residue was buried at the bottom of substrate binding pocket which sheltered by a lid structure. Conclusions Esterase, which specificity towards short chain fatty acids, especially butanoic acid, is commercially available as potent flavoring tools. According the outstanding activity and specificity for substrate C4, Est_p1 has potential application in flavor industries requiring hydrolysis of short chain esters. PMID:22067554

  9. Third-Generation Sequencing and Analysis of Four Complete Pig Liver Esterase Gene Sequences in Clones Identified by Screening BAC Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Bi, Dingren; Yin, Jingdong; Shi, Deshi

    2016-01-01

    Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing. After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis. Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression. This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes provides the necessary foundation for

  10. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B T; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  11. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Tohya

    Full Text Available Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs, ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes.

  12. Comparative Genome Analyses of Streptococcus suis Isolates from Endocarditis Demonstrate Persistence of Dual Phenotypic Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohya, Mari; Watanabe, Takayasu; Maruyama, Fumito; Arai, Sakura; Ota, Atsushi; Athey, Taryn B. T.; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many bacterial species coexist in the same niche as heterogeneous clones with different phenotypes; however, understanding of infectious diseases by polyphenotypic bacteria is still limited. In the present study, encapsulation in isolates of the porcine pathogen Streptococcus suis from persistent endocarditis lesions was examined. Coexistence of both encapsulated and unencapsulated S. suis isolates was found in 26 out of 59 endocarditis samples. The isolates were serotype 2, and belonged to two different sequence types (STs), ST1 and ST28. The genomes of each of the 26 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the 26 samples were sequenced. The data showed that each pair of isolates had one or more unique nonsynonymous mutations in the cps gene, and the encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates from the same samples were closest to each other. Pairwise comparisons of the sequences of cps genes in 7 pairs of encapsulated and unencapsulated isolates identified insertion/deletions (indels) ranging from one to 104 bp in different cps genes of unencapsulated isolates. Capsule expression was restored in a subset of unencapsulated isolates by complementation in trans with cps expression vectors. Examination of gene content common to isolates indicated that mutation frequency was higher in ST28 pairs than in ST1 pairs. Genes within mobile genetic elements were mutation hot spots among ST28 isolates. Taken all together, our results demonstrate the coexistence of dual phenotype (encapsulated and unencapsulated) bacterial clones and suggest that the dual phenotypes arose independently in each farm by means of spontaneous mutations in cps genes. PMID:27433935

  13. 16S/18S ribosomal DNA clone library analysis of rumen microbial diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.G.; Kiyoshi Tajima; Aminov, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    diversity. Furthermore, the retrieved SSU-rDNA sequence-information lays a background for the development of other molecular detection techniques such as FISH, FISH-FC, DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR techniques. The application of molecular techniques has already revealed the enormous wealth of microbial diversity and putative novel species in the rumen. In this Chapter, the main steps of SSU-rDNA library generation and analysis will be presented and discussed in detail

  14. A library of IUE white dwarf spectra for stellar population analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, E.; Bonatto, C.; Giovannini, O.

    1996-10-01

    We present high Signal to Noise ratio IUE spectra of different classes of white dwarfs, to be used as templates for stellar population analyses in the ultraviolet region. We present average stellar parameters associated to each group. The library contains 6 groups for DA's, 2 for DO's and 5 for DB's. We also present equivalent widths of spectral features, and continuum measurements. We call attention to the spectral characteristics which are promising indicators of the presence of white dwarfs in the spectra of composite stellar populations.

  15. Molecular cloning, functional identification and expressional analyses of FasL in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tai-yang; Wu, Jin-ying; Gao, Xiao-ke; Wang, Jing-yuan; Zhan, Xu-liang; Li, Wen-sheng

    2014-10-01

    FasL is the most extensively studied apoptosis ligand. In 2000, tilapia FasL was identified using anti-human FasL monoclonal antibody by Evans's research group. Recently, a tilapia FasL-like protein of smaller molecule weight was predicted in Genbank (XM_003445156.2). Based on several clues drawn from previous studies, we cast doubt on the authenticity of the formerly identified tilapia FasL. Conversely, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the existence of the predicted FasL-like was verified at the mRNA level (The Genbank accession number of the FasL mRNA sequence we cloned is KM008610). Through multiple alignments, this FasL-like protein was found to be highly similar to the FasL of the Japanese flounder. Moreover, we artificially expressed the functional region of the predicted protein and later confirmed its apoptosis-inducing activity using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Annexin-V/Propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and DNA fragment detection. Supported by these evidences, we suggest that the predicted protein is the authentic tilapia FasL. To advance this research further, tilapia FasL mRNA and its protein across different tissues were quantified. High expression levels were identified in the tilapia immune system and sites where active cell turnover conservatively occurs. In this regard, FasL may assume an active role in the immune system and cell homeostasis maintenance in tilapia, similar to that shown in other species. In addition, because the distribution pattern of FasL mRNA did not synchronize with that of the protein, post-transcriptional expression regulation is suggested. Such regulation may be dominated by potential adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements (AREs) featuring AUUUA repeats found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of tilapia FasL mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The first insight into the salvia (lamiaceae) genome via bac library construction and high-throughput sequencing of target bac clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, D.C.; Vautrin, S.; Berges, H.; Chen, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Salvia is a representative genus of Lamiaceae, a eudicot family with significant species diversity and population adaptibility. One of the key goals of Salvia genomics research is to identify genes of adaptive significance. This information may help to improve the conservation of adaptive genetic variation and the management of medicinal plants to increase their health and productivity. Large-insert genomic libraries are a fundamental tool for achieving this purpose. We report herein the construction, characterization and screening of a gridded BAC library for Salvia officinalis (sage). The S. officinalis BAC library consists of 17,764 clones and the average insert size is 107 Kb, corresponding to 3 haploid genome equivalents. Seventeen positive clones (average insert size 115 Kb) containing five terpene synthase (TPS) genes were screened out by PCR and 12 of them were subject to Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing, which yielded 28,097,480 90-bp raw reads (2.53 Gb). Scaffolds containing sabinene synthase (Sab), a Sab homolog, TPS3 (kaurene synthase-like 2), copalyl diphosphate synthase 2 and one cytochrome P450 gene were retrieved via de novo assembly and annotation, which also have flanking noncoding sequences, including predicted promoters and repeat sequences. Among 2,638 repeat sequences, there are 330 amplifiable microsatellites. This BAC library provides a new resource for Lamiaceae genomic studies, including microsatellite marker development, physical mapping, comparative genomics and genome sequencing. Characterization of positive clones provided insights into the structure of the Salvia genome. These sequences will be used in the assembly of a future genome sequence for S. officinalis. (author)

  17. Complementation of the UV-sensitive phenotype of a xeroderma pigmentosum human cell line by transfection with a cDNA clone library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitz, T.; Naiman, T.; Avissar, S.S.; Bar, S.; Okayama, H.; Canaani, D.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a xeroderma pigmentosum cell line belonging to complementation group C was established by transformation with origin-defective simian virus 40. We now report the complementation of the UV sensitivity of this cell line by gene transfer. A human cDNA clone library constructed in a mammalian expression vector, and itself incorporated in a lambda phage vector, was introduced into the cells as a calcium phosphate precipitate. Following selection to G418 resistance, provided by the neo gene of the vector, transformants were selected for UV resistance. Twenty-one cell clones were obtained with UV-resistance levels typical of normal human fibroblasts. All transformants contained vector DNA sequences in their nuclei. Upon further propagation in the absence of selection for G418 resistance, about half of the primary transformants remained UV-resistant. Secondary transformants were generated by transfection with a partial digest of total chromosomal DNA from one of these stable transformants. This resulted in 15 G418-resistant clones, 2 of which exhibited a UV-resistant phenotype. The other primary clones lost UV resistance rapidly when subcultured in the absence of G418. Importantly, several retained UV resistance under G418 selection pressure. The acquisition of UV resistance by secondary transformants derived by transfection of DNA from a stable primary transformant, and the linkage between G418 and UV resistances in the unstable primary transformants, strongly suggests that the transformants acquired UV resistance through DNA-mediated gene transfer and not by reversion

  18. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of four novel thermo-alkaliphilic enzymes retrieved from a metagenomic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Mukil; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Enzyme discovery is a promising approach to aid in the deconstruction of recalcitrant plant biomass in an industrial process. Novel enzymes can be readily discovered by applying metagenomics on whole microbiomes. Our goal was to select, examine, and characterize eight novel glycoside hydrolases that were previously detected in metagenomic libraries, to serve biotechnological applications with high performance. Here, eight glycosyl hydrolase family candidate genes were selected from metagenomes of wheat straw-degrading microbial consortia using molecular cloning and subsequent gene expression studies in Escherichia coli. Four of the eight enzymes had significant activities on either p NP-β-d-galactopyranoside, p NP-β-d-xylopyranoside, p NP-α-l-arabinopyranoside or p NP-α-d-glucopyranoside. These proteins, denoted as proteins 1, 2, 5 and 6, were his-tag purified and their nature and activities further characterized using molecular and activity screens with the p NP-labeled substrates. Proteins 1 and 2 showed high homologies with (1) a β-galactosidase (74%) and (2) a β-xylosidase (84%), whereas the remaining two (5 and 6) were homologous with proteins reported as a diguanylate cyclase and an aquaporin, respectively. The β-galactosidase- and β-xylosidase-like proteins 1 and 2 were confirmed as being responsible for previously found thermo-alkaliphilic glycosidase activities of extracts of E. coli carrying the respective source fosmids. Remarkably, the β-xylosidase-like protein 2 showed activities with both p NP-Xyl and p NP-Ara in the temperature range 40-50 °C and pH range 8.0-10.0. Moreover, proteins 5 and 6 showed thermotolerant α-glucosidase activity at pH 10.0. In silico structure prediction of protein 5 revealed the presence of a potential "GGDEF" catalytic site, encoding α-glucosidase activity, whereas that of protein 6 showed a "GDSL" site, encoding a 'new family' α-glucosidase activity. Using a rational screening approach, we identified and

  19. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamar Santiago

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new

  20. A new set of ESTs and cDNA clones from full-length and normalized libraries for gene discovery and functional characterization in citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Carmen; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Forment, Javier; Arribas, Raquel; Alamar, Santiago; Conejero, Vicente; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    Background Interpretation of ever-increasing raw sequence information generated by modern genome sequencing technologies faces multiple challenges, such as gene function analysis and genome annotation. Indeed, nearly 40% of genes in plants encode proteins of unknown function. Functional characterization of these genes is one of the main challenges in modern biology. In this regard, the availability of full-length cDNA clones may fill in the gap created between sequence information and biological knowledge. Full-length cDNA clones facilitate functional analysis of the corresponding genes enabling manipulation of their expression in heterologous systems and the generation of a variety of tagged versions of the native protein. In addition, the development of full-length cDNA sequences has the power to improve the quality of genome annotation. Results We developed an integrated method to generate a new normalized EST collection enriched in full-length and rare transcripts of different citrus species from multiple tissues and developmental stages. We constructed a total of 15 cDNA libraries, from which we isolated 10,898 high-quality ESTs representing 6142 different genes. Percentages of redundancy and proportion of full-length clones range from 8 to 33, and 67 to 85, respectively, indicating good efficiency of the approach employed. The new EST collection adds 2113 new citrus ESTs, representing 1831 unigenes, to the collection of citrus genes available in the public databases. To facilitate functional analysis, cDNAs were introduced in a Gateway-based cloning vector for high-throughput functional analysis of genes in planta. Herein, we describe the technical methods used in the library construction, sequence analysis of clones and the overexpression of CitrSEP, a citrus homolog to the Arabidopsis SEP3 gene, in Arabidopsis as an example of a practical application of the engineered Gateway vector for functional analysis. Conclusion The new EST collection denotes an

  1. Application of the IEAF-2001 activation data library to activation analyses of the IFMIF high flux test module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Wilson, P.P.H.; Leichtle, D.; Simakov, S.P.; Moellendorff, U. von; Konobeev, A.; Korovin, Yu.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Schmuck, I.

    2002-01-01

    A complete activation data library IEAF-2001 (intermediate energy activation file) has been developed in standard ENDF-6 format with neutron-induced activation cross sections for 679 target nuclides from Z=1 (hydrogen) to Z=84 (polonium) and incident neutron energies up to 150 MeV. Using the NJOY processing code, an IEAF-2001 working library has been prepared in a 256 energy group structure for enabling activation analyses of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) D-Li neutron source. This library was applied to the activation analysis of the IFMIF high flux test module using the recent Analytical and Laplacian Adaptive Radioactivity Analysis activation code which is capable of handling the variety of reaction channels open in the energy domain above 20 MeV. The IEAF-2001 activation library was thus shown to be suitable for activation analyses in fusion technology and intermediate energy applications such as the IFMIF D-Li neutron source

  2. Mutational analyses of molecularly cloned satellite tobacco mosaic virus during serial passage in plants: Evidence for hotspots of genetic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The high level of genetic diversity and rapid evolution of viral RNA genomes are well documented, but few studies have characterized the rate and nature of ongoing genetic change over time under controlled experimental conditions, especially in plant hosts. The RNA genome of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) was used as an effective model for such studies because of advantageous features of its genome structure and because the extant genetic heterogeneity of STMV has been characterized previously. In the present study, the process of genetic change over time was studied by monitoring multiple serial passage lines of STMV populations for changes in their consensus sequences. A total of 42 passage lines were initiated by inoculation of tobacco plants with a helper tobamovirus and one of four STMV RNA inocula that were transcribed from full-length infectious STMV clones or extracted from purified STMV type strain virions. Ten serial passages were carried out for each line and the consensus genotypes of progeny STMV populations were assessed for genetic change by RNase protection analyses of the entire 1,059-nt STMV genome. Three different types of genetic change were observed, including the fixation of novel mutations in 9 of 42 lines, mutation at the major heterogeneity site near nt 751 in 5 of the 19 lines inoculated with a single genotype, and selection of a single major genotype in 6 of the 23 lines inoculated with mixed genotypes. Sequence analyses showed that the majority of mutations were single base substitutions. The distribution of mutation sites included three clusters in which mutations occurred at or very near the same site, suggesting hot spots of genetic change in the STMV genome. The diversity of genetic changes in sibling lines is clear evidence for the important role of chance and random sampling events in the process of genetic diversification of STMV virus populations.

  3. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  4. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci genome project: analysis of sequenced clones from egg, instar, and adult (viruliferous and non-viruliferous cDNA libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czosnek Henryk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past three decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in interest in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, owing to its nature as a taxonomically cryptic species, the damage it causes to a large number of herbaceous plants because of its specialized feeding in the phloem, and to its ability to serve as a vector of plant viruses. Among the most important plant viruses to be transmitted by B. tabaci are those in the genus Begomovirus (family, Geminiviridae. Surprisingly, little is known about the genome of this whitefly. The haploid genome size for male B. tabaci has been estimated to be approximately one billion bp by flow cytometry analysis, about five times the size of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. The genes involved in whitefly development, in host range plasticity, and in begomovirus vector specificity and competency, are unknown. Results To address this general shortage of genomic sequence information, we have constructed three cDNA libraries from non-viruliferous whiteflies (eggs, immature instars, and adults and two from adult insects that fed on tomato plants infected by two geminiviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Tomato mottle virus (ToMoV. In total, the sequence of 18,976 clones was determined. After quality control, and removal of 5,542 clones of mitochondrial origin 9,110 sequences remained which included 3,843 singletons and 1,017 contigs. Comparisons with public databases indicated that the libraries contained genes involved in cellular and developmental processes. In addition, approximately 1,000 bases aligned with the genome of the B. tabaci endosymbiotic bacterium Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum, originating primarily from the egg and instar libraries. Apart from the mitochondrial sequences, the longest and most abundant sequence encodes vitellogenin, which originated from whitefly adult libraries, indicating that much of the gene expression in this insect is directed toward the production

  5. Critical experiments analyses by using 70 energy group library based on ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Huria, H.C.; Ouisloumen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The newly developed 70-group library has been validated by comparing kinf from a continuous energy Monte-Carlo code MCNP and two dimensional spectrum calculation code PHOENIX-CP. The code employs Discrete Angular Flux Method based on Collision Probability. The library has been also validated against a large number of critical experiments and numerical benchmarks for assemblies with MOX and Gd fuels. (author)

  6. Library

    OpenAIRE

    Dulaney, Ronald E. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This study began with the desire to design a public town library of the future and became a search for an inkling of what is essential to Architecture. It is murky and full of contradictions. It asks more than it proposes, and the traces of its windings are better ordered through collage than logical synthesis. This study is neither a thesis nor a synthesis. When drawing out the measure of this study it may be beneficial to state what it attempts to place at the ...

  7. Analysing and Navigating Natural Products Space for Generating Small, Diverse, But Representative Chemical Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Steve; Kell, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    Armed with the digital availability of two natural products libraries, amounting to some 195 885 molecular entities, we ask the question of how we can best sample from them to maximize their "representativeness" in smaller and more usable libraries of 96, 384, 1152, and 1920 molecules. The term "representativeness" is intended to include diversity, but for numerical reasons (and the likelihood of being able to perform a QSAR) it is necessary to focus on areas of chemical space that are more highly populated. Encoding chemical structures as fingerprints using the RDKit "patterned" algorithm, we first assess the granularity of the natural products space using a simple clustering algorithm, showing that there are major regions of "denseness" but also a great many very sparsely populated areas. We then apply a "hybrid" hierarchical K-means clustering algorithm to the data to produce more statistically robust clusters from which representative and appropriate numbers of samples may be chosen. There is necessarily again a trade-off between cluster size and cluster number, but within these constraints, libraries containing 384 or 1152 molecules can be found that come from clusters that represent some 18 and 30% of the whole chemical space, with cluster sizes of, respectively, 50 and 27 or above, just about sufficient to perform a QSAR. By using the online availability of molecules via the Molport system (www.molport.com), we are also able to construct (and, for the first time, provide the contents of) a small virtual library of available molecules that provided effective coverage of the chemical space described. Consistent with this, the average molecular similarities of the contents of the libraries developed is considerably smaller than is that of the original libraries. The suggested libraries may have use in molecular or phenotypic screening, including for determining possible transporter substrates. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley

  8. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer

    2016-01-01

    in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities......Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments...... for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity...

  9. Analyses of an expressed sequence tag library from Taenia solium, Cysticerca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lundström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a disease caused by the oral ingestion of eggs from the human parasitic worm Taenia solium. Although drugs are available they are controversial because of the side effects and poor efficiency. An expressed sequence tag (EST library is a method used to describe the gene expression profile and sequence of mRNA from a specific organism and stage. Such information can be used in order to find new targets for the development of drugs and to get a better understanding of the parasite biology. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here an EST library consisting of 5760 sequences from the pig cysticerca stage has been constructed. In the library 1650 unique sequences were found and of these, 845 sequences (52% were novel to T. solium and not identified within other EST libraries. Furthermore, 918 sequences (55% were of unknown function. Amongst the 25 most frequently expressed sequences 6 had no relevant similarity to other sequences found in the Genbank NR DNA database. A prediction of putative signal peptides was also performed and 4 among the 25 were found to be predicted with a signal peptide. Proposed vaccine and diagnostic targets T24, Tsol18/HP6 and Tso31d could also be identified among the 25 most frequently expressed. CONCLUSIONS: An EST library has been produced from pig cysticerca and analyzed. More than half of the different ESTs sequenced contained a sequence with no suggested function and 845 novel EST sequences have been identified. The library increases the knowledge about what genes are expressed and to what level. It can also be used to study different areas of research such as drug and diagnostic development together with parasite fitness via e.g. immune modulation.

  10. Generation and analyses of human synthetic antibody libraries and their application for protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, Anna; Walle, Maria; Wingren, Christer; Müller, Susanne; Nyman, Tomas; Vala, Andrea; Ohlin, Mats; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Persson, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-based proteomics offers distinct advantages in the analysis of complex samples for discovery and validation of biomarkers associated with disease. However, its large-scale implementation requires tools and technologies that allow development of suitable antibody or antibody fragments in a high-throughput manner. To address this we designed and constructed two human synthetic antibody fragment (scFv) libraries denoted HelL-11 and HelL-13. By the use of phage display technology, in total 466 unique scFv antibodies specific for 114 different antigens were generated. The specificities of these antibodies were analyzed in a variety of immunochemical assays and a subset was further evaluated for functionality in protein microarray applications. This high-throughput approach demonstrates the ability to rapidly generate a wealth of reagents not only for proteome research, but potentially also for diagnostics and therapeutics. In addition, this work provides a great example on how a synthetic approach can be used to optimize library designs. By having precise control of the diversity introduced into the antigen-binding sites, synthetic libraries offer increased understanding of how different diversity contributes to antibody binding reactivity and stability, thereby providing the key to future library optimization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cloning and identification of novel hydrolase genes from a dairy cow rumen metagenomic library and characterization of a cellulase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in cellulose degrading enzymes has increased in recent years due to the expansion of the cellulosic biofuel industry. The rumen is a highly adapted environment for the degradation of cellulose and a promising source of enzymes for industrial use. To identify cellulase enzymes that may be of such use we have undertaken a functional metagenomic screen to identify cellulase enzymes from the bacterial community in the rumen of a grass-hay fed dairy cow. Results Twenty five clones specifying cellulose activity were identified. Subcloning and sequence analysis of a subset of these hydrolase-positive clones identified 10 endoglucanase genes. Preliminary characterization of the encoded cellulases was carried out using crude extracts of each of the subclones. Zymogram analysis using carboxymethylcellulose as a substrate showed a single positive band for each subclone, confirming that only one functional cellulase gene was present in each. One cellulase gene, designated Cel14b22, was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli and purified for further characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50°C. It was stable over a broad pH range, from pH 4.0 to 10.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Mn2+ and dramatically reduced by Fe3+ or Cu2+. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of beta-1,3-, and beta-1,4-linked polysaccharides, with varying activities. Activities toward microcrystalline cellulose and filter paper were relatively high, while the highest activity was toward Oat Gum. Conclusion The present study shows that a functional metagenomic approach can be used to isolate previously uncharacterized cellulases from the rumen environment.

  12. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Nunez-Iglesias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Skan (Skeleton analysis, a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the “analyse skeletons” plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan’s measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  13. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Blanch, Adam J; Looker, Oliver; Dixon, Matthew W; Tilley, Leann

    2018-01-01

    We present Skan (Skeleton analysis), a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the "analyse skeletons" plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API) allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan's measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  14. Cloning and molecular analyses of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expressed specifically in developing seeds of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H G; Jun, S H; Kim, J; Kawaide, H; Kamiya, Y; An, G

    1999-10-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA(12) at C-20 to the C(19) compound GA(9), a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, beta-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds.

  15. Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Junyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    1999-01-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, β-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds. PMID:10517828

  16. Influence of menstruation on the microbiota of healthy women's labia minora as analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.

  17. Assessment of S(α, β) libraries for criticality safety evaluations of wet storage pools by refined trend analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, E.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent criticality safety evaluation (CSE) of a commercial wet storage pool applying MCNPX-2.5.0 in combination with the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JEFF-3.1 continuous energy cross section libraries, the maximum permissible initial fuel-enrichment limit for water reflected configurations was found to be dependant upon the applied neutron cross section library. More detailed investigations indicated that the difference is mainly caused by different sub-libraries for thermal neutron scattering based on parameterizations of the S(α, β) scattering matrix. Hence an analysis of trends was done with respect to the low energy neutron flux in order to assess the S(α, β) data sets. First, when performing the trend analysis based on the full set of 149 benchmarks that were employed for the validation, significant trends could not be found. But by analyzing a selected subset of benchmarks clear trends with respect to the low energy neutron flux could be detected. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the sensitivity of specific configurations to the parameterizations of the S(α, β) scattering matrix and thus may help to improve CSE of wet storage pools. Finally, in addition to the low energy neutron flux, we also refined the trend analyses with respect to other key (spectrum-related) parameters by performing them with various selected subsets of the full suite of 149 benchmarks. The corresponding outcome using MCNPX 2.5.0 in combination with the ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.1, JEF-2.2, and JENDL-3.3 neutron cross section libraries are presented and discussed. (authors)

  18. Bacterial diversity analysis of Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus, using PhyloChip and 16S rRNA gene clone library sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar Sagaram, U.; DeAngelis, K.M.; Trivedi, P.; Andersen, G.L.; Lu, S.-E.; Wang, N.

