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Sample records for clomiphene citrate-resistant women

  1. EFFECT OF ROSIGLITAZONE AND METFORMIN ON CLOMIPHENE CITRATE RESISTANCE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Jianhuai; Cao Zuansun; Zong Lu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impacts of rosiglitazone and metformin on ovarian response, hirsutism and insulin action in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods Ninety women resistant to clomiphene citrate with PCOS were randomized, 40 cases to rosiglitazone group, 50 cases to meformin group. Rosiglitazone and metformon were administered for 6 months in combination with clomiphene citrate on cycle day 5th to 9th, respectively. The clinical evaluations were performed monthly. Reproductive hormone, serum glucose and insulin levels were observed before and after treatment. The data were analyzed using repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results There were significant changes in reducing hirsutism score, serum testosterone level, LH/FSH ratio, and restoration of ovarian ovulation after metformin or rosiglitazone administration respectively (P0.05). Conclusion Rosiglitazone can increase insulin sensitivity. Metformon may reduce BMI. They all restore regular menstrual cycles, increase pregnancy rate, and reduce testosterone and LH concentration in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha serum level in obese and lean women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary disease

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    Emaduldin Seyam

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: TNF-α serum level has come significantly higher in all women with PCOD, especially in those resistant to CC. Androgenic obesity with higher W/H ratio has shown a positive correlation with TNF-α level, which could consider it a good severity index of PCOD status, and an informative predictor of CCR before its use.

  3. Metformin versus chromium picolinate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOs: A double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Sedigheh Amooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromium picolinate could be effective in clomiphen citrate resistant PCOS patients. Objective: To compare the effects of chromium picolinate vs. metformin in clomiphen citrate resistant PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: The present randomized clinical trial was performed on 92 women with clomiphen citrate-resistant PCOS at the clinics which were affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups receiving either chromium picolinate (200μg daily or metformin (1500mg daily for 3 months. Anthropometric and hormonal profile were measured and compared both before and after the treatment. Ovulation and pregnancy rate was measured in the two study groups, as well. Results: Chromium picolinate significantly decreased fasting blood sugar (FBS after 3 months of treatment (p=0.042. In the same way, the serum levels of fasting insulin had significantly decreased leading to an increase in insulin sensitivity as measured by QUICKI index (p=0.014. In comparison to the patients who received chromium picolinate, those who received metformin had significantly lower levels of testosterone (p=0.001 and free testosterone (p=0.001 after 3 months of treatment. Nevertheless, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding ovulation (p=0.417 and pregnancy rates (p=0.500. Conclusion: Chromium picolinate decreased FBS and insulin levels and, thus, increased insulin sensitivity in clomiphene citrate-resistance PCOS women. These effects were comparable with metformin; however, metformin treatment was associated with decreased hyperandrogenism. Overall, chromium picolinate was better tolerated compared to metformin; nonetheless, the two study groups were not significantly different regarding ovulation and pregnancy rates.

  4. Metformin administration versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

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    Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Nardo, Luciano Giovanni; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Corea, Domenico; Doldo, Patrizia; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; Zullo, Fulvio

    2004-10-01

    At present, it is unclear what the role is of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) and of metformin administration as second-line treatments for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fashion the effectiveness of LOD with metformin administration in the treatment of CC-resistant women with PCOS. A total of 120 overweight primary infertile anovulatory CC-resistant women with PCOS were enrolled and randomized into two groups of treatment. Group A underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, whereas group B underwent LOD. At hospital discharge, the patients were treated for 6 months with metformin cloridrate (group A; 850 mg twice daily) or with multivitamins (group B). The ovulation, pregnancy, abortion, and live-birth rates were evaluated. At the end of the study, the total ovulation rate was not statistically different between both treatment groups (54.8 vs. 53.2% [correction] in groups A and B, respectively), whereas the pregnancy (21.8 [correction] vs. 13.4%), the abortion (9.3 [correction] vs. 29.0%), and the live-birth (86.0 [correction] vs. 64.5%) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two groups. Our data show that metformin administration is more effective than LOD in overall reproductive outcomes in overweight infertile CC-resistant women with PCOS.

  5. Evaluation of unilateral versus bilateral ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate resistant cases of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

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    Roy, K K; Baruah, Jinee; Moda, Nidhi; Kumar, Sunesh

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with tubo-ovarian adhesion formation as the major disadvantage. Our study proposed to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic unilateral ovarian drilling with bilateral ovarian drilling in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rate with the expected advantage of decreasing postoperative adhesion rate and change in fimbiro ovarian relationship with unilateral drilling. This prospective randomized study included 44 patients with anovulatory infertility due to PCOS. Twenty-two patients underwent unilateral ovarian drilling in group-I and 22 patients underwent bilateral ovarian drilling in group-II between June 2005 and June 2007. The number of drilling site in each ovary was limited to five. The clinical and biochemical response, ovulation and pregnancy rates over a follow-up period of 1 year were compared. Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group. Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.

  6. The effectiveness of metformin on ovulation induction in clomiphene citrate - resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalysis%二甲双胍对氯米芬抵抗的多囊卵巢综合征患者促排卵治疗有效性的系统性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲松; 常双; 陈双陨; 张春莲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate of the effectiveness of metformin on ovulation induction in clomiphene citrate - resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS). Methods: CBMdisc ( 1979 - 2011), Wanfang (1994 - 2011), CNKI ( 1994 - 2011), VIP ( 1989 - 2011 ) , PUBMED ( 1997 - 2011 ) , PML ( 1997 - 2011 ) , FMJS ( 2000 - 2011 ) , duxiu scholar seacher (www. Duxiu. Com) and 9 related journals were searched for randomized controlled trails ( RCTs) on the comparison between metformin and clomiphene citrate used for PCOS patients. The quality of included trials was critically appraised. RevMan4. 2. 7 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Five pubished studies with 172 participants were included. The results of Meta - analyses showed that, compared with placebo group, ovulation rate in metformin group was higher with no significant difference [ OR 3. 74 (0.49 ~ 14.88)]; patients with leading follicles and pregnancy rate were higher with a significant difference [ Peto OR 9.51 (5. 12 ~ 17. 66) ] and [ Peto OR 6. 27 (2. 15 ~ 18. 30) ]. Conclusions; As to clomiphene citrate - resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin can play an active role in promoting follicular growth, increasing ovulation and improving pregnancy rate. Moreover, it is essential and effective to use metformin for pre - treatment in ovulation induction. The above conclusions still need to confirme and update by means of well -structured, multi -center, large sample randomized controlled trials.%目的 系统性评价二甲双胍对氯米芬抵抗的多囊卵巢综合症(PCOS)患者促排卵治疗有效性.方法 计算机检索CBMDlSC(中国生物医学文献数据库1979 ~2011)、万方(1994 ~ 2011)、CNKI(中国学术期刊网专题全文数据库1994 ~2011)、维普(中国生物医学期刊数据库1989 ~2011);PUBMED( 1997~2011)、ProQust Medical Libraray (PML)(1997 -2011)、《外文生物医学期刊文献数据库》(FMJS)(2000- 2011),读秀学术搜索(www

  7. N-acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes.

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    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Saha, Pradip Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.

  8. N -acetyl cysteine in clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: A review of reported outcomes

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    Lekha Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clomiphene citrate (CC has been the gold-standard drug for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but still CC resistance is seen in approximately 15-40% in women with PCOS. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a safe and cheap drug available in the market many years ago as mucolytic agent, was found to have a role in infertility management. Recently, some reports discussed the possible beneficial effects of NAC on ovulation. The biological properties of the NAC make this drug a potential candidate for its use in the infertility treatment, especially in the PCOS in inducing or augmenting ovulation. An updated electronic search was performed through PUBMED, MEDLINE, and COCHRANE and focused on peer-reviewed, full text, randomized controlled trials, and observational cohort or case-control studies for role of NAC in CC-resistant PCOS. Thorough search through all the clinical studies showed mixed results. Studies with positive results showed improvement in induction of ovulation as compared to negative studies showing contrary results. More randomized clinical trials are still needed to establish its definitive role in CC-resistant PCOS.

  9. 二甲双胍与腹腔镜卵巢打孔治疗有克罗米芬抵抗的多囊卵巢综合征的系统评价%The effectiveness of metformin and laparoscopic ovarian drilling treatment in women with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome:A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莲芝; 贺漪

    2015-01-01

    目的:系统评价二甲双胍与腹腔镜卵巢打孔两种方法治疗有克罗米芬抵抗的多囊卵巢综合征患者的临床效果。方法依据循证医学原则,用 Cochrane 系统评价方法,检索2002年1月—2014年6月期间Cochrane 图书馆、PubMed、CNKI、CBM、万方和重庆维普数据库等,纳入二甲双胍与腹腔镜卵巢打孔治疗有克罗米芬抵抗的多囊卵巢综合征患者的随机对照试验,采用 RevMan 5.0进行 Meta 分析。结果共纳入了5篇符合要求的 RCT 文献,共计688例患者。Meta 分析结果显示,采用二甲双胍药物治疗相比腹腔镜卵巢打孔手术治疗排卵率[(54.8%~71.9%vs.53.2%~68.3%);OR =1.04,95%CI:0.86~1.27]、妊娠率[(13.1%~18.6%vs 13.4%~17.2%);OR =0.99,95%CI :0.77~1.27]、规律月经率[(49.2%~68.8%vs 41.5%~76.4%);OR =0.83,95%CI:0.47~1.47]及流产率[(8.9%~18.2%vs 9.5%~29.0%);OR =0.72,95%CI:0.36~1.44]比较,两组治疗方式差异均无统计学意义。结论尚不能认为腹腔镜卵巢打孔术在治疗有克罗米芬抵抗的 PCOS 患者在排卵率、妊娠率、规律月经率及流产率方面优于二甲双胍。%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of metformin and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD)for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC)treatment. Methods Based on the principles of evidence-based medicine,we used Cochrane systematic review method to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCT)in Cochrane Library,PubMed,CNKI,CBM,and Wanfang,Chongqing VIP database published between 2002 and 201 4.These publications were mainly about metformin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian drilling in the treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)after failure of CC treatment. Results Five RCTs were

  10. EFFECT OF ROSIGLITAZONE AND METFORMIN ON CLOMIPHENE CITRATE RESISTANCE IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Polycysticovarysyndrome(PCOS)isbyfar themostcommoncauseofhyperandrogenicanovu latoryinfertility.AlthoughPCOSwasdescribed morethanhalfacenturyago,theunderlyingetiolo gyremainsuncertain.However,cumulativeevi dencessupporttheviewthatinsulinresistanceand associatedhyperinsulinemiamayservetolinkthe abnormalitieswithinandoutsidethehypothalamic pituitary ovarianaxisandismultipleriskfactorsfor hyperestrogen relatedcancers,type2diabetesmelli tus,hyperglycemia,hypertension,coronaryheart diseaseinwomenwithPCOS.Th...

  11. Comparison between Unilateral and Bilateral Ovarian Drilling in Clomiphene Citrate Resistance Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy

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    Ziba Zahiri Sorouri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD is an alternative method to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS patients with clomiphene citrate (CC resistant instead of gonadotropins. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of unilateral LOD (ULOD versus bilateral LOD (BLOD in CC resistance PCOS patients in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rates. Materials and Methods: In a prospective randomized clinical trial study, we included 100 PCOS patients with CC resistance attending to Al-Zahra Hospital in Rasht, Guilan Province, Iran, from June 2011 to July 2012. Patients were randomly divided into two ULOD and BLOD groups with equal numbers. The clinical and biochemical responses on ovulation and pregnancy rates were assessed over a 6-month follow-up period. Results: Differences in baseline characteristics of patients between two groups prior to laparoscopy were not significant (p>0.05. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical responses, spontaneous menstruation (66.1 vs. 71.1%, spontaneous ovulation rate (60 vs. 64.4%, and pregnancy rate (33.1 vs. 40% (p>0.05. Following drilling, there was a significant decrease in mean serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH (p=0.001 and testosterone (p=0.001 in both the groups. Mean decrease in serum LH (p=0.322 and testosterone concentrations (p=0.079 were not statistically significant between two groups. Mean serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH did not change significantly in two groups after LOD (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on results of this study, ULOD seems to be equally efficacious as BLOD in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rates (Registration Number: IRCT138903291306N2.

  12. Elevated antithyroid peroxidase antibodies indicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis are associated with the treatment response in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Ott, Johannes; Aust, Stefanie; Kurz, Christine; Nouri, Kazem; Wirth, Stefan; Huber, Johannes C; Mayerhofer, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    In infertile women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies values exceeding the upper level of normal were found in significantly more clomiphene citrate resistant patients compared clomiphene citrate responders and metformin responders. Thus, elevated antiTPO levels are associated with poor treatment response in infertile women who suffer from PCOS.

  13. The significance of anthropometric and endocrine parameters in ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Akpinar, Funda; Dilbaz, Berna; Cirik, Derya A.; Yılmaz, Saynur; Kıykac, Sadıman; Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate factors associated with the response to ovarian stimulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: The records of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate were reviwed between January 2011 and December 2014 in Etlik Zübeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital Ankara, Turkey. The anthropometric and endocrine factors of patients who were resistant to treatment at a dose of 150 mg/day (n=84) were compared with those who responded with growth of at least one graaffian follicle at a dose of 50 mg/day (n=342). Results: Of the parameters examined, body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio were significantly higher in the clomiphene citrate-resistant group compared with the responsive group. Conclusion: Reproductive treatment in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome show different outcomes. Significantly higher body mass index, luteinizing hormone level, and luteinizing hormone/follicle stimulating hormone ratio observed in clomiphene citrate resistant group can be a possible explanation for this impedance. PMID:27761570

  14. Hypothalamic function in women with secondary hypogonadism and unresponsive to clomiphene therapy.

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    Vaughan Williams, C A

    1987-01-01

    Seven women with secondary hypogonadism who had been previously unresponsive to two 5-d courses of clomiphene citrate, were treated with clomiphene citrate 100 mg daily for 10 d. LH and FSH concentrations were measured in serum collected at 15-min intervals for 5 h before and on the 10th day of treatment and oestradiol was measured in the first two samples on each day. Four women responded with an increase in the amplitude of LH pulses and in mean LH values and in three there was a marked increase in serum oestradiol concentrations. Three women who showed no gonadotrophin response were subsequently unresponsive to pulsatile LHRH therapy. These preliminary data are consistent with the hypothesis that hypothalamic hypogonadotrophism may result from hypersensitivity of the hypothalamus to oestrogen negative feedback and that the hypothalamic potential for secretion of LHRH is unimpaired. Prolonged treatment with clomiphene may provide a simple test of hypothalamic function in women with normal pituitary function.