    2009-03-01

    The bacterial diversity associated with citrus leaf midribs was characterized 1 from citrus groves that contained the Huanglongbing (HLB) pathogen, which has yet to be cultivated in vitro. We employed a combination of high-density phylogenetic 16S rDNA microarray and 16S rDNA clone library sequencing to determine the microbial community composition of symptomatic and asymptomatic citrus midribs. Our results revealed that citrus leaf midribs can support a diversity of microbes. PhyloChip analysis indicated that 47 orders of bacteria from 15 phyla were present in the citrus leaf midribs while 20 orders from phyla were observed with the cloning and sequencing method. PhyloChip arrays indicated that nine taxa were significantly more abundant in symptomatic midribs compared to asymptomatic midribs. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) was detected at a very low level in asymptomatic plants, but was over 200 times more abundant in symptomatic plants. The PhyloChip analysis was further verified by sequencing 16S rDNA clone libraries, which indicated the dominance of Las in symptomatic leaves. These data implicate Las as the pathogen responsible for HLB disease. Citrus is the most important commercial fruit crop in Florida. In recent years, citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also called citrus greening, has severely affected Florida's citrus production and hence has drawn an enormous amount of attention. HLB is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus (6,13), characterized by blotchy mottling with green islands on leaves, as well as stunting, fruit decline, and small, lopsided fruits with poor coloration. The disease tends to be associated with a phloem-limited fastidious {alpha}-proteobacterium given a provisional Candidatus status (Candidatus Liberobacter spp. later changed to Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) in nomenclature (18,25,34). Previous studies indicate that HLB infection causes disorder in the phloem and severely impairs the translocation of assimilates in

  19. Cloning, characterisation, and comparative quantitative expression analyses of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) transcript forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterenczak, Katharina A; Willenbrock, Saskia; Barann, Matthias; Klemke, Markus; Soller, Jan T; Eberle, Nina; Nolte, Ingo; Bullerdiek, Jörn; Murua Escobar, Hugo

    2009-04-01

    RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules playing key roles in pathophysiological processes, e.g. immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic arteriosclerosis and tumourigenesis. In humans 19 naturally occurring RAGE splicing variants resulting in either N-terminally or C-terminally truncated proteins were identified and are lately discussed as mechanisms for receptor regulation. Accordingly, deregulation of sRAGE levels has been associated with several diseases e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Administration of recombinant sRAGE to animal models of cancer blocked tumour growth successfully. In spite of its obvious relationship to cancer and metastasis data focusing sRAGE deregulation and tumours is rare. In this study we screened a set of tumours, healthy tissues and various cancer cell lines for RAGE splicing variants and analysed their structure. Additionally, we analysed the ratio of the mainly found transcript variants using quantitative Real-Time PCR. In total we characterised 24 previously not described canine and 4 human RAGE splicing variants, analysed their structure, classified their characteristics, and derived their respective protein forms. Interestingly, the healthy and the neoplastic tissue samples showed in majority RAGE transcripts coding for the complete receptor and transcripts showing insertions of intron 1.

  20. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  1. DNA cloning: a practical approach. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, D M [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the advanced molecular biologist who needs a detailed discussion of cloning technology. Topics of discussion include: genomic library cloning (size of a genomic library, screening methods, chromosome walking, host cell genetics, and general features of bacteriophage Iambda); use of gt10 and gt11 cDNA lambda vectors and general cDNA cloning; RNase H-Pol I cDNA synthesis; method of detecting fusion proteins produced in bacteria; pEMBL family of double-stranded plasmid vectors that can be used to generate single strands; Escherichia coli transformation; production of mutations in cloned sequences; and cloning in gram negative bacteria.

  2. cDNA cloning and expression analyses of phytoene synthase 1, phytoene desaturase and ζ-carotene desaturase genes from Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krittaya Supathaweewat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the cloning of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs encoding the enzymes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis,namely phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1, phytoene desaturase (PDS and -carotene desaturase (ZDS, respectively, from high-lycopene tomato cultivar, Solanum lycopersicum KKU-T34003. DNA sequence analyses showed that the complete openreading frames of Psy1, Pds and Zds cDNAs were 1,239, 1,752 and 1,767 base pairs in length and encoded proteins of 412,583 and 588 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic and the conserved domain analyses suggest that PSY1, PDS and ZDSfrom S. lycopersicum KKU-T34003 potentially have similar structures and biological functions to the corresponding proteinsfrom other plants. Gene expression studies showed that Psy1 was expressed only in the petal and the breaker fruit, whereasthe expressions of Pds and Zds were observed in the petal, the breaker fruit and the leaf. The highest expression level for allgenes was detected in the breaker-stage fruit, suggesting that carotenoid accumulation was developmentally regulated inthe chromoplast-containing tissues.

  3. Phage Display Breast Carcinoma cDNA Libraries: Isolation of Clones Which Specifically Bind to Membrane Glycoproteins, Mucins, and Endothelial Cell Surface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2000-01-01

    .... Using blood- group H-expressing glycoprotein fraction as bait, we observed enrichment of phage clones expressing sequences from galectin-3, a lectin with an affinity with the blood-group substance...

  4. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  5. Seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers over a 1-year period as revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 18S rRNA gene library analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew C; Selinger, L Brent; Inglis, G Douglas

    2012-08-01

    The temporal dynamics of planktonic protists in river water have received limited attention despite their ecological significance and recent studies linking phagotrophic protists to the persistence of human-pathogenic bacteria. Using molecular-based techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene, we studied the seasonal diversity of planktonic protists in Southwestern Alberta rivers (Oldman River Basin) over a 1-year period. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) data revealed distinct shifts in protistan community profiles that corresponded to season rather than geographical location. Community structures were examined by using clone library analysis; HaeIII restriction profiles of 18S rRNA gene amplicons were used to remove prevalent solanaceous plant clones prior to sequencing. Sanger sequencing of the V1-to-V3 region of the 18S rRNA gene libraries from spring, summer, fall, and winter supported the T-RFLP results and showed marked seasonal differences in the protistan community structure. The spring library was dominated by Chloroplastidae (29.8%), Centrohelida (28.1%), and Alveolata (25.5%), while the summer and fall libraries contained primarily fungal clones (83.0% and 88.0%, respectively). Alveolata (35.6%), Euglenozoa (24.4%), Chloroplastida (15.6%), and Fungi (15.6%) dominated the winter library. These data demonstrate that planktonic protists, including protozoa, are abundant in river water in Southwestern Alberta and that conspicuous seasonal shifts occur in the community structure.

  6. Anchoring a Defined Sequence to the 55' Ends of mRNAs : The Bolt to Clone Rare Full Length mRNAs and Generate cDNA Libraries porn a Few Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, J; Milne Edwards, D; Delort, J; Mallet, J

    1993-01-01

    Among numerous applications, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (1,2) provides a convenient means to clone 5' ends of rare mRNAs and to generate cDNA libraries from tissue available in amounts too low to be processed by conventional methods. Basically, the amplification of cDNAs by the PCR requires the availability of the sequences of two stretches of the molecule to be amplified. A sequence can easily be imposed at the 5' end of the first-strand cDNAs (corresponding to the 3' end of the mRNAs) by priming the reverse transcription with a specific primer (for cloning the 5' end of rare messenger) or with an oligonucleotide tailored with a poly (dT) stretch (for cDNA library construction), taking advantage of the poly (A) sequence that is located at the 3' end of mRNAs. Several strategies have been devised to tag the 3' end of the ss-cDNAs (corresponding to the 55' end of the mRNAs). We (3) and others have described strategies based on the addition of a homopolymeric dG (4,5) or dA (6,7) tail using terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase (TdT) ("anchor-PCR" [4]). However, this strategy has important limitations. The TdT reaction is difficult to control and has a low efficiency (unpublished observations). But most importantly, the return primers containing a homopolymeric (dC or dT) tail generate nonspecific amplifications, a phenomenon that prevents the isolation of low abundance mRNA species and/or interferes with the relative abundance of primary clones in the library. To circumvent these drawbacks, we have used two approaches. First, we devised a strategy based on a cRNA enrichment procedure, which has been useful to eliminate nonspecific-PCR products and to allow detection and cloning of cDNAs of low abundance (3). More recently, to avoid the nonspecific amplification resulting from the annealing of the homopolymeric tail oligonucleotide, we have developed a novel anchoring strategy that is based on the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 35' end of ss

  7. Cloning of the immunological repertoire in Escherichia coli for generation of monoclonal catalytic antibodies: construction of a heavy chain variable region-specific cDNA library.

    OpenAIRE

    Sastry, L; Alting-Mees, M; Huse, W D; Short, J M; Sorge, J A; Hay, B N; Janda, K D; Benkovic, S J; Lerner, R A

    1989-01-01

    Efficient generation of catalytic antibodies is uniquely dependent on the exact nature of the binding interactions in the antigen-antibody complex. Current methods for generation of monoclonal antibodies do not efficiently survey the immunological repertoire and, therefore, they limit the number of catalysts that can be obtained. We are exploring methods to clone and express the immunological repertoire in Escherichia coli. As the essential first step, we present here a method for the establi...

  8. Broilers fed dietary vitamins harbor higher diversity of cecal bacteria and higher ratio of Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Lactobacillus than broilers with no dietary vitamins revealed by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu-heng; Peng, Huan-wei; Wright, André-Denis G; Bai, Shi-ping; Ding, Xue-mei; Zeng, Qiu-feng; Li, Hua; Zheng, Ping; Su, Zhuo-wei; Cui, Ren-yong; Zhang, Ke-ying

    2013-09-01

    Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.

  9. Computational analysis of the human HSPH/HSPA/DNAJ family and cloning of a human HSPH/HSPA/DNAJ expression library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Kampinga, Harm H.

    In this manuscript, we describe the generation of a gene library for the expression of HSP110/HSPH, HSP70/HSPA and HSP40/DNAJ members. First, the heat shock protein (HSP) genes were collected from the gene databases and the gene families were analyzed for expression patterns, heat inducibility,

  10. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  11. De novo assembly and next-generation sequencing to analyse full-length gene variants from codon-barcoded libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Namjin; Hwang, Byungjin; Yoon, Jung-ki; Park, Sangun; Lee, Joongoo; Seo, Han Na; Lee, Jeewon; Huh, Sunghoon; Chung, Jinsoo; Bang, Duhee

    2015-09-21

    Interpreting epistatic interactions is crucial for understanding evolutionary dynamics of complex genetic systems and unveiling structure and function of genetic pathways. Although high resolution mapping of en masse variant libraries renders molecular biologists to address genotype-phenotype relationships, long-read sequencing technology remains indispensable to assess functional relationship between mutations that lie far apart. Here, we introduce JigsawSeq for multiplexed sequence identification of pooled gene variant libraries by combining a codon-based molecular barcoding strategy and de novo assembly of short-read data. We first validate JigsawSeq on small sub-pools and observed high precision and recall at various experimental settings. With extensive simulations, we then apply JigsawSeq to large-scale gene variant libraries to show that our method can be reliably scaled using next-generation sequencing. JigsawSeq may serve as a rapid screening tool for functional genomics and offer the opportunity to explore evolutionary trajectories of protein variants.

  12. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. You would need: A well-preserved source ... it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast ...

  13. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel human zinc finger gene, hKid3, from a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Li; Sun Chong; Qiu Hongling; Liu Hui; Shao Huanjie; Wang Jun; Li Wenxin

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the zinc finger genes involved in human embryonic development, we constructed a C 2 H 2 -ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library, from which a novel human gene named hKid3 was identified. The hKid3 cDNA encodes a 554 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 11 carboxyl-terminal C 2 H 2 zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that two hKid3 transcripts of 6 and 8.5 kb express in human fetal brain and kidney. The 6 kb transcript can also be detected in human adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle while the 8.5 kb transcript appears to be embryo-specific. GFP-fused hKid3 protein is localized to nuclei and the ZF domain is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. To explore the DNA-binding specificity of hKid3, an oligonucleotide library was selected by GST fusion protein of hKid3 ZF domain, and the consensus core sequence 5'-CCAC-3' was evaluated by competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, The KRAB domain of hKid3 exhibits transcription repressor activity when tested in GAL4 fusion protein assay. These results indicate that hKid3 may function as a transcription repressor with regulated expression pattern during human development of brain and kidney

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of porcine MAP1LC3A in the granulosa cells of normal and miniature pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The members of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (MAP1LC family, especially those of the LC3 family (MAP1LC3A, B, C, are known to induce autophagy upon localization onto the autophagosomal membrane. In this regard, LC3 can be utilized as a marker for the formation of autophagosomes during the process of autophagy. The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE were used to obtain the 5′ and 3′ ends of the porcine MAP1LC3A full length cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine MAP1LC3A. The localization of MAP1LC3A in the ovary was determined by In situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical staining. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine MAP1LC3A and identified an open reading frame of 980 bp encoding 121 amino acids. Based on its homology to known mammalian proteins (98% this novel cDNA was designated as porcine MAP1LC3A and registered to the GenBank (Accession No. GU272221. We compared the expression of MAP1LC3A in the Graafian follicles of normal and miniature pigs by in situ hybridization at day 15 of the estrus cycle. While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. In addition, the expressions of MAP1LC3A and ATG5 were higher in normal pigs than in miniature pigs both in the presence and absence of rapamycin. Conclusions The newly cloned porcine

  16. A new tetracycline efflux gene, tet(40), is located in tandem with tet(O/32/O) in a human gut firmicute bacterium and in metagenomic library clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Katarzyna A; Rincon, Marco T; Patterson, Andrea J; Martin, Jennifer C; Young, Pauline; Flint, Harry J; Scott, Karen P

    2008-11-01

    The bacterium Clostridium saccharolyticum K10, isolated from a fecal sample obtained from a healthy donor who had received long-term tetracycline therapy, was found to carry three tetracycline resistance genes: tet(W) and the mosaic tet(O/32/O), both conferring ribosome protection-type resistance, and a novel, closely linked efflux-type resistance gene designated tet(40). tet(40) encodes a predicted membrane-associated protein with 42% amino acid identity to tetA(P). Tetracycline did not accumulate in Escherichia coli cells expressing the Tet(40) efflux protein, and resistance to tetracycline was reduced when cells were incubated with an efflux pump inhibitor. E. coli cells carrying tet(40) had a 50% inhibitory concentration of tetracycline of 60 microg/ml. Analysis of a transconjugant from a mating between donor strain C. saccharolyticum K10 and the recipient human gut commensal bacterium Roseburia inulinivorans suggested that tet(O/32/O) and tet(40) were cotransferred on a mobile element. Sequence analysis of a 37-kb insert identified on the basis of tetracycline resistance from a metagenomic fosmid library again revealed a tandem arrangement of tet(O/32/O) and tet(40), flanked by regions with homology to parts of the VanG operon previously identified in Enterococcus faecalis. At least 10 of the metagenomic inserts that carried tet(O/32/O) also carried tet(40), suggesting that tet(40), although previously undetected, may be an abundant efflux gene.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Newly Isolated Pyrethroid-Degrading Esterase Gene from a Genomic Library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinlong; Shi, Yanhua; Li, Kang; Zhao, Bin; Yan, Yanchun

    2013-01-01

    A novel pyrethroid-degrading esterase gene pytY was isolated from the genomic library of Ochrobactrum anthropi YZ-1. It possesses an open reading frame (ORF) of 897 bp. Blast search showed that its deduced amino acid sequence shares moderate identities (30% to 46%) with most homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PytY is a member of the esterase VI family. pytY showed very low sequence similarity compared with reported pyrethroid-degrading genes. PytY was expressed, purified, and characterized. Enzyme assay revealed that PytY is a broad-spectrum degrading enzyme that can degrade various pyrethroids. It is a new pyrethroid-degrading gene and enriches genetic resource. Kinetic constants of Km and Vmax were 2.34 mmol·L−1 and 56.33 nmol min−1, respectively, with lambda-cyhalothrin as substrate. PytY displayed good degrading ability and stability over a broad range of temperature and pH. The optimal temperature and pH were of 35°C and 7.5. No cofactors were required for enzyme activity. The results highlighted the potential use of PytY in the elimination of pyrethroid residuals from contaminated environments. PMID:24155944

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of EstE1, a new and thermostable esterase cloned from a metagenomic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jung-Sue [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protein Network Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Jin-Kyu [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Uk [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jong-Won [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyun-Soo, E-mail: hscho8@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Protein Network Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-01

    Recombinant EstE1 protein with a histidine tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and then purified by affinity chromatography. The protein was then crystallized at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. EstE1, a new thermostable esterase, was isolated by functional screening of a metagenomic DNA library from thermal environment samples. This enzyme showed activity towards short-chain acyl derivatives of length C4–C6 at a temperature of 303–363 K and displayed a high thermostability above 353 K. EstE1 has 64 and 57% amino-acid sequence similarity to est{sub pc}-encoded carboxylesterase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis and AFEST from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, respectively. The recombinant protein with a histidine tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and then purified by affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized at 290 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution from an EstE1 crystal; the crystal belongs to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.71, c = 234.23 Å. Assuming the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient V{sub M} is calculated to be 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content is 44.1%.

  19. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  20. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Bioproduction and characterization of extracellular melanin-like pigment from industrially polluted metagenomic library equipped Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shivani; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sonani, Ravi R; Ray, Arabinda; Sharma, Rakesh; Madamwar, Datta

    2018-04-15

    To explore the potential genes from the industrially polluted Amlakhadi canal, located in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India, its community genome was extracted and cloned into E. coli EPI300™-T1 R using a fosmid vector (pCC2 FOS™) generating a library of 3,92,000 clones with average size of 40kb of DNA-insert. From this library, the clone DM1 producing brown colored melanin-like pigment was isolated and characterized. For over expression of the pigment, further sub-cloning of the clone DM1 was done. Sub-clone containing 10kb of the insert was sequenced for gene identification. The amino acids sequence of a protein 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), which is know to be involved in melanin biosynthesis was obtained from the gene sequence. The sequence-homology based 3D structure model of HPPD was constructed and analyzed. The physico-chemical nature of pigment was further analysed using 1 H and 13 C NMR, LC-MS, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The pigment was readily soluble in DMSO with an absorption maximum around 290nm. Based on the genetic and chemical characterization, the compound was confirmed as melanin-like pigment. The present results indicate that the metagenomic library from industrially polluted environment generated a microbial tool for the production of melanin-like pigment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction of BAC Libraries from Flow-Sorted Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Cloned DNA libraries in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) are the most widely used form of large-insert DNA libraries. BAC libraries are typically represented by ordered clones derived from genomic DNA of a particular organism. In the case of large eukaryotic genomes, whole-genome libraries consist of a hundred thousand to a million clones, which make their handling and screening a daunting task. The labor and cost of working with whole-genome libraries can be greatly reduced by constructing a library derived from a smaller part of the genome. Here we describe construction of BAC libraries from mitotic chromosomes purified by flow cytometric sorting. Chromosome-specific BAC libraries facilitate positional gene cloning, physical mapping, and sequencing in complex plant genomes.

  3. Featured Library: Parrish Library

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkwood, Hal P, Jr

    2015-01-01

    The Roland G. Parrish Library of Management & Economics is located within the Krannert School of Management at Purdue University. Between 2005 - 2007 work was completed on a white paper that focused on a student-centered vision for the Management & Economics Library. The next step was a massive collection reduction and a re-envisioning of both the services and space of the library. Thus began a 3 phase renovation from a 2 floor standard, collection-focused library into a single floor, 18,000s...

  4. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  5. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  6. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  7. Public libraries in the library regions in the year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Regional public libraries were initiated in 2003 to connect professional activities of libraries within regional networks and to ensure coordinated library development in a region in cooperation with the Library System Development Centre at the National and University Library performing a coordinating role. The article analyses the performance of public libraries and their integration in regional library networks in order to find out the level of development of conditions of performance of public libraries.Methodology/approach: Statistical data for the year 2009 were the basis for the overview of library activities of ten library regions with regard to applicable legislation and library standards. The level of regional library activities is compared to the socio-economic situation of statistical regions thus representing a new approach to the presentation of Slovenian’s public libraries’ development.Results: Absolute values indicate better development of nine libraries in the central Slovenia region while relative values offer a totally different picture. Four libraries in the region of Nova Gorica prove the highest level of development.Research limitation: Research is limited to the year 2009 and basic statistical analysis.Originality/practical implications: Findings of the analysis are useful for public libraries to plan their development strategy within a region and for financial bodies to provide for adequate financing for library activities in a specific region. The basic condition for successful public library performance is the even and harmonized development of conditions of performance as recommended by library standards.

  8. THE TERMINOLOGY OF LIBRARY SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Љиљана Матић

    2014-01-01

    The master’s thesis entitled The Terminology of Library Science presents the general state of the terminology of library science in the Serbian language and analyses the terminological system which was formed in the last couple of decades in relation to library and information science. The terminology of library science is seen as a characteristic of professional language. The research is conducted on a corpus which excludes sources relating extremely to either library science or information ...

  9. The participatory public library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard

    2016-01-01

    of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies......Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...

  10. Cost-effective sequencing of full-length cDNA clones powered by a de novo-reference hybrid assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroshu, Reginaldo M; Watanabe, Junichi; Sugano, Sumio; Morishita, Shinichi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kasahara, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Sequencing full-length cDNA clones is important to determine gene structures including alternative splice forms, and provides valuable resources for experimental analyses to reveal the biological functions of coded proteins. However, previous approaches for sequencing cDNA clones were expensive or time-consuming, and therefore, a fast and efficient sequencing approach was demanded. We developed a program, MuSICA 2, that assembles millions of short (36-nucleotide) reads collected from a single flow cell lane of Illumina Genome Analyzer to shotgun-sequence approximately 800 human full-length cDNA clones. MuSICA 2 performs a hybrid assembly in which an external de novo assembler is run first and the result is then improved by reference alignment of shotgun reads. We compared the MuSICA 2 assembly with 200 pooled full-length cDNA clones finished independently by the conventional primer-walking using Sanger sequencers. The exon-intron structure of the coding sequence was correct for more than 95% of the clones with coding sequence annotation when we excluded cDNA clones insufficiently represented in the shotgun library due to PCR failure (42 out of 200 clones excluded), and the nucleotide-level accuracy of coding sequences of those correct clones was over 99.99%. We also applied MuSICA 2 to full-length cDNA clones from Toxoplasma gondii, to confirm that its ability was competent even for non-human species. The entire sequencing and shotgun assembly takes less than 1 week and the consumables cost only approximately US$3 per clone, demonstrating a significant advantage over previous approaches.

  11. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  12. CitEST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa P. Natividade Targon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a better understanding of what is citrus, 33 cDNA libraries were constructed from different citrus species and genera. Total RNA was extracted from fruits, leaves, flowers, bark, seeds and roots, and subjected or not to different biotic and abiotic stresses (pathogens and drought and at several developmental stages. To identify putative promoter sequences, as well as molecular markers that could be useful for breeding programs, one shotgun library was prepared from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis var. Olimpia. In addition, EST libraries were also constructed for a citrus pathogen, the oomycete Phythophthora parasitica in either virulent or avirulent form. A total of 286,559 cDNA clones from citrus were sequenced from their 5’ end, generating 242,790 valid reads of citrus. A total of 9,504 sequences were produced in the shotgun library and the valid reads were assembled using CAP3. In this procedure, we obtained 1,131 contigs and 4,083 singletons. A total of 19,200 cDNA clones from P. parasitica were sequenced, resulting in 16,400 valid reads. The number of ESTs generated in this project is, to our knowledge, the largest citrus sequence database in the world.

  13. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  14. Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory Research Library Search Site submit Contact Us | Remote Access Standards Theses/Dissertations Research Help Subject Guides Library Training Video Tutorials Alerts Research Library: delivering essential knowledge services for national security sciences since 1947 Los

  15. VITAMIN-J/COVA/EFF-3 cross-section covariance matrix library and its use to analyse benchmark experiments in sinbad database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, Ivan-Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The new cross-section covariance matrix library ZZ-VITAMIN-J/COVA/EFF3 intended to simplify and encourage sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was prepared and is available from the NEA Data Bank. The library is organised in a ready-to-use form including both the covariance matrix data as well as processing tools:-Cross-section covariance matrices from the EFF-3 evaluation for five materials: 9 Be, 28 Si, 56 Fe, 58 Ni and 60 Ni. Other data will be included when available. -FORTRAN program ANGELO-2 to extrapolate/interpolate the covariance matrices to a users' defined energy group structure. -FORTRAN program LAMBDA to verify the mathematical properties of the covariance matrices, like symmetry, positive definiteness, etc. The preparation, testing and use of the covariance matrix library are presented. The uncertainties based on the cross-section covariance data were compared with those based on other evaluations, like ENDF/B-VI. The collapsing procedure used in the ANGELO-2 code was compared and validated with the one used in the NJOY system

  16. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones

  17. Molecular cloning of chicken metallothionein. Deduction of the complete amino acid sequence and analysis of expression using cloned cDNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, D; Andrews, G K

    1988-01-25

    A cDNA library was constructed using RNA isolated from the livers of chickens which had been treated with zinc. This library was screened with a RNA probe complementary to mouse metallothionein-I (MT), and eight chicken MT cDNA clones were obtained. All of the cDNA clones contained nucleotide sequences homologous to regions of the longest (375 bp) cDNA clone. The latter contained an open reading frame of 189 bp, and the deduced amino acid sequence indicates a protein of 63 amino acids of which 20 are cysteine residues. Amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequence analyses of purified chicken MT protein agreed with the amino acid composition and sequence deduced from the cloned cDNA. Amino acid sequence comparison establish that chicken MT shares extensive homology with mammalian MTs. Southern blot analysis of chicken DNA indicates that the chicken MT gene is not a part of a large family of related sequences, but rather is likely to be a unique gene sequence. In the chicken liver, levels of chicken MT mRNA were rapidly induced by metals (Cd/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Cu/sup 2 +/), glucocorticoids and lipopolysaccharide. MT mRNA was present in low levels in embryonic liver and increased to high levels during the first week after hatching before decreasing again to the basal levels found in adult liver. The results of this study establish that MT is highly conserved between birds and mammals and is regulated in the chicken by agents which also regulate expression of mammalian MT genes. However, in contrast to the mammals, the results suggest the existence of a single isoform of MT in the chicken.

  18. Library 3.0 intelligent libraries and apomediation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwanya, Tom; Underwood, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emerging generation of research and academic library users expect the delivery of user-centered information services. 'Apomediation' refers to the supporting role librarians can give users by stepping in when users need help. Library 3.0 explores the ongoing debates on the "point oh” phenomenon and its impact on service delivery in libraries. This title analyses Library 3.0 and its potential in creating intelligent libraries capable of meeting contemporary needs, and the growing role of librarians as apomediators. Library 3.0 is divided into four chapters. The first chapter introduces and places the topic in context. The second chapter considers "point oh” libraries. The third chapter covers library 3.0 librarianship, while the final chapter explores ways libraries can move towards '3.0'.

  19. Development of high-throughput phenotyping of metagenomic clones from the human gut microbiome for modulation of eukaryotic cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloux, Karine; Leclerc, Marion; Iliozer, Harout; L'Haridon, René; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Corthier, Gérard; Nalin, Renaud; Blottière, Hervé M; Doré, Joël

    2007-06-01

    Metagenomic libraries derived from human intestinal microbiota (20,725 clones) were screened for epithelial cell growth modulation. Modulatory clones belonging to the four phyla represented among the metagenomic libraries were identified (hit rate, 0.04 to 8.7% depending on the screening cutoff). Several candidate loci were identified by transposon mutagenesis and subcloning.

  20. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  1. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  2. Novel infectious cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus genotype 3a (strain S52) and 4a (strain ED43): genetic analyses and in vivo pathogenesis studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Scheel, Troels; Callendret, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Previously, RNA transcripts of cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1a (strains H77, HCV-1, and HC-TN), 1b (HC-J4, Con1, and HCV-N), and 2a (HC-J6 and JFH1) were found to be infectious in chimpanzees. However, only JFH1 was infectious in human hepatoma Huh7 cells. We performed genetic...... analysis of HCV genotype 3a (strain S52) and 4a (strain ED43) prototype strains and generated full-length consensus cDNA clones (pS52 and pED43). Transfection of Huh7.5 cells with RNA transcripts of these clones did not yield cells expressing HCV Core. However, intrahepatic transfection of chimpanzees...... resulted in robust infection with peak HCV RNA titers of approximately 5.5 log(10) international units (IU)/ml. Genomic consensus sequences recovered from serum at the times of peak viral titers were identical to the sequences of the parental plasmids. Both chimpanzees developed acute hepatitis...

  3. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Bovo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs, on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes.

  4. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  5. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  6. The Shiite Pluralistic Position on Human Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyid Hasan Islami Ardekani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction – and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what follows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.

  7. Library Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Computing, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Special supplement to "Library Journal" and "School Library Journal" covers topics of interest to school, public, academic, and special libraries planning for automation: microcomputer use, readings in automation, online searching, databases of microcomputer software, public access to microcomputers, circulation, creating a…

  8. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  9. The LAW library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.M.; Parks, C.V.; Arwood, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The 238 group LAW library is a new multigroup library based on ENDF/B-V data. It contains data for 302 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, though it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  10. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2008-01-01

    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  11. Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...

  12. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  13. GenMapDB: a database of mapped human BAC clones

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Michael; Arcaro, Melissa; Burdick, Joshua; Yonescu, Raluca; Reid, Thomas; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Cheung, Vivian G.

    2001-01-01

    GenMapDB (http://genomics.med.upenn.edu/genmapdb) is a repository of human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones mapped by our laboratory to sequence-tagged site markers. Currently, GenMapDB contains over 3000 mapped clones that span 19 chromosomes, chromosomes 2, 4, 5, 9–22, X and Y. This database provides positional information about human BAC clones from the RPCI-11 human male BAC library. It also contains restriction fragment analysis data and end sequen...

  14. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  15. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  16. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  17. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  18. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  19. Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

    2007-07-01

    The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect

  20. Cloning and sequencing of the bovine gastrin gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T; Rehfeld, J F; Olsen, Jørgen

    1989-01-01

    In order to deduce the primary structure of bovine preprogastrin we therefore sequenced a gastrin DNA clone isolated from a bovine liver cosmid library. Bovine preprogastrin comprises 104 amino acids and consists of a signal peptide, a 37 amino acid spacer-sequence, the gastrin-34 sequence followed...

  1. Cloning and heterologous expression of a gene encoding lycopene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the cloning and expression of a gene lycopene epsilon cyclase, (LCYE) from Camellia sinensis var assamica which is a precursor of the carotenoid lutein in tea. The 1982 bp cDNA sequence with 1599 bp open reading frame of LCYE was identified from an SSH library constructed for quality trait in tea.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human testis-specific gene by use of ... pared against 70 other libraries, and the hits showing >10- fold differences .... proteins or testis-development-related proteins such as TSP-. NY, TPX1 ...

  3. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  4. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  5. Evaluation of flooding tolerance in cuttings of Populus clones used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We analysed the responses to flooding of 14 poplar clones used for forestation at the Paraná River Delta, Argentina. Some are commercial clones planted in the area, and others belong to a poplar breeding program from the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) in Argentina. Potted plants of 60 cm high ...

  6. Project management in the library workplace

    CERN Document Server

    Daugherty, Alice

    2018-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Library Administration and Organization attempts to put project management into the toolboxes of library administrators through overviews of concepts, analyses of experiences, and forecasts for the use of project management within the profession.

  7. RTA, a candidate G protein-coupled receptor: Cloning, sequencing, and tissue distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, P.C.; Figler, R.A.; Corjay, M.H.; Barber, C.M.; Adam, N.; Harcus, D.R.; Lynch, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones, encoding a protein that is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor superfamily, were isolated by screening rat genomic and thoracic aorta cDNA libraries with an oligonucleotide encoding a highly conserved region of the M 1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Sequence analyses of these clones showed that they encode a 343-amino acid protein (named RTA). The RTA gene is single copy, as demonstrated by restriction mapping and Southern blotting of genomic clones and rat genomic DNA. RTA RNA sequences are relatively abundant throughout the gut, vas deferens, uterus, and aorta but are only barely detectable (on Northern blots) in liver, kidney, lung, and salivary gland. In the rat brain, RTA sequences are markedly abundant in the cerebellum. TRA is most closely related to the mas oncogene (34% identity), which has been suggested to be a forebrain angiotensin receptor. They conclude that RTA is not an angiotensin receptor; to date, they have been unable to identify its ligand

  8. Strategic marketing planning in library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Štular-Sotošek

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea that every library can design instruments for creating events and managing the important resources of today's world, especially to manage the changes. This process can only be successful if libraries use adequate marketing methods. Strategic marketing planning starts with the analysis of library's mission, its objectives, goals and corporate culture. By analysing the public environment, the competitive environment and the macro environment, libraries recognise their opportunities and threats. These analyses are the foundations for library definitions: What does the library represent?, What does it aspire to? Which goals does it want to reach? What kind of marketing strategy will it use for its target market?

  9. Stochasticity or the fatal `imperfection' of cloning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-01-07

    Jan 7, 2005 ... The concept of clone is analysed with the aim of exploring the limits to which a phenotype can be said to be determined geneticaly. First of all, mutations that result from the replication, topological manipulation or lesion of DNA introduce a source of heritable variation in an otherwise identical genetic ...

  10. About the Library - Betty Petersen Memorial Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    branch library of the NOAA Central Library. The library serves the NOAA Science Center in Camp Springs , Maryland. History and Mission: Betty Petersen Memorial Library began as a reading room in the NOAA Science Science Center staff and advises the library on all aspects of the library program. Library Newsletters

  11. Security issues and service provision in Laz Otti Memorial Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science ... Data was analysed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. ... To curb this menace, library management must educate users on use of library resources ... Keywords: Library security, Theft, Mutilation, Vandalism, Library resources; Laz Otti Memorial ...

  12. Library Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model.......A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model....

  13. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10 7 -10 8 individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10 8 individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the peroxisomal amine oxidase gene from Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, P. G.; Evers, M.; Waterham, H. R.; Kuipers, J.; Arnberg, A. C.; AB, G.

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned the AMO gene, encoding the microbody matrix enzyme amine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha. The gene was isolated by differential screening of a cDNA library, immunoselection, and subsequent screening of a H. polymorpha genomic library. The nucleotide sequence

  15. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  16. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  17. A Seminar on Human Cloning: Cloning in Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Illmensee, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmacytical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  18. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and a preliminary genome survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meizhong; Kim, Hyeran; Kudrna, Dave; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Lee, So-Jeong; Mueller, Christopher; Collura, Kristi; Zuccolo, Andrea; Buckingham, E Bryan; Grim, Suzanne M; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Flajnik, Martin F; Wing, Rod A; Ohta, Yuko

    2006-05-03

    Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 x 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6-28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50-90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  19. Construction of a nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library and a preliminary genome survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoko Hidetoshi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Aims In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Results The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 × 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6–28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50–90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible. Conclusion We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.

  20. Nigerian Libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bridging the digital divide: the potential role of the National Library of Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Juliana Obiageri Akidi, Joy Chituru Onyenachi, 11-19 ...

  1. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  2. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Key words: academic libraries, open access, research, researchers, technology ... European commission (2012) reports that affordable and easy access to the results ...

  3. Myths about Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008. Back to the ... until we finish assessing their safety. To the best of our knowledge, they have done so. After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded ...

  4. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  5. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  6. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  7. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Xiaojun; Chantel F.SCHEURING; ZHANG Hongbin; LI Fuhua; XIANG Jianhai

    2008-01-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research.High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I,respectively.The BamH I library consisted of 53760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7680 clones.Approximately 96% of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb,providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents.Similarly,the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones,thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  8. Human cloning. Fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushama, Mandy D.; Ahmed, Badreldeen I.

    2003-01-01

    Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to other plant, animal or human. Scientists even demonstrated that they were able to clone frog tadpoles from frog embryonic cells using nuclear transfer.Many animals have been cloned from adult cells using nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer which refers to the transfer of the nucleous from a somatic cell to an egg cell. Article further deals with benefits and misuses of human cloning

  9. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  10. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  11. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  12. [Media, cloning, and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D

    2000-01-01

    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  13. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  14. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo T, Jose Hernan

    1998-01-01

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  15. The library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A specialized library is essential for conducting the research work of the Uranium Institute. The need was recognized at the foundation of the Institute and a full-time librarian was employed in 1976 to establish the necessary systems and begin the task of building up the collection. A brief description is given of the services offered by the library which now contains books, periodicals, pamphlets and press cuttings, focussed on uranium and nuclear energy, but embracing economics, politics, trade, legislation, geology, mining and mineral processing, environmental protection and nuclear technology. (author)

  16. Peripheral blood and intrathyroidal T cell clones from patients with thyroid autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massart, C; Caroff, G; Maugendre, D; Genetet, N; Gibassier, J

    1999-01-01

    For a better understanding of the pathogenesis of thyroid autoimmune diseases, we have studied morphological and functional properties of T clones from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and from intrathyroidal lymphocytes (ITL) obtained from 3 patients with Graves' disease or 1 Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Investigations were carried out on clones cultured alone or cocultured with autologous thyrocytes. Clonage efficiency ranged from 30% to 33% for PBL and 10% to 36% for ITL. A predominance of CD4-positive clones was observed whatever the origin of the lymphocytes or the autoimmune pathology. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) was detected in the majority (17/19) of the clones tested. Intracytoplasmic interleukin (IL-4) was secreted in 7/19 clones and both cytokines were produced in 5/19 clones. In coculture a proliferative response and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production were observed with 6 clones (4 from Graves thyrocytes and 2 from thyroiditis). No cytotoxic clone was derived from Graves or thyroiditis tissues. These data demonstrate that the large majority of T clones are principally CD4-T cells; all the clones secreted TNF-alpha and a large majority produced IFN-gamma. Only a few clones produced IL-4 alone or associated with IFN-gamma. Six T clones induced proliferative response and of TNF-alpha secretion in coculture. Further investigations must be performed on these antigen-reactive T clones to analyse their role in the pathogenesis of the human thyroid autoimmune diseases.

  17. Libraries on the MOVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Jim; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Presents papers from Illinois State Library and Shawnee Library System's "Libraries on the MOVE" conference focusing on how libraries can impact economic/cultural climate of an area. Topics addressed included information services of rural libraries; marketing; rural library development; library law; information access; interagency…

  18. Personal Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…

  19. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  20. Cloning the enterotoxin gene from Clostridium perfringens type A

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanejko, Lesley Ann.

    1991-01-01

    A C. perfringens type A genomic library was constructed in E. coli by banking overlapping 6-10 kbp Hind III fragments of chromosomal DNA from the enterotoxin (CPE) positive strain NCTC 8239 into the pUC derived vector pHG165. The library was screened by colony hybridization with a degenerate 26 bp oligonucleotide probe, derived from the amino acid sequence CPE9_17A. complex mixture of plasmid DNA was isolated from the only hybridization positive clone. A second round of screening picked out a...

  1. MOLECULAR CLONING OF OVINE cDNA LEPTIN GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA TEREZIA SOCOL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient bacterial transformation system suitable for cloning the coding sequence of the ovine leptin gene in E. coli DH5α host cells using the pGEMT easy vector it is described in this paper. The necessity of producing leptin is based on the fact that the role of this molecule in the animal and human organism is still unknown, leptin not existing as commercial product on the Romanian market. The results obtained in the bacterial transformation, cloning, recombinant clones selection, control of the insertion experiments and DNA computational analysis represent the first steps in further genetic engineering experiments such as production of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, protein expression, etc., for a further contribution in elucidating the role of leptin in the animal and human organism.

  2. Cloning, expression, and chromosome mapping of human galectin-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peder; Rasmussen, H H; Flint, T

    1995-01-01

    The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we report the cloning and expression of a novel member of this family (galectin-7) that correspond to IEF (isoelectric focusing) 17 (12,700 Da; pI, 7.6) in the human...... keratinocyte protein data base, and that is strikingly down-regulated in SV40 transformed keratinocytes (K14). The cDNA was cloned from a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library using degenerated oligodeoxyribonucleotides back-translated from an IEF 17 peptide sequence. The protein encoded by the galectin-7 clone......14 keratinocytes imply a role in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions necessary for normal growth control. The galectin-7 gene was mapped to chromosome 19. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Mar-17...

  3. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  4. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  5. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  6. Complementation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Clones with Lentivirus Expression Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Description HRAS Homo sapiens v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS), transcript 1 CDC25C Homo sapiens cell division cycle 25...homolog C (CDC25C), transcript variant 1 MYC Homo sapiens v-myc myeloctomatosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) (MYC) MAP3K7 Homo sapiens mitogen...activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (MAP3K7) MAP3K8 Homo sapiens mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) SF3B1 Homo sapiens

  7. The Virtual Library in Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, Louise

    1999-01-01

    The SLAC Library has for many years provided SPIRES-HEP, a 300,000 record bibliographic database, to the world particle physics community via the Internet as well as through clone sites in Europe and Japan. The 1991 introduction of the e-print archives at LANL coupled with the World-Wide-Web (WWW) from CERN suddenly made it possible to provide easy linkage between bibliographic database records and the actual full-text of papers. The SLAC Library has turned this possibility into reality by converting hundreds of TeX source documents each month into viewable postscript complete with figures. These (now more than 20,000) postscript files are linked to the HEP database, and the full-text is rendered universally visible via WWW. We discuss the project, the collaboration of physicists and librarians, what is easy, what is hard, and our vision for the future

  8. The Virtual Library in Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, Louise

    1999-07-02

    The SLAC Library has for many years provided SPIRES-HEP, a 300,000 record bibliographic database, to the world particle physics community via the Internet as well as through clone sites in Europe and Japan. The 1991 introduction of the e-print archives at LANL coupled with the World-Wide-Web (WWW) from CERN suddenly made it possible to provide easy linkage between bibliographic database records and the actual full-text of papers. The SLAC Library has turned this possibility into reality by converting hundreds of TeX source documents each month into viewable postscript complete with figures. These (now more than 20,000) postscript files are linked to the HEP database, and the full-text is rendered universally visible via WWW. We discuss the project, the collaboration of physicists and librarians, what is easy, what is hard, and our vision for the future.

  9. MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARKETING LIBRARY SERVICES IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES: A TOOL FOR SURVIVAL IN THE ... This article discusses the concept of marketing library and information services as an ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Bertolt

    2009-01-01

    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  11. Cloning of a Gene Whose Expression is Increased in Scrapie and in Senile Plaques in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Haase, A.; Chesebro, B.; Race, R.; Frey, W.; Rustan, T.; Friedman, R. L.

    1985-12-01

    A complementary DNA library was constructed from messenger RNA's extracted from the brains of mice infected with the scrapie agent. The library was differentially screened with the objectives of finding clones that might be used as markers of infection and finding clones of genes whose increased expression might be correlated with the pathological changes common to scrapie and Alzheimer's disease. A gene was identified whose expression is increased in scrapie. The complementary DNA corresponding to this gene hybridized preferentially and focally to cells in the brains of scrapie-infected animals. The cloned DNA also hybridized to the neuritic plaques found with increased frequency in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  13. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  15. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  16. Library news

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has been providing electronic access to the "Techniques de l'Ingénieur" database for the past 8 months. As a reminder, this is a multidisciplinary database of over 4000 technical and scientific articles in French, covering a broad range of topics such as mechanical engineering, safety, electronics and the environment. In a few simple steps, you can create your own account, select the types of documents you are interested in and configure your settings so as to receive alerts when articles in your field of activity are published. You can now access this resource from outside CERN using the "remote access to electronic resources" service. Further information is available here. Direct access to the database. Remote access to electronic resources. If you have any questions or comments, don't hesitate to contact us at: library.desk@cern.ch.

  17. Library Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term benchmarking has been encountered in the implementation of total quality (TQM or in Indonesian termed holistic quality management because benchmarking is a tool to look for ideas or learn from the library. Benchmarking is a processof measuring and comparing for continuous business process of systematic and continuous measurement, the process of measuring and comparing for continuous business process of an organization to get information that can help these organization improve their performance efforts.

  18. Cloning and study of the pectate lyase gene of Erwinia carotovora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukanov, N.O.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Evtushenkov, A.N.; Syarinskii, M.A.; Strel'chenko, P.P.; Yankovski, N.K.; Alikhanyan, S.I.; Fomichev, Yu.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The cloning of the gene of a secretable protein of Erwinia carotovora, pectate lyase, in Escherichia coli was described. Primary cloning was conducted using the phage vector λ 47.1. In the gene library of E. carotovora obtained, eight phages carrying the gene sought were identified according to the appearance of enzymatic activity of the gene product, pectate lyase, in situ. The BamHI fragment of DNA, common to all these phages, was recloned on the plasmid pUC19. It was shown that the cloned pectate lyase gene is represented on the E. carotovora chromosome in one copy. Methods of production of representative gene libraries on phage vectors from no less than 1 μg of cloned DNA even for the genomes of eukaryotes have now been developed. Vectors have been created, for example, λ 47.1, permitting the selection only of hybrid molecules. A number of methods have been developed for the search for a required gene in the library, depending on whether the cloned gene can be expressed or not, and if it can, what properties it will impart to the hybrid clone containing it

  19. Human Chromosome 21: Mapping of the chromosomes and cloning of cDNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the research funded by DOE grant DE-FG02-89ER60857 from 6/15/89 to 8/31/91 was to contribute to the physical mapping of human chromosome 21 (HC21) by cloning large fragments of DNA into Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs) and identify YACs that map on HC21. A total of 54 sequence tagged sites (STS) have been developed and mapped in our laboratory to HC21 and can be used as initial reference points for YAC identification and construction of overlapping clones. A small YAC library was constructed which is HC21 specific. DNA from somatic cell hybrid WAV17 or from flow-sorted HC21 was partially digested with EcoRI, ligated into vectors PJS97, PJS98, and YACs have been obtained with average size insert of more than 300 kb. This library has been deposited in D. Patterson's lab for the Joint YAC screening effort. Additional YAC libraries from ICI Pharmaceuticals or from Los Alamos National Laboratories have been screened with several STS and positive YACs have been identified. Work in progress includes screening of YAC libraries in order to construct overlapping clones, characterization of the cloning ends of YACs, characterization of additional STS and cloning of HC21 specific cDNAs. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindan, M.V.; Burelle, M.; Cantin, C.; Kabrie, C.; Labrie, F.; Lachance, Y.; Leblanc, G.; Lefebvre, C.; Patel, P.; Simard, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how in order to define the functional domains of the human androgen receptor, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones encoding the human androgen receptor (hAR) have been isolated from a human testis λgtll cDNA library using synthetic oligonnucleotide probes, homologous to segments of the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors. The cDNA clones corresponding to the human glucocorticoid, estradiol and progesterone receptors were eliminated after cross-hybridization with their respective cDNA probes and/or after restriction mapping of the cDNA clones. The remaining cDNA clones were classified into different groups after analysis by restriction digestion and cross-hybridization. Two of the largest cDNA clones from each group were inserted into an expression vector in both orientations. The linearized plasmids were used as templates in in vitro transcription with T7 RNA polymerase. Subsequent in vitro translation of the purified transcripts in rabbit reticulocyte lysate followed by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) permitted the characterization of the encoded polyeptides. The expressed proteins larger than 30,000 Da were analyzed for their ability to bind tritium-labelled dihydrotestosterone ([ 3 H] DHT) with high affinity and specificity

  1. Cloning of the cDNA for human 12-lipoxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, T.; Hoshiko, S.; Radmark, O.; Samuelsson, B.

    1990-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone encoding 12-lipoxygenase was isolated from a human platelet cDNA library by using a cDNA for human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase as probe for the initial screening. The cDNA had an open reading frame encoding 662 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 75,590. Three independent clones revealed minor heterogeneities in their DNA sequences. Thus, in three positions of the deduced amino acid sequence, there is a choice between two different amino acids. The deduced sequence from the clone plT3 showed 65% identity with human reticulocyte 15-lipoxygenase and 42% identity with human leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase. The 12-lipoxygenase cDNA recognized a 3.0-kilobase mRNA species in platelets and human erythroleukemia cells (HEL cells). Phorbol 12-tetradecanoyl 13-acetate induced megakaryocytic differentiation of HEL cells and 12-lipoxygenase activity and increased mRNA for 12-lipoxygenase. The identity of the cloned 12-lipoxygenase was assured by expression in a mammalian cell line (COS cells). Human platelet 12-lipoxygenase has been difficult to purify to homogeneity. The cloning of this cDNA will increase the possibilities to elucidate the structure and function of this enzyme

  2. Horse cDNA clones encoding two MHC class I genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbis, D.P.; Maher, J.K.; Stanek, J.; Klaunberg, B.A.; Antczak, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    Two full-length clones encoding MHC class I genes were isolated by screening a horse cDNA library, using a probe encoding in human HLA-A2.2Y allele. The library was made in the pcDNA1 vector (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), using mRNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from a Thoroughbred stallion (No. 0834) homozygous for a common horse MHC haplotype (ELA-A2, -B2, -D2; Antczak et al. 1984; Donaldson et al. 1988). The clones were sequenced, using SP6 and T7 universal primers and horse-specific oligonucleotides designed to extend previously determined sequences.

  3. Construction of the BAC Library of Small Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) for Gene Screening and Genome Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Likun; You, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xu, Jian; Jiang, Yanliang; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Zixia; Chen, Baohua; Zhao, Yunfeng; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Ke, Caihuan; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    The small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) is one of the most important aquaculture species in East Asia. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization, genome analysis, and genetic breeding of it, we constructed a large-insert bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, which is an important genetic tool for advanced genetics and genomics research. The small abalone BAC library includes 92,610 clones with an average insert size of 120 Kb, equivalent to approximately 7.6× of the small abalone genome. We set up three-dimensional pools and super pools of 18,432 BAC clones for target gene screening using PCR method. To assess the approach, we screened 12 target genes in these 18,432 BAC clones and identified 16 positive BAC clones. Eight positive BAC clones were then sequenced and assembled with the next generation sequencing platform. The assembled contigs representing these 8 BAC clones spanned 928 Kb of the small abalone genome, providing the first batch of genome sequences for genome evaluation and characterization. The average GC content of small abalone genome was estimated as 40.33%. A total of 21 protein-coding genes, including 7 target genes, were annotated into the 8 BACs, which proved the feasibility of PCR screening approach with three-dimensional pools in small abalone BAC library. One hundred fifty microsatellite loci were also identified from the sequences for marker development in the future. The BAC library and clone pools provided valuable resources and tools for genetic breeding and conservation of H. diversicolor.