  15. Tamoxifen: An alternative to clomiphene in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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    Lakhbir Kaur Dhaliwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Clomiphene citrate is commonly used for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory infertility. However, pregnancy rates with this drug are not as good as ovulation rates. Tamoxifen may be a better choice in some patients who fail to either ovulate or conceive with clomiphene due to its favorable effect on the cervical mucus and endometrium. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of tamoxifen in women with anovulatory infertility and find out the optimum dose needed for achieving the best outcome. Materials and Methods : 160 women attending the infertility clinic and suffering from anovulatory infertility were recruited for the study. Tamoxifen was administered in the dose of 40 mg daily and ovulation monitored. In case of anovulation, the dose was increased to 80 mg daily. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were calculated. Results : Twenty-three out of 160 women who received 40 mg of tamoxifen conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 14.38% and pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle as 14.94%. 32 out of 80 women who received 80 mg of tamoxifen conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 40% and pregnancy rate per cycle as 33.68%. This difference in the pregnancy rate between the two groups was statistically significant. 35 women out of 90 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS became pregnant with a pregnancy rate of 38.8% and 20 out of 70 women with clomiphene citrate failure conceived, giving a pregnancy rate of 28.5%. Conclusions : Tamoxifen is a good alternative to clomiphene in women with PCOS and clomiphene-resistant cases.

  16. Extension of the clomiphene citrate stair-step protocol to gonadotropin treatment in women with clomiphene resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome.

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    Horowitz, Eran; Levran, David; Weissman, Ariel

    2017-04-28

    Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of direct initiation of gonadotropin ovarian stimulation without prior withdrawal bleeding in anovulatory clomiphene citrate (CC) resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients. Eighteen PCOS patients underwent ovulation induction with CC using a stair-step regimen. Patients who failed to respond to the maximal dose of CC initiated gonadotropin stimulation without inducing withdrawal bleeding, using the chronic low dose regimen. The primary outcome measure was the time to ovulation from the beginning of CC treatment until the day of ovulatory trigger. This was compared with the time to ovulation calculated according to the traditional approach, which includes inducing progesterone withdrawal bleeding between each CC dose increment and before gonadotropin therapy. The time to ovulation in the study group was 67.0 ± 6.8 days. The estimated time to ovulation according to the traditional approach was approximately 110 days. The clinical pregnancy rate was 44% (8/18), and all pregnancies were singletons. One patient miscarried; hence the live birth rate was 38.9% (7/18). Direct initiation of gonadotropin therapy without prior induction of withdrawal bleeding in clomiphene resistant PCOS patients results in considerable reduction of the time to ovulation and is both safe and efficacious.

  17. Use of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective study

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    Xi W

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenyan Xi,1 Shankun Liu,2 Hui Mao,1 Yongkang Yang,1 Xiang Xue,1 Xiaoning Lu1 1The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an City, Shaanxi, 2Taian City Central Hospital, Shandong, Taian, People’s Republic of China Background: Gonadotropin has been used to stimulate ovulation in clomiphene-resistant infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but it is associated with overstimulated cycles with the development of many follicles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG in CC-resistant infertile women with PCOS.Methods: Ninety-four women received the letrozole + HMG, 90 women received CC + HMG, and 71 women received HMG only. All women received one treatment regimen in one treatment cycle. All patients were given HMG 75 IU on alternate days daily starting on day 3 or day 7 until the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin.Results: The rate of monofollicular development was 80.2% in the letrozole + HMG group, 65.3% in the CC + HMG group, and 54.7% in the HMG-only group (P<0.05 for letrozole + HMG vs the other two groups. The number of developing follicles (≥14 mm follicles and the cycle cancellation rate due to ovarian hyperresponse were the lowest in the letrozole + HMG group, but the difference was not significant. The ovulation and pregnancy rate were similar among the three protocols. The HMG dose needed and the mean duration of treatment were significantly lower in the letrozole + HMG and CC + HMG groups compared with the HMG-only group.Conclusion: Letrozole in combination with HMG is an effective protocol for reducing the risks of hyperstimulation for ovarian induction in CC-resistant women with PCOS. This combination may be more appropriate in patients who are particularly sensitive to gonadotropin. Keywords: letrozole, clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin

  18. Comparison of the success rate of letrozole and clomiphene citrate in women undergoing intrauterine insemination

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    Robab Davar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to compare the success rate of daily administration of aromatase inhibitor letrozole at a dose of 5 mg when administrating clomiphene citrate (CC 100 mg daily in women undergoing superovulation and IUI. METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was done in Research and Clinical Center for Infertility (Shahid Sadoughi University, Yazd, Iran. Ninety-five patients with unexplained and mild male factor infertility were studied. Using a computer-generated random table, the patients were randomized into two groups, which were treated with 5 mg of letrozole daily (42 patients, 42 cycles or 100 mg of CC daily (53 patients, 53 cycles. The data were analyzed using Student's t-test and chi square test. RESULTS: The mean age and duration of infertility in both groups were similar. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the total numbers of follicles during stimulation (5.45 ± 4.2 in CC group vs. 3.07 ± 2.1 in letrozole group (P = 0.01. No significant difference in the endometrial thickness was found between the two groups (letrozole group = 6.9 ± 2.2, CC group = 7.8 ± 1.8. The mean levels of LH and FSH in both groups were similar. P value of difference in hormone levels between two groups were 0.33 and 0.47, respectively, but there was a significant difference in mean E2 levels between the two groups (241.28 ± 167.537 in letrozole group vs. 867.34 ± 296.689 in CC group (P = 0.018. The mean number of gonadotropin ampules used in both groups was the same. Pregnancy rate per cycle was 9.5% in the letrozole group and 5.7% in the CC group (P = 0.6. Two out of the three pregnancies in the CC group (66.6% and one out of the four pregnancies in the letrozole group resulted in a miscarriage (25%. One twin pregnancy (33% occurred in the letrozole group and none in the CC group. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS did not occur in either of the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In IUI, superovulation

  19. Clomiphene citrate or letrozole as first-line ovulation induction drug in infertile PCOS women: A prospective randomized trial

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    Sujata Kar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare Letrozole (5 mg and clomiphene citrate (100 mg as first line ovulation induction drug in infertile PCOS women. Study Design: Prospective Randomised trial. Setting: A Tertiary level infertility centre. Patients: 103 infertile PCOS women Intervention(S: Treatment naοve infertile PCOS women were randomised to treatment with 5 mg letrozole (51 patients or 100 mg clomiphene citrate (52 patients daily starting day 2 to day 6 of menstrual cycle. Timed intercourse or Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI was advised 24 to 36 hours after Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG injection. Main Outcome Measures: Ovulation rate, mono or multi follicular rate, days to ovulation, endometrial thickness, serum progesterone, serum estrogen, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate. Results: The mean age, Body Mass Index (BMI, duration of infertility in both Clomiphene Citrate (CC and Letrozole groups were similar.Ovulation rate was 73.08% in letrozole group and 60.78% in CC, which was not statistically significant (P=0.398. There was no statistically significant difference between Endometrial thickness (CC 7.61 ±1.96, Let 7.65 ± 2.10, Sr E 2 on day of HCG (CC 178.3 ± 94.15, Let 162.09 ± 73.24, Days to ovulation (CC 14.2 ± 3.41; Let 13.13 ± 2.99 and Sr P 4 on D 21 (CC 10.58 ± 6.65; Let 11.86 ± 6.51. Monofolliculo genesis (CC 54.84, Let 79.49 %, P=0.027 and Pregnancy rate (CC 7.84%, Let 21.56% P=0.0125 were statistically significantly higher in letrozole group. Conclusion: Our study shows that letrozole has excellent pregnancy rates compared to clomiphene citrate. Letrozole should be considered at par with clomiphene citrate as first line drug for ovulation induction in infertile PCOS women.

  20. Effectiveness of bromocriptine monotherapy or combination treatment with clomiphene for infertility in women with galactorrhea and normal prolactin: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Xue, Tao; Li, Shang-Wei; Wang, Yan

    2010-08-01

    Among women with unexplained infertility, 28% to 55% of patients with galactorrhea are normoprolactinemic. Bromocriptine, a common treatment for infertile women with hyperprolactinemia, has been used in the treatment of unexplained subfertility in women with galactorrhea and normal prolactin; however, its effectiveness and safety profile have never been determined. The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness and safety profile of bromocriptine monotherapy or as an adjunct to clomiphene citrate in women with galactorrhea and normal prolactin levels. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Subfertility Review Group specialized register of controlled trials (March 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2010), MEDLINE (1950-March 2010), EMBASE (1980-March 2010), and the China Biological Medicine Database (inception to March 2010) for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the following terms: controlled, randomized, blinded, clinical trials, humans, galactorrhea, prolactin, bromocriptine, infertility, and subfertility. Additionally, reference lists of identified articles were searched for relevant articles. Of the 8 studies identified, 5 were excluded after full-text review for the following reasons: lack of a placebo group (2); difference in cointerventions (1); difference in end points (1); and systematic review (1). Therefore, 3 RCTs were included in this review. Bromocriptine administered in combination with clomiphene was found to be associated with a higher accumulative pregnancy rate compared with clomiphene monotherapy (fixed odds ratio [OR], 5.33; 95% CI, 2.62-10.88), and a lower miscarriage rate (fixed OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05-0.76). Only 1 trial reported live birth as an outcome, and multiple pregnancy rates were poorly reported. Patient-reported adverse effects were mentioned in the studies, but reports were often incomplete. This review suggests the effectiveness of bromocriptine with clomiphene for infertility in

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Clomiphene- Estradiol Valerate vs Letrozole on Endometrial Thickness, Abortion and Pregnancy Rate in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedoshohadaei, Fariba; Zandvakili, Farnaz; Rashadmanesh, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clomiphene citrate is the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). This drug binds and blocks estrogen receptors and thought to have an anti estrogenic effect on endometrium volume, thus may have adverse effect on fertility. Aim This study aimed to compare the effect of Clomiphene citrate plus Estradiol Valerate with Letrozole on endometrial thickness, abortion and pregnancy rate in infertile women with PCOS undergoing ovulation induction. Materials and Methods This was a randomized double blind clinical trial study on 100 women with PCOS, with an endometrial thickness less than 7mm in spite of follicles greater than 18mm after administration of Clomiphene citrate 100mg/d from 3th to 7th day of menstruation. They were randomly divided in two groups. Group A received 100mg Clomiphene citrate from day 3 to day 7 of menstruation and 4 mg Estradiol Valerate after the 8th day of menstruation until 14th day. Group B treated by 5mg Letrozole from day 3 to 7 of menstruation with placebo from 8th to 14th day of menstruation. In both groups endometrial thickness was measured by transvaginal sonography in the 14th day of menstruation. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver.18.0. Results The mean age was 30.34 years in group A and 29.62 years in group B (p=0.381). The number of infertility years in group A was 3.73 years and in group B was 3.85 years. There was no significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of mean age and infertility years (p=0.99). Endometrial thickness in group A was 7.26mm and in group B was 8.17 mm. Pregnancy rates in group A and group B was 32% and 16% respectively. There was significant relationship statistically between the two groups in terms of endometrial thickness and pregnancy rates (p=0.021 and p=0.05). There was no abortion in group A and 5 cases had abortion in group B, there was a significant relationship between the two groups statistically (p=0.028). Conclusion

  2. Randomized comparison of superovulation with letrozole vs. clomiphene citrate in an IUI program for women with recently surgically treated minimal to mild endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; El Rakhawy, Mohamed; Abd Elaal, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate pregnancy rates with letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) alone for superovulation in an intrauterine insemination program for women with recently surgically treated minimal to mild endometriosis. A randomized controlled trial following the CONSORT criteria. University teaching hospital and a private practice setting. 136 women with primary infertility due to minimal to mild endometriosis who did not achieve pregnancy after six to 12 months following laparoscopic treatment. Superovulation using 5 mg letrozole/day (69 women, 220 cycles) or 100 mg CC/day (67 women, 213 cycles) for five days combined with intrauterine insemination up to four cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate per cycle, cumulative pregnancy rate after four cycles, number of follicles, serum estradiol, endometrial thickness on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, serum progesterone, miscarriage and live birth rates. The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle and the cumulative pregnancy rate after four cycles were comparable (15.9 vs. 14.5% and 64.7 vs. 57.2%; p=0.82, p=0.71 in letrozole and CC groups, respectively). Two twin pregnancies occurred in the CC/intrauterine insemination group. Miscarriage and live birth rates were comparable (11.4 vs. 12.9% and 44.9 vs. 40.3%; p=0.47, p=0.62 in letrozole and CC groups, respectively). The total number of follicles and serum estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration were significantly increased in the CC group. Superovulation with letrozole is not more effective than clomiphene citrate alone in an intrauterine insemination program for women with minimal to mild endometriosis who did not achieve pregnancy after six to 12 months following laparoscopic treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01334762. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Comparison of Success of Clomiphene citrate and Letrozole in Ovulation Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J; Akhter, S; Prasad, I; Siddiq, S

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate which drug is better in ovulation induction between clomiphene citrate and letrozole. The study was carried out in the infertility unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Centre for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) at Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from January 2007 to December 2007. One hundred and sixty five cases were taken for the study. It was a prospective interventional comparative study of clomiphene citrate and letrozole in infertile cases. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with clomiphene citrate. Group II--clomiphene citrate resistant cases studied with letrozole, Group III--newly detected cases of sub fertility studied with letrozole. The cases were followed up for outcome; (ovulation). The TVS was done on 12th or 13th day of menstruation and level of serum progesterone on 21st day of menstrual cycle to see the evidence of ovulation. Endometrial thickness was also measured. The data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. The variables that influenced the study were-age, occupation, socioeconomic status, menstrual cycle, marital age, parity, history of MR, history of abortion, past medical and surgical history. In the current study it was observed that the signs of ovulation were significantly (p0.05). The signs of ovulation were present in 45(81.8%) cases in Group I, 33(60.0%) cases in Group II and 37(67.3%) cases in Group III. This findings of the study suggested that clomiphene citrate is higher successful than letrozole though not statistically significant. Letrozole can be preferred in clomiphene citrate resistant cases before starting other expensive therapies.

  4. Limited ability of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone to predict dominant follicular recruitment in PCOS women treated with clomiphene citrate: a comparison of two different assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Blockeel, Christophe; De Vos, Michel; van de Vijver, Arne; Camus, Michel; Cosyns, Stefan; Tournaye, Herman; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate whether serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, determined by either the Immunotech (IOT) or the second generation (Gen II) assay, can predict follicular recruitment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). Patients received 50 mg CC daily for ovulation induction followed by natural intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Overall, 84 women had their serum AMH levels tested before treatment [42 patients with Immunotech (IOT), and 42 patients with the Gen II assay]. The primary outcome was to determine dominant follicle (>10 mm) recruitment in relation to AMH levels. Thirty-three (79%) patients in the IOT and 34 (81%) patients in the Gen II assay group developed a dominant follicle within 15 days after initiation of CC. Circulating AMH levels did not differ between women with or without dominant follicular recruitment in the both groups. By using either the AMH IOT or the Gen II assay, serum AMH levels were not predictive of the development of a dominant follicle. In conclusion, serum AMH levels measured by IOT or Gen II assay, has limited value to predict PCOS patients who will develop a dominant follicle following ovulation induction with CC.