  4. Construction and Identification of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for 0-613-2R in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library containing a large genomic DNA insert is an important tool for genome physical mapping, map-based cloning, and genome sequencing. To isolate genes via a map-based cloning strategy and to perform physical mapping of the cotton genome, a high-quality BAC library containing large cotton DNA inserts is needed. We have developed a BAC library of the restoring line 0-613-2R for isolating the fertility restorer (Rf1) gene and genomic research in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The BAC library contains 97 825 clones stored in 255 pieces of a 384-well microtiter plate. Random samples of BACs digested with the Notl enzyme indicated that the average insert size is approximately 130 kb, with a range of 80-275 kb,and 95.7% of the BAC clones in the library have an average insert size larger than 100 kb. Based on a cotton genome size of 2 250 Mb, library coverage is 5.7 x haploid genome equivalents. Four clones were selected randomly from the library to determine the stability of the BAC clones. There were no different fingerprints for 0 and 100 generations of each clone digested with Notl and Hindlll enzymes. Thus, the stability of a single BAC clone can be sustained at least for 100 generations. Eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers flanking the Rf1 gene were chosen to screen the BAC library by pool using PCR method and 25 positive clones were identified with 3.1 positive clones per SSR marker.

  5. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  6. Binding proteins for the regulatory subunit (RII-B) of brain cAMP-dependent protein kinase II: isolation and initial characterization of cDNA clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregman, D.B.; Hu, E.; Rubin, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    In mammalian brain several proteins bind RII-B with high affinity. An example is P75, which co-purifies with RII-B and also complexes Ca 2+ -calmodulin. Thus, RII-B binding proteins (RBPs) might play a role in integrating the Ca 2+ and cAMP signalling pathways in the CNS. In order to study the structure and function of these polypeptides they have isolated cloned cDNAs for RBPs by screening brain λgt11 expression libraries using a functional assay: the binding of 32 P-labeled RII to fusion proteins produced by recombinants expressing RII binding domains. Inserts from rat brain recombinant clones λ7B and λ10B both hybridize to a brain mRNA of 7000 nucleotides. Northern gel analyses indicate that the putative RBP mRNA is also expressed in lung, but not in several other tissues. The λ7B insert was subcloned into the expression plasmid pINIA. A 50 kDa high affinity RII-B binding polypeptide accumulated in E. coli transformed with pINIA-7B. Two RBP cDNAs (λ77, λ100A) have been retrieved from a bovine λgt 11 library using a monoclonal antibody directed against P75 and the binding assay respectively. On Southern blots the insert from λ100A hybridizes to the cDNA insert from clones λ77, suggesting that λ 77 cDNA might contain sequences coding for both an RII binding domain and a P75 epitope. The bovine λ100A insert also hybridizes with the rat λ7B clone indicating that an RII binding domain is conserved in the two species

  7. Identification of cDNA clones expressing immunodiagnostic antigens from Trichinella spiralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarlenga, D.; Gamble, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA expression library was built in lambda gt11 phage using poly A mRNA isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle stage larvae. This library was screened with rabbit antibodies to parasite excretory-secretory (ES) products and greater than 180 clones were isolated. Thirteen clones producing highly immunogenic protein antigens were plaque purified and rescreened with pig antisera to T.spiralis, Trichuris suis or Ascaris suum to identify clones producing epitopes specific to T.spiralis ES products, only. Two clones, TsAc-2 and TsAc-8, which displayed strong interactions with pig antisera to T. spiralis were lysogenized in E. coli Y1089 and the protein extracted. Western blots of the crude fusion proteins revealed molecular weights of 133 kD and 129 kD, respectively. Northern blot analysis of total RNA with 32 P labelled cDNA:lambda gt11 probes indicated single RNA transcripts for each clone with molecular sizes corresponding to 800-850 nucleotides. dscDNA inserts were estimated by southern blot analysis to be 500 bp and 340 bp, respectively, with no cross-hybridization observed between the cloned sequences. Dot blots using pig sera to screen crude fusion protein preparations, total bacterial protein (negative controls) and crude worm extract or ES products from T.spiralis, T.suis and A.suum (positive controls) corroborated the specificity and sensitivity of these clones as potential diagnostic antigens for swine trichinellosis

  8. Parallel Sequencing of Expressed Sequence Tags from Two Complementary DNA Libraries for High and Low Phosphorus Adaptation in Common Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Blair

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Expressed sequence tags (ESTs have proven useful for gene discovery in many crops. In this work, our objective was to construct complementary DNA (cDNA libraries from root tissues of common beans ( L. grown under low and high P hydroponic conditions and to conduct EST sequencing and comparative analyses of the libraries. Expressed sequence tag analysis of 3648 clones identified 2372 unigenes, of which 1591 were annotated as known genes while a total of 465 unigenes were not associated with any known gene. Unigenes with hits were categorized according to biological processes, molecular function, and cellular compartmentalization. Given the young tissue used to make the root libraries, genes for catalytic activity and binding were highly expressed. Comparisons with previous root EST sequencing and between the two libraries made here resulted in a set of genes to study further for differential gene expression and adaptation to low P, such as a 14 kDa praline-rich protein, a metallopeptidase, tonoplast intrinsic protein, adenosine triphosphate (ATP citrate synthase, and cell proliferation genes expressed in the low P treated plants. Given that common beans are often grown on acid soils of the tropics and subtropics that are usually low in P these genes and the two parallel libraries will be useful for selection for better uptake of this essential macronutrient. The importance of EST generation for common bean root tissues under low P and other abiotic soil stresses is also discussed.

  9. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  10. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  11. Libraries for users services in academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Alvite, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews the quality and evolution of academic library services. It revises service trends offered by academic libraries and the challenge of enhancing traditional ones such as: catalogues, repositories and digital collections, learning resources centres, virtual reference services, information literacy and 2.0 tools.studies the role of the university library in the new educational environment of higher educationrethinks libraries in academic contextredefines roles for academic libraries

  12. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  13. End Sequencing and Finger Printing of Human & Mouse BAC Libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, C

    2005-09-27

    This project provided for continued end sequencing of existing and new BAC libraries constructed to support human sequencing as well as to initiate BAC end sequencing from the mouse BAC libraries constructed to support mouse sequencing. The clones, the sequences, and the fingerprints are now an available resource for the community at large. Research and development of new metaodologies for BAC end sequencing have reduced costs and increase throughput.

  14. Cloning and differential expression analyses of Cdc42 from sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yong-Jie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serological diagnosis of brucellosis is still a great challenge due to the infeasibility of discriminating infected animals from vaccinated ones, so it is necessary to search for diagnostic biomarkers for differential diagnosis of brucellosis.

  15. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  16. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  17. Software problems in library automation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, A. T.

    1998-01-01

    Important software problems faced by the library professionals in India are analysed and points out various compatibility and suitability issues in the selection of a library software. The paper also hints that these problems has affected the progress of computerisation of libraries. Upto date and detailed information on softwares available in India can prevent several issues that may arise in the course of computerisation. An agency/mechanism to continuously evaluate the softwares may be ...

  18. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  19. Marketing the Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  20. State Virtual Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Virtual library? Electronic library? Digital library? Online information network? These all apply to the growing number of Web-based resource collections managed by consortiums of state library entities. Some, like "INFOhio" and "KYVL" ("Kentucky Virtual Library"), have been available for a few years, but others are just starting. Searching for…

  1. Public Libraries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Overview of library movement in Bangladesh highlights British (1851-1947) and Pakistan periods (1947-1971), separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, libraries in development plans (1951-1970), three important public libraries, development of national library, book resources, a library network plan, legislation, finance, leadership, library…

  2. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  3. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  4. Cloning and characterization of the gsk gene encoding guanosine kinase of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlow, Kenneth W.; Nygaard, Per; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli gsk gene encoding guanosine kinase was cloned from the Kohara gene library by complementation of the E. coli gsk-1 mutant allele. The cloned DNA fragment was sequenced and shown to encode a putative polypeptide of 433 amino acids with a molecular mass of 48,113 Da. Minicell...

  5. Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution of a novel human gap junction-forming protein, connexin-31.9. Interaction with zona occludens protein-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, Peter A; Beahm, Derek L; Giepmans, Ben N G; Baruch, Amos; Hall, James E; Kumar, Nalin M

    2002-01-01

    A novel human connexin gene (GJA11) was cloned from a genomic library. The open reading frame encoded a hypothetical protein of 294 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 31,933, hence referred to as connexin-31.9 (Cx31.9) or alpha 11 connexin. A clone in GenBank containing the

  6. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  7. Analysis of an epigenetic argument against human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2006-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. This technology is often condemned as being contrary to human dignity. However, there are also risk arguments. An ethical argument that is often put forward by scientists but seldom developed in more detail focuses on health risks in animal cloning. There is a high risk that animal clones exhibit abnormalities and these are increasingly believed to be due to errors in epigenetic reprogramming. The argument is that human reproductive cloning should not be carried out because human clones are also likely to exhibit abnormalities due to inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming. Different versions of this epigenetic argument are analysed, a categorical version and a non-categorical. The non-categorical version is suggested to be more well-considered. With regard to policy making on human reproductive cloning, the categorical version can be used to prescribe a permanent ban, while the non-categorical version can be used to prescribe a temporary ban. The implications of the precautionary principle--as interpreted in the European Union--are investigated. The conclusion is that it seems possible to support a temporary ban by reference to this principle.

  8. Measuring Effectiveness in a Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Jannette L.

    2010-01-01

    Measuring quality of service in academic libraries traditionally includes quantifiable data such as collection size, staff counts, circulation numbers, reference service statistics, qualitative analyses of customer satisfaction, shelving accuracy, and building comfort. In the libraries of the third millennium, virtual worlds, Web content and…

  9. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1→2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1→2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1→2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1→2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  10. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  11. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  12. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  13. A Clone of Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  14. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  15. A feruloyl esterase derived from a leachate metagenome library

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A feruloyl esterase encoding gene (designated fae6), derived from a leachate metagenomic library, was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of the insert DNA determined. Translational analysis revealed that fae6 consists of a 515 amino acid polypeptide...

  16. Multigroup cross section library; WIMS library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Umasankari

    2000-01-01

    The WIMS library has been extensively used in thermal reactor calculations. This multigroup constants library was originally developed from the UKNDL in the late 60's and has been updated in 1986. This library has been distributed with the WIMS-D code by NEA data bank. The references to WIMS library in literature are the 'old' which is the original as developed by the AEA Winfrith and the 'new' which is the current 1986 WIMS library. IAEA has organised a CRP where a new and fully updated WIMS library will soon be available. This paper gives an overview of the definitions of the group constants that go into any basic nuclear data library used for reactor calculations. This paper also outlines the contents of the WIMS library and some of its shortcomings

  17. Cloning and expression of clt genes encoding milk-clotting proteases from Myxococcus xanthus 422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Sieiro, C; Villa, T G

    2004-10-01

    The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems.

  18. New vectors in fission yeast: application for cloning the his2 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weilguny, D; Praetorius, M; Carr, Alan

    1991-01-01

    of transforming Sc. pombe ura4 strains, as well as ura 3 strains of the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used pON163 for the construction of two fission yeast genomic libraries. From these gene banks clones were isolated that were able to complement fission yeast his2 mutants...

  19. Cloning of a novel gene, Cymg1, related to family 2 cystatins and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have cloned a novel gene, Cymg1 (GenBank accession number AY600990), from a mouse testis cDNA library. Cymg1 is located in 2G3 of mouse chromosome 2. The cDNA includes an open reading frame that encodes 141 amino acid residues. The encoded polypeptide has a cysteine protease inhibitor domain found ...

  20. Rapid approach for cloning bacterial single-genes directly from soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obtaining functional genes of bacteria from environmental samples usually depends on library-based approach which is not favored as its large amount of work with small possibility of positive clones. A kind of bacterial single-gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was selected as example to detect the efficiency of ...

  1. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqing; Bai, Chunyu; Guo, Yu; Liu, Dan; Lu, Taofeng; Li, Xiangchen; Ma, Jianzhang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12), consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger. PMID:24608928

  2. Construction and Analysis of Siberian Tiger Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library with Approximately 6.5-Fold Genome Equivalent Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are extremely valuable for the genome-wide genetic dissection of complex organisms. The Siberian tiger, one of the most well-known wild primitive carnivores in China, is an endangered animal. In order to promote research on its genome, a high-redundancy BAC library of the Siberian tiger was constructed and characterized. The library is divided into two sub-libraries prepared from blood cells and two sub-libraries prepared from fibroblasts. This BAC library contains 153,600 individually archived clones; for PCR-based screening of the library, BACs were placed into 40 superpools of 10 × 384-deep well microplates. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 116.5 kb, representing approximately 6.46 genome equivalents of the haploid genome and affording a 98.86% statistical probability of obtaining at least one clone containing a unique DNA sequence. Screening the library with 19 microsatellite markers and a SRY sequence revealed that each of these markers were present in the library; the average number of positive clones per marker was 6.74 (range 2 to 12, consistent with 6.46 coverage of the tiger genome. Additionally, we identified 72 microsatellite markers that could potentially be used as genetic markers. This BAC library will serve as a valuable resource for physical mapping, comparative genomic study and large-scale genome sequencing in the tiger.

  3. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  4. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  5. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  6. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings

  7. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  8. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC. LIBRARIES. P. C. AZIAGBA AND E. H. UZOEZI. (Received 10, September 2009; Revision Accepted 8, February 2010). ABSTRACT. This survey was undertaken to portray the level of library involvement ...

  9. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the grading of Eucalyptus clones using carbon isotope discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.J.; Stock, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were analysed in leaf material of nine Eucalyptus clones grown in field trials in the eastern Transvaal. Carbon isotope ratios, measured as d 13 C, differed within tree canopies, between replicate trees and between clones. Values from both north and south canopy positions were correlated with tree height after 13 months. Unexplained variation in the correlation may be interpreted, theoretically, as an indication that some clones use less water for the same level of productivity. With further testing, the method may have promise for early screening of clones in genotype/environment interaction trials and in selecting water-efficient trees. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 7 refs

  11. Creation of BAC genomic resources for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) for physical mapping of RGA containing BAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, D; Lanaud, C; Sabau, X; Fouet, O; Le Cunff, L; Ruiz, E; Risterucci, A M; Glaszmann, J C; Piffanelli, P

    2004-05-01

    We have constructed and validated the first cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) BAC library, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the structure and evolution of the genome of this perennial crop. This library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 120 kb, representing approximately ten haploid genome equivalents. It was constructed from the genotype Scavina-6 (Sca-6), a Forastero clone highly resistant to cocoa pathogens and a parent of existing mapping populations. Validation of the BAC library was carried out with a set of 13 genetically-anchored single copy and one duplicated markers. An average of nine BAC clones per probe was identified, giving an initial experimental estimation of the genome coverage represented in the library. Screening of the library with a set of resistance gene analogues (RGAs), previously mapped in cocoa and co-localizing with QTL for resistance to Phytophthora traits, confirmed at the physical level the tight clustering of RGAs in the cocoa genome and provided the first insights into the relationships between genetic and physical distances in the cocoa genome. This library represents an available BAC resource for structural genomic studies or map-based cloning of genes corresponding to important QTLs for agronomic traits such as resistance genes to major cocoa pathogens like Phytophthora spp ( palmivora and megakarya), Crinipellis perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri.

  12. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible.

  13. Molecular cloning of lupin leghemoglobin cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konieczny, A; Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from root nodules of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus, var. Ventus) has been used as a template for the construction of a cDNA library. The ds cDNA was synthesized and inserted into the Hind III site of plasmid pBR 322 using synthetic Hind III linkers. Clones containing sequences...... specific for nodules were selected by differential colony hybridization using 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized either from nodule poly(A)+ RNA or from poly(A)+ RNA of uninfected root as probes. Among the recombinant plasmids, the cDNA gene for leghemoglobin was identified. The protein structure derived from...... its nucleotide sequence was consistent with known amino acid sequence of lupin Lb II. The cloned lupin Lb cDNA hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA from nodules only, which is in accordance with the general concept, that leghemoglobin is expressed exclusively in nodules. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  14. Properties of promoters cloned randomly from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G M; Tornow, J; McLaughlin, C S; Moldave, K

    1988-01-01

    Promoters were isolated at random from the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using a plasmid that contains a divergently arrayed pair of promoterless reporter genes. A comprehensive library was constructed by inserting random (DNase I-generated) fragments into the intergenic region upstream from the reporter genes. Simple in vivo assays for either reporter gene product (alcohol dehydrogenase or beta-galactosidase) allowed the rapid identification of promoters from among these random fragments. Poly(dA-dT) homopolymer tracts were present in three of five randomly cloned promoters. With two exceptions, each RNA start site detected was 40 to 100 base pairs downstream from a TATA element. All of the randomly cloned promoters were capable of activating reporter gene transcription bidirectionally. Interestingly, one of the promoter fragments originated in a region of the S. cerevisiae rDNA spacer; regulated divergent transcription (presumably by RNA polymerase II) initiated in the same region. Images PMID:2847031

  15. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  16. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  17. cDNA library construction of two human Demodexspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, DongLing; Wang, RuiLing; Zhao, YaE; Yang, Rui; Hu, Li; Lei, YuYang; Dan, WeiChao

    2017-06-01

    The research of Demodex, a type of pathogen causing various dermatoses in animals and human beings, is lacking at RNA level. This study aims at extracting RNA and constructing cDNA library for Demodex. First, P. cuniculiand D. farinaewere mixed to establish homogenization method for RNA extraction. Second, D. folliculorumand D. breviswere collected and preserved in Trizol, which were mixed with D. farinaerespectively to extract RNA. Finally, cDNA library was constructed and its quality was assessed. The results indicated that for D. folliculorum& D. farinae, the recombination rate of cDNA library was 90.67% and the library titer was 7.50 × 104 pfu/ml. 17 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. folliculorum; For D. brevis& D. farinae, the recombination rate was 90.96% and the library titer was 7.85 x104 pfu/ml. 40 of the 59 positive clones were predicted to be of D. brevis. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that mtDNA cox1, cox3and ATP6 detected from cDNA libraries had 96.52%-99.73% identities with the corresponding sequences in GenBank. In conclusion, the cDNA libraries constructed for Demodexmixed with D. farinaewere successful and could satisfy the requirements for functional genes detection.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of pathogenesis-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We described the cloning and characterization of pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene in maize, named ZmPR5 (GenBank Accession Number: HM230665). Molecular and bioinformatic analyses of ZmPR5 revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 525 bp, encoding a protein of 175 amino acids (aa) and a deduced ...

  19. Clones, Drones and Dragons: Ongoing Uncertainties around School Leader Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Allan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a number of key issues around successful school leadership and leader development. Three metaphors are used to frame, track and analyse recent research and commentary in the area--these are clones, drones and dragons. Although development mechanisms rarely fall neatly within one category, the metaphors provide a useful way to…

  20. Water use by Eucalypt Clones Growing at Kongowe, Kibaha, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out between April and October 2014 to investigate the amount of water used by Eucalypt clones grown at Kongowe, Tanzania. Sap flow sensors using heat pulse velocity were deployed across GC 167, GC 15 and GC 940 in wet and dry seasons. Data on water use were analysed using sap flow software ...

  1. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  2. Biomathematical Description of Synthetic Peptide Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Libraries of randomised peptides displayed on phages or viral particles are essential tools in a wide spectrum of applications. However, there is only limited understanding of a library's fundamental dynamics and the influences of encoding schemes and sizes on their quality. Numeric properties of libraries, such as the expected number of different peptides and the library's coverage, have long been in use as measures of a library's quality. Here, we present a graphical framework of these measures together with a library's relative efficiency to help to describe libraries in enough detail for researchers to plan new experiments in a more informed manner. In particular, these values allow us to answer-in a probabilistic fashion-the question of whether a specific library does indeed contain one of the "best" possible peptides. The framework is implemented in a web-interface based on two packages, discreteRV and peptider, to the statistical software environment R. We further provide a user-friendly web-interface called PeLiCa (Peptide Library Calculator, http://www.pelica.org), allowing scientists to plan and analyse their peptide libraries. PMID:26042419

  3. Construction of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of TM-1, a Standard Line for Genetics and Genomics in Upland Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hu; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed for Gossyplum hirsutum acc. TM-1, a genetic and genomic standard line for Upland cotton. The library consists of 147 456 clones with an average insert size of 122.8 kb ranging from 97 to 240 kb. About 96.0% of the clones have inserts over 100 kb. Therefore, this library represents theoretically 7.4 haploid genome equivalents based on an AD genome size of 2 425 Mb. Clones were stored in 384 384- well plates and arrayed into multiplex pools for rapid and reliable library screening. BAC screening was carded out by four-round polymerase chain reactions using 23 simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, three sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers and one pair of pdmere for a gene associated with fiber development to test the quality of the library. Correspondingly, in total 92 positive BAC clones were Identified with an average four positive clones per SSR marker, ranging from one to eight hits. Additionally, since these SSR markers have been localized to chromosome 12 (A12) and 26 (D12) according to the genetic map, these BAC clonee are expected to serve as seeds for the physical mapping of these two homologous chromosomes, sequentially map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci or genes associated with Important agronomic traits.

  4. Libraries and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  5. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  6. The library marketing toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    A guide that offers coverage of various elements of library marketing and branding for different sectors including archives and academic, public and special libraries. It is suitable for those who are involved in promoting their library or information service, whether at an academic, public or special library or in archives or records management.

  7. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  8. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  9. Quantum cloning without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, G. de; Fazio, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1 → 2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N → M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10 % off that of the optimal cloner. (author)

  10. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  11. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  12. Clone and characterization of photolyase-gene from soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najrana, T.; Hirouchi, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4pp) are the major products of UV-radiation. Both CPD and 6-4pp posses lethal as well as mutagenic property. Excision repair and photoreactivation are involved as major pathways in repairing those photoproducts. To repair those products plant uses photoreactivation as a major pathway. In photoreactivation process photolyase (enzyme encoded by PHR-gene) catalyzes the splitting of the dimer into a monomer under blue light. Photolyase is specific for damage CPD or 6-4pp. The CPD and 6-4pp photolyases are responsible for repairing CPD and 6-4pp lesions respectively. Several investigators reported that removal of CPD lesion is necessary for survival in higher plants in the early development. Thus one should realize the importance of clone and characterization of CPD-photolyase gene from plants especially from those are lying in the list of foods such as wheat, corn, soybean etc. cDNA library (pSPORT-P) of soybean was amplified using the primers that designated as common for CPD-photolyase gene for plants. These primers gave the desire size of PCR product. Desirable PCR product inserted into TA-cloning vector and sequenced. Amino acid sequence revealed considerable homology with CPD-photolyases of rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Then using dilution-PCR amplification method (Hirouchi et al., MGG in press) I have identified the true clone from cDNA library of soybean that containing the full length of CPD-photolyase gene. Full length of cloned gene is about 1698 bps long and exist start and stop codon. Amino acid sequence of the cloned gene shows more than 70% homology with rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Cloned gene enables to complement the E. coli ( phr-uvrA-recA-) system that is completely defective in photoreactivation. The size of CPD-photolyase of soybean is about 56 KDa as identified by 12% SDS PAGE

  13. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  14. Usage Analysis of Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 Tools by Librarians in Kwara State Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Soluoku, Taofeeqat

    2016-01-01

    This study analysed the usage of Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 tools by librarians in Kwara State academic libraries. A sample of 40 librarians was surveyed through total enumeration sampling technique from four different tertiary education institutions libraries in Kwara State, Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for the collection of data. The collected…

  15. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  16. Neutron cross section libraries for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Kazuaki; Oyama, Yukio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoo

    1988-03-01

    We have prepared two computer code systems producing neutron cross section libraries to analyse fusion neutronics experiments. First system produces the neutron cross section library in ANISN format, i.e., the multi-group constants in group independent format. This library can be obtained by using the multi-group constant processing code system MACS-N and the ANISN format cross section compiling code CROKAS. Second system is for the continuous energy cross section library for the MCNP code. This library can be obtained by the nuclear data processing system NJOY which generates pointwise energy cross sections and the cross section compiling code MACROS for the MCNP library. In this report, we describe the production procedures for both types of the cross section libraries, and show six libraries with different conditions in ANISN format and a library for the MCNP code. (author)

  17. Cloning and identification of the gene coding for the 140-kd subunit of Drosophila RNA polymerase II

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Daniela M.; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate; Falkenburg, Dieter; Gasch, Alexander; Bialojan, Siegfried; Young, Richard A.; Bautz, Ekkehard K. F.

    1986-01-01

    Genomic clones of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated from a λ library by cross-hybridization with the yeast gene coding for the 150-kd subunit of RNA polymerase II. Clones containing a region of ∼2.0 kb with strong homology to the yeast gene were shown to code for a 3.9-kb poly(A)+-RNA. Part of the coding region was cloned into an expression vector. A fusion protein was obtained which reacted with an antibody directed against RNA polymerase II of Drosophila. Peptide mapping of the fusion p...

  18. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  19. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  1. library use instruction and the pattern of utilization of library services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics (simple percentage %). ... semesters and it should be an independent credit carrying course under the General Studies ... large and well stocked a library is, if the ..... Online. LIBRARY USE INSTRUCTION AND THE PATTERN OF UTILIZATION OF LIBRARY ...

  2. The Impact of the Economic Downturn on Libraries: With Special Reference to University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David; Rowlands, Ian; Jubb, Michael; Jamali, Hamid R.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the extent to which libraries from around the world are experiencing financial hardship as a result of the world-wide economic downturn. Comparative analyses are provides on the grounds of country, sector and size of institution. The article concentrates on the situation of UK and US university libraries and is based on…

  3. Factors Affecting the Full Use of Library and Information Management Systems by Library Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skretas, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a general list of factors that affects and determines the full use of library information management systems (LIMS) by library staff. Design/methodology/approach: The factors, which were identified mainly during participation in the implementation of automation projects in Greece, are listed and briefly analysed in categories…

  4. Cloning and characterization of profilin (Pru du 4), a cross-reactive almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pallavi; Venkatesh, Yeldur P; Wang, Fang; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2006-10-01

    The identity of allergenic almond proteins is incomplete. Our objective was to characterize patient IgE reactivity to a recombinant and corresponding native almond allergen. An almond cDNA library was screened with sera from patients with allergy for IgE binding proteins. Two reactive clones were sequenced, and 1 was expressed. The expressed recombinant allergen and its native counterpart (purified from unprocessed almond flour) were assayed by 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and ELISA, and screened for cross-reactivity with grass profilin. The 2 selected clones encoded profilin (designated Pru du 4) sequences that differed by 2 silent mutations. By dot-blot analyses, 6 of 18 patient sera (33%) reacted with the recombinant Pru du 4 protein, and 8 of 18 (44%) reacted with the native form. ELISA results were similar. Almond and ryegrass profilins were mutually inhibitable. Two-dimensional immunoblotting revealed the presence of more than 1 native almond profilin isoform. The strength of reactivity of some patients' serum IgE differed markedly between assays and between native and recombinant profilins. Almond nut profilin is an IgE-binding food protein that is cross-reactive with grass pollen profilin and is susceptible to denaturation, resulting in variable reactivity between assay types and between patients. Serum IgE of nearly half of the tested patients with almond allergy reacts with almond nut profilin. Because most patients also had pollinosis, the well-known cross-reactivity between pollen and food profilins could account for this pattern of reactivity.

  5. Identification of a new geographically widespread multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone from European hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dessel, Helke; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; van der Reijden, Tanny; Bakker, Nancy; Paauw, Armand; van den Broek, Peterhans; Verhoef, Jan; Brisse, Sylvain

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the genetic diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains that had previously been allocated to three major groups based on automated ribotyping. Forty-seven isolates from European hospitals and one isolate from a South African hospital, geographically representative of the three ribogroups (ribogroups 1, 2 and 3 with 10, 23 and 15 isolates, respectively), were analysed using the highly discriminatory fingerprinting methods AFLP and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Based on AFLP data, the isolates clustered into three main groups, each corresponding to one ribogroup. Inclusion of reference strains of the previously described clones I and II, responsible for outbreaks in northwestern European hospitals, showed that ribogroups 1 and 2 correspond to clones I and II, respectively, whereas ribogroup 3 apparently represents a new clone. This clone III was found in France, The Netherlands, Italy and Spain. Clones I and II were not limited to northwestern European countries, as they were also recovered from Spain, South Africa, Poland and Italy (clone I) and from Spain, Portugal, South Africa, France, Greece and Turkey (clone II). Combined AFLP and PFGE data showed intraclonal diversity and led to the distinction of 23 different genotypes. Three genotypes, two of them belonging to clone II and one to clone III, were found in different hospitals and may correspond to subsets of isolates with a more recent clonal relationship, which emphasizes the epidemic potential of these organisms.

  6. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  7. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  8. Bengal Bay clone ST772-MRSA-V outbreak: conserved clone causes investigation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfeldt, A; Larssen, K W; Moghen, A; Haugum, K; Steen, T W; Jørgensen, S B; Aamot, H V

    2017-03-01

    The Bengal Bay clone, ST772-MRSA-V, associated with multi-drug resistance, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and skin and soft tissue infections, is emerging worldwide. In Norway, a country with low prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), increased occurrence of ST772-MRSA-V has also caused hospital outbreaks. The conserved nature of this clone challenged the outbreak investigations. To evaluate the usefulness of S. aureus protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat fingerprinting/analysis (MLVF/MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) when investigating outbreaks with a conserved MRSA clone. A panel of 25 MRSA isolates collected in 2004-2014, consisting of six hospital outbreak isolates and 19 sporadic isolates, were analysed using spa typing, polymerase chain reaction detection of genes encoding PVL, MLVF/MLVA and PFGE. All isolates were ST772-MRSA-V-t657 and resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin and norfloxacin, and 88% were PVL positive. PFGE could not discriminate between the isolates (≥85% similarity). MLVF resolved five types [Simpson's index of diversity (SID)=0.56], MLVA resolved six types (SID=0.66), and both methods separated the hospital isolates into two defined outbreaks. MLVF/MLVA could not discriminate all epidemiologically unlinked cases and identical genotypes originated from a timespan of 10 years. MLVA was regarded as most suitable due to its higher discriminatory power and ability to provide unambiguous profiles. However, the Bengal Bay clone may require higher resolution methods for exact demarcation of outbreaks due to low diversity among isolates. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Construction and characterization of a yeast artificial chromosome library containing seven haploid human genome equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertsen, H.M.; Abderrahim, H.; Cann, H.M.; Dausset, J.; Le Paslier, D.; Cohen, D.

    1990-01-01

    Prior to constructing a library of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing very large human DNA fragments, the authors performed a series of preliminary experiments aimed at developing a suitable protocol. They found an inverse relationship between YAC insert size and transformation efficiency. Evidence of occasional rearrangement within YAC inserts was found resulting in clonally stable internal deletions or clonally unstable size variations. A protocol was developed for preparative electrophoretic enrichment of high molecular mass human DNA fragments from partial restriction digests and ligation with the YAC vector in agarose. A YAC library has been constructed from large fragments of DNA from an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid cell line. The library presently contains 50,000 clones, 95% of which are greater than 250 kilobase pairs in size. The mean YAC size of the library, calculated from 132 randomly isolated clones, is 430 kilobase pairs. The library thus contains the equivalent of approximately seven haploid human genomes

  10. Cloning and functional expression of a human pancreatic islet glucose-transporter cDNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permutt, M.A.; Koranyi, L.; Keller, K.; Lacy, P.E.; Scharp, D.W.; Mueckler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic islet glucose transport is mediated by a high-K m , low-affinity facilitated transporter similar to that expressed in liver. To determine the relationship between islet and liver glucose transporters, liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clones were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA clone hybridized to mRNA transcripts of the same size in human liver and pancreatic islet RNA. A cDNA library was prepared from purified human pancreatic islet tissue and screened with human liver-type glucose-transporter cDNA. The authors isolated two overlapping cDNA clones encompassing 2600 base pairs, which encode a pancreatic islet protein identical in sequence to that of the putative liver-type glucose-transporter protein. Xenopus oocytes injected with synthetic mRNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA construct exhibited increased uptake of 2-deoxyglucose, confirming the functional identity of the clone. These cDNA clones can now be used to study regulation of expression of the gene and to assess the role of inherited defects in this gene as a candidate for inherited susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

  11. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  12. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  13. Libraries and Accessibility: Istanbul Public Libraries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Yücel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study; the assessment of accessibility has been conducted in Istanbul public libraries within the scope of public area. Public libraries commonly serve with its user of more than 20 million in total, spread to the general of Turkey, having more than one thousand branches in the centrums and having more than one million registered members. The building principles and standards covering the subjects such as the selection of place, historical and architectural specification of the region, distance to the centre of population and design in a way that the disabled people could benefit from the library services fully have been determined with regulations in the construction of new libraries. There are works for the existent libraries such as access for the disabled, fire safety precautions etc. within the scope of the related standards. Easy access by everyone is prioritized in the public libraries having a significant role in life-long learning. The purpose of the study is to develop solution suggestions for the accessibility problems in the public libraries. The study based on the eye inspection and assessments carried out within the scope of accessibility in the public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate Library and Publications Department within the provincial borders of Istanbul. The arrangements such as reading halls, study areas, book shelves etc. have been examined within the frame of accessible building standards. Building entrances, ramps and staircases, horizontal and vertical circulation of building etc. have been taken into consideration within the scope of accessible building standards. The subjects such as the reading and studying areas and book shelf arrangements for the library have been assessed within the scope of specific buildings. There are a total of 34 public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate on condition that 20 ea. of them are in the

  14. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  15. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel ... Currently, many variants of HMW-GSs have been cloned from bread wheat .... SDS sedimentation tests were conducted using the methods described by Gao et ...

  17. Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, T; Tissier, A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of proteins with programmable DNA-binding specificities triggered a whole array of applications in synthetic biology, including genome editing, regulation of transcription, and epigenetic modifications. Among those, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) due to their natural function as transcription regulators, are especially well-suited for the development of orthogonal systems for the control of gene expression. We describe here the construction and testing of libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters which are under the control of a single TALE with a given DNA-binding specificity. These libraries consist of a fixed DNA-binding element for the TALE, a TATA box, and variable sequences of 19 bases upstream and 43 bases downstream of the DNA-binding element. These libraries were cloned using a Golden Gate cloning strategy making them usable as standard parts in a modular cloning system. The broad range of promoter activities detected and the versatility of these promoter libraries make them valuable tools for applications in the fine-tuning of expression in metabolic engineering projects or in the design and implementation of regulatory circuits. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of recA-like gene from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Kang, J.K.; Yoon, S.M.; Park, Y.; Yang, Y.K.; Kim, S.W.; Park, J.K.; Park, J.G.; Hong, S.H.; Park, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously purified and characterized a RecA-like protein from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe). In the present study, we have cloned a gene encoding the RecA-like protein. The S. pombe recA-like gene was isolated by immunological screening of the expression library of S. pombe using anti-Escherichia coli (E. coli) RecA antibody as a probe. From 10(6) plaques screened, 6 putative clones were finally isolated. Five of the clones screened contained the same kinds of DNA inserts, as determined by crosshybridization analysis. Among the clones, TC-2 was selected for further studies. The pGEM3Zf(-)Delta 17 vector harboring the 4.3 kb DNA insert of TC-2 clone was capable of producing abeta-gal/RecA-like fusion protein, suggesting that the cloned gene encodes the RecA-like protein of S. pombe. It was also revealed by Southern hybridization analysis that the same DNA sequence as the cloned recA-like gene is located within the S. pombe chromosomal DNA. In addition, the cloned recA-like gene was transcribed into a 3.0 kb RNA transcript, as judged by Northern blot analysis. The level of the RNA transcript of recA-like gene was increased approximately 1.6 to 2.4-fold upon treatment with DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet (UV)-light, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and mitomycin-C (MMC). This data suggests that the cloned S. pombe recA-like gene is slightly inducible to DNAdamage as in E. coli recA gene. These results suggest that an inducible repair mechanism analogous to that of E. coli may exist in fission yeast S. pombe

  19. A universal phage display system for the seamless construction of Fab libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Renae S; Valadon, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The construction of Fab phage libraries requires the cloning of domains from both the light and the heavy chain of antibodies. Despite the advent of powerful strategies such as splicing-by-overlap extension PCR, obtaining high quality libraries with excellent coverage remains challenging. Here, we explored the use of type IIS restriction enzymes for the seamless cloning of Fab libraries. We analyzed human, murine and rabbit germline antibody repertoires and identified combinations of restriction enzymes that exhibit very few or no recognition sites in the antibody sequences. We describe three phagemid vectors, pUP-22Hb, pUP-22Mc and pUP-22Rc, which were employed for cloning the Fab repertoire of these hosts using BsmBI and SapI (human) or SapI alone (mouse and rabbit). Using human serum albumin as a model immunization, we built a mouse/human chimeric Fab library and a mouse Fab library in a single step ligation and successfully panned multiple cognate antibodies. The overall process is highly scalable and faster than PCR-based techniques, with a Fab insertion success rate of around 80%. By using carefully chosen overhangs on each end of the antibody domains, this approach paves the way to the universal, sequence- and vector-independent cloning and reformatting of antibody libraries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Construction of human phage antibody library and screening for human monoclonal antibodies of amylin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Li, Chang-ying; Chang, Ji-wu; Zhu, Tie-hong

    2012-06-01

    To screen monoclonal antibodies to amylin from a constructed human phage antibody library and identify their antigenic specificity and combining activities. The heavy chain Fd fragment and light chain of human immunoglobulin genes were amplified from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors using RT-PCR, and then inserted into phagemid pComb3XSS to generate a human phage antibody library. The insertion of light chain or heavy chain Fd genes were identified by PCR after the digestion of Sac I, Xba I, Xho Iand Spe I. One of positive clones was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The specific anti-amylin clones were screened from antibody library against human amylin antigens and then the positive clones were determined by Phage-ELISA analysis. A Fab phage antibody library with 0.8×10(8); members was constructed with the efficacy of about 70%. DNA sequence analysis indicated V(H); gene belonged to V(H);3 gene family and V(λ); gene belonged to the V(λ); gene family. Using human amylin as panning antigen, specific anti-amylin Fab antibodies were enriched by screening the library for three times. Phage-ELISA assay showed the positive clones had very good specificity to amylin antigen. The successful construction of a phage antibody library and the identification of anti-amylin Fab antibodies provide a basis for further study and preparation of human anti-amylin antibodies.

  1. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  2. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  3. Chromosome microdissection and cloning in human genome and genetic disease analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Faten; Yu, Jingwei

    1991-01-01

    A procedure has been described for microdissection and microcloning of human chromosomal DNA sequences in which universal amplification of the dissected fragments by Mbo I linker adaptor and polymerase chain reaction is used. A very large library comprising 700,000 recombinant plasmid microclones from 30 dissected chromosomes of human chromosome 21 was constructed. Colony hybridization showed that 42% of the clones contained repetitive sequences and 58% contained single or low-copy sequences. The insert sizes generated by complete Mbo I cleavage ranged from 50 to 1,100 base pairs with a mean of 416 base pairs. Southern blot analysis of microclones from the library confirmed their human origin and chromosome 21 specificity. Some of these clones have also been regionally mapped to specific sites of chromosome 21 by using a regional mapping panel of cell hybrids. This chromosome microtechnology can generate large numbers of microclones with unique sequences from defined chromosomal regions and can be used for processes such as (i) isolating corresponding yeast artificial chromosome clones with large inserts, (ii) screening various cDNA libraries for isolating expressed sequences, and (iii) constructing region-specific libraries of the entire human genome. The studies described here demonstrate the power of this technology for high-resolution genome analysis and explicate their use in an efficient search for disease-associated genes localized to specific chromosomal regions

  4. WIMS-D library update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    WIMS-D (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme-D) is the name of a family of software packages for reactor lattice calculations and is one of the few reactor lattice codes in the public domain and available on noncommercial terms. WIMSD-5B has recently been released from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, and features major improvements in machine portability, as well as incorporating a few minor corrections. This version supersedes WIMS-D/4, which was released by the Winfrith Technology Centre in the United Kingdom for IBM machines and has been adapted for various other computer platforms in different laboratories. The main weakness of the WIMS-D package is the multigroup constants library, which is based on very old data. The relatively good performance of WIMS-D is attributed to a series of empirical adjustments to the multigroup data. However, the adjustments are not always justified on the basis of more accurate and recent experimental measurements. Following the release of new and revised evaluated nuclear data files, it was felt that the performance of WIMS-D could be improved by updating the associated library. The WIMS-D Library Update Project (WLUP) was initiated in the early 1990s with the support of the IAEA. This project consisted of voluntary contributions from a large number of participants. Several benchmarks for testing the library were identified and analysed, the WIMSR module of the NJOY code system was upgraded and the author of NJOY accepted the proposed updates for the official code system distribution. A detailed parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of various data processing input options on the integral results. In addition, the data processing methods for the main reactor materials were optimized. Several partially updated libraries were produced for testing purposes. The final stage of the WLUP was organized as a coordinated research project (CRP) in order to speed up completion of the fully updated library

  5. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  6. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  7. Israeli Special Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  8. Adhesive polypeptides of Staphylococcus aureus identified using a novel secretion library technique in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Liisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesive proteins, called adhesins, are frequently the decisive factor in initiation of a bacterial infection. Characterization of such molecules is crucial for the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis, design of vaccines and development of antibacterial drugs. Because adhesins are frequently difficult to express, their characterization has often been hampered. Alternative expression methods developed for the analysis of adhesins, e.g. surface display techniques, suffer from various drawbacks and reports on high-level extracellular secretion of heterologous proteins in Gram-negative bacteria are scarce. These expression techniques are currently a field of active research. The purpose of the current study was to construct a convenient, new technique for identification of unknown bacterial adhesive polypeptides directly from the growth medium of the Escherichia coli host and to identify novel proteinaceous adhesins of the model organism Staphylococcus aureus. Results Randomly fragmented chromosomal DNA of S. aureus was cloned into a unique restriction site of our expression vector, which facilitates secretion of foreign FLAG-tagged polypeptides into the growth medium of E. coli ΔfliCΔfliD, to generate a library of 1663 clones expressing FLAG-tagged polypeptides. Sequence and bioinformatics analyses showed that in our example, the library covered approximately 32% of the S. aureus proteome. Polypeptides from the growth medium of the library clones were screened for binding to a selection of S. aureus target molecules and adhesive fragments of known staphylococcal adhesins (e.g coagulase and fibronectin-binding protein A as well as polypeptides of novel function (e.g. a universal stress protein and phosphoribosylamino-imidazole carboxylase ATPase subunit were detected. The results were further validated using purified His-tagged recombinant proteins of the corresponding fragments in enzyme-linked immunoassay and

  9. Marketing library and information services in academic libraries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing library and information services in academic libraries in Niger State, Nigeria. ... This study was designed to investigate the marketing of library services in academic libraries in Niger state, ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  11. FENDL multigroup libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Muir, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Selected neutron reaction nuclear data libraries and photon-atomic interaction cross section libraries for elements of interest to the IAEA's program on Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) have been processed into MATXSR format using the NJOY system on the VAX4000 computer of the IAEA. This document lists the resulting multigroup data libraries. All the multigroup data generated are available cost-free upon request from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author). 9 refs

  12. Cloning and Identification of Recombinant Argonaute-Bound Small RNAs Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangras, Pooja; Dayeh, Daniel M; Mabin, Justin W; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Singh, Guramrit

    2018-01-01

    Argonaute proteins (AGOs) are loaded with small RNAs as guides to recognize target mRNAs. Since the target specificity heavily depends on the base complementarity between two strands, it is important to identify small guide and long target RNAs bound to AGOs. For this purpose, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have extended our appreciation truly to the nucleotide level. However, the identification of RNAs via NGS from scarce RNA samples remains a challenge. Further, most commercial and published methods are compatible with either small RNAs or long RNAs, but are not equally applicable to both. Therefore, a single method that yields quantitative, bias-free NGS libraries to identify small and long RNAs from low levels of input will be of wide interest. Here, we introduce such a procedure that is based on several modifications of two published protocols and allows robust, sensitive, and reproducible cloning and sequencing of small amounts of RNAs of variable lengths. The method was applied to the identification of small RNAs bound to a purified eukaryotic AGO. Following ligation of a DNA adapter to RNA 3'-end, the key feature of this method is to use the adapter for priming reverse transcription (RT) wherein biotinylated deoxyribonucleotides specifically incorporated into the extended complementary DNA. Such RT products are enriched on streptavidin beads, circularized while immobilized on beads and directly used for PCR amplification. We provide a stepwise guide to generate RNA-Seq libraries, their purification, quantification, validation, and preparation for next-generation sequencing. We also provide basic steps in post-NGS data analyses using Galaxy, an open-source, web-based platform.

  13. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  14. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  15. Reforming Prison Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current widespread acceptance of the public library model for prison libraries, in which preferences of the inmates are the chief consideration in programing and collection development. It is argued that this model results in recreational programs and collections that fail to fulfill the prison library's role in education and…

  16. LANL Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory The LANL Research Library website has been moved to http ://www.lanl.gov/library/. Please update your bookmarks. If you are not redirected to the new location within 10 http:// | Last Modified: Send email to the Library

  17. Joint-Use Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casstevens, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The joint-use library is a place where people of all ages, interests, and income levels can find items of interest at no personal cost. The mission of A. H. Meadows Public and High School Library in Midlothian, Texas, is to offer what other public libraries provide: educational and entertainment resources to a community. Yet, the staff also wants…

  18. Learning Boost C++ libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a C++ programmer who has never used Boost libraries before, this book will get you up-to-speed with using them. Whether you are developing new C++ software or maintaining existing code written using Boost libraries, this hands-on introduction will help you decide on the right library and techniques to solve your practical programming problems.

  19. Technostress and Library Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  20. Marketing and Library Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kurt R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the role of marketing in the management of libraries. The role of public relations (PR) in the total marketing concept is discussed, surveys that have explored PR efforts in academic and public libraries are described, and changes affecting libraries that marketing efforts could help to manage are discussed. (seven references) (LRW)

  1. Virtual Libraries: Service Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in society that have resulted from information and communication technologies focuses on changes in libraries and a new market for library services with new styles of clients. Highlights client service issues to be considered when transitioning to a virtual library situation. (Author/LRW)

  2. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  3. Editorial Library: User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Cecily J.

    This report presents the findings of a survey conducted by the editorial library of the Los Angeles Times to measure usage and satisfaction with library service, provide background information on library user characteristics, collect information on patterns of use of the Times' clipping files, relate data on usage and satisfaction parameters to…

  4. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Konstanze; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a K m value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a K m value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. - Highlights: • A new Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. • rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver. • rtOatp1d1 displays multi-specific transport of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. • rtOatp1d1 is a homologue of the OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. • rtOatp1d1 is a microcystin (MC) transporter

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a rainbow trout liver Oatp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Konstanze, E-mail: konstanze.steiner@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Human- and Environmental Toxicology, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Hagenbuch, Bruno, E-mail: bhagenbuch@kumc.edu [Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160, KS (United States); Dietrich, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [University of Konstanz, Human- and Environmental Toxicology, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem due to the production of toxins (e.g. microcystins, MCs), which constrain fish health or even cause fish death. However the toxicokinetics of the most abundant toxin, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), are not yet fully understood. To investigate the uptake mechanism, the novel Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. The cDNA isolated from a clone library consisted of 2772 bp containing a 2115 bp open reading frame coding for a 705 aa protein with an approximate molecular mass of 80 kDa. This fish specific transporter belongs to the OATP1 family and has most likely evolved from a common ancestor of OATP1C1. Real time PCR analysis showed that rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver, followed by the brain while expression in other organs was not detectable. Transient transfection in HEK293 cells was used for further characterization. Like its human homologues OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, rtOatp1d1 displayed multi-specific transport including endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. Kinetic analyses revealed a K{sub m} value of 13.9 μM and 13.4 μM for estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate, respectively and a rather low affinity for taurocholate with a K{sub m} value of 103 μM. Furthermore, it was confirmed that rtOatp1d1 is a MC-LR transporter and therefore most likely plays a key role in the susceptibility of rainbow trout to MC intoxications. - Highlights: • A new Oatp1d1 in rainbow trout (rtOatp1d1) was cloned, identified and characterized. • rtOatp1d1 is predominantly expressed in the liver. • rtOatp1d1 displays multi-specific transport of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates. • rtOatp1d1 is a homologue of the OATP1A1, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. • rtOatp1d1 is a microcystin (MC) transporter.

  7. Versatile P(acman) BAC Libraries for Transgenesis Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venken, Koen J.T.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Schulze, Karen L.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Spokony, Rebecca; Wan, Kenneth H.; Koriabine, Maxim; de Jong, Pieter J.; White, Kevin P.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Hoskins, Roger A.

    2009-04-21

    We constructed Drosophila melanogaster BAC libraries with 21-kb and 83-kb inserts in the P(acman) system. Clones representing 12-fold coverage and encompassing more than 95percent of annotated genes were mapped onto the reference genome. These clones can be integrated into predetermined attP sites in the genome using Phi C31 integrase to rescue mutations. They can be modified through recombineering, for example to incorporate protein tags and assess expression patterns.

  8. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  9. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  10. FY 2009 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2009 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  11. FY 2010 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2010 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  12. FY 2011 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2011 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  13. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  14. Growth hormone and prolactin in Andrias davidianus: cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liping; Meng, Zining; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaochun; Lu, Danqi; Huang, Junhai; Lin, Haoran

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) is one of the largest and 'living fossil' species of amphibian. To obtain genetic information for this species, the cDNAs encoding growth hormone (adGH) and prolactin (adPRL) were cloned from a pituitary cDNA library. The isolated adGH cDNA consisted of 864 bp and encoded a propeptide of 215 amino acids, while the cDNA of adPRL was 1106 bp in length and encoded a putative peptide of 229 amino acids. Expression of the GH and PRL mRNA was only detected in the pituitary. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on the isolated pituitary hormone sequences using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining algorithms. The clustering results are similar to that based on the morphological characteristics or the rRNA genes, which indicate that the two orders (Anura and Caudata) of amphibian were monophyletic, and that A. davidianus was diverged early in the Caudate clade. These results indicated that both the GH and PRL sequence might be useful to study the phylogenies of relatively moderate evolved groups.