  5. Clomiphene citrate, metformin or a combination of both as the first line ovulation induction drug for Asian Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare clomiphene citrate (CC, metformin or the combination of CC and metformin as the first line ovulation induction drug in Asian Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: One hundred and five newly diagnosed, treatment naive PCOS women were recruited. They were randomized into any of the three groups: Group I (CC 50-150 mg/day, Group II (metformin 1700 mg/day, and Group III (CC + metformin in similar dosage to Groups I and II. Patients underwent follicular monitoring and advice on timed intercourse. The study period was 6 months, or till pregnant, or till CC resistant. Primary outcome studied was live birth rate (LBR. Secondary outcomes were ovulation rate, pregnancy rate, and early pregnancy loss rate. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups in baseline characteristics and biochemical parameters. LBR was 41.6%, 37.5%, and 28.1%, respectively in Groups III, II, and I. Group III (CC + metformin had the highest ovulation (83.3%, pregnancy (50%, and LBRs (41.6%. Group II (metformin was as good as Group I (CC in all the outcomes. CC + metformin (Group III had statistically significantly higher ovulation rate as compared to CC alone (Group I (P = 0.03; odds ratio: 95% confidence interval: 3.888 [1.08-13.997]. Conclusion: Thus, our study shows that metformin was as good as CC in terms of "LBR" and the combination of CC and metformin gave the highest ovulation and LBR.

  6. Altered Circulating Inflammatory Cytokines Are Associated with Anovulatory Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women Resistant to Clomiphene Citrate Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LianLian; Qi, HongBo; Baker, Philip N.; Zhen, QianNa; Zeng, Qing; Shi, Rui; Tong, Chao; Ge, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common gynecological disease characterized by chronic oligoanovulation, clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries, and insulin resistance. Accumulating evidence has shown that PCOS-related ovarian dysfunction is the main cause of anovulatory infertility. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first-line therapy for PCOS patients; however, approximately 15–40% PCOS patients are resistant to CC treatment. It has been demonstrated that PCOS is a chronic pro-inflammatory state, as some pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in the peripheral circulation of PCOS patients, but whether altered inflammatory cytokines expression in PCOS patients is associated with blunted response to CC remains unknown. Material/Methods We recruited 44 CC-resistant PCOS patients, along with 55 age and body mass index (BMI)-matched CC-sensitive PCOS patients. Ovulation was induced by administrating 50–100 mg/day CC on days 5 to 9 of each menstrual cycle. The cytokine profiles were detected by cytokine antibody microarrays and further validated by ELISAs. Results CC-resistant patients had higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) than the CC-sensitive individuals. A growth factor, angiopoietin-2, was significantly reduced [1.64 (0.93–1.95) vs. 1.08 (0.85–1.34), pCirculating cytokines are disturbed in CC-resistant PCOS patients. Altered angiopoietin-2 and CXCL-16 levels might compromise the responsiveness of the ovary to CC through up-regulating angiogenesis and inflammation. PMID:28246376

  7. Randomized Trial Comparing the Effect of Endometrial Shedding With Medroxyprogesterone Acetate With Random Start of Clomiphene Citrate for Ovulation Induction in Oligo-ovulatory and Anovulatory Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire Ann; Garbedian, Kimberly; Dixon, Marjorie; Murphy, Kellie; Shapiro, Heather

    2016-05-01

    A recent retrospective study demonstrated that anovulatory infertile women who did not have a progestogen-induced withdrawal bleed before treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC) had higher pregnancy rates than women who had a withdrawal bleed and those who had spontaneous menstrual bleeding. We sought to assess endometrial thickness at the time of ovulation in oligo-ovulatory and anovulatory women who took CC with or without a preceding progestogen-induced withdrawal bleed. We conducted a pilot randomized trial in which women with infertility and oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea were randomly assigned to take either CC after a withdrawal bleed induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 10 mg daily for 10 days or to take CC without such a bleed. Study participants underwent cycle monitoring with ultrasound assessment of endometrial thickness at the time of LH surge or a human chorionic gonadotropin trigger, followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination. Women who had not ovulated by cycle day 21 took an increased dose of CC, with or without an MPA-induced withdrawal bleed, to a maximum of three cycles. Participants and nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire about the study. There was no significant difference in endometrial thickness on the day of LH surge or human chorionic gonadotropin trigger between women who had a progestogen-induced withdrawal bleed and those who did not (P = 0.65). On average, the time to ovulation was 15 days longer in women who took MPA than in women who did not, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.65). Satisfaction with the study was reported as high by both patients and nurses. In anovulatory or oligo-ovulatory women treated with CC, we found no significant difference in endometrial thickness whether or not the use of CC was preceded by a withdrawal bleed induced by MPA. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gyn

  8. Clomiphene citrate challenge test and serum anti-MĂźllerian hormone levels in women with menstrual irregularities and/or infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Krzysiek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM
    Evaluation of CCCT results and anti-MĂźllerian hormone (AMH plasma levels in women with menstrual cycle irregularities and/or infertility.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS
    70 patients with menstrual cycle disturbances were recruited to the study. Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT was carried out in each patient enrolled. At day 3 of the cycle plasma basic levels of FSH, estradiol, progesterone, IGFBP-1, TSH, prolactin, DHEAS and anti-MĂźllerian hormone were measured. At day 10 of the cycle plasma levels of FSH and estradiol were evaluated. Plasma levels of hormones were measured by commercially available ELISA kits.

    RESULTS
    50 women with normal result of CCCT (group A had higher mean plasma level of AMH compared to 20 women with abnormal result of CCCT (group B. Mean plasma FSH level at day 3 of the cycle was lower in group A compared to group B. There were no other statistically significant differences in mean values of assessed parameters between groups A and B. Taking into account all patients enrolled to the study AMH correlated significantly with patients' age and plasma levels of FSH at day 3 and day 10 of the cycle. Basic AMH plasma levels in group A correlated negatively with plasma levels of FSH at day 3 and day 10. In group B plasma levels of FSH at day 10 of the cycle also correlated with basic AMH plasma levels. Plasma levels of estradiol at day 10 of the cycle were related inversely with basic AMH plasma levels in group A, but directly in group B.

    CONCLUSION
    It should be recommended to perform the CCCT before infertility treatment. Evaluation of the anti-MĂźllerian hormone plasma level reflects the results of the CCCT.

  9. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate versus Letrozole in Mild IVF in Poor Prognosis Subfertile Women with Failed IVF Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Oktem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate (CC vs. letrozole (L plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol in poor prognosis women with previous failed ovarian stimulation undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included cycles with CC and L plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocols of 32 poor responders who had failed to have ideal follicles to be retrieved during oocyte pick-up (OPU or embryo transfer (ET at least for 2 previous in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles with microdose flare protocol or GnRH antagonist protocol from January 2006 to December 2009. Main outcome measures were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle. Duration of stimulation, mean gonadotropin dose used, endometrial thickness, number of mature follicles, serum estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration, number of retrieved oocytes and fertilization rates were also evaluated. Results: A total number of 42 cycles of 32 severe poor responders were evaluated. Total gonadotropin consumption was significantly lower (1491 ± 873 vs. 2808 ± 1581 IU, P=0.005 and mean E2 level on the day of hCG injection were significantly higher in CC group than L group (443.3 ± 255.2 vs. 255.4 ± 285.2 pg/mL, P=0.03. ET, overall pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle were significantly higher in CC than L protocol (27.2 vs. 15%, 13.6 vs. 0% and 4.5 vs. 0%, respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion: Severe poor responders who had previously failed to respond to microdose or GnRH antagonist protocols may benefit from CC plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocol despite high cancellation rate.

  10. Combined letrozole and clomiphene versus letrozole and clomiphene alone in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishafiha M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishafiha,1 Meisam Dehghan,2 Nazila Kiarang,1 Nahideh Sadegh-Asadi,1 Seyed Navid Shayegh,3 Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad2 1Department of Gynecology, Reproductive Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 2Urmia University of Medical Sciences, 3Gulf Medical University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%, is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods: The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results: One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9% and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%. The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to

  11. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial: rationale and design of a double-blind randomized trial of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Brzyski, Robert G; Casson, Peter R; Diamond, Michael P; Schlaff, William D; Christman, Gregory M; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (×5 days) or 7.5mg of letrozole a day (×5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms.

  12. Pregnancy outcome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome comparing the effects of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and clomiphene citrate stimulation in women pre-treated with metformin: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytiska-Binstorfer Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS increases the risk for perinatal complications. Ovulation induction by laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD might improve the overall pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to assess the adverse events or effects on pregnancy of LOD and clomiphene citrate (CC stimulation in patients who received metformin. Methods Setting: Academic research institution. We retrospectively analyzed the courses of 40 spontaneous pregnancies after LOD for CC-resistance, 40 pregnancies after CC stimulation, and 40 pregnancies after metformin treatment alone. Patients in the LOD and the CC groups had been pre-treated with Metformin. Primary outcome parameters were: the rate of multiple pregnancies; the rate of early pregnancy losses/miscarriages; the development of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia/HELLP-syndrome; premature delivery; and birth weight. Results The rate of twin pregnancies did not differ between the CC group (12.5%, the LOD group (7.5%, and the metformin only group (2.5%, p = 0.239. Seventeen women suffered an early miscarriage. There were no differences with regard to the rates of gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. By analyzing all pregnancy complications together, the overall pregnancy complication rate was highest in the CC group (70.0%, 28/40, followed by the LOD group (45.0%, 18/40, and the metformin only group (47.5%, 19/40; p = 0.047. Conclusions CC, but not LOD, increases the complication rate in pregnant patients who received metformin.

  13. N-乙酰半胱氨酸治疗氯米芬抵抗多囊卵巢综合征的系统评价%N-Acetylcysteine for Treating Women with Clomiphene Citrate Resistant Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 李心蕾; 冯欣

    2014-01-01

    目的 系统评价N-乙酰半胱氨酸(NAC)对氯米芬(CC)抵抗多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者促排卵治疗的有效性和安全性.方法 检索Pubmed、EMBASE、Cochrane图书馆、Web of Science、中文科技期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、万方及维普数据库,收集相关临床对照试验,用RevMan 5.1软件进行Meta分析.结果 共纳入5项随机对照试验,共523名妇女.Meta分析结果显示,与安慰剂相比,NAC可改善CC抵抗PCOS妇女的排卵率[OR=14.24,95% CI(2.55,79.67)];活产率[OR =3.00,95%CI(1.05,8.60)];妊娠率[OR=9.87,95% CI(1.13,85.90)];hCG注射日≥18 mm卵泡数[WMD=2.39,95% CI(2.17,2.61)];hCG注射日子宫内膜厚度(mm) [WMD=1.00,95% CI(0.54,1.46)]等结局的疗效.但NAC在以下方面的疗效劣于二甲双胍:排卵率、妊娠率、hCG注射日≥18 mm卵泡数和hCG注射日子宫内膜厚度(mm).在安全性方面,NAC与安慰剂组或二甲双胍无差异.结论 NAC可以改善CC抵抗PCOS妇女的妊娠结局,但其疗效劣于二甲双胍.

  14. Is it safe to prescribe clomiphene citrate without ultrasound monitoring facilities?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coughlan, C

    2010-05-01

    The majority of triplet and higher order multiple pregnancies now result from ovulation induction\\/superovulation rather than in vitro fertilisation. However, clomiphene citrate is still widely prescribed by gynaecologists and general practitioners who do not have access to ultrasound monitoring. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of multifollicular development with different doses of clomiphene citrate. A retrospective review of transvaginal ultrasound monitoring of 425 cycles in 182 women receiving clomiphene citrate from January 2002 to December 2003, was studied. Three or more follicles of >or= 14 mm were identified in 58 cycles (14%). Patients received 50 mg of clomiphene citrate in 52 of these 58 cycles and 25 mg in the remaining six. One patient was noted to have developed five follicles and 10 patients developed four follicles. One patient developed six follicles, despite receiving only 25 mg clomiphene citrate daily. It was concluded that a significant number of women (14%) developed three or more follicles, despite receiving low doses of clomiphene citrate.

  15. Combined metformin-clomiphene in clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of metformin plus clomiphene citrate vs. gonadotrophins, laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, aromatase inhibitors, N-acetyl-cysteine and other insulin sensitizers+clomiphene for improving fertility outcomes in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. PubMed, SCOPUS and CENTRAL databases were searched until April 2014 with the key words: PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin, clomiphene citrate, ovulation induction and pregnancy. The search was limited to articles conducted with humans and published in English. The PRISMA statement was followed. Twelve randomized controlled trials (n = 1411 women) were included. Ovulation and clinical pregnancy rates per woman randomized. Compared with gonadotrophins, the metformin+clomiphene combination resulted in significantly fewer ovulations (odds ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41; p < 0.00001, 3 trials, I(2) = 85%, n = 323) and pregnancies (odds ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.75; p = 0.002, 3 trials, I(2) = 0%, n = 323). No significant differences were found when metformin+clomiphene was compared with laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.47; p = 0.62, 1 trial, n = 282; odds ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.54; p = 0.88, 2 trials, I(2) = 0%, n = 332, for ovulation and pregnancy rates, respectively). Likewise, no differences were observed in comparison with aromatase inhibitors (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.34; p = 0.55, 3 trials, I(2) = 3%, n = 409; odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.36; p = 0.50, 2 trials, n = 309, for ovulation and pregnancy rates, respectively). There is evidence for the superiority of gonadotrophins, but the metformin+clomiphene combination is mainly relevant for clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients and, if not effective, a next step could be gonadotrophins. More attempts with metformin+clomiphene are only relevant

  16. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, Usama M; Sayed, Ahmed M

    2011-06-21

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles) or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles). Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76) and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = superovulation and IUI. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075.

  17. Analysis of factors predicting success of metformin and clomiphene treatment for women with infertility owing to PCOS-related ovulation dysfunction in a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Johnson; S. Bontekoe; A.W. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Background: Metformin has failed to gain wide acceptance as a first-line treatment option for women with anovulatory infertility related to polycystic ovary syndrome. This study aimed to ascertain factors that predict fertility success with treatment that included metformin compared to standard (non

  18. Comparative evaluation of pregnancy outcome in gonadotrophin-clomiphene combination vs clomiphene alone in polycystic ovarian syndrome and unexplained infertility-A prospective clinical trial

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    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A large prospective clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of single dose uFSH and clomiphene citrate combination with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction to improve the pregnancy rate. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, prospective clinical trial. Totally, 1527 infertile women (4381 cycles with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS (n=911/2573 cycles and unexplained infertility (n=616/1808 cycles were randomized into two groups. Group A received single dose of uFSH on D 3 of menstrual cycle along with clomiphene. Group B received clomiphene only for ovulation induction. We compared the pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate between two groups. Results: Group A had a pregnancy rate of 17% compared to 8.3% of Group B which was significantly higher (P=0.0001. The miscarriage rate was 11% in Group A and 10% in Group B which was not significant (P=0.99. Pregnancy rates in PCOS women were 22% in Group A and 9.3% in Group B which shows significantly higher pregnancy rate (P=0.0001 in anovulatory infertility. But in unexplained infertility, there was no significant difference in pregnancy rate between Group A (11% and Group B(6.3%. Miscarriage rates were 8.8% and 9.5% in Group A and Group B, respectively, in PCOS women and 14% and 13% in women with unexplained infertility. Conclusion: Addition of single dose of uFSH improves pregnancy outcome particularly in anovulatory infertility (WHO II. Correction of unexplained infertility may need more than simple correction of possible subtle ovulatory effect.