  15. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  16. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  17. Library/vendor relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Sam

    2014-01-01

    A view of the mutual dependence between libraries and vendorsAs technology advances, libraries are forced to reach beyond their own resources to find effective ways to maintain accuracy and superior service levels. Vendors provide databases and integrated library systems that perform those functions for profit. Library/Vendor Relationships examines the increasing cooperation in which libraries find they must participate in, and vice versa, with the vendors that provide system infrastructure and software. Expert contributors provide insights from all sides of this unique collaboration, offering

  18. Teleporting the library?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, six Danish public libraries established a virtual library, Info Island DK, in Second Life. This article discusses the library project in terms of design. The design processes include the planning and implementation of the virtual library structure and its equipment, as well...... as the organizing and carrying out of activities in the virtual setting. It will be argued that, to a large extent, conventions have determined design and use of the virtual library, and also that design has had an impact on the attitudes and understanding of the participants....

  19. Cloning Expeditions: Risky but Rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:24061478

  20. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND MORPHO - AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. CLONES FOR SELECTION OF CLONAL VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA QUEIROZ DE ALMEIDA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about genetic diversity of jatropha crop is important for genetic conservation resources and breeding of this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and performance of jatropha clones through morphological characterization to selection of clonal varieties for biofuels production. The clones were obtained through shoot cuttings from previous selection in a population of half - sibs progenies. The morphoagronomic analyses of clones was carried out at 180 days after transplantation and were evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of primary branches and number of secondary branches, number of bunches and number of fruits per plant. Evaluating clones performance, significant results were found for the number of secondary branches. About analysis of genetic diversity, the measures of dissimilarity genetic varied from 0.62 to 13.11, this way, the UFRBPR14 and UFRBPR15 clones were more divergent. The Tocher method was efficient to verify formation of four groups. The characteristics that most contributed to the divergence among clones were branches number, height and number of bunches, and, stem diameter had lower contribution. The jatropha clones differed only in the secondary branches number and multivariate analysis showed divergence among the jatropha clones with formation of four groups. Also, branches number, plant height and number of bunches were characteristic that contributed to genetic divergence.

  1. Library system of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gerbec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European extent, Italy is the cradle of libraries and library sciences. In the past, Italian national public libraries played an important role through their vast book treasury. But only during the last thirty years have public libraries been developed following the Anglo-American public library model. Italy does not have any uniform or general legislation concerning libraries. On the state level, this area is regulated by some separate acts, while on the regional level there is a collection of various acts and regulations. Libraries are not strictly divided into general categories. It is required that the professionals engaged in Italian libraries should have secondary or university education. The level of their professional tasks depends on the type of library and its capacity. The competency for the development in the field of librarianship is assigned to The Ministry of Cultural and Environment Heritage as well as to its subordinate institutions (Central Institute for the Union catalogue of Italian Libraries and for Bibliographic Information, Central Institute for Book Pathology, Observatory for International Libraries Programmes.

  2. Planning & Urban Affairs Library Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Mary L., Ed.; Lessel, Janice W., Ed.

    Written especially for persons without a library degree who are operating a small urban study or planning agency library on a part-time basis. Subjects covered are: (1) library function and staff function, duties and training; (2) physical layout and equipment of library; (3) establishing and maintaining the library; (4) library administration;…

  3. Special Libraries and Multitype Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, JoAn S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the history of multitype library networks; examines the reasons why special libraries and other network participants have resisted the inclusion of special libraries in these networks; and discusses the benefits to both special libraries and to other libraries in the network that would result from special library participation. (17…

  4. NOAA Miami Regional Library > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Collections Open Access Resources Research Tools E-resources NOAA S. and NOAA N.E. Library Institutional Repository DIVE INTO About the Library | Collections | Research Tools | Library Services & NOAA Miami Regional Library @ AOML & NHC NOAA Miami Regional Library at National Hurricane

  5. Libraries in society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael; Skouvig, Laura Henriette Christine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the phenomenon of openness in relation to library development. The term openness is presented and related to library development from historical and theoretical perspectives. The paper elaborates on the differences over time on to how openness has been...... understood in a library setting. Historically, openness in form of the open shelves played a crucial role in developing the modern public library. The paper examines this openness-centred library policy as adopted by Danish public libraries in the beginning of the 20th century by applying the theories...... by Michel Foucault on discourse and power to the introduction of open shelves. Furthermore, the paper discusses current challenges facing the modern public library in coping with openness issues that follow from changes in society and advances in technology. These influences and developments are not least...

  6. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE GENE FOR A LACTOCOCCAL ENDOPEPTIDASE, AN ENZYME WITH SEQUENCE SIMILARITY TO MAMMALIAN ENKEPHALINASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, Igor; Tan, Paris S.T.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Konings, Wil N.; Venema, Gerard

    The gene specifying an endopeptidase of Lactococcus lactis, named pepO, was cloned from a genomic library of L. lactis subsp. cremoris P8-247 in lambdaEMBL3 and was subsequently sequenced. pepO is probably the last gene of an operon encoding the binding-protein-dependent oligopeptide transport

  7. B-G cDNA clones have multiple small repeats and hybridize to both chicken MHC regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K

    1989-01-01

    We used rabbit antisera to the chicken MHC erythrocyte molecule B-G and to the class I alpha chain (B-F) to screen lambda gt11 cDNA expression libraries made with RNA selected by oligo-dT from bone marrow cells of anemic B19 homozygous chickens. Eight clones were found to encode B-G molecules which...

  8. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  9. Quantitative discrimination of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans highly leukotoxic JP2 clone from non-JP2 clones in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Akihiro

    2012-10-01

    (CAL ≤6 mm and a level ≥7 mm (p A. actinomycetemcomitans. Conclusions We successfully developed a quantitative and discriminative PCR-based method for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 and non-JP2 clones. This technique will contribute to future analyses of the quantitative relationship between this organism and aggressive periodontitis.

  10. Quantitative discrimination of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans highly leukotoxic JP2 clone from non-JP2 clones in diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Ennibi, Oum-Keltoum; Miyazaki, Hideo; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hayashida, Hideaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Awano, Shuji; Ansai, Toshihiro

    2012-10-11

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the etiological agent of periodontitis, and there is a strong association between clone JP2 and aggressive periodontitis in adolescents of African descent. The JP2 clone has an approximately 530-bp deletion (∆530) in the promoter region of the lkt/ltx gene, which encodes leukotoxin, and this clone has high leukotoxic activity. Therefore, this clone is very important in aggressive periodontitis. To diagnose this disease, culture methods and conventional PCR techniques are used. However, quantitative detection based on qPCR for the JP2 clone has not been developed due to genetic difficulties. In this study, we developed a qPCR-based quantification method specific to the JP2 clone. Based on our analysis of the DNA sequence of the lkt/ltx gene and its flanking region, we designed a reverse primer specific for the ∆530 deletion border sequence and developed a JP2-specific PCR-based quantification method using this primer. We also analyzed the DNA sequence of the ∆530 locus and found it to be highly conserved (97-100%) among 17 non-JP2 strains. Using the ∆530 locus, we designed a qPCR primer-probe set specific to non-JP2 clones. Next, we determined the numbers of JP2 and non-JP2 clone cells in the periodontal pockets of patients with aggressive periodontitis. The JP2-specific primers specifically amplified the genomic DNA of the A. actinomycetemcomitans JP2 clone and did not react with other bacterial DNA, whereas the non-JP2 specific primers reacted only with A. actinomycetemcomitans non-JP2 clones. Samples from the 88 periodontal sites in the 11 patients with aggressive periodontitis were analyzed. The bacterial cell numbers in 88 periodontal sites ranged from 0 to 4.8 × 10(8) (mean 1.28 × 10(7)) for JP2 clones and from 0 to 1.6 × 10(6) for non-JP2 clones (mean 1.84 × 10(5)). There were significant differences in the JP2 cell number between a clinical attachment level (CAL) ≤6 mm and a level ≥7 mm (p clones. This

  11. Rabies virus cross-reactive murine T cell clones: analysis of helper and delayed-type hypersensitivity function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bunschoten; B. Dietzschold; I.J.Th.M. Claassen (Ivo); R. Klapmuts; F. UytdeHaag; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThree T cell clones derived from rabies virus-immunized BALB/c mice were analysed for specificity and function. The clones proved to be broadly cross-reactive by responding to different rabies virus isolates (PM, ERA, CVS, HEP) and other representatives of the genus Lyssavirus, like the

  12. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  13. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  14. Sequence of a cloned cDNA encoding human ribosomal protein S11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, J B; Mackie, G A

    1988-02-11

    The authors have isolated a cloned cDNA that encodes human ribosomal protein (rp) S11 by screening a human fibroblast cDNA library with a labelled 204 bp DNA fragment encompassing residues 212-416 of pRS11, a rat rp Sll cDNA clone. The human rp S11 cloned cDNA consists of 15 residues of the 5' leader, the entire coding sequence and all 51 residues of the 3' untranslated region. The predicted amino acid sequence of 158 residues is identical to rat rpS11. The nucleotide sequence in the coding region differs, however, from that in rat in the first position in two codons and in the third position in 44 codons.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for amino acid synthesis in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, O.Yu.; Fonshtein, M.Yu.; Kolibaba, L.G.; Yankovskii, N.K.; Debabov, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular cloning of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes for threonine and lysine synthesis has been done in Escherichia coli cells. The clonal library of EcoRI fragments of chromosomal DNA of C. glutamicum was constructed on the plasmid vector λpSL5. The genes for threonine and lysine synthesis were identified by complementation of E. coli mutations in thrB and lysA genes, respectively. Recombinant plasmids, isolated from independent ThrB + clone have a common 4.1-kb long EcoRI DNA fragment. Hybrid plasmids isolated from LysA + transductants of E. coli have common 2.2 and 3.3 kb long EcoRI fragments of C. glutamicum DNA. The hybrid plasmids consistently transduced the markers thrB + and lysA + . The Southern hybridization analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragments hybridized with the fragments of identical length in C. glutamicum chromosomes

  16. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  17. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of cellulases genes from Clostridium IBUN 22A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Carolina Vargas Pabón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic library of the native strain Clostridium IBUN 22A was constructed, using plasmid pBluescriptlI® KS+/ - as cloning vector and its expression in Escherichia coli was evaluated. Eight recombination clones with enzymatic activity were detected by enzymatic screening and using the red-Congo test with three substrates: cellobiose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and cellulose powder (native. Restriction analysis of three recombination plasmids, representative of each enzymatic activity showed the inserted size (1600, 13000 and 11000bp approximately for pBS68, pBS25 and pBS57 respectively. More studies of protein expression and enzymatic characterization will allow theses enzymes and other typical parameters to be defined. In the same way the fragment sequence cloned will lead to a more detailed analysis and definition of the biotechnological potential of this strain regarding solvent production using cellulosic substrates for fermentation.

  18. [Cloning and characterization of genes differentially expressed in human dental pulp cells and gingival fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-dong; Wu, Ji-nan; Zhou, Lin; Ling, Jun-qi; Guo, Xi-min; Xiao, Ming-zhen; Zhu, Feng; Pu, Qin; Chai, Yu-bo; Zhao, Zhong-liang

    2007-02-01

    To study the biological properties of human dental pulp cells (HDPC) by cloning and analysis of genes differentially expressed in HDPC in comparison with human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HDPC and HGF were cultured and identified by immunocytochemistry. HPDC and HGF subtractive cDNA library was established by PCR-based modified subtractive hybridization, genes differentially expressed by HPDC were cloned, sequenced and compared to find homogeneous sequence in GenBank by BLAST. Cloning and sequencing analysis indicate 12 genes differentially expressed were obtained, in which two were unknown genes. Among the 10 known genes, 4 were related to signal transduction, 2 were related to trans-membrane transportation (both cell membrane and nuclear membrane), and 2 were related to RNA splicing mechanisms. The biological properties of HPDC are determined by the differential expression of some genes and the growth and differentiation of HPDC are associated to the dynamic protein synthesis and secretion activities of the cell.

  19. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D2 dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O.; Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    A clone encoding a human D 2 dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D 2 receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed

  20. Study on the Mitochondrial Genome of Sea Island Cotton (Gossypium barbadense) by BAC Library Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ai-guo; LI Shuang-shuang; LIU Guo-zheng; LEI Bin-bin; KANG Ding-ming; LI Zhao-hu; MA Zhi-ying; HUA Jin-ping

    2014-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial genome displays complex features, particularly in terms of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). Therefore, research on the cotton mitochondrial genome may provide important information for analyzing genome evolution and exploring the molecular mechanism of CMS. In this paper, we present a preliminary study on the mitochondrial genome of sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) based on positive clones from the bacterial artiifcial chromosome (BAC) library. Thirty-ifve primers designed with the conserved sequences of functional genes and exons of mitochondria were used to screen positive clones in the genome library of the sea island cotton variety called Pima 90-53. Ten BAC clones were obtained and veriifed for further study. A contig was obtained based on six overlapping clones and subsequently laid out primarily on the mitochondrial genome. One BAC clone, clone 6 harbored with the inserter of approximate 115 kb mtDNA sequence, in which more than 10 primers fragments could be ampliifed, was sequenced and assembled using the Solexa strategy. Fifteen mitochondrial functional genes were revealed in clone 6 by gene annotation. The characteristics of the syntenic gene/exon of the sequences and RNA editing were preliminarily predicted.

  1. Assessing Library Automation and Virtual Library Development in Four Academic Libraries in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the level of library automation and virtual library development in four academic libraries. A validated questionnaire was used to capture the responses from academic librarians of the libraries under study. The paper discovers that none of the four academic libraries is fully automated. The libraries make use of librarians with…

  2. Wikis in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bejune

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Wikis have recently been adopted to support a variety of collaborative activities within libraries. This article and its companion wiki, LibraryWikis (http://librarywikis.pbwiki.com/, seek to document the phenomenon of wikis in libraries. This subject is considered within the framework of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW. The author identified thirty-three library wikis and developed a classification schema with four categories: (1 collaboration among libraries (45.7 percent; (2 collaboration among library staff (31.4 percent; (3 collaboration among library staff and patrons (14.3 percent; and (4 collaboration among patrons (8.6 percent. Examples of library wikis are presented within the article, as is a discussion for why wikis are primarily utilized within categories I and II and not within categories III and IV. It is clear that wikis have great utility within libraries, and the author urges further application of wikis in libraries.

  3. News from the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Library to be merged with the Central Library. Not everyone knows that CERN Scientific Information Service currently counts three physical libraries on site. The Central Library is located in Building 52 and there are two satellite libraries located respectively in building 30 (the LHC Library) and in building 864 on Prévessin site (the SPS Library). Moreover, the Legal Service Library is located in Building 60. In the past, there have been at CERN up to 6 satellite libraries; they were essential at a time when information was only in paper form and having multiple copies of documents located in several places at CERN was useful to facilitate scientific research. Today, this need is less critical as most of our resources are online. That is why, following a SIPB (Scientific Information Policy Board) decision, the collections of the LHC Library will be merged this summer with the Central collection. This reorganization and centralization of resources will improve loan services. The SP...

  4. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  5. CDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Welinder, K.G.; Hejgaard, J.

    1991-01-01

    A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and M(r) 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C...

  6. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the full-length heat shock protein 70 of Tegillarca granosa was cloned from cDNA library by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The open reading frame (ORF) of heat shock protein 70 was 1968 bp, and it encoded a protein of 655 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 71.48 kDa and an ...

  7. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome library of S-type CMS maize mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to isolate mitochondrial genes easily, we have developed a new method to construct S-type CMS maize mitochondrial gene library by means of embedding mitochondria and enzymatic digesting mitochondria in situ, preparing mtDNA by electrophoresis, digesting LMP agarose with β-agarase, using BAC vector and electroporation. About 2 500 white clones of Mo17 CMS-J mitochondrial gene library were obtained with the average size of 18.24 kb, ranging from 5 to 40 kb, 63.6% inserts came from mitochondrial genome and represented 48 ′ mitochondrial genome equivalents. All the probes had detected the positive clones in the gene library. It is helpful to elucidating the maize mitochondrial genome structure and mechanism of S-type CMS, and may give some valuable reference to the construction of other plant mitochondrial genome library.

  8. Isolation of full-length putative rat lysophospholipase cDNA using improved methods for mRNA isolation and cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.H.; Stratowa, C.; Rutter, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have cloned a full-length putative rat pancreatic lysophospholipase cDNA by an improved mRNA isolation method and cDNA cloning strategy using [ 32 P]-labelled nucleotides. These new methods allow the construction of a cDNA library from the adult rat pancreas in which the majority of recombinant clones contained complete sequences for the corresponding mRNAs. A previously recognized but unidentified long and relatively rare cDNA clone containing the entire sequence from the cap site at the 5' end to the poly(A) tail at the 3' end of the mRNA was isolated by single-step screening of the library. The size, amino acid composition, and the activity of the protein expressed in heterologous cells strongly suggest this mRNA codes for lysophospholipase

  9. Cloning and characterization of a Candida albicans maltase gene involved in sucrose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, A; Williamson, P R; Rex, J H; Sweeney, E C; Bennett, J E

    1992-01-01

    In order to isolate the structural gene involved in sucrose utilization, we screened a sucrose-induced Candida albicans cDNA library for clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. The C. albicans maltase structural gene (CAMAL2) was isolated. No other clones expressing alpha-glucosidase activity. were detected. A genomic CAMAL2 clone was obtained by screening a size-selected genomic library with the cDNA clone. DNA sequence analysis reveals that CAMAL2 encodes a 570-amino-acid protein which shares 50% identity with the maltase structural gene (MAL62) of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. The substrate specificity of the recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli identifies the enzyme as a maltase. Northern (RNA) analysis reveals that transcription of CAMAL2 is induced by maltose and sucrose and repressed by glucose. These results suggest that assimilation of sucrose in C. albicans relies on an inducible maltase enzyme. The family of genes controlling sucrose utilization in C. albicans shares similarities with the MAL gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and provides a model system for studying gene regulation in this pathogenic yeast. Images PMID:1400249

  10. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Claudio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Results Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT®, the ImMunoGeneTics information system®. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. Conclusion This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  11. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Ilenia; Cotella, Diego; Dianzani, Irma; Santoro, Claudio; Sblattero, Daniele

    2008-08-29

    Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR) repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V) regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT, the ImMunoGeneTics information system. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  12. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  13. Discussion on construction of scientific and technological digital library in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Huilan

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid development of digital and network technology, traditional libraries have been unable to meet the needs of the times. Digital libraries will gradually take the place of traditional libraries. Under the circumstances, how will the libraries of the enterprises in nuclear industry face this transformation? This paper gives the brief descriptions and comparative analyses in the four aspects: the definition of the digital library, the meaning of nuclear scientific and technological digital library, the characteristics of the digital library, and major problems in the construction of nuclear scientific and technological digital library that should be solved. Therefore, setting up the digital library is very important. At the same time, it's very necessary and urgent for the libraries of the enterprises in nuclear industry to establish nuclear scientific and technological digital library. (author)

  14. Novel cloning machine with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic cloning was first proposed by Duan and Guo. Then Pati established a novel cloning machine (NCM) for copying superposition of multiple clones simultaneously. In this paper, we deal with the novel cloning machine with supplementary information (NCMSI). For the case of cloning two states, we demonstrate that the optimal efficiency of the NCMSI in which the original party and the supplementary party can perform quantum communication equals that achieved by a two-step cloning protocol wherein classical communication is only allowed between the original and the supplementary parties. From this equivalence, it follows that NCMSI may increase the success probabilities for copying. Also, an upper bound on the unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal pure product states is derived. Our investigation generalizes and completes the results in the literature

  15. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  16. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  17. The Library International Partnerweek 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presentation at the Library International Partnerweek, held at Copenhagen Technical Library at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering. Participant: Ms. Carmen Priesto Estravid from Madrid Technical University, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Library. Spain Ms.Tuulikki Hattunen from TUAS Library....... Finland Ms. Anitta Ôrm from Kemi-Tornio UAS Library. Finland Mr. Manfred Walter from HTW-Berlin. Germany Mr. Peter Hald from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark Mr. Ole Micahelsen from Copenhagen Technical Library. Denmark...

  18. KAERI photonuclear library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Young Ouk; Han, Yin Iu

    2000-03-01

    This report contains summary information and figures depicting the KAERI photonuclear data library that extends up to 140 MeV of incident photon. The library consists of 143 isotopes from C-12 to Bi-209, providing the photoabsorption cross section and the emission spectra for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, alpha particles, and all residual nuclides in ENDF6 format. The contents of this report and ENDF-6 format data library are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/.

  19. The CERN Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Hester, Alec G

    1968-01-01

    Any advanced research centre needs a good Library. It can be regarded as a piece of equipment as vital as any machine. At the present time, the CERN Library is undergoing a number of modifications to adjust it to the changing scale of CERN's activities and to the ever increasing flood of information. This article, by A.G. Hester, former Editor of CERN COURIER who now works in the Scientific Information Service, describes the purposes, methods and future of the CERN Library.

  20. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  1. Comparative analyses of amplicon migration behavior in differing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, D. J.; Kemp, D. W.; Sampayo, E. M.; Schmidt, G. W.

    2010-03-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is commonly utilized to identify and quantify microbial diversity, but the conditions required for different electrophoretic systems to yield equivalent results and optimal resolution have not been assessed. Herein, the influence of different DGGE system configuration parameters on microbial diversity estimates was tested using Symbiodinium, a group of marine eukaryotic microbes that are important constituents of coral reef ecosystems. To accomplish this, bacterial clone libraries were constructed and sequenced from cultured isolates of Symbiodinium for the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. From these, 15 clones were subjected to PCR with a GC clamped primer set for DGGE analyses. Migration behaviors of the resulting amplicons were analyzed using a range of conditions, including variation in the composition of the denaturing gradient, electrophoresis time, and applied voltage. All tests were conducted in parallel on two commercial DGGE systems, a C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001, and the Bio-Rad DCode system. In this context, identical nucleotide fragments exhibited differing migration behaviors depending on the model of apparatus utilized, with fragments denaturing at a lower gradient concentration and applied voltage on the Bio-Rad DCode system than on the C.B.S. Scientific DGGE-2001 system. Although equivalent PCR-DGGE profiles could be achieved with both brands of DGGE system, the composition of the denaturing gradient and application of electrophoresis time × voltage must be appropriately optimized to achieve congruent results across platforms.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding topoisomerase II in pea and analysis of its expression in relation to cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M K; Nair, S; Tewari, K K; Mudgil, Y; Yadav, B S; Sopory, S K

    1999-09-01

    We have isolated and sequenced four overlapping cDNA clones to identify the full-length cDNA for topoisomerase II (PsTopII) from pea. Using degenerate primers, based on the conserved amino acid sequences of other eukaryotic type II topoisomerases, a 680 bp fragment was PCR-amplified with pea cDNA as template. This fragment was used as a probe to screen an oligo-dT-primed pea cDNA library. A partial cDNA clone was isolated that was truncated at the 3' end. RACE-PCR was employed to isolate the remaining portion of the gene. The total size of PsTopII is 4639 bp with an open reading frame of 4392 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a strong homology to other eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II) at the N-terminus end. The topo II transcript was abundant in proliferative tissues. We also show that the level of topo II transcripts could be stimulated by exogenous application of growth factors that induced proliferation in vitro cultures. Light irradiation to etiolated tissue strongly stimulated the expression of topo II. These results suggest that topo II gene expression is up-regulated in response to light and hormones and correlates with cell proliferation. Besides, we have also isolated and analysed the 5'-flanking region of the pea TopII gene. This is first report on the isolation of a putative promoter for topoisomerase II from plants.

  3. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  4. The Personal Virtual Library

    CERN Document Server

    Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Looking for "library" in the usual search engines of the World Wide Web gives: "Infoseek found 3,593,126 pages containing the word library" and it nicely proposes: "Search only within these 3,59 3,126 pages ?" "Yahoo! Found 1299 categories and 8669 sites for library" "LycOs: 1-10 von 512354 relevanten Ergebnissen" "AltaVista: About 14830527 documents match your query" and at the botto m: "Word count: library: 15466897" ! Excite: Top 10 matches and it does not say how many can be browsed... "Library" on the World Wide Web is really popular. At least fiveteen million pages ar e supposed to contain this word. Half of them may have disappeared by now but one more hit will be added once the search robots will have indexed this document ! The notion of Personal Library i s a modest attempt, in a small environment like a library, to give poor users lost in cyber-libraries the opportunity to keep their own private little shelves - virtually. In this paper, we will l ook at the usual functionalities of library systems...

  5. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  6. NEIC Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Enforcement Investigation Center (NEIC) Environmental Forensic Library partners with NEIC's forensic scientists to retrieve, validate and deliver information to develop methods, defensible regulations, and environmental measurements.

  7. Library and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Buluţă

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The psycho-social phenomena generated by mass-media and the new information and communication technologies at the level of the young generations have led to new communication practices that bypass libraries and revolutionized the intellectual labor practices, with texts being rather used than read. In this context, our article examines the need to increase the library's role in developing the quality of education and research and brings to attention a few possible solutions which include a partnership between various types of libraries and between librarians' associations and NGOs to facilitate education through library and safeguard reading.

  8. Libraries and licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Žumer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.

  9. International Youth Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available International Youth Library, the biggest youth library in the world, was founded in 1948 in Munich, Germany, by Jella Lepman. She aimed to unite all the children of the world through books by establishing this library. IYL is still trying to achieve this end supporting scholarship programmes in children’s literature research, participating in or organizing meetings on children’s literature, and working with other national and international organizations deeding with children’s literature. Unfortunately the library is facing some problems recently which have risen from economic difficulties which also inhibits promotional activities.

  10. Transformational Leadership and Stakeholder Management in Library Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Sucozhañay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the role of library managers as change agent when implementing Library 2.0, using transformational leadership and stakeholder management approaches. To do so, a case study in a Latin American academic library was performed. The experiences acquired for a period of six years were analysed, during which three library managers were involved in managing change. Qualitative data from documents, interviews, and observations were collected, and qualitative analysis methods were used to obtain in-depth understanding of the change process. Results show that lack of transformational leadership and stakeholder management contribute to delayed implementation and limited adoption of innovations. Although library managers recognized the importance of different stakeholders to implement changes, they did not apply systematic and proactive strategies to define and manage them. All in all, library managers should be trained as change agents, with emphasis on transformational leadership and stakeholder management skills.

  11. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  13. Eye tracking in Library and Information Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic literature review of the application of eye-tracking technology within the field of library and information science. Eye-tracking technology has now reached a level of maturity, which makes the use of the technology more accessible....... Subsequently, a growing interest in employing eye tracking as a methodology within library and information science research must be anticipated. Design/methodology/approach The review follows the guidelines set in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations. Two...... reference databases are searched for relevant references: Library and Information Science Abstracts and Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts. The main selection criteria are peer-reviewed literature that describes the experimental setting, including which eye-tracking equipment was used...

  14. Neutron cross-section libraries in the AMPX master interface format for thermal and fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, M.A.; Webster, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Neutron cross-section libraries in the AMPX master interface format have been created for three reactor types. Included are an 84-group library for use with light-water reactors, a 27-group library for use with heavy-water CANDU reactors and a 126-group library for use with liquid metal fast breeder reactors. In general, ENDF/B data were used in the creation of these libraries, and the nuclides included in each library should be sufficient for most neutronic analyses of reactors of that type. Each library has been used successfully in fuel depletion calculations

  15. [cDNA library construction from panicle meristem of finger millet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, V; Pirko, Ia V; Isaenkov, S V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    The protocol for production of full-size cDNA using SuperScript Full-Length cDNA Library Construction Kit II (Invitrogen) was tested and high quality cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) was created. The titer of obtained cDNA library comprised 3.01 x 10(5) CFU/ml in avarage. In average the length of cDNA insertion consisted about 1070 base pairs, the effectivity of cDNA fragment insertions--99.5%. The selective sequencing of cDNA clones from created library was performed. The sequences of cDNA clones were identified with usage of BLAST-search. The results of cDNA library analysis and selective sequencing represents prove good functionality and full length character of inserted cDNA clones. Obtained cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle represents good and valuable source for isolation and identification of key genes regulating metabolism and meristematic development and for mining of new molecular markers to conduct out high quality genetic investigations and molecular breeding as well.

  16. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  17. Heterogeneity of rat tropoelastin mRNA revealed by cDNA cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Deak, S.B.; Stolle, C.A.; Boyd, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    A λgt11 library constructed from poly(A+) RNA isolated from aortic tissue of neonatal rats was screened for rat tropoelastin cDNAs. The first, screen, utilizing a human tropoelastin cDNA clone, provided rat tropoelastin cDNAs spanning 2.3 kb of carboxy-terminal coding sequence and extended into the 3'-untranslated region. A subsequent screen using a 5' rat tropoelastin cDNA clone yielded clones extending into the amino-terminal signal sequence coding region. Sequence analysis of these clones has provided the complete derived amino acid sequence of rat tropoelastin and allowed alignment and comparison with published bovine cDNA sequence. While the overall structure of rat tropoelastin is similar to bovine sequence, numerous substitutions, deletions, and insertions demonstrated considerable heterogeneity between species. In particular, the pentapeptide repeat VPGVG, characteristic of all tropoelastins analyzed to date, is replaced in rat tropoelastin by a repeating pentapeptide, IPGVG. The hexapeptide repeat VGVAPG, the bovine elastin receptor binding peptide, is not encoded by rat tropoelastin cDNAs. Variations in coding sequence between rat tropoelastin CDNA clones were also found which may represent mRNA heterogeneity produced by alternative splicing of the rat tropoelastin pre-mRNA

  18. Cloning and properties of the Salmonella typhimurium tricarboxylate transport operon in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenhorn, K.A.; Boos, W.; Somers, J.M.; Kay, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The tricarboxylate transport operon (tctI) was cloned in Escherichia coli as a 12-kilobase (kb) fragment from an EcoRI library of the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome in λgtWES. It was further subcloned as a 12-kb fragment into pACYC184 and as an 8-kb fragment into pBR322. By insertional mutagenesis mediated by λTn5, restriction mapping, and phenotypic testing, the tctI operon was localized to a 4.5-kb region. The tctC gene which encodes a periplasmic binding protein (C-protein) was located near the center of the insert. E. coli/tctI clones on either multicopy or single-copy vectors grew on the same tricarboxylates as S. typhimurium, although unusually long growth lags were observed. E. coli/tctI clones exhibited similar [ 14 C] fluorocitrate transport kinetics to those of S. typhimurium, whereas E. coli alone was virtually impermeable to [ 14 C] fluorocitrate. The periplasmic C proteins (C1 and C2 isoelectric forms) were produced in prodigious quantities from the cloned strains. Motile E. coli/tctI clones were not chemotactic toward citrate, whereas tctI deletion mutants of S. typhimurium were. Taken together, these observations indicate that tctI is not an operon involved in chemotaxis

  19. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  20. Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

    2002-01-01

    Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

  1. Developing European Library Services in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what academic and national libraries can do to continue to offer services and facilities at a time of economic difficulties. It identifies a number of methodologies and opportunities that are open to libraries and takes the view that it is never wise to waste a good crisis, because all threats are really opportunities in disguise. The article looks at the initial economic context for European research libraries and then examines ways in which libraries can tackle the threats which the current financial crisis poses. Joint procurement is one way in which libraries can achieve value for money, and the paper examines the role of JIS C Collections in the UK. Innovation through collaboration and shared services are also ways in which libraries can innovate/make savings in a cost-effective way by sharing the burden of costs around the partnership. The paper gives two examples: one which is now well established, the DART-Europe portal for Open Access e-theses; and one which is in the early stages of being discussed — a cloud-based solution for true collaborative cataloguing amongst the UK’s research and national libraries. The European Research Area (ERA and the contributions that libraries can make to this infrastructure through innovative EU project funding are analysed in some detail by looking at LI BER’s EU project portfolio. Finally, change and growth can come through changes to legal frameworks, and the paper looks at the Hargreaves review of copyright frameworks in the UK and the launch of the new library-based EU lobbying group for copyright reform, Information Sans Frontières (IS F.

  2. Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Fang Bao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)

  3. Library Systems: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2013 data...

  4. Library Systems: FY 2012 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2012 data...

  5. Library Systems: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Administrative Entity Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Find key information on library systems around the United States.These data include imputed values for libraries that did not submit information in the FY 2014 data...

  6. Construction and characterization of the alpha form of a cardiac myosin heavy chain cDNA clone and its developmental expression in the Syrian hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, C C; Jandreski, M A

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA clone, pVHC1, was isolated from a Syrian hamster heart cDNA library and was compared to the rat alpha (pCMHC21) and beta (pCMHC5) ventricular myosin heavy chain cDNA clones. The DNA sequence and amino acid sequence deducted from the DNA show more homology with pCMHC21 than pCMHC5. This indicates that pVHC1 is an alpha ventricular myosin heavy chain cDNA clone. However, even though pVHC1 shows a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid conservation with the rat myosin heavy chain sequen...

  7. Cloning and expression of calmodulin gene in Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Daisuke; Asakura, Yuki; Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Shite, Masato; Sugiyama, Ryuji; Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2007-06-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded a cDNA clone, designated Sd-cam, encoding calmodulin protein from Scoparia dulcis. The restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal when probed with the fragment of this gene in Southern blot analyses, suggesting that Sd-cam occurs as a sole gene encoding calmodulin in the plant. The reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Sd-cam was appreciably expressed in leaf, root and stem tissues. It appeared that transcription of this gene increased transiently when the leaf cultures of S. dulcis were treated with methyl jasmonate and calcium ionophore A23187. These results suggest that transcriptional activation of Sd-cam is one of the early cellular events of the methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis.

  8. Special Libraries in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Alice

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishes five main categories of special libraries in Singapore: those of private organizations, foreign governments, government departments, statutory boards, and regional organizations. Statistical data are provided for library holdings, professional staff employment, and subject profiles, and suggestions for improving various aspects of…

  9. Iranian Library Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the state of Iranian libraries since the revolution: the printing industry flourishes because of obsolete copyright laws, and the government is attempting to dewesternize media and education. Also considered are budget cuts, the revolution's cost to libraries, and its effect on individual librarians. (SW)

  10. The Memory Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen-Bagneux, Ole

    2014-01-01

    of classification and retrieval processes is presented. The key element is to understand the library both as a physical structure and as a structure in the memory of the Alexandrian scholars. In this article, these structures are put together so to propose a new interpretation of the library....

  11. Privacy and Library Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  12. Hospital Library Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  13. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  14. TRAC Searchable Research Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Relational Data Modeling (VRDM) computational paradigm. VRDM has the key attributes of being cloud available, using domain semantics for configured...Figure 1. Methodology for TRAC Searchable Research Library Development. ........................... 5 Figure 2. The conceptual model for the cloud ...TRAC Searchable Research Library project was initiated by TRAC- HQ to address a current capability gap in the TRAC organization. Currently TRAC does not

  15. XML in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy, Ed.

    This book presents examples of how libraries are using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to solve problems, expand services, and improve systems. Part I contains papers on using XML in library catalog records: "Updating MARC Records with XMLMARC" (Kevin S. Clarke, Stanford University) and "Searching and Retrieving XML Records via the…

  16. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  17. Library Consortia in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csajbok, Edit; Szluka, Peter; Vasas, Livia

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades many Hungarian libraries have developed considerably, beyond what was considered possible prior to 1989 and the beginning of events signaling the end of Communism in the country. Some of the modernization of library services has been realized through participation in cooperative agreements. Many smaller and larger…

  18. The academic library network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojciechowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of libraries, academic libraries in particular, necessitates organizational changes facilitating or even imposing co-operation. Any structure of any university has to have an integrated network of libraries, with an appropriate division of work, and one that is consolidated as much as it is possible into medium-size or large libraries. Within thus created network, a chance arises to centralize the main library processes based on appropriate procedures in the main library, highly specialized, more effective and therefore cheaper in operation, including a co-ordination of all more important endeavours and tasks. Hierarchically subordinated libraries can be thus more focused on performing their routine service, more and more frequently providing for the whole of the university, and being able to adjust to changeable requirements and demands of patrons and of new tasks resulting from the new model of the university operation. Another necessary change seems to be a universal implementation of an ov rall programme framework that would include all services in the university’s library networks.

  19. Increasing Library Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Susan

    1977-01-01

    Libraries could benefit from the businesslike approach of an entrepreneur. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior of value to libraries include: moderate risk-taking as a function of skill, not chance; energetic instrumental activity; insistence upon individual responsibility; knowledge of results of decisions; anticipation of future…

  20. Library Classification 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author explores how a new library classification system might be designed using some aspects of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and ideas from other systems to create something that works for school libraries in the year 2020. By examining what works well with the Dewey Decimal System, what features should be carried…

  1. An Online Library Catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloro, Giovanna; Ugolini, Donatella

    1992-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an online catalog in the library of the National Institute for Cancer Research and the Clinical and Experimental Oncology Institute of the University of Genoa. Topics addressed include automation of various library functions, software features, database management, training, and user response. (10 references) (MES)

  2. Libraries and Lenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This instructional unit combines a study of the Soviet leader V. I. Lenin with a study of libraries. Lenin was selected as the focus because of his support of books and libraries and because he oversaw a revolution that altered the political and social structure of Russia and the balance of power throughout the world. Included are lesson plan…

  3. Chief Information Officer > Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    DCIO R&A DCIO CS In the News Library Contact us Library Policies CIO Charter DoD CIO Charter that many laws, and DoD policies and procedures apply to or include the use of IbC, even when such use Service Site Registry Policies Education and Training Terms of Service Agreements Site Registry Policies

  4. An MDE Approach for Modular Program Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildiz, Bugra Mehmet; Bockisch, Christoph; Aksit, Mehmet; Rensink, Arend

    Program analyses are an important tool to check if a system fulfills its specification. A typical implementation strategy for program analyses is to use an imperative, general-purpose language like Java, and access the program to be analyzed through libraries that offer an API for reading, writing

  5. A novel salt-tolerant chitobiosidase discovered by genetic screening of a metagenomic library derived from chitin-amended agricultural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Berini, Francesca; Kielak, Anna Maria; Marinelli, Flavia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report on the construction of a metagenomic library from a chitin-amended disease-suppressive agricultural soil and its screening for genes that encode novel chitinolytic enzymes. The library, constructed in fosmids in an Escherichia coli host, comprised 145,000 clones containing inserts of

  6. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  7. [Construction of fetal mesenchymal stem cell cDNA subtractive library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Dong-Mei; Li, Liang; Bai, Ci-Xian; Cao, Hua; Li, Ting-Yu; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2002-04-01

    To identify differentially expressed genes between fetal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and adult MSC, especially specified genes expressed in fetal MSC, a cDNA subtractive library of fetal MSC was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique. At first, total RNA was isolated from fetal and adult MSC. Using SMART PCR synthesis method, single-strand and double-strand cDNAs were synthesized. After Rsa I digestion, fetal MSC cDNAs were divided into two groups and ligated to adaptor 1 and adaptor 2 respectively. Results showed that the amplified library contains 890 clones. Analysis of 890 clones with PCR demonstrated that 768 clones were positive. The positive rate is 86.3%. The size of inserted fragments in these positive clones was between 0.2 - 1 kb, with an average of 400 - 600 bp. SSH is a convenient and effective method for screening differentially expressed genes. The constructed cDNA subtractive library of fetal MSC cDNA lays solid foundation for screening and cloning new and specific function related genes of fetal MSC.

  8. Marketing and health libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Maurice

    2004-12-01

    To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries. A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google. Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation are identified and discussed in relation to health libraries. In increasingly complex health service and information environments, the marketing and promotion of library services is becoming more important if those services are to justify the resources given to them. Marketing techniques are equally applicable to physical and digital library services.

  9. Motivation and library management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  10. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    ), one simply needs a diagnostic absorption band. The mapping system uses continuum-removed reference spectral features fitted to features in observed spectra. Spectral features for such algorithms can be obtained from a spectrum of a sample containing large amounts of contaminants, including those that add other spectral features, as long as the shape of the diagnostic feature of interest is not modified. If, however, the data are needed for radiative transfer models to derive mineral abundances from reflectance spectra, then completely uncontaminated spectra are required. This library contains spectra that span a range of quality, with purity indicators to flag spectra for (or against) particular uses. Acquiring spectral measurements and performing sample characterizations for this library has taken about 15 person-years of effort. Software to manage the library and provide scientific analysis capability is provided (Clark, 1980, 1993). A personal computer (PC) reader for the library is also available (Livo and others, 1993). The program reads specpr binary files (Clark, 1980, 1993) and plots spectra. Another program that reads the specpr format is written in IDL (Kokaly, 2005). In our view, an ideal spectral library consists of samples covering a very wide range of materials, has large wavelength range with very high precision, and has enough sample analyses and documentation to establish the quality of the spectra. Time and available resources limit what can be achieved. Ideally, for each mineral, the sample analysis would include X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EM) or X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and petrographic microscopic analyses. For some minerals, such as iron oxides, additional analyses such as Mossbauer would be helpful. We have found that to make the basic spectral measurements, provide XRD, EM or XRF analyses, and microscopic analyses, document the results, and complete an entry of one spectral library sample, all takes about

  11. Brain cDNA clone for human cholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, C.; Adkins, S.; Chatonnet, A.; Vaughan, T.A.; Bartels, C.F.; Kott, M.; Rosenberry, T.L.; La Du, B.N.; Lockridge, O.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA library from human basal ganglia was screened with oligonucleotide probes corresponding to portions of the amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase. Five overlapping clones, representing 2.4 kilobases, were isolated. The sequenced cDNA contained 207 base pairs of coding sequence 5' to the amino terminus of the mature protein in which there were four ATG translation start sites in the same reading frame as the protein. Only the ATG coding for Met-(-28) lay within a favorable consensus sequence for functional initiators. There were 1722 base pairs of coding sequence corresponding to the protein found circulating in human serum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA exactly matched the 574 amino acid sequence of human serum cholinesterase, as previously determined by Edman degradation. Therefore, our clones represented cholinesterase rather than acetylcholinesterase. It was concluded that the amino acid sequences of cholinesterase from two different tissues, human brain and human serum, were identical. Hybridization of genomic DNA blots suggested that a single gene, or very few genes coded for cholinesterase

  12. Amino acid sequence of bovine muzzle epithelial desmocollin derived from cloned cDNA: a novel subtype of desmosomal cadherins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P J; Goldschmidt, M D; Walsh, M J; Zimbelmann, R; Schmelz, M; Franke, W W

    1991-05-01

    Desmosomes are cell-type-specific intercellular junctions found in epithelium, myocardium and certain other tissues. They consist of assemblies of molecules involved in the adhesion of specific cell types and in the anchorage of cell-type-specific cytoskeletal elements, the intermediate-size filaments, to the plasma membrane. To explore the individual desmosomal components and their functions we have isolated DNA clones encoding the desmosomal glycoprotein, desmocollin, using antibodies and a cDNA expression library from bovine muzzle epithelium. The cDNA-deduced amino-acid sequence of desmocollin (presently we cannot decide to which of the two desmocollins, DC I or DC II, this clone relates) defines a polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 85,000, with a single candidate sequence of 24 amino acids sufficiently long for a transmembrane arrangement, and an extracellular aminoterminal portion of 561 amino acid residues, compared to a cytoplasmic part of only 176 amino acids. Amino acid sequence comparisons have revealed that desmocollin is highly homologous to members of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, including the previously sequenced desmoglein, another desmosome-specific cadherin. Using riboprobes derived from cDNAs for Northern-blot analyses, we have identified an mRNA of approximately 6 kb in stratified epithelia such as muzzle epithelium and tongue mucosa but not in two epithelial cell culture lines containing desmosomes and desmoplakins. The difference may indicate drastic differences in mRNA concentration or the existence of cell-type-specific desmocollin subforms. The molecular topology of desmocollin(s) is discussed in relation to possible functions of the individual molecular domains.

  13. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  14. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  15. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  16. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  17. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  18. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  19. EPA Library Network Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish Agency-wide procedures for the EPA National Library Network libraries to communicate, using a range of established mechanisms, with other EPA libraries, EPA staff, organizations and the public.

  20. Enhancing a Core Journal Collection for Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Devedzic, Vladan; Pocajt, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to address the problem of enhancing the selection of titles offered by a digital library, by analysing the differences in these titles when they are cited by local authors in their publications and when they are listed in the digital library offer. Design/methodology/approach: Text mining techniques were used to identify…

  1. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  2. Library Web Sites in Pakistan: An Analysis of Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutab, Saima; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate library web sites in Pakistan, to analyse their content and navigational strengths and weaknesses and to give recommendations for developing better web sites and quality assessment studies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey of web sites of 52 academic, special, public and national libraries in…

  3. Construction of full-length cDNA library of white flower Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to screen and isolate secondary metabolite biosynthesis related gene, we construct a cDNA library of white flower Salvia miltiorrhiza bge. f.alba. High quality of total RNA was successfully isolated from roots of white flower S. miltiorrhiza using modified CTAB method. Double strand cDNA was cloned into pDNR-LIB ...

  4. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is 2, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party

  5. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  6. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  7. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  8. Entamoeba Clone-Recognition Experiments: Morphometrics, Aggregative Behavior, and Cell-Signaling Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Hackey, Meagan; Rutherford, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Studies on clone- and kin-discrimination in protists have proliferated during the past decade. We report clone-recognition experiments in seven Entamoeba lineages (E. invadens IP-1, E. invadens VK-1:NS, E. terrapinae, E. moshkovskii Laredo, E. moshkovskii Snake, E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar). First, we characterized morphometrically each clone (length, width, and cell-surface area) and documented how they differed statistically from one another (as per single-variable or canonical-discriminant analyses). Second, we demonstrated that amebas themselves could discriminate self (clone) from different (themselves vs. other clones). In mix-cell-line cultures between closely-related (E. invadens IP-1 vs. E. invadens VK-1:NS) or distant-phylogenetic clones (E. terrapinae vs. E. moshkovskii Laredo), amebas consistently aggregated with same-clone members. Third, we identified six putative cell-signals secreted by the amebas (RasGap/Ankyrin, coronin-WD40, actin, protein kinases, heat shock 70, and ubiquitin) and which known functions in Entamoeba spp. included: cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cell movement, and stress-induced encystation. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-clone characterization of Entamoeba spp. morphometrics, aggregative behavior, and cell-signaling secretion in the context of clone-recognition. Protists allow us to study cell-cell recognition from ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Modern protistan lineages can be central to studies about the origins and evolution of multicellularity. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  9. Cloning of cDNA encoding steroid 11β-hydroxylase (P450c11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, S.C.; Szabo, P.; Vitek, A.; Grzeschik, K.H.; John, M.; White, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated bovine and human adrenal cDNA clones encoding the adrenal cytochrome P-450 specific for 11β-hydroxylation (P450c11). A bovine adrenal cDNA library constructed in the bacteriophage λ vector gt10 was probed with a previously isolated cDNA clone corresponding to part of the 3' untranslated region of the 4.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA encoding P450c11. Several clones with 3.2-kb cDNA inserts were isolated. Sequence analysis showed that they overlapped the original probe by 300 base pairs (bp). Combined cDNA and RNA sequence data demonstrated a continuous open reading frame of 1509 bases. P450c11 is predicted to contain 479 amino acid residues in the mature protein in addition to a 24-residue amino-terminal mitochondrial signal sequence. A bovine clone was used to isolate a homologous clone with a 3.5-kb insert from a human adrenal cDNA library. A region of 1100 bp was 81% homologous to 769 bp of the coding sequence of the bovine cDNA except for a 400-bp segment presumed to be an unprocessed intron. Hybridization of the human cDNA to DNA from a panel of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid lines and in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads of human chromosomes localized the gene to the middle of the long arm of chromosome 8. These data should be useful in developing reagents for heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, the second most frequent cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

  10. Molecular cloning of transcripts induced by UV-radiation in rodent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Mitchell, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Several inducible DNA repair genes have been well characterized in bacteria. In eukaryotes including mammalian cells, there is increasing evidence that similar events may occur. Recently, the authors have shown that hybridization subtraction can be used to enrich for sequences induced only several fold by a particular cell treatment such as heat shock. Chinese hamster V79 cells were UV-irradiated with 17 Jm/sup -2/ and cDNA was synthesized from the polyadenylated (poly A) RNA. This ''UV'' cDNA was hybridized with a 3 fold excess of polyA RNA from unirradiated cells and the nonhybridizing cDNA was isolated. With this approach, UV-induced sequences were enriched over 20 fold. This enriched cDNA was cloned into a high copy number plasmid and a cDNA library was constructed. By RNA dot blot and northern analysis, 42 clones from this library were found to represent transcripts induced 3 to 25 fold by UV. The most common isolates were found to be metallothionein transcripts by DNA sequencing. The metallothionein transcripts were found to be induced 10 to 25 fold by UV with maximum induction at 4-8 h after 10 Jm/sup -2/. A similar approach was also used with a Chinese hamster ovary line which does not express metallothionein and multiple clones were isolated which represented transcripts induced 3-15 fold by UV. Except for the metallothionein clones, the other Chinese hamster cDNA clones have not been identified, but it is probable that the protein products of at least some of these transcripts play a role in the cellular response to UV damage

  11. Libraries Today, Libraries Tomorrow: Contemporary Library Practices and the Role of Library Space in the L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vogrinčič Čepič

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The article uses sociological concepts in order to rethink the changes in library practices. Contemporary trends are discussed with regard to the changing nature of working habits, referring mostly to the new technology, and the (emergence of the third space phenomenon. The author does not regard libraries only as concrete public service institutions, but rather as complex cultural forms, taking in consideration wider social context with a stress on users’ practices in relation to space.Methodology/approach: The article is based on the (self- observation of the public library use, and on the (discourse analysis of internal library documents (i.e. annual reports and plans and secondary sociological literature. As such, the cultural form approach represents a classic method of sociology of culture.Results: The study of relevant material in combination with direct personal experiences reveals socio-structural causes for the change of users’ needs and habits, and points at the difficulty of spatial redefinition of libraries as well as at the power of the discourse.Research limitations: The article is limited to an observation of users’ practices in some of the public libraries in Ljubljana and examines only a small number of annual reports – the discoveries are then further debated from the sociological perspective.Originality/practical implications: The article offers sociological insight in the current issues of the library science and tries to suggest a wider explanation that could answer some of the challenges of the contemporary librarianship.