  19. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: A randomized controlled trial

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    Sayed Ahmed M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI. Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles. Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Results Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76 and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = Conclusion The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075

  20. A randomized trial comparing the ovulation induction efficacy of clomiphene citrate and letrozole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Mary; Ghose, Seetesh; Gowda, Mamata

    2014-07-01

    Letrazole is an aromatase inhibitor, which is useful in ovulation induction. However, evidence on its efficacy over clomiphene citrate, which is the first of drug used for therapy of anovulation, is insufficient in Indian patients. To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate in attaining optimal follicular growth. The study was conducted in the infertility clinic of Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry, India from June 2008 to December 2009. Fifty women with ovulatory dysfunction as a cause of infertility were enrolled and randomized into two groups of 25 each. Group 1 received clomiphene citrate in incremental dose from 50 mg up to150 mg and Group 2 patient received letrozole in incremental dose from 2.5 mg to 7.5 mg, depending upon the ovulation response. In both the groups, number of follicles, diameter of large follicle, endometrial thickness, and serum estradiol and pregnancy rate were compared. The data from both groups are represented as mean and standard deviation and statistically compared using Student's t test. The number of follicles (1.89 ± 0.9 vs 1.18 ± 0.393) and serum estradiol levels (437.5 ± 293.7 pg/mL vs 291.82 ± 59.86 pg/mL) were higher in Group 1, while follicular diameter (20.67 ± 0.970 mm vs. 20.76 ± 0.903 mm) and endometrial thickness (8.5 mm vs.7.4 mm) were similar in both the Groups. Although letrozole is used for ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility, no significant beneficial effects of letrozole compared to use of clomiphene citratewere observedin ourstudy. Hence, we concur with the use of clomiphene citrate as the first line of drug for ovulation induction in Indian population and warrant larger size studiesto further validate our results.

  1. Clomiphene based ovarian stimulation in a commercial donor program

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    Shruti Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to compare an extended clomiphene-based ovarian stimulation regimen with the conventional antagonist protocol in donor-recipient cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 170 (N donors were stimulated between January 2013 and December 2013. Conventional antagonist protocol (group I was employed in (n1 = 31 cycles, and clomiphene was used in (n2 = 139 donor cycles (group II. 50 mg clomiphene was given simultaneously with gonadotropins from day 2 of the cycle until the day of trigger. The analysis was performed retrospectively for oocytes retrieved, fertilization rates, cycle cancelation, blastocyst formation, and pregnancy rates. The dosages, cost, and terminal E2 (estradiol were also compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The donor age groups were comparable in both the groups. There were no unsuccessful egg retrievals with clomiphene. The pregnancy rate (positive beta human chorionic gonadotropin was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (odds ratio: 2.453; P = 0.02. Similarly, fertilization rate was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (59.5/50.5, P = 0.04. Eggs retrieved were similar in both groups, but the terminal E2 was significantly higher in the clomiphene group (P = 0.001. Average gonadotropin used was also significantly lower in clomiphene group (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Clomiphene can effectively prevent luteinizing hormone surge and limit the dose of gonadotropins thus bringing down the costs and its negative impact on the endometrium and oocyte quality.

  2. Successful Advanced Maternal Age Pregnancy with Mosaic Turner Syndrome Conceived after Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate: A Case Report

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    Masahiro Murakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC. The patient’s ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  3. Successful advanced maternal age pregnancy with mosaic turner syndrome conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Hinokio, Kenji; Kiyokawa, Machiko; Morine, Mikio; Iwasa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). The patient's ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  4. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  5. Clomiphene and hypospadias on a detailed level : Signal or chance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.; van den Berg, M.D.; Verheij, J.B.G.M.; de Walle, H.E.K.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clomiphene, a drug used to induce ovulation, is chemically related to diethylstilbestrol. (IDES). DES is associated with vaginal cancer and infertility among daughters and with hypospadias among second-generation male offspring. Because clomiphene has a long half-life and metabolites hav

  6. Clinical observation of Clomiphene Citrate combined with Marvelon and Spironolactone in the treatment of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome%克罗米芬联合妈富隆和安体舒通治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕症的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周园; 邓蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical curative effect of Clomiphene Citrate combined with Marvelon and Spironolactone in the treatment of infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods Infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were chosen as the object of study, and they were randomly divided into the treatment group whom were given Clomiphene Citrate, Marvelon and Spironolactone and the control group whom were treated with Clomiphene Citrate, The endocrine indicators and follicle associated index were detected, and the fertilization and endomeirial condition were observed. Results Trt the observation group, testosterone, LH, FSH levels, ovarian volume, number of antral follicles were significantly less than those in the control group (all P<0.05); the dominant follicle number, endome-trial thickness, appearance quality eggs, successful fertilization, cleavage occurs, and the number of good quality embryos with type A and type B endometrial number of cases were significantly more than the control group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion Clomiphene Citrate combined Marvelon and Spironolactone contributes to improving endocrine disorders and endometrium, and has a positive significance for the treatment of infertility due to polycystic ovary syndrome.%目的 研究克罗米芬联合妈富隆和安体舒通治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕症的临床疗效.方法 选择多囊卵巢综合征不孕症患者作为研究对象,随机分为给予克罗米芬、妈富隆、安体舒通联合治疗的观察组和克罗米芬治疗的对照组,检测内分泌指标、卵泡相关指标,观察受精情况、子宫内膜情况.结果 观察组睾酮、黄体生成素、卵泡刺激素水平、卵巢体积、窦卵泡数目均明显少于对照组(均P < 0.05);优势卵泡数目、子宫内膜厚度、出现优质卵、成功受精、发生卵裂、优质胚胎例数以及A型和B型子宫内膜例数均明显多于对照组(均P < 0.05).结论 克罗米芬联合妈

  7. Evidence-based lifestyle and pharmacological management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Ledger, William L

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and by far the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Lifestyle change alone, and not in combination with pharmacological ovulation induction such as clomifene citrate or metformin, is generally considered the first-line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory women with PCOS who are overweight or obese. Clomifene citrate should be considered as a first-line pharmacological therapy to improve fertility outcomes. Second-line medical treatments may include ovulation induction with gonadotropins (in clomifene citrate-resistant or clomifene citrate failure women) or laparoscopic ovarian drilling (in clomifene citrate-resistant women) or possibly with metformin combined with clomifene citrate (in clomifene citrate-resistant women). There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend aromatase inhibitors over that of clomifene citrate in infertile anovulatory women with PCOS in general or specifically in therapy-naive or clomifene citrate-resistant women with PCOS.

  8. Congenital malformations among babies born following letrozole or clomiphene for infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Ghosh, Sanghamitra; Singh, Soma; Chakravarty, Astha; Ganesh, Ashalatha; Rajani, Shweta; Chakravarty, B N

    2014-01-01

    Clomiphene citrate (CC) is the first line drug for ovulation induction but because of its peripheral antiestrogenic effect, letrozole was introduced as the 2nd line drug. It lacks the peripheral antiestrogenic effect and is associated with similar or even higher pregnancy rates. Since letrozole is a drug for breast cancer, its use for the purpose of ovulation induction became controversial in the light of studies indicating an increased incidence of congenital malformations. To evaluate and compare the incidence of congenital malformations among offsprings of infertile couples who conceived naturally or with clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment. A retrospective cohort study done at a tertiary infertility centre. A total of 623 children born to infertile women who conceived naturally or following clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment were included in this study. Subjects were sorted out from medical files of both mother and newborn and follow up study was done based on the information provided by parents through telephonic conversations. Babies with suspected anomaly were called and examined by specialists for the presence of major and minor congenital malformations. Other outcomes like multiple pregnancy rate and birth weight were also studied. Overall, congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities were found in 5 out of 171 (2.9%) babies in natural conception group and 5 out of 201 babies in the letrozole group (2.5%) and in 10 of 251 babies in the CC group (3.9%). There was no significant difference in the overall rate of congenital malformations among children born to mothers who conceived naturally or after letrozole or CC treatment. Congenital malformations have been found to be comparable following natural conception, letrozole and clomiphene citrate. Thus, the undue fear against letrozole may be uncalled for.

  9. Congenital malformations among babies born following letrozole or clomiphene for infertility treatment.

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    Sunita Sharma

    Full Text Available Clomiphene citrate (CC is the first line drug for ovulation induction but because of its peripheral antiestrogenic effect, letrozole was introduced as the 2nd line drug. It lacks the peripheral antiestrogenic effect and is associated with similar or even higher pregnancy rates. Since letrozole is a drug for breast cancer, its use for the purpose of ovulation induction became controversial in the light of studies indicating an increased incidence of congenital malformations.To evaluate and compare the incidence of congenital malformations among offsprings of infertile couples who conceived naturally or with clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment.A retrospective cohort study done at a tertiary infertility centre.A total of 623 children born to infertile women who conceived naturally or following clomiphene citrate or letrozole treatment were included in this study. Subjects were sorted out from medical files of both mother and newborn and follow up study was done based on the information provided by parents through telephonic conversations. Babies with suspected anomaly were called and examined by specialists for the presence of major and minor congenital malformations. Other outcomes like multiple pregnancy rate and birth weight were also studied.Overall, congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities were found in 5 out of 171 (2.9% babies in natural conception group and 5 out of 201 babies in the letrozole group (2.5% and in 10 of 251 babies in the CC group (3.9%.There was no significant difference in the overall rate of congenital malformations among children born to mothers who conceived naturally or after letrozole or CC treatment.Congenital malformations have been found to be comparable following natural conception, letrozole and clomiphene citrate. Thus, the undue fear against letrozole may be uncalled for.

  10. Medical management of clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome: an update

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    Sharonjeet Kaur

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clomiphene citrate is the traditional first-line treatment for chronic anovulation that characterizes polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. A gold standard therapy has always been Clomiphene Citrate (CC. However, 20%-25% of PCOS women fail to ovulate with incremental doses of CC. A good body of evidence suggest that alternatives for PCOS women with CC-resistant anovulation include insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone. Insulin sensitizers improves pregnancy outcome and ovulation rate by and acts by ameliorating insulin sensitivity and hyperandrogenemia. Metformin is preferred in obese women. Gonadotropins induce ovulation and maintain optimal follicle growth via controlled administration of follicle stimulation hormone. Two regimens are used which includes high and low dose regimen. Low dose regimen is preferred but is associated adverse effects like ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS and increased cost. Extending clomiphene therapy reduces cost and improves pregnancy outcome. Glucocorticoids are preferably used when serum Dehydroepiandrosterone levels are > 200µg/dL. Bromocriptine improves ovulation rate by decreasing prolactin levels. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin restores ovulation but its use is limited during intrauterine insemination. Tamoxifen acts in a similar way as CC but has lesser antiestrogenic effect on the endometrium, cervical mucus, and granulosa cells, hence an added advantage of monofollicular ovulation. Aromatase inhibitors block conversion androstenedione and testosterone to estrogen in ovary and improves ovulation rate. Added advantage includes lesser cost, simple to use, no danger of multiple pregnancies and convenient for patient. Combination of GnRH analogues and Gonadotropins are associated with increased risk of OHSS. D-chiro-inositol, N-Acetylcysteine, melatonin and acarbose are tried with little success. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 1-9

  11. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone for normogonadotropic clomiphene-resistant anovulatory infertility: prospective, randomized comparison between low dose step-up and step-down dose regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. van Santbrink (Evert); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractA low dose step-up and step-down regimen for induction of ovulation using urinary FSH was compared in a prospective randomized fashion in 37 normogonadotropic clomiphene-resistant oligo- or amenorrheic infertile women. The objectives was to assess potential

  12. Review of the safety, efficacy, costs and patient acceptability of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for injection in assisting ovulation induction in infertile women

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    Marleen Nahuis

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marleen Nahuis1,2,3, Fulco van der Veen1, Jur Oosterhuis2, Ben Willem Mol1, Peter Hompes3, Madelon van Wely11Center for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (H4-205, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Free Medical University, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: Anovulation is a common cause of female subfertility. Treatment of anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. In women with clomiphene-citrate resistant WHO group II anovulation, one of the treatment options is ovulation induction with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH or follitropin. FSH is derived from urine or is produced as recombinant FSH. Two forms of recombinant FSH are available – follitropin alpha and follitropin beta. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, costs and acceptability of recombinant FSH, we performed a review to compare recombinant FSH with urinary-derived FSH products. Follitropin alpha, beta and urinary FSH products appeared to be equally effective in terms of pregnancy rates. Patient safety was also found to be comparable, as the incidence of side effects including multiple pregnancies was similar for all FSH products. In practice follitropin alpha and beta may be more convenient to use due to the ease of self-administration, but they are also more expensive than the urinary products.Keywords: follitropin apha, follitropin beta, urinary gonadotropins, polycystic ovary syndrome

  13. Heterotopic pregnancy following ovulation induction by Clomiphene and a healthy live birth: a case report

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    Honarbakhsh Abbas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A heterotopic pregnancy is defined as the presence of a combined intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy. Its estimated incidence is accepted as between 1/7000 and 1/30,000 pregnancies. It is also reported to be as high as 1% after the use of assisted reproductive technology, but Clomiphene Citrate which increases the rate of twinning, could be associated with a heterotopic pregnancy rate of 1/900, which is much less than using assisted reproductive technology. Heterotopic pregnancies are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for obstetricians. If they continue without diagnosis, a life-threatening situation may occur even when surgical intervention with laparotomy is performed. Case presentation We present the case of a 22-year-old Iranian woman who developed a simultaneous extra -and intrauterine pregnancy after the induction of ovulation with Clomiphene. In this case, there was a delay in the detection of the ectopic pregnancy component resulting in an emergency laparotomy being performed. Fortunately after the laparotomy, the intrauterine pregnancy was not affected and it progressed satisfactorily until 37 weeks. A healthy male baby was delivered by caesarean section. Conclusion This case suggests that a heterotopic pregnancy must always be considered in patients presenting with pelvic pain even in a confirmed intrauterine pregnancy, particularly after the induction of ovulation by Clomiphene Citrate or assisted reproductive technology. Every clinician treating women of reproductive age should keep this diagnosis in mind. It also demonstrates that early diagnosis is essential in order to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality.

  14. „Mid-stimulation psychosis” in the course of in vitro fertilization procedure with the use of clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine – case study

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    Holka-Pokorska, Justyna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A few cases of psychosis induced by clomiphene citrate have been described so far. However, data on the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among women treated for infertility are inconclusive. Still a little is known about possible psychiatric complications of medications used in assisted reproduction techniques (ART. We present a case of a patient who developed transient psychotic symptoms in the course of the in vitro fertilization procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ‘mid-stimulation psychosis’, which has been observed during ART using clomiphene citrate and bromocriptine. The aim of this study is to describe the determinants of pharmacotherapy undertaken in ART, which can result in the development of psychotic symptoms. Methods. The case presentation Conclusions. The use of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in combination with bromocriptine used for chronic hyperprolactinemia is a likely mechanism that might have triggered psychotic symptoms in the case presented. However, combination therapy with clomiphen citrate and bromocriptine may be the pharmacological model of hyper-dopaminergia followed by chaotic changes in serum estrogen levels and might lead to an increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors. The above therapeutic schema may increase susceptibility to the development of psychotic symptoms in treated women. This impact should be considered in the case of any psychotic complications in patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques.

  15. Heterotropic pregnancy following induction of ovulation with clomiphene

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    Sangeeta Raman Jogi

    2015-08-01

    A case of 36 years old G3P2 had received Clomiphen Citrate for three cycles for ovulation induction presented with amenorrhea for two months with severe pain in abdomen and bleeding. She was diagnosed as a case of right ectopic with 8 weeks of intrauterine pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1241-1243

  16. Comparison the effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on the endocrinological profile in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome%来曲唑与克罗米芬对多囊卵巢综合征妇女促排卵及生殖激素变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红真; 乔杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effects and endocrino-logical environment between letrozole and clomiphene citrate ( CC) stimulated cycles in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome ( P-COS). Methods A prospective, case - control study was conducted. Infertile women with PCOS were given letrozole 2. 5 mg per day or CC 50 mg per day for five days. Timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination (IUI) was performed on the day of follicles rupture. Results Both ovulation rate and pregnancy rate were not different between two groups. Letrozole group had less mature follicles. Thicker endoraetriums and lower E2 levels were seen in the letrozole group. Androstenedione was significantly higher in the letrozole group on the cycle day 8. Conclusion Letrozole is effective in ovulation stimulation. It might be helpful in reduction of multiple pregnancy. The change of androgen induced by letrozole might adversely influence the pregnancy rate in women with PCOS.%目的 比较用来曲唑和克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者的促排卵效果和生殖激素的变化.方法 用前瞻性、病例对照研究,PCOS不孕症患者口服来曲唑每日2.5mg或克罗米芬每日50mg,共5d.排卵日同房或行宫腔内人工授精.结果 来曲唑组和克罗米芬组的排卵率和妊娠率无明显差异.来曲唑组的成熟卵泡数显著少于克罗米芬组,子宫内膜厚度较大于克罗米芬组;但雌激素水平低于克罗米芬组.月经周期第8d,来曲唑组的雄烯二酮水平显著高于克罗米芬组.结论 来曲唑用于促排卵有效,且可能有助于减少多胎妊娠的发生;但来曲唑所诱导的雄激素变化,可能对子宫内膜产生不利影响,从而影响了PCOS患者的妊娠率.

  17. The efficacy of metformin and clomiphene citrate combination compared with clomiphene citrate alone for ovulation induction in infertile patients with PCOS

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    Papa Dasari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Low ovulatory and pregnancy rates with clomiphene citrate (CC in anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Aim: To find out the ovulatory and pregnancy rates in infertile PCOS subjects who receive CC alone and a combination of metformin and CC. Setting and Design: A prospective controlled clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department from August 2003 to August 2005. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four infertile PCOS women received CC alone at incremental doses of 50 mg up to 150 mg for three cycles and then at a dose of 150 mg for another three cycles (control group. The study group (16 PCOS received the same dose of CC along with 1500mg of metformin. Ovulation was monitored by transvaginal sonography up to six cycles or till pregnancy occurred. Statistical Analysis: This was carried out using software SSPS, version 10. Fisher′s exact test was used to calculate the ovulatory rates. Nine subjects of the control group who failed to conceive with CC had opted for CC and metformin and their ovulatory rate was calculated using statistical software, namely SPSS 15.0, Stata 8.0, MedCalc 9.0.1 and Systat 11.0 using Fischer′s exact test. Results: The metformin and clomiphene combination resulted in a significantly higher rate of ovulation ( P = 0.0016. The pregnancy rate was 8% with CC and 24% with metformin and CC. The CC failure group also ovulated at a similar rate as that of the study group. Conclusions: The ovulatory rate and the pregnancy rate with the metformin-CC combination was found to be higher when compared with CC alone. Metformin increased the ovulatory rate in CC failures, also implying increased sensitivity to CC.

  18. [The use of clomiphene citrate in ambulatory medicine practice in the Midi-Pyrénées area: compliance to national guidelines applicable to infertility diagnosis and to prescription and monitoring rules applicable to clomiphene citrate treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigouroux, V; Roussel, H; Souche, A; Bourrel, R; Sciortino, V

    2004-11-01

    Evaluate the compliance to the national guidelines from ANDEM (1996) and AFSSAPS (2003) concerning the diagnosis of infertility, the prescription of clomiphene and the monitoring of these treatments. Retrospective study of female patients from 16 to 50 y.o. having benefited from reimbursement of clomiphene citrate treatment between 1st April 2002 and 30th June 2002. After random sampling stratified on age, data on diagnosis procedures and treatments were extracted from the Social Security reimbursement database. These data were validated and completed by patients' interviews. A total of 283 women were included. 30% were subject to the basic hormonal tests (FSH, LH, estradiol). The proportion of patients explored by hysterosalpingogram, post-coital test and echography were respectively 50%, 35% and 68%. A semen analysis was found in 60% of the partners. The complete set of recommended tests before start of treatment was realised in 1.5% of women. In 7% of cases, women were treated without prior exploration. The proportion of tests performed was comparable below and above the age of 35. 77% of treatments were initiated after at least one year of waiting for a spontaneous conception. 69% of women were monitored during treatment by other methods than clinical follow-up. Prescription of clomifene citrate is too frequently realised without compliance to guidelines applicable to infertility investigations and therefore without persuasive diagnosis. These practices can lead to loss of childbearing opportunities and complications.

  19. The treatment of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: a brief update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Misso, Marie L; Wong, Jennifer; Hart, Roger; Rombauts, Luk; Melder, Angela; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena J

    2012-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Lifestyle change alone is considered the first-line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory PCOS women who are overweight or obese. First-line medical ovulation induction therapy to improve fertility outcomes is clomiphene citrate, whilst gonadotrophins, laparoscopic ovarian surgery or possibly metformin are second line in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS women. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend aromatase inhibitors over that of clomiphene citrate in infertile anovulatory PCOS women in general or specifically in therapy naive or clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS women. IVF/ICSI treatment is recommended either as a third-line treatment or in the presence of other infertility factors.

  20. Comparing of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins in intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ayazi Roozbahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clomiphene citrate (CC an agonist and antagonist of estrogen, is the first line treatment in ovarian stimulation. Anti-estrogenic effect of CC in endometrial thickness and cervical mucus has negative effect on pregnancy rate. Letrozole is an Aromatase Inhibitor has been seen that has acceptable pregnancy rate compared to CC.Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC with gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation in women candidate for intrauterine insemination (IUI.Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty patients eligible to IUI therapy enrolled in this study. Patients randomized to two groups: group A (received letrozole-gonadotropin and group B (received CC-gonadotropin. In group A (n=80 letrozole was given on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycles. In group B clomiphen citrate was given like letrozole combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG administered every day starting on day 8. Ovulation was triggered with urinary HCG when the leading follicle (s reached 18 mm in diameter. A single IUI was performed 36-40 hours later. The ovarian stimulation response (E2 levels and number of follicles, clinical pregnancy and endometrial thickness was primary outcome.Results: Both groups were similar in demographic characteristics. There was a significantly lower peak serum E2 level in the letrozole group compared with CC. (236±86 Vs. 283±106 pg/mL, respectively; p18 mm preovulatory follicles was significantly higher in CC group than letrozole group (2.2±.68 Vs. 2.02±0.63 respectively; p=0.025. Endometrial thickness measured at the time of hCG administration was significantly higher in letrozole group. (9.08±1.2 mm Vs. 8.1±1.9 mm; p=0.0001. The clinical pregnancy rate was comparable between two groups.Conclusion: Letrozole is a good and cost-effective alternative to CC in IUI cycles

  1. Comparison of pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment with different leading follicular sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, Berna; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Bostancı, Esra Isci; Inal, Hasan Ali; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the pregnancy rates in PCOS patients undergoing clomiphene citrate (CC) and intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment with different leading follicular sizes. A total of 358 infertile women with PCOS who underwent 563 clomiphene citrate and IUI treatment cycles were included in this prospective study. Treatment cycles were divided into three groups according to leading follicular size on the day of hCG administration: Group I: follicular size 17-18 mm (n = 177), Group II: 19-22 mm (n = 321), and Group III : >22 mm (n = 65). Pregnancy rates were evaluated. Treatment outcomes of the groups were further analyzed related to endometrial thickness measurement on the day of hCG. For this purpose, cycles were placed into three subgroups as follows: endometrial thickness 9 mm. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate per cycle between the groups (8.5, 10, and 9.2 % for Group I, II, and III, respectively, p = 0.86). In further analyses related to endometrial thickness, no significant difference was also found in pregnancy rate among the groups. This results suggest that pregnancy rate is not related to leading follicle size on the day of hCG administration in PCOS patients treated with CC and IUI. In addition, pregnancy rate in women with different follicular sizes is not influenced by the endometrial thickness.

  2. Congenital malformations among 911 newborns conceived after infertility treatment with letrozole or clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulandi, Togas; Martin, James; Al-Fadhli, Raedah; Kabli, Nadia; Forman, Rachel; Hitkari, Jason; Librach, Clifford; Greenblatt, Ellen; Casper, Robert F

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the incidence of congenital malformations among offspring of mothers who conceived with clomiphene citrate (CC) or with letrozole treatment for infertility. Retrospective study. 5 fertility centers in Canada. 911 newborns from women who conceived following CC or letrozole treatment. Examination of medical files of both mother and newborn, and cross-checked with the parents by telephone calls. Identified major and minor congenital malformations, birth weight, age of the mother, and type of treatment that led to the conception. Overall, congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were found in 14 of 514 newborns in the letrozole group (2.4%) and in 19 of 397 newborns in the CC group (4.8%). The major malformation rate in the letrozole group was 1.2% (6/514) and in the CC group was 3.0% (12/397). One newborn in the letrozole group was found to have a ventricular septal defect (0.2%) compared to 4 newborns in the CC group (1.0%). In addition, the rate of all congenital cardiac anomalies was significantly higher (P: 0.02) in the CC group (1.8%) compared to the letrozole group (0.2%). There was no difference in the overall rates of major and minor congenital malformations among newborns from mothers who conceived after letrozole or CC treatments. However, it appears that congenital cardiac anomaly is less frequent in the letrozole group. The concern that letrozole use for ovulation induction could be teratogenic is unfounded based on our data.

  3. Effect of clomiphene on nuclear estrogen receptor of the fallopian tube during ovum transport in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, J S; Roy, S K

    1989-01-01

    The effect of clomiphene on nuclear estrogen receptors of the Fallopian tube during ovum transport in the rabbit has been studied. Nuclear binding capacity was observed in ampulla (A), ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ), isthmus (I), uterine-isthmic junction (UIJ) and uterus (U). Receptor concentration decreased in all segments of the tube after administration of clomiphene in mated animals. The bindings are of high affinity and low capacity. Important alterations were observed during transport when compared to that of 14, 24, 34, 48, 72, 144 and 168 hr post-coitum (p.c). At 24 hr p.c binding increased only in I and decreased in A and AIJ. Retention of eggs at I at 24 hr p.c showed as increase in binding at I. Egg transport was accelerated and eggs reached prematurely in the uterus due to the influence of clomiphene. Binding in I remained constant from 48 hr p.c to 144 hr p.c but concurrently the binding level increased in U from 34 hr p.c. The elevation of nuclear estrogen receptor level was maximum at 24 hr p.c which coincided with increased plasma estrogen level. The result of such study showed that clomiphene depleted nuclear estrogen receptor complex in the fallopian tube before transfer to the uterus. Further, observation indicated that clomiphene acted directly on the rate of egg transport because of the variations in estrogen receptors during different time periods. Thus, clomiphene reduced the quantity of estrogen receptor i.e., insensitiveness to estrogen. The variations in estrogen binding to its receptor and plasma level at different post-coital periods are modulated by clomiphene resulting in the acceleration of egg transport and prevention of pregnancy.

  4. Use of clomiphene-based stimulation protocol in oocyte donors: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to compare between clomiphene citrate (CC and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-based protocols in donor-recipient cycles in terms of parameters of ovarian stimulation and obstetric outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and three fertile oocyte donors were stimulated using two different protocols: Clomiphene based (n = 103 and antagonist based (n = 100. Donors in the one group were stimulated from day 1 or 2 of spontaneous or withdrawal bleeds with CC (50 mg/day and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH till the day of trigger while donors in the other group were stimulated using recombinant FSH from day 1 or 2, and the antagonist was added as per flexible antagonist protocol. When >3 follicles were >17 mm in diameter, trigger was given with 2 mg leuprolide intramuscular. Transvaginal oocyte retrieval was done after 34 h of trigger. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in between the two groups in terms of age, antral follicle count, starting dose of gonadotropins, total dose required, duration of stimulation, number of follicles retrieved, mature follicles, and fertilization rate. The serum estradiol levels were significantly raised in the clomiphene group (P < 0.001. Pregnancy rate was similar in both the groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was 65.94% in the clomiphene group and 57.46% in the antagonist group. The live birth rate per cycle started was 47.8% in the clomiphene group and 39.55% in the antagonist group. There was one case of ectopic pregnancy in the antagonist group. CONCLUSION: Controlled ovarian stimulation using clomiphene and gonadotropin is a viable option for donor oocyte cycles. The cost and number of injections used per cycle can be reduced by using the clomiphene-based protocols.

  5. Comparison between tamoxifen and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation and successful conception in polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Zhyan Baker Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Tamoxifen has shown comparable efficacy and safety as compared to clomiphene citrate and it can be a good alternative to clomiphene citrate in patients of primary or secondary anovulatory infertility with PCOS. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1349-1352

  6. Effects of clomiphene citrate on early pregnancy in guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Hutchinson, J S

    1991-05-01

    Clomiphene citrate (2 mg/kg body wt) given on the day of mating can block or interrupt pregnancy in guinea-pigs. Corpus luteum function, uterine histology, implantation and embryo development were studied in clomiphene-treated and control animals on Days 5, 9 and 20 of pregnancy. Following treatment, only 25% of the females were regularly pregnant, presenting large and healthy foetuses. The other females examined showed either pregnancy with embryos undergoing resorption or no sign of pregnancy. In these females, corpus luteum size was reduced, progesterone concentrations were very low and the endometrial glands and the epithelium were often altered. It is concluded that clomiphene causes a reduction in fertility by altering the uterus and, by directly or indirectly inducing luteolysis, causes later pregnancy loss.

  7. A randomized study comparing IVF in the unstimulated cycle with IVF-following clomiphene citrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Højgaard, A.; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl;

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency of IVF in unstimulated cycles was compared with that following ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate in a simple protocol with ultrasound monitoring only. A total of 132 couples with no previous IVF attempts, selected by female age ... protocol, but not IVF in unstimulated cycles, seems compatible with the concept of `friendly IVF', yielding a fair pregnancy rate both per cycle started and per embryo transfer in selected patients. The results do not substantiate any important negative anti-oestrogenic effects of clomiphene....

  8. Acupuncture and Clomiphene Citrate for Live Birth in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hongying Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an alternative therapy to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth rate following ovulation induction by acupuncture or its potential as an adjuvant treatment to clomiphene citrate (CC. We assess the efficacy of acupuncture with or without CC in achieving live births among 1000 PCOS women in Mainland China. This paper reports the methodology of an ongoing multicenter randomized controlled trial. The randomization scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating sites. Participants will be randomized into one of the four treatment arms: (A true acupuncture and CC, (B control acupuncture and CC, (C true acupuncture and placebo CC, and (D control acupuncture and placebo CC. To ensure the quality and integrity of the trial we have developed a unique multinational team of investigators and Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Up to the end of April 2013, 326 subjects were recruited. In conclusion, the success of this trial will allow us to evaluate the additional benefit of acupuncture beyond the first line medicine for fertility treatment in PCOS women in an unbiased manner.

  9. Clomiphene treatment may be effective in refractory episodic and chronic cluster headache

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    Maria Eduarda Nobre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the evolution of 15 patients who were treated for difficult-to-control episodic and chronic cluster headaches with clomiphene. Methods Clomiphene treatment was used for seven chronic and eight episodic cluster headache patients. The chronic patients were refractory to the medication being used, and the episodic patients, in addition to being resistant to conventional medication, had longer cluster headache periods, exceeding the average time of previous cluster cycles. Our main analysis was of the time to pain-free, complete remission, and the length of pain-free time and complete remission. Results Clomiphene was used for 45-180 days. The average time to being pain-free was 15 days and cluster remission was up to 60 days. The average time between being pain-free until cluster remission was 26 days. Conclusions Clomiphene treatment was significantly efficient. It interrupted chronicity in all patients, suggesting the capability of changing the pattern of attacks. It proved to be safe and well tolerated.

  10. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy after clomiphene failure in polycystic ovary syndrome: is it worthwhile? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam; Elawa, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) represents a successful treatment option for women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, in case of CC failure PCOS, LOD offers several theoretical advantages. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of LOD versus continuation of CC up to six further cycles in PCOS patients who failed to achieve pregnancy despite the previous successful CC induced ovulation. One hundred and seventy six infertile women with CC failure PCOS were selected in this randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 87) underwent LOD with 6 months follow-up or received CC (n = 89) up to six cycles. Outcome measures were; clinical pregnancy rate, midcycle endometrial thickness, cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates. The clinical pregnancy rate per patient and the cumulative pregnancy rate after six cycles were comparable in both groups (39 vs. 33.7% and 47 vs. 39.2%, respectively). Four twin pregnancies occurred in CC group and none in LOD group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No significant difference in midcycle endometrial thickness was observed (8.8 ± 1.2 mm vs. 7.7 ± 1.1 mm). Improvement in cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates were comparable in both groups. No cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurred in either group. LOD during the 6 months follow-up period and CC for up to six further cycles are equally effective for achieving pregnancy in CC failure PCOS patients.

  11. The efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate and metformin on ovulation induction in patients suffering from anovulatory infertility

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    Hardik Patel

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Ovulation rate was significantly higher compared to pregnancy rate. We could not find any benefit of adding metformin to the standard treatment with clomiphene citrate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1241-1246

  12. Immunohistochemical Study on the PCNA-Immunoreactivity in the Uterus of Rats Ovariectomized or Treated With Antiestrogen Clomiphene Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Leyla

    2014-01-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the uterus of mature rats was investigated after long term administration of clomiphene citrate and ovariectomy. In the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma regions, few PCNA-immunoreactive cells were observed. PCNA reactivity was estimated for the luminal and glandular epithelium and for the stromal cells. Treatment of clomiphene citrate decreased the proliferation of the luminal epithelial cell and...

  13. Immunohistochemical Study on the PCNA-Immunoreactivity in the Uterus of Rats Ovariectomized or Treated With Antiestrogen Clomiphene Citrate

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, Leyla

    1999-01-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the uterus of mature rats was investigated after long term administration of clomiphene citrate and ovariectomy. In the luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma regions, few PCNA-immunoreactive cells were observed. PCNA reactivity was estimated for the luminal and glandular epithelium and for the stromal cells. Treatment of clomiphene citrate decreased the proliferation of the luminal epithelial cell and...

  14. Clomiphene and Its Isomers Block Ebola Virus Particle Entry and Infection with Similar Potency: Potential Therapeutic Implications

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    Elizabeth A. Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV in Western Africa highlighted the need for anti-EBOV therapeutics. Clomiphene is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drug that blocks EBOV entry and infection in cells and significantly protects EBOV-challenged mice. As provided, clomiphene is, approximately, a 60:40 mixture of two stereoisomers, enclomiphene and zuclomiphene. The pharmacokinetic properties of the two isomers vary, but both accumulate in the eye and male reproductive tract, tissues in which EBOV can persist. Here we compared the ability of clomiphene and its isomers to inhibit EBOV using viral-like particle (VLP entry and transcription/replication-competent VLP (trVLP assays. Clomiphene and its isomers inhibited the entry and infection of VLPs and trVLPs with similar potencies. This was demonstrated with VLPs bearing the glycoproteins from three filoviruses (EBOV Mayinga, EBOV Makona, and Marburg virus and in two cell lines (293T/17 and Vero E6. Visual problems have been noted in EBOV survivors, and viral RNA has been isolated from semen up to nine months post-infection. Since the clomiphene isomers accumulate in these affected tissues, clomiphene or one of its isomers warrants consideration as an anti-EBOV agent, for example, to potentially help ameliorate symptoms in EBOV survivors.

  15. Induction of ovulation by clomiphene citrate in the Indian vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Pakrasi, P L

    2000-06-15

    The ovulation induction property of clomiphene citrate (CC) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was studied in Scotophilius heathi, an Indian tropical vespertilionid bat, during the period of delayed ovulation between December to early January. The results of the study showed that 10 microg of CC alone was ineffective to induce ovulation, whereas 100 microg CC and 10 IU hCG alone induced ovulation. A significant (P physiology of reproduction.

  16. A comparative study of clomiphene and epimestrol on plasma progesterone, CBG, TBG and SHBG, and salivary progesterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicovic, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1982-01-01

    The plasma levels of CBG, TBG, SHBG and progesterone, and salivary progesterone levels were measured in eight young ovulatory volunteers. After the control cycle four subjects received 50 mg/day of Clomiphene from days 5 to 9 of the first treatment cycle, and 10 mg/day of Epimestrol from days 5 to 15 of the second treatment cycle. The other four subjects received the treatments in reverse order. Between the two treatments there was one cycle without medication as a "wash-out" period. Plasma and saliva samples were obtained on days +6, +8 and +10 (day of LH peak was denoted by 0), always between 08.00 and 09.00 h. Statistical evaluation was done by means of an analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correlation coefficients were also calculated. Evaluation of data on effects of Clomiphene and Epimestrol on the plasma levels of CBG and salivary progesterone showed that Clomiphene induced a highly significant rise (p less than 0.001) in the CBG levels and decrease (p less than 0.001) in salivary progesterone levels, while no changes were seen following administration of Epimestrol. Both Clomiphene and Epimestrol treatments led towards higher plasma progesterone levels, those following Clomiphene administration being higher. Neither treatment induced significant changes in TBG or SHBG levels. It is concluded that Clomiphene induces significant elevations of CBG and decrease in salivary progesterone, which is thought to reflect the free progesterone fraction and may have significance in relation to a discrepancy between the ovulation and pregnancy rates following Clomiphene therapy.

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Letrozole and Clomiphene Citrate on Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Dehbashi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For more than four decades clomiphene citratehas been the first line of the treatment for ovulatory disorders.The aim of this study was to compare the effects of letrozoleand clomiphene citrate on ovulation and pregnancy rate in patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome.Methods: In this prospective double-blind study, 100 patientswith polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized into twoequal groups. The first group received letrozole, 5mg daily(per oral and the second group received clomiphene, 100mgdaily during the 3rd-7th days of the menstrual cycles. Intramuscularhuman chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (10,000 IUwas administered to trigger ovulation when at least one maturefollicle (≥ 18mm was developed.Results: Ovulation occurred in 30 patients (60% of the letrozolegroup and in 16 patients (32% of the clomiphene group,which showed a statistically significant difference (P=0.009.The mean number of follicles with diameter >14 mm on theday of administration of hCG was 1.06±0.95 in the letrozolegroup and 1.14±1.17 in the clomiphene group, which showednon-significant difference (P=0.962.No difference was found in the endometrial thicknessbetween the two groups. A non-significant increase inpregnancy rate was observed in the letrozole group (26% v14% P=0.21.Conclusion: Ovulation rate was higher in letrozole group andadministration of letrozole was associated with a nonsignificantincrease in pregnancy rate.

  18. Study on correlation among endocrinologic characteristics, ovarian morphologic changes and therapeutic effect of clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome%多囊卵巢综合征的生殖内分泌特征、卵巢形态学改变与克罗米酚疗效间的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁军; 曹缵孙; 陈晓燕; 毛文军

    2000-01-01

    目的探讨多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)妇女用克罗米酚(CC)促排卵治疗无效的原因,以预测其疗效。方法 41例PCOS患者均计算BMI,行F-G毛发评分,服CC前后测血清生殖激素水平,B超了解卵巢形态并监测排卵。结果与CC治疗有反应组相比,无反应组的F-G毛发评分、基础A、fTfT增高,卵泡数增多,卵巢体积及髓质面积增大,卵泡晚期FSH、LH、E2降低(P均<0.05);相关回归显示平均卵泡数与T、A,平均髓质面积与A呈正相关。结论多毛患者对CC治疗的反应性降低。H-P-O轴功能状态可影响CC疗效;一定的激素水平和卵巢超声表现提示CC抵抗;卵巢超声形态与T、A间存在正相关。%Objective It would aim at predicting the treatment effect of CC to investigate the reason of irresponsiveness of the women with PCOS to CC therapy. Methods The BMI and F-G scores of hair distribution of 41 PCOS cases were obtained. The levels of reproductive hormone were tested and features of ovarian morphology were gathered and ovulation was monitored through transvaginal ultrasonography before and after CC was administered. Results Compared with the responders,F-G scores of hair distribution,levels of A and fT, follicle numbers increased, volume and ovar ian stroma area ovarianed, levels of FSH, LH and E2 in the nonresponders decreased(P<0.05). It was suggested by correlation and regression analysis that there was positive correlation between mean follicular numbers and T and A levels, between mean ovarian strorna area and A level. Conclusion The patients of hirsute decreased the activity of treatment with CC. The function of the H-P-O axis could affect the therapeutic effects of CC. The certain hormone levels and ovarian sonography occurrence may predict CC resistance. There was positive correlation between ovarian sonography changes and serum Tand A levels.

  19. Determination of Sex Hormones, Glucose Tolerance Test and Insulin Concentrations in Prediction of Clomiphene Citrate Efficacy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is a common disease in young women that is associated with infertility and other complications such as obesity, hirsutism and insulin resistance and also the disorder that mostly is specified with oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhea with clinical or laboratory evidence of hyperandrogenemia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether measurements of sex hormones, Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT and insulin serum in patients with PCOS can be useful to predict the efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate (CC. Patients and Methods This study was targeted patients with PCOS admitted for undergoing superovulation. To determine the values of sex hormones, insulin, Fast Blood Sugar (FBS, High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL and GTT to predict the efficacy of CC, blood samples of the cases were taken before the administration of CC. Afterwards, CC therapy was given up to 3 months and then, the cumulative pregnancy rate or improving ovulation was calculated. Results Ovulation, after taking CC, was done in 42.2% of the cases. However, the clinical pregnancy rate was not more significant in cases responded well to the CC therapy compared to resistant cases (P ≥ 0.387. There was a significant difference in the mean Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH (P ≥ 0.0001, and Luteinizing Hormone (LH (P ≥ 0.024 between the resistant and responder patients to CC. Moreover, GTT in resistant cases to CC was higher than responder cases (P ≥ 0.024. However, this relation, between resistant and responder cases to CC, was not meaningful in estradiol (P ≥ 0.478, insulin (P ≥ 0.882, HDL (P ≥ 0.118 and FBS (P ≥ 0.1. When all of the cases were stratified according to their Body Mass Index (BMI (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 and BMI > 25 kg/m2, A significant difference was found in the ovulation (P ≥ 0.001 and rate of pregnancy (P ≥ 0.029 between the two groups (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 and BMI > 25 kg/m2 . Conclusions Determination of FSH, LH

  20. Clomiphene citrate reduces procarbazine-induced sterility in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, R; Lahav, M; Raanani, P; Singer, R; Regev, A; Sagiv, M; Giler, S; Theodor, E

    1995-01-01

    Chemotherapy with the cytotoxic drug procarbazine (PCB) causes permanent infertility in most male patients. Since many patients treated with this cytotoxic drug are of reproductive age, it is important to develop a method to protect spermatogenesis and fertility. It has been hypothesised that 'spermatogenic arrest' by pharmacological intervention may render the testes less susceptible to the effects of chemotherapy. The present study investigated whether recovery of fertility in a male rat model could be achieved by suppression of spermatogenesis with high doses of clomiphene citrate (CC) prior to PCB administration. It was demonstrated that young male rats treated with a combination of CC and PCB partially recovered spermatogenesis and achieved almost normal fertility. In contrast, animals treated with PCB alone exhibited abnormal spermatogenesis and remained infertile.

  1. Recombinant FSH Compared to Clomiphene Citrate as the First-Line in Ovulation Induction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Using Newly Designed Pens: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hossein-Rashidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since there is still controversy regarding the best first-line choice for ovulation induction (OI other than clomiphene citrate (CC in infertile women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the aim of the present study was to compare recombinant human FSH with CC as the first course of OI in these women.Materials and methods: In this pilot randomized controlled trial, 104 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS were randomized in two groups to receive either CC with the dose of 100mg per day from day 3 of a spontaneous or progestin-induced menstruation for 5 days or rFSH with the starting dose of 50 IU daily {and weekly dose increment of as low as 12.5 IU}, on the day4 of the cycle. They were assessed during a single OI course. The pregnancy rate (PR and live birth rate (LBR were the primary outcomes. The follicular response, endometrial thickness, cancellation of the cycles and ovarian hyper stimulation (OHSS rate were the secondary outcomes.Results: Analyzing data of 96 patients using Chi2 and Fischer’s Exact test (44 in rFSH group and 52 in CC group, both PR and LBR were comparable in the two groups {13.6% vs. 9.6% and 11.4% vs. 9.6% respectively}, with the difference not to be significant (p > 0.05. No cases of OHSS or multiple gestations happened during the treatment course.Conclusion: It seems that rFSH is as efficacious as CC while not with more complications for the first-line OI in infertile women with PCOS. However, due to the limitations of the present study including the small population and the single cycle of treatment, our results did not come out to prove this and more studies with larger study population are needed to compare the cumulative PR and LBR.

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Infertility Treatment with Diane-35,Metformin Hydrochloride Combined Clomiphene in 30 Cases%达英-35、盐酸二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笑蓉; 何文弘

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the polycystic ovary syndrome infertility efficacy treatment with the Diane - 35, metformin hydrochloride Combined clomiphene citrate. Methods Sixty cases of polycystic ovary syndrome patients in the department of infertility of our hospital from January 2010 to March 2012 were selected and randomly divided into group A and group B. The group A were given Diane - 35 and clomiphene,Diane - 35 even serving 21 d for a course,review of androgen (T) return to normal after 3 courses of treatment,disabled Diane-35,5 d of the next menstrual cycle taking Clomiphene Citrate Tablets,and even served 5 d,continuous use after 3 courses of no ovula-tion to be invalid, the use of up to 5 courses. The Group B were given Diane - 35, metformin hydrochloride combined treatment of clomiphene citrate, Diane - 35 and metformin hydrochloride tablets treated at the same time, 3 cycles of androgen normal control, disable Diane - 35 and metformin to continue with the former taking the next a menstrual cycle for 5 d, taking clomiphene citrate,observed 2 to 3 cycles still no ovulation,clomiphene citrate is invalid,the use of up to five courses. Results The ovulation rate and pregnancy rate of group A was significantly lower than group B,two groups of patients hormone levels change was significantly different ( P < 0. 05 ),with statistical significance. Conclusion Diane - 35, metformin hydrochloride, clomiphene three joint use by inhibition of androgen secretion, ovulation, the discharge of insulin resistance,reduce androgen levels and hypennsulinemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,promote and promote follicle hormone secretion,to ensure that the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate,improve the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome.%目的 观察达英-35、盐酸二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕的疗效.方法 选择2010年1月至2012年3月不孕科接收的多囊卵巢综合征患者60例,随机均分为A

  3. Anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Yuwono Sri; Afrita, Yohana; Wiweko, Budi; Sumapradja, Kanadi; Natadisastra, Muharam

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine the threshold of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of follicular growth failure in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC). Methods Fifty female subjects with PCOS were recruited and divided into two groups based on successful and unsuccessful follicular growth. Related variables such as age, infertility duration, cigarette smoking, use of Moslem hijab, sunlight exposure, fiber intake, body mass index, waist circumference, AMH level, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, and growth of dominant follicles were obtained, assessed, and statistically analyzed. Results The AMH levels of patients with successful follicular growth were significantly lower (p=0.001) than those with unsuccessful follicular growth (6.10±3.52 vs. 10.43±4.78 ng/mL). A higher volume of fiber intake was also observed in the successful follicular growth group compared to unsuccessful follicular growth group (p=0.001). Our study found the probability of successful follicle growth was a function of AMH level and the amount of fiber intake, expressed as Y=–2.35+(–0.312×AMH level)+(0.464×fiber intake) (area under the curve, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.98; p<0.001). Conclusion The optimal threshold of AMH level in predicting the failure of follicle growth in patients with PCOS treated with CC was 8.58 ng/mL. PMID:28090459

  4. Anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictor of polycystic ovary syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate.

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    Hestiantoro, Andon; Negoro, Yuwono Sri; Afrita, Yohana; Wiweko, Budi; Sumapradja, Kanadi; Natadisastra, Muharam

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the threshold of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as predictor of follicular growth failure in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients treated with clomiphene citrate (CC). Fifty female subjects with PCOS were recruited and divided into two groups based on successful and unsuccessful follicular growth. Related variables such as age, infertility duration, cigarette smoking, use of Moslem hijab, sunlight exposure, fiber intake, body mass index, waist circumference, AMH level, 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, and growth of dominant follicles were obtained, assessed, and statistically analyzed. The AMH levels of patients with successful follicular growth were significantly lower (p=0.001) than those with unsuccessful follicular growth (6.10±3.52 vs. 10.43±4.78 ng/mL). A higher volume of fiber intake was also observed in the successful follicular growth group compared to unsuccessful follicular growth group (p=0.001). Our study found the probability of successful follicle growth was a function of AMH level and the amount of fiber intake, expressed as Y=-2.35+(-0.312×AMH level)+(0.464×fiber intake) (area under the curve, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.98; p<0.001). The optimal threshold of AMH level in predicting the failure of follicle growth in patients with PCOS treated with CC was 8.58 ng/mL.

  5. Clinical outcomes of three- or five-day treatment with clomiphene citrate combined with gonadotropins and a timed intercourse cycle in polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

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    Bae, Sung-Ah; Joo, Jong-Kil; Choi, Jong-Ryeol; Kim, Sun-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a new clomiphene citrate (CC) regimen on preventing thin endometrial lining in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients receiving CC plus gonadotropin treatment with a timed intercourse cycle. A total of 114 women with PCOS were included in this trial. Patients were divided into two groups and treated in accordance with the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocol. In group A, 104 COS cycles in 67 patients were included, and in each cycle 150 mg CC was given for three days, starting from day 3. In group B, 69 COS cycles in 47 patients were included, in which 100 mg CC was given for five days, starting from day 3. The thickness of the endometrium was measured on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection. Timed intercourse was recommended at 24 and 48 hours after the hCG injection. Additional doses of human menopausal gonadotropin and the number of days of hCG administration were not significantly different between the two groups. Endometrial thickness on the day of hCG administration was significantly larger in group A than group B (9.4±2.1 mm vs. 8.5±1.7 mm, p=0.004). The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in group A than in group B (38.4% vs. 21.7%, p=0.030). Three-day CC treatment resulted in a significantly higher pregnancy rate than the standard five-day CC treatment in a timed intercourse cycle in PCOS patients. Facilitating adequate endometrial growth via the early discontinuation of CC might be a crucial factor in achieving a higher pregnancy rate.

  6. The safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate in hypoandrogenic and subfertile men.

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    Patel, D P; Brant, W O; Myers, J B; Presson, A P; Johnstone, E B; Dorais, J A; Aston, K I; Carrell, D T; Hotaling, J M

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) in infertile and hypoandrogenic men through a retrospective study between September 2013 and May 2014. We identified 47 men between 18 and 55 years placed on 50 mg CC every other day. We evaluated the effect of CC on testosterone after 2 weeks, rates of adverse effects and predictors of CC response. Mean baseline testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and estradiol were 246.8 ng dl(-1), 125.5 ng dl(-1) and 20.8 pg dl(-1), respectively. At 2 weeks, mean testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and estradiol increased to 527.6 ng dl(-1), 281.8 ng dl(-1) and 32.0 pg dl(-1) (all P<0.001). Two patients at 2 weeks and one patient at 3 months had a paradoxical decrease in testosterone. Mean total motile count (TMC) and concentration increased from 59.7 million (s.e.m.: 16.5) and 50.7 millions ml(-1) (s.e.m.: 11.1) at baseline to 90.9 million (s.e.m.: 25.9) and 72.5 millions ml(-1) (s.e.m.: 17.5), respectively, at 3 months, although this was nonsignificant (P=0.09, 0.09). No patient on CC experienced a paradoxical decrease in TMC or sperm concentration. On age-adjusted regression analysis, age, BMI, longitudinal testis axis, baseline follicle-stimulating hormone, LH and estradiol did not correlate with improvement in bioavailable testosterone at 2 weeks. CC improves testosterone and may improve semen parameters, although a small percentage of men may not demonstrate improvement in testosterone.

  7. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF KOLAVIRON ON THE RENAL FUNCTIONS OF FEMALE WISTAR RATS TREATED WITH CLOMIPHENE CITRATE.

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    Ajayi Sunday A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work accessed the effects of kolaviron (a methanolic extract of Garcinia kola seeds on microanatomy of kidneys and biochemical parameters with a view to determining its relationship to renal functions treated with clomiphene citrate. A total of thirty adult female Wistar rats were used for this experiment. The animals were randomly divided into six (6 groups: A, B, C, D, E and F with five (5 animals in each group. Group A, were the control group that were given distilled water orally once daily for 14 days; Group B were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days; Group C were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg twice daily for 14 days; Group D were given clomiphene citrate orally at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group E were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight once daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days; Group F were given kolaviron orally at concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 14 days after which clomiphene citrate were administered at concentration of 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 5 days. Five milliliters (5 ml of blood were collected by occular puncture with the aid of capillary tubes from the animals for biochemical analysis. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were anaesthesized by chloroform inhalation. The kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formol saline for Haematoxylin and Eosin staining. The results showed that Relative kidney weight (f=1.595, df=5, P<0.05 was not increased significantly across the groups. Potassium (f=0.754, df=5, chloride (f=0.529, df=5, interstitial calcium (f=0.835, df=5, total calcium (f=0.840, df=5, silver ions (f=0.517, df=5, and pH (f=0.785, df=5 were not reduced significantly (p< 0.05 when group A was compared with all the groups but sodium ions reduced significantly (f=1

  8. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Kallol Kumar Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC in patients of anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 204 patients of PCOS. 98 patients (294 cycles received 2.5-5 mg of letrozole; 106 patients (318 cycles received 50-100 mg of CC (both orally from Days 3-7 of menstrual cycle. The treatment continued for three cycles in both the groups. Main outcome measures: ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13 software. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean number of dominant follicles in letrozole groups and CC groups was 1.86±0.26 and 1.92±0.17, respectively (P=0.126. Number of ovulatory cycle in letrozole group was 196 (66.6% versus 216 (67.9% in CC group (P=0.712. The mean mid-cycle endometrial thickness was 9.1±0.3 mm in letrozole group and 6.3±1.1 in CC group, which was statistically significant (P=0.014. The mean Estradiol [E2] level in clomiphene citrate group was significantly higher in CC group (364.2±71.4 pg/mL than letrozole group (248.2± 42.2 pg/mL. 43 patients from the letrozole group (43.8% and 28 patients from the CC group (26.4% became pregnant. Conclusion: Letrozole and CC have comparable ovulation rate. The effect of letrozole showed a better endometrial response and pregnancy rate compared with CC.

  9. Twenty years of ovulation induction with metformin for PCOS; what is the best available evidence?

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    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    The potential reproductive benefits of metformin, a drug endowed with the capacity to ameliorate insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), has garnered much interest over the past 2 decades. In this review, randomized-controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses of RCT comparing metformin are critically appraised and summarized. PubMed and CENTRAL databases were consulted. Evidence is insufficient to favour the use of metformin or metformin plus clomiphene citrate instead of clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with newly diagnosed PCOS. Evidence is also insufficient to recommend metformin as a primary treatment for non-obese women with PCOS. Metformin plus clomiphene citrate should be considered as an effective option in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS. In women with PCOS undergoing gonadotrophin ovulation induction, metformin significantly increased pregnancy and live birth rates (P PCOS patients undergoing assisted reproduction techniques has been shown. No evidence was found of reduced risk of spontaneous abortion or increased risk of major anomalies in women with PCOS taking metformin during the first trimester.

  10. How do red and infrared low-level lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue in comparison with clomiphene under in vivo condition.

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    Naseri, Paria; Alihemmati, Alireza; Rasta, Seyed Hossein

    2017-08-11

    Folliculogenesis is a cycle that produces the majority of oocyte. Any disruption to this cycle leads to ovulation diseases, like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Treatments include drugs and surgery; lasers have also been used complementarily. Meanwhile, still there is no definite treatment for PCOS. This study investigated the photo-bio stimulation effect of near-infrared and red low-level laser on producing follicles and compared the result with result of using common drug, clomiphene. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose the use of lasers autonomously treatment. So, there was one question: how do lasers affect folliculogenesis cycle in rat's ovary tissue? In this study, 28 rats were assigned to four groups as follows: control (CT), clomiphene drug (D), red laser (RL), and near-infrared laser (NIRL). Afterwards, 14 rats of RL and NIRL groups received laser on the first 2 days of estrous cycle, each 6 days, for 48 days. During treatment period, each rat received energy density of 5 J/cm(2). Seven rats in D group received clomiphene. After the experiment, lasers' effects at two wavelengths of 630 and 810 nm groups have been investigated and compared with clomiphene and CT groups. Producing different follicles to complement folliculogenesis cycle increased in NIRL and RL groups, but this increase was significant only in the NIRL group. This indicates that NIRL increases ovarian activity to produce oocyte that certainly can be used in future studies for finding a cure to ovarian negligence to produce more oocyte and treat diseases caused by it like PCOS.

  11. Clomiphene Citrate Treatment Cycle Outcomes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Based on Basal High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kahyaoglu, Serkan; Yumuşak, Omer Hamid; Ozyer, Sebnem; Pekcan, Meryem Kuru; Erel, Merve; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim; Erkaya, Salim; Tasci, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is highly associated with an ovulatory infertility, features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Serum concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS patients at baseline, suggesting a relationship between elevated hs-CRP levels and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cycle day 3 hs-CRP levels before clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment would predict cycle outcomes in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 84 infertile women with PCOS who were treated with CC at Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. Based on the exclusion criteria, cycle outcomes of remaining 66 infertile women with PCOS treated with CC were analyzed. The hs-CRP levels and insulin resistance indexes were evaluated on day 3 of the CC treatment cycle. The primary outcome measures were number of preovulatory follicles measuring≥17 mm and pregnancy rates. Results The mean ± SD age of the patients was 24.0 ± 3.8 years (range 18-36). The mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) of the patients was 25.7 ± 4.9 (range 17-43). Fifty patients developed dominant follicle (75%) and 5 patients established clinical pregnancy during the study (clinical pregnancy rate: 7%). The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values of the patients with and without dominant follicle generation during treatment cycle were 6.42 ± 7.05 and 4.41 ± 2.95 (P=0.27), 11.61 ± 6.94 and 10.95 ± 5.65 (P=0.73), 2.68 ± 1.79 and 2.41 ± 1.30 (P=0.58), respectively. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without clinical pregnancy establishment following treatment cycle were 6.30 ± 2.56 and 5.90 ± 6.57 (P=0.89), 11

  12. Clomiphene Citrate Treatment Cycle Outcomes of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients Based on Basal High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein Levels: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Serkan Kahyaoglu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is highly associated with an ovulatory infertility, features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Serum concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS patients at baseline, suggesting a relationship between elevated hs-CRP levels and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cycle day 3 hs-CRP levels before clomiphene citrate (CC treatment would predict cycle outcomes in women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 84 infertile women with PCOS who were treated with CC at Zekai Tahir Burak Women’s Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. Based on the exclusion criteria, cycle outcomes of remaining 66 infertile women with PCOS treated with CC were analyzed. The hs-CRP levels and insulin resistance indexes were evaluated on day 3 of the CC treatment cycle. The primary outcome measures were number of preovulatory follicles measuring≥17 mm and pregnancy rates. Results: The mean ± SD age of the patients was 24.0 ± 3.8 years (range 18-36. The mean ± SD body mass index (BMI of the patients was 25.7 ± 4.9 (range 17-43. Fifty patients developed dominant follicle (75% and 5 patients established clinical pregnancy during the study (clinical pregnancy rate: 7%. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without dominant follicle generation during treatment cycle were 6.42 ± 7.05 and 4.41 ± 2.95 (P=0.27, 11.61 ± 6.94 and 10.95 ± 5.65 (P=0.73, 2.68 ± 1.79 and 2.41 ± 1.30 (P=0.58, respectively. The mean ± SD baseline hs-CRP, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values of the patients with and without clinical pregnancy establishment following treatment cycle were 6.30 ± 2.56 and 5.90 ± 6

  13. Dosage Optimization for Letrozole Treatment in Clomiphene-Resistant Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Prospective Interventional Study

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    Elham Rahmani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Dose adjustment for induction of ovulation is one of the most important problem. Methods. In a prospective interventional study, 44 clomiphene-resistant infertile patients (113 cycles were selected from the Abolfazl Infertility Clinic of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. Letrozole was given orally in a dose of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 7.5 mg, respectively. If the patient displayed no response, the dosage was increased. Results. In this patients ovulation occurred in 50 cycles (44.24%, clinical pregnancy rate according to number of cycles was 23.89% (27 of 113 cycles and according to the number of patients was 61.36% (27 of 44 patients. In the 2.5, 5, and 7.5 groups, follicles occurred in 22.9%, 42.1%, and 85.18% of cycles, and pregnancy rate was 14.58%, 28.94% and, 33.33%, respectively. Conclusions. It is better to administer Letrozole at a lower dosage to prevent complications and increase the dose based on sonographic results antral follicular count, anti-Müllerian hormone, LH/FSH, and estradiol.

  14. Twenty-five milligrams of clomiphene citrate presents positive effect on treatment of male testosterone deficiency - a prospective study

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    Carlos Teodósio Da Ros

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Male testosterone deficiency is associated with bad sexual function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to determine whether a daily dose of 25 mg clomiphene citrate (CC is effective in stimulating the endogenous testosterone production pathway and to address the applicability of this medication as a therapeutic option for symptomatic hypogonadism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study. Men with low sexual desire and testosterone levels (T below 400 ng/dL were selected to receive CC. Blood samples were obtained to determine baseline measurements of serum T, estradiol, LH, lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Each patient was treated with a daily dose of 25 mg CC for at least 3 months. Patients were asked if they experienced any side effects related to the use of CC and if they experienced any improvement in their sexual profile. Paired samples T-test was utilized to analyze responses to therapy. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 125 men with hypogonadism and low libido. Mean age was 62 years (± 11.1 years. Serum T levels ranged from 309 ng/dL (baseline, mean value to 642 ng/dL (3 months after CC initiation, mean value (p < 0.001. Serum cholesterol levels ranged from 197 to 186 mg/dL (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing pre and post-treatment HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and prolactin. All men reported improvements in the post-treatment QoL scores. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The CC was effective in stimulating the endogenous production of testosterone. A lower level of total cholesterol was verified after three months of treatment. This medication should be considered as a therapeutic option for some patients with symptomatic male testosterone deficiency.

  15. Letrozole and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction: A systematic review%来曲唑与枸橼酸氯米芬诱导排卵的临床效果系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安锦霞; 倪亚莉; 刘珍

    2012-01-01

    目的:系统性评价来曲唑与枸橼酸氯米芬在不孕症患者促排卵治疗中的疗效与安全性.方法:计算机检索国内外各主要数据库,手工检索相关中文杂志、会议论文集和所获文献的参考文献,收集国内外发表的来曲唑与枸橼酸氯米芬促排卵治疗不孕症的随机对照试验文献.两人独立进行文献筛选并进行方法学质量评价,采用RevMan4.2.10软件进行meta分析.结果:共纳入14个随机对照研究,包括1 379例患者,2 342个周期.根据是否有正常自然排卵周期分为多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)亚组(纳入5个研究)和排卵正常亚组(纳入9个研究)进行分析.结果显示,来曲唑与枸橼酸氯米芬比较,两者在每周期妊娠率、每个患者妊娠率、排卵率、流产率方面差异无统计学意义,其RR(95% CI)分别为0.99(0.75~ 1.30)、1.21(0.92~ 1.58)、1.04(0.92~1.17)、0.55(0.23 ~ 1.29).就人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)日雌二醇(E2)水平,PCOS亚组有2个研究,排卵正常亚组有4个研究均显示来曲唑组低于氯米芬组(P<0.05).关于子宫内膜厚度PCOS亚组有3个研究,排卵正常亚组有2个研究均显示来曲唑组高于氯米芬组(P<0.05).结论:来曲唑促排卵治疗与氯米芬在hCG日E2水平、子宫内膜厚度、优势卵泡数、排卵率、妊娠率、流产率等方面未见统计学差异.目前的研究尚不能证明来曲唑可以代替氯米芬成为一线促排卵药.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of letrozole and clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in infertile women. Methods; We searched paper databases such as PubMed (from 1966 to 2011), EMBASE (from 1966 to 2011), CB-Mdisc (from 1978 to 2011) , CNKI (from 1994 to 2011) and VIP (from 1989 to 2011). Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for quality assessment according to Cochrane Reviewer's handbook 4. 2. 5 and meta - analysis with RevMan 4. 2. 10 software. Results; Fourteen RCTs

  16. Endometrial Shedding Effect on Conception and Live Birth in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P.; Kruger, Michael; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Casson, Peter; Schlaff, William; Coutifaris, Christos; Brzyski, Robert; Christman, Gregory; Carr, Bruce R.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cataldo, Nicholas A.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; Gosman, Gabriella G.; Nestler, John E.; Carson, Sandra; Myers, Evan E.; Eisenberg, Esther; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether progestin-induced endometrial shedding, prior to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or a combination of both, affects ovulation, conception, and live birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A secondary analysis of the data from 626 women with PCOS from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network trial was performed. Women had been randomized to up to six cycles of clomiphene citrate alone, metformin alone, or clomiphene citrate plus metformin. Women were assessed for occurrence of ovulation, conception, and live birth in relation to prior bleeding episodes (after either ovulation or exogenous progestin-induced withdrawal bleed). Results While ovulation rates were higher in cycles preceded by spontaneous endometrial shedding than after anovulatory cycles (with or without prior progestin withdrawal), both conception and live birth rates were significantly higher after anovulatory cycles without progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding (live birth per cycle: spontaneous menses 2.2%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 1.6%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 5.3%; p<0.001). The difference was more marked when rate was calculated per ovulation (live birth per ovulation: spontaneous menses 3.0%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 5.4%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 19.7%; p < .001). Conclusion Conception and live birth rates are lower in women with PCOS after a spontaneous menses or progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding as compared to anovulatory cycles without progestin withdrawal. The common clinical practice of inducing endometrial shedding with progestin prior to ovarian stimulation may have an adverse effect on rates of conception and live birth in anovulatory women with PCOS. PMID:22525900

  17. Effect of Letrozole, Berberine, or Their Combination for Infertility in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Statistical Analysis Plan for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Hong-Li Ma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole showed higher ovulation and live birth rates than clomiphene in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Berberine, a major active component of Chinese herbal medicine rhizomacoptidis, has been used to improve insulin resistance to facilitate ovulation induction in women with PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth or its potential as a complementary treatment to letrozole. We aim to determine the efficacy of letrozole with or without berberine in achieving live births among 644 infertile women with PCOS in Mainland China.

  18. Correlation of Endometrial Glycodelin Expression and Pregnancy Outcome in Cases with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated with Clomiphene Citrate Plus Metformin: A Controlled Study

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    Selda Uysal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clomiphene citrate (CC plus metformin treatment and endometrial glycodelin expression and to then correlate this relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods. A total of 30 patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria constituted our study group. All had been admitted to the gynecology outpatient clinic between June 1, 2011, and January 1, 2012, for infertility treatment. Our control group consisted of 20 patients admitted for routine Pap smear control. They had no history of infertility and were not using contraceptives and they were actively attempting pregnancy. Midluteal progesterone measurement and pipelle endometrial biopsies were performed with both groups. For PCOS patients, metformin treatment was initiated right after the biopsy and CC was added in the second menstrual cycle. Pipelle endometrial biopsies were repeated. Histological dating and immunohistochemistry for glycodelin were performed by a single pathologist who was blinded to the patients’ clinical data. Result(s. The posttreatment ovulation rate in the study group was 93.3%. No pregnancies were achieved in either group when glycodelin expression was not present, even in the presence of ovulation. When glycodelin expression was high in PCOS group, the pregnancy rate was 60% and all pregnancies ended in live births. In weak expression group, however, three out of four pregnancies ended as early pregnancy losses. Conclusion(s. Endometrial glycodelin expression is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes in both PCOS and fertile groups.

  19. [Study of the basal temperature, cervix mucus, vaginal cytology, spermatic penetration, and length of the menstrual cycle, in patients under clomiphene treatment].

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    Ruiz Velasco, V; Bailón Uriza, R; Conde, B I; Salas, E

    1969-09-01

    55 patients under clomiphene treatment were studied during 149 cycles. In addition to the usual tests and controls, the authors made a basal temperature curve, took samples of cervical mucus and performed vaginal cytology tests, and calculated the average duration of the cycle. The cycle study based on the Sims Huhner test was also performed on 13 patients. Changes in the results of the tests were found to be related to the dosage and, above all, to the date on which treatment is started. Knowing the changes that occur in the cervical mucus and basal temperature, these 2 tests helped in detecting ovulation. Postcoital cervical sperm penetration improved 1 week after taking the last tablet. The duration of the menstrual cycle increased while taking the drug, and this prolongation of the cycle increased as the drug was administered at a later stage. With respect to vaginal cytology, it is necessary to know the changes that occur in order to interpret the findings correctly; vaginal cytology studies are unreliable in determining the occurrence and especially the probable date of ovulation.

  20. Comparison of clinical effect of letrozole and clomiphene treating ovulation induction%来曲唑与克罗米芬诱导排卵的临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 杨玉巧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a new drug treating ovulation induction by comparing the effects and pregnancy outcome of letrozole versus clomiphere citrate for ovulation induction.Methods Totally 105 patients were randomly divided into the letrozole group with 42 patients (taking letrozole,5 mg/d,qd for 5 d) and clomiphene group of 63 cases (taking clomiphene,50 mg/d,qd for 5 d).Follicular development,endometrial growth indicators,the number of cases of pregnancy,miscarriage number of cases and the number of cases of ectopic pregnancy were recorded.Results Compared with clomiphene citrate group,the number of follicles which diameter were larger than 14 mm significantly reduced on the injection day of human chorionic gonadotropin and the endometrial thickness was larger in the letrozole group.The two groups had no incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.The pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were 21.4% (9/24) and 14.3% (6/42) in the letrozole group.But the pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were 12.7% (8/63) and 6.3% (4/63) in the clomiphene group.The pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate were higher in the letrozole group than those in the clomiphene group.But the difference between the two groups were not statistically significant.Conclusions Letrozole results in stimulation of ovarian folliculogenesis and the pregnancy rate is similar to those with clomiphene citrate.Letrozole can avoid the unfavorable effects on the ovaries and endometrium.%目的 比较来曲唑与克罗米芬诱导排卵的临床效果.方法 选择新疆维吾尔自治区人民医院符合标准的不孕症患者105例,完全随机分为来曲唑组(42例,口服来曲唑5 mg/d,连用5d)和克罗米芬组(63例,口服用克罗米芬50 mg/d,连用5d).观察2组患者卵泡发育、子宫内膜生长情况,同时记录妊娠例数、流产例数、异位妊娠例数和继续妊娠.结果 来曲唑组与克罗米芬组相比,人绒毛膜促性腺激素注射日≥14 mm

  1. Relevance of the selective oestrogen receptor modulators tamoxifen, toremifene and clomiphene in doping field: endogenous steroids urinary profile after multiple oral doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Monica; Braganò, Maria Cristina; de la Torre, Xavier; Molaioni, Francesco; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the influence of the intake of selective oestrogen receptor modulators on the urinary endogenous steroids profile. For this purpose the circadian variability of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol, 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol, epitestosterone, 4-androstenedione, androsterone and etiocholanolone were measured on eight subjects (four males and four females) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemiluminescent immunometric assay techniques before and after oral administration of multiple doses of either tamoxifen (80 mg for 2 days) or toremifene (120 mg for 2 days) or clomiphene (100 mg for 2 days). The individual baseline variability of the steroids studied was set up by collecting the urine samples every 3 h, for 3 days prior to the treatment; whereas the evaluation of the effects of the oral administration of multiple doses of selective oestrogen receptor modulators on the steroid urinary profile was assessed by collecting urine samples every three hours for at least five days from the first administration. The results of our measurements showed that, only in male subjects, the relative urinary concentrations of testosterone, epitestosterone and 4-androstenedione were significantly altered generally after the second day of drug administration. While no significant effects were recorded in both sexes on the luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol and 5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol urinary levels and on testosterone/epitestosterone, 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol/5β-androstan-3α,17β-diol and androsterone/etiocholanolone ratios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice

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    Anderson Sanches Melo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss, folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling. Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety.

  3. Treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: approach to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Anderson Sanches; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome represents 80% of anovulatory infertility cases. Treatment initially includes preconception guidelines, such as lifestyle changes (weight loss), folic acid therapy to prevent the risk of fetal neural tube defects and halting the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. The first-line pharmacological treatment for inducing ovulation consists of a clomiphene citrate treatment for timed intercourse. The second-line pharmacological treatment includes the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or laparoscopic ovarian surgery (ovarian drilling). Ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins is effective with cumulative live birth rates of approximately 70%. Ovarian drilling should be performed when laparoscopy is indicated; this procedure is typically effective in approximately 50% of cases. Finally, a high-complexity reproduction treatment (in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection) is the third-line treatment and is recommended when the previous interventions fail. This option is also the first choice in cases of bilateral tubal occlusion or semen alterations that impair the occurrence of natural pregnancy. Evidence for the routine use of metformin in infertility treatment of anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not available. Aromatase inhibitors are promising and longer term studies are necessary to prove their safety.

  4. Comparing Two Ovulation Induction Methods by Brachial Artery Ultrasonography in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    B Ghorbani Yekta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endothelial