  12. Phylogenetic and functional diversity of metagenomic libraries of phenol degrading sludge from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cynthia C; Hayden, Helen; Sawbridge, Tim; Mele, Pauline; Kruger, Ricardo H; Rodrigues, Marili Vn; Costa, Gustavo Gl; Vidal, Ramon O; Sousa, Maíra P; Torres, Ana Paula R; Santiago, Vânia Mj; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2012-03-27

    In petrochemical refinery wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), different concentrations of pollutant compounds are received daily in the influent stream, including significant amounts of phenolic compounds, creating propitious conditions for the development of particular microorganisms that can rapidly adapt to such environment. In the present work, the microbial sludge from a refinery WWTP was enriched for phenol, cloned into fosmid vectors and pyrosequenced. The fosmid libraries yielded 13,200 clones and a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the sequence data set revealed a complex and diverse bacterial community in the phenol degrading sludge. The phylogenetic analyses using MEGAN in combination with RDP classifier showed a massive predominance of Proteobacteria, represented mostly by the genera Diaphorobacter, Pseudomonas, Thauera and Comamonas. The functional classification of phenol degrading sludge sequence data set generated by MG-RAST showed the wide metabolic diversity of the microbial sludge, with a high percentage of genes involved in the aerobic and anaerobic degradation of phenol and derivatives. In addition, genes related to the metabolism of many other organic and xenobiotic compounds, such as toluene, biphenyl, naphthalene and benzoate, were found. Results gathered herein demonstrated that the phenol degrading sludge has complex phylogenetic and functional diversities, showing the potential of such community to degrade several pollutant compounds. This microbiota is likely to represent a rich resource of versatile and unknown enzymes which may be exploited for biotechnological processes such as bioremediation.

  13. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor.

    OpenAIRE

    Antalis, T M; Clark, M A; Barnes, T; Lehrbach, P R; Devine, P L; Schevzov, G; Goss, N H; Stephens, R W; Tolstoshev, P

    1988-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor (mPAI-2) was purified to homogeneity from the U937 cell line and partially sequenced. Oligonucleotide probes derived from this sequence were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from U937 cells. One positive clone was sequenced and contained most of the coding sequence as well as a long incomplete 3' untranslated region (1112 base pairs). This cDNA sequence was shown to encode mPAI-2 by hybrid-select translation. A cDNA clone encoding t...

  14. Gender, Technology, and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Lamont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is vitally important to many organizations, including libraries. Yet a review of employment statistics and a citation analysis show that men make up the majority of the IT workforce, in libraries and in the broader workforce. Research from sociology, psychology, and women’s studies highlights the organizational and social issues that inhibit women. Understanding why women are less evident in library IT positions will help inform measures to remedy the gender disparity.

  15. CRNL library serials list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alburger, T.P.

    1982-04-01

    A list of 1900 serial publications (periodicals, society transactions and proceedings, annuals and directories, indexes, newspapers, etc.) is presented with volumes and years held by the Main Library. This library is the largest in AECL as well as one of the largest scientific and technical libraries in North America, and functions as a Canadian resource for nuclear information. A main alphabetical list is followed by broad subject field lists representing research interests, and lists of abstract and index serials, general bibliographic serials, conference indexes, press releases, English translations, and original language journals

  16. FRDS.Broker Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The FRDS.Broker library is a teaching oriented implementation of the Broker architectural pattern for distributed remote method invocation. It defines the central roles of the pattern and provides implementations of those roles that are not domain/use case specific. It provides a JSON based (GSon...... library) Requestor implementation, and implementations of the ClientRequestHandler and ServerRequestHandler roles in both a Java socket based and a Http/URI tunneling based variants. The latter us based upon the UniRest and Spark-Java libraries. The Broker pattern and the source code is explained...

  17. Expression cloning of camelid nanobodies specific for Xenopus embryonic antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Itoh

    Full Text Available Developmental biology relies heavily on the use of conventional antibodies, but their production and maintenance involves significant effort. Here we use an expression cloning approach to identify variable regions of llama single domain antibodies (known as nanobodies, which recognize specific embryonic antigens. A nanobody cDNA library was prepared from lymphocytes of a llama immunized with Xenopus embryo lysates. Pools of bacterially expressed cDNAs were sib-selected for the ability to produce specific staining patterns in gastrula embryos. Three different nanobodies were isolated: NbP1 and NbP3 stained yolk granules, while the reactivity of NbP7 was predominantly restricted to the cytoplasm and the cortex. The isolated nanobodies recognized specific protein bands in immunoblot analysis. A reverse proteomic approach identified NbP1 target antigen as EP45/Seryp, a serine protease inhibitor. Given the unique stability of nanobodies and the ease of their expression in diverse systems, we propose that nanobody cDNA libraries represent a promising resource for molecular markers for developmental biology.

  18. Construction of a BAC library and identification of Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang Songhun; Zhou Fang; Xia Laixin; Zhao Wei; Cheng Hanhua; Zhou Rongjia

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using nuclear DNA from the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). The BAC library consists of a total of 33,000 clones with an average insert size of 115 kb. Based on the rice field eel haploid genome size of 600 Mb, the BAC library is estimated to contain approximately 6.3 genome equivalents and represents 99.8% of the genome of the rice field eel. This is first BAC library constructed from this species. To estimate the possibility of isolating a specific clone, high-density colony hybridization-based library screening was performed using Dmrt1 cDNA of the rice field eel as a probe. Both library screening and PCR identification results revealed three positive BAC clones which were overlapped, and formed a contig covering the Dmrt1 gene of 195 kb. By sequence comparisons with the Dmrt1 cDNA and sequencing of first four intron-exon junctions, Dmrt1 gene of the rice field eel was predicted to contain four introns and five exons. The sizes of first and second intron are 1.5 and 2.6 kb, respectively, and the sizes of last two introns were predicted to be about 20 kb. The Dmrt1 gene structure was conserved in evolution. These results also indicate that the BAC library is a useful resource for BAC contig construction and molecular isolation of functional genes

  19. Rapid isolation of IgNAR variable single-domain antibody fragments from a shark synthetic library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Cui-Ying; Secombes, Chris J; Porter, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin isotype IgNAR (Novel Antigen Receptor) was discovered in the serum of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and wobbegong shark (Orectolobus maculates) as a homodimer of two protein chains, each composed of a single variable domain (V) domain and five constant domains. The IgNAR variable domain contains an intact antigen-binding site and functions as an independent domain able to react to antigen with both high specificity and affinity. Here we describe the successful construction of a synthetic phage-displayed library based upon a single anti-lysozyme clone HEL-5A7 scaffold, which was previously selected from an immune IgNAR variable domain library. The complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) loop of this clone was varied in both length and composition and the derived library was used to pan against two model proteins, lysozyme and leptin. A single anti-lysozyme clone (Ly-X20) and anti-leptin clone (Lep-12E1) were selected for further study. Both clones were shown to be functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, extremely thermostable and bind to corresponding antigens specifically. The results here demonstrate that a synthetic IgNAR variable domain library based on a single framework scaffold can be used as a route to generate antigen binders quickly, easily and without the need of immunization.

  20. An Assessment of Users' Level of Satisfaction with Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Assessment of Users' Level of Satisfaction with Library Circulation Policy on ... a time lag of two weeks in order to determine its content and construct reliability. Data generated were analysed using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, ...

  1. SCHOOL COMMUNITY PERCEPTION OF LIBRARY APPS AGAINTS LIBRARY EMPOWERMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Riyadi Alberto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated by the development of information and communication technology (ICT in the library world so rapidly that allows libraries in the present to develop its services into digital-based services. This study aims to find out the school community’s perception of library apps developed by Riche Cynthia Johan, Hana Silvana, and Holin Sulistyo and its influence on library empowerment at the library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Library apps in this research belong to the context of m-libraries, which is a library that meets the needs of its users by using mobile platforms such as smartphones,computers, and other mobile devices. Empowerment of library is the utilization of all aspects of the implementation of libraries to the best in order to achieve the expected goals. An analysis of the schoolcommunity’s perception of library apps using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM includes: ease of use, usefulness, usability, usage trends, and real-use conditions. While the empowerment of the library includes aspects: information empowerment, empowerment of learning resources, empowerment of human resources, empowerment of library facilities, and library promotion. The research method used in this research is descriptive method with quantitative approach. Population and sample in this research is school community at SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung. Determination of sample criteria by using disproportionate stratified random sampling with the number of samples of 83 respondents. Data analysis using simple linear regression to measure the influence of school community perception about library apps to library empowerment. The result of data analysis shows that there is influence between school community perception about library apps to library empowerment at library of SD Laboratorium Percontohan UPI Bandung which is proved by library acceptance level and library empowerment improvement.

  2. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1→2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1→2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1→2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2

  3. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  4. The USF Libraries Virtual Library Project: A Blueprint for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Wiseman, Monica; Silver, Susan; Hanson, Ardis; Johnston, Judy; Grohs, Kim; Neville, Tina; Sanchez, Ed; Gray, Carolyn

    This report of the Virtual Library Planning Committee (VLPC) is intending to serve as a blueprint for the University of South Florida (USF) Libraries as it shifts from print to digital formats in its evolution into a "Virtual Library". A comprehensive planning process is essential for the USF Libraries to make optimum use of technology,…

  5. Croatian library leaders’ views on (their library quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelija Petr Balog

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine and describe the library culture in Croatian public libraries. Semi-structured interviews with 14 library directors (ten public and four academic were conducted. The tentative discussion topics were: definition of quality, responsibility for quality, satisfaction with library services, familiarization with user perspective of library and librarians, monitoring of user expectations and opinions. These interviews incorporate some of the findings of the project Evaluation of library and information services: public and academic libraries. The project investigates library culture in Croatian public and academic libraries and their preparedness for activities of performance measurement. The interviews reveal that library culture has changed positively in the past few years and that library leaders have positive attitude towards quality and evaluation activities. Library culture in Croatian libraries is a relatively new concept and as such was not actively developed and/or created. This article looks into the library culture of Croatian libraries, but at the same time investigates whether there is any trace of culture of assessment in them. Also, this article brings the latest update on views, opinions and atmosphere in Croatian public and academic libraries.

  6. National Libraries Section. General Research Libraries Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on national library services and activities, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference, include: (1) "The National Library of China in its Gradual Application of Modern Technology," a discussion by Zhu Nan and Zhu Yan (China) of microform usage and library automation; (2)…

  7. Library Science Education: A New Role for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Threasa L.

    2018-01-01

    Many individuals working in library and information organizations do not hold a master of library science (MLS) degree or other specialized library science credential. Recognizing that this professional gap could be addressed by diversified educational opportunities, the W. Frank Steely Library at Northern Kentucky University in Highland Heights…

  8. Construction and screening of marine metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Nancy; Löscher, Carolin; Metzger, Rebekka; Schmitz, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. Besides, the surfaces of marine multicellular organisms are typically covered by a consortium of epibiotic bacteria and act as barriers, where diverse interactions between microorganisms and hosts take place. Thus, microbial diversity in the water column of the oceans and the microbial consortia on marine tissues of multicellular organisms are rich sources for isolating novel bioactive compounds and genes. Here we describe the sampling, construction of large-insert metagenomic libraries from marine habitats and exemplarily one function based screen of metagenomic clones.

  9. Controlling hospital library theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  10. Working in the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Head Librarian Jens Vigen seeking information on the first discussions concerning the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the LEP Tunnel (1984), here assisted by two of the library apprentices, Barbara Veyre and Dina-Elisabeth Bimbu (seated).

  11. Marketing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  12. LIBRARY MANAGEMNT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Tilca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of any educational institution is the content and services of the university library. The mission of the library is to obtain, organize, preserve and update the information with the greatest possible accuracy, minimum effort and time. This requires automation of the library’s operations. This paper presents a software application for managing the activity of the territorial "Vasile Goldiş" West University library. The application is developed using Visual Basic for Application programming language and using the database management system Microsoft Access 2010. The goal of this application is to optimize the inner workings of local library and to meet the requests of the institution and of the readers.

  13. Mainstreaming the New Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    This discussion of methods of integrating the corporate library into the mainstream of affairs highlights three major elements of the process: marketing, production, and advertising. Professionalism and the information seeking behavior of clients are noted. Five references are provided. (EJS)

  14. Research in the Library

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... devoted to a similar purpose. Over the past 100 years, the Library has been growing and developing to support the unique educational and research programs of the College, and its collections are, therefore, strong in the areas...

  15. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  16. Iowa DNR - NRGIS Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Natural Resources Geographic Information System (NRGIS) Library is a Geographic Information System (GIS) repository developed and maintained by the GIS Section...

  17. The library assessment cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Aaron W

    2017-01-01

    The Library Assessment Cookbook features 80 practical, easy-to-implement recipes divided into nine sections. This Cookbook will help librarians of all levels of experience measure and demonstrate their institutional value.

  18. Unified accelerator libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malitsky, Nikolay; Talman, Richard

    1997-01-01

    A 'Universal Accelerator Libraries' (UAL) environment is described. Its purpose is to facilitate program modularity and inter-program and inter-process communication among heterogeneous programs. The goal ultimately is to facilitate model-based control of accelerators

  19. Archives Library Information Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — ALIC is an online library catalog of books, periodicals, and other materials contained in Archives I and II and book collections located in other facilities.

  20. Foreign Data Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Data Library consists of meteorological data from nations other than the United States. The data are on original observational forms, in publications,...

  1. Web design for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Rubenstein, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Having a clear, attractive, and easy-to-navigate website that allows users to quickly find what they want is essential for any organization-including a library. This workbook makes website creation easy-no HTML required.

  2. Nigerian School Library Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian School Library Journal is a scholarly publication of the Nigerian ... media resources management, reading development, e-learning/m-learning, and other ... Team management in the 21 century: A human relations theory angle ...

  3. Medical Library Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Generation Data Sciences Challenges in Health and Biomedicine Fri November 3, 2017 The Medical Library Association ... Next Generation Data Science Challenges in Health and Biomedicine. MLA's comments and recommendations will help formulate strategic ...

  4. The Library as Publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Roy

    1979-01-01

    Presents a guide to for-profit library publishing of reprints, original manuscripts, and smaller items. Discussed are creation of a publications panel to manage finances and preparation, determining prices of items, and drawing up author contracts. (SW)

  5. Developing European Library Services in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what academic and national libraries can do to continue to offer services and facilities at a time of economic difficulties. It identifies a number of methodologies and opportunities that are open to libraries and takes the view that it is never wise to waste a good crisis, because all threats are really opportunities in disguise. The kernel of this paper was delivered at the 10th Anniversary special EISZ Consortium Members’ Meeting on 2 December 2011, in Budapest, Hungary. It builds on an earlier talk delivered in Thessaloniki, Greece, on 14–15 November 2011 at the 20th Pan-Hellenic Academic Libraries Conference, entitled ‘Academic Libraries and Financial Crisis: Strategies for Survival’. Both these presentations are available in UCL Discovery. This article draws on themes used in both presentations, and introduces a new one on the topic of copyright reform. The article looks at the initial economic context for European research libraries and then examines ways in which libraries can tackle the threats which the current financial crisis poses. Joint procurement is one way in which libraries can achieve value for money, and the paper examines the role of JISC Collections in the UK. Innovation through collaboration and shared services are also ways in which libraries can innovate/make savings in a cost-effective way by sharing the burden of costs around the partnership. The paper gives two examples: one which is now well established, the DART-Europe portal for Open Access e-theses; and one which is in the early stages of being discussed — a cloud-based solution for true collaborative cataloguing amongst the UK’s research and national libraries. The European Research Area (ERA and the contributions that libraries can make to this infrastructure through innovative EU project funding are analysed in some detail by looking at LIBER’s EU project portfolio. Finally, change and growth can come

  6. Isolation and partial characterization of peripheral blood CD4+ T cell clones expressing γδT cell receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki, Yoichiro.

    1990-06-01

    Rare T cell clones bearing both CD4 and T cell receptors (TCRγ and TCRδ) were obtained from human peripheral blood by cell sorting using anti-CD4 and anti-TCRδ1 antibodies. All the clones established were reactive with anti-TCRγδ1 antibody, whereas only about 20 % of the clones showed reactivity with anti-δTCS1 antibody. Unlike CD4 + T cells bearing TCRαβ, all the clones tested were lectin-dependent and showed CD3 antibody-redirected cytolytic activity. About 60 % exhibited natural killer cell-like activity. Immunoprecipitation analysis of TCRγδ showed that each clone expressed either a disulfide-linked or nondisulfide-linked heterodimer consisting of 37-44 kilodalton TCRγ and TCRδ chains. Southern blot analyses of TCRγ and TCRδ genes revealed some identical rearrangement patterns, suggesting the limited heterogeneity of CD4 + TCRγδ + T cells in peripheral blood. (author)

  7. Marketing and health libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeham, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To present an overview of the concepts of marketing and to examine ways in which they can be applied to health libraries.\\ud METHODS: A review was carried out of literature relating to health libraries using LISA, CINAHL, BNI and Google.\\ud RESULTS: Marketing is seen as a strategic management activity aimed at developing customer relationships. Concepts such as the 'four Ps' (product, price, place and promotion), marketing plans, the marketing mix, segmentation, promotion and evaluation ...

  8. Digital library usability studies

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2005-01-01

    Each summer, circulation staff in my library inventories a section of the stacks andbrings collection issues to the attention of appropriate bibliographers. Since I amresponsible for the economics collection, I see an array of government documents thathave managed to elude the cataloging process. Many of these titles are decades old,having squatted in the library undisturbed and uncirculated since our online catalogwas implemented in 1990.

  9. Outsourcing in libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Žaucer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other organisations more flexible libraries tend to conform to the changing environment as this is the only way to be successful and effective. They are expected to offer "more for less" and they are reorganising and searching the ways to reduce the costs. Outsourcing is one of possible solutions. The article deals with the possibilities of outsourcing in libraries, higher quality of their work eoneentrated on principal activities and gives some experienees in this field.

  10. Chicken microsatellite markers isolated from libraries enriched for simple tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M; Dawson, D A; McCamley, C; Wardle, A F; Armour, J A; Burke, T

    1997-12-01

    The total number of microsatellite loci is considered to be at least 10-fold lower in avian species than in mammalian species. Therefore, efficient large-scale cloning of chicken microsatellites, as required for the construction of a high-resolution linkage map, is facilitated by the construction of libraries using an enrichment strategy. In this study, a plasmid library enriched for tandem repeats was constructed from chicken genomic DNA by hybridization selection. Using this technique the proportion of recombinant clones that cross-hybridized to probes containing simple tandem repeats was raised to 16%, compared with < 0.1% in a non-enriched library. Primers were designed from 121 different sequences. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of two chicken reference pedigrees enabled 72 loci to be localized within the collaborative chicken genetic map, and at least 30 of the remaining loci have been shown to be informative in these or other crosses.

  11. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  12. Enhanced specificity in immunoscreening of expression cDNA clones using radiolabeled antigen overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, S.; Chao, L.; Chao, J.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive and specific method has been developed for immunoscreening clones from an expression cDNA library. The procedures utilize a radiolabeled antigen detection method described originally for the immunoblotting of plasma proteins. Screening of rat alpha 1-antitrypsin clones was used. Comparison between Western blots of alpha 1-antitrypsin using both labeled antigen and protein A detection methods showed that the former yielded lower background and greater sensitivity than the latter. Further, this technique was shown to have a lower detection limit of less than 20 ng through Western blot analysis of varying concentrations of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The procedures are based on the expression of the protein by cDNA clones containing the DNA inserts in the correct reading frame. Following the transfer of phage proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the bivalent antibodies bind monovalently to both nitrocellulose-bound-antigen in the phage lysates and radiolabeled antigen. The radiolabeled antigen overlay method is superior to the protein A detection method in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. This improved method can be applied in general for screening expression cDNA libraries, provided that the specific antiserum and radiolabeled antigen are available

  13. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  14. Library Services Funding Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    The Glenn Technical Library is a science and engineering library that primarily supports research activities at the Glenn Research Center, and provides selected services to researchers at all of the NASA research centers. Resources available in the library include books, journals, CD-ROMs, and access to various online sources, as well as live reference and inter-library loan services. The collection contains over 77,000 books, 800,000 research reports, and print or online access to over 1,400 journals. Currently the library operates within the Logistics and Technical Information Division, and is funded as an open-access resource within the GRC. Some of the research units at the GRC have recently requested that the library convert to a "pay-for-services" model, in which individual research units could fund only those journal subscriptions for which they have a specific need. Under this model, the library would always maintain a certain minimum level of pooled-expense services, including the ready reference and book collections, and inter-library loan services. Theoretically the "pay-for-services" model would encourage efficient financial allocation, and minimize the extent to which paid journal subscriptions go unused. However, this model also could potentially negate the benefits of group purchases for journal subscriptions and access. All of the major journal publishers offer package subscriptions that compare favorably in cost with the sum of individual subscription costs for a similar selection of titles. Furthermore, some of these subscription packages are "consortium" purchases that are funded collectively by the libraries at multiple NASA research centers; such consortia1 memberships would be difficult for the library to pay, if enough GRC research units were to withdraw their pooled contributions. cost of collectively-funded journal access with the cost of individual subscriptions. My primary task this summer is to create the cost dataset framework, and

  15. Definition of natural T cell antigens with mimicry epitopes obtained from dedicated synthetic peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, H S; van Veelen, P A; Schloot, N C; Geluk, A; van Meijgaarden, K E; Willemen, S J; Leunissen, J A; Benckhuijsen, W E; Amons, R; de Vries, R R; Roep, B O; Ottenhoff, T H; Drijfhout, J W

    1998-10-15

    Progress has recently been made in the use of synthetic peptide libraries for the identification of T cell-stimulating ligands. T cell epitopes identified from synthetic libraries are mimics of natural epitopes. Here we show how the mimicry epitopes obtained from synthetic peptide libraries enable unambiguous identification of natural T cell Ags. Synthetic peptide libraries were screened with Mycobacterium tuberculosis-reactive and -autoreactive T cell clones. In two cases, database homology searches with mimicry epitopes isolated from a dedicated synthetic peptide library allowed immediate identification of the natural antigenic protein. In two other cases, an amino acid pattern that reflected the epitope requirements of the T cell was determined by substitution and omission mixture analysis. Subsequently, the natural Ag was identified from databases using this refined pattern. This approach opens new perspectives for rapid and reliable Ag definition, representing a feasible alternative to the biochemical and genetic approaches described thus far.

  16. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  17. Purification, reactivity with IgE and cDNA cloning of parvalbumin as the major allergen of mackerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y; Tanaka, H; Ishizaki, S; Ishida, M; Nagashima, Y; Shiomi, K

    2003-08-01

    Three species of mackerels (Scomber japonicus, S. australasicus and S. scombrus) are widely consumed and considered to be most frequently involved in incidents of IgE-mediated fish allergy in Japan. In this study, parvalbumin, a possible candidate for the major allergen, was purified from the white muscle of three species of mackerels by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and reverse-phase HPLC on TSKgel ODS-120T. All the purified preparations from three species gave a single band of about 11 kDa and were clearly identified as parvalbumins by analyses of their partial amino acid sequences. In ELISA experiments, four of five sera from fish-allergic patients reacted to all the purified parvalbumins, demonstrating that parvalbumin is the major allergen in common with the mackerels. Antigenic cross-reactivity among the mackerel parvalbumins was also established by ELISA inhibition experiments. A cDNA library was constructed from the white muscle of S. japonicus and the cDNA encoding parvalbumin was cloned. The amino acid sequence translated from the nucleotide sequence revealed that the S. japonicus parvalbumin is composed of 108 residues, being a member of beta-type parvalbumins.

  18. Libraries from the Inside Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Elaine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This annual report on library facilities and furnishings includes articles on: (1) designing libraries that are both handsome and functional; (2) functional use of color and light in library interior design; (3) creating user-friendly libraries; and (4) the seven deadly sins of architects. An eight-page section of photographs is included. (MES)

  19. Tomorrow's Library: The American View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the continuing role of the public library in society, discussing the mission of the library (highlights the Chicago Public Library's new mission statement), funding collections and buildings, technology, capital improvements, challenges to intellectual freedom, librarian education, library outreach, and private-sector partnerships. (PEN)

  20. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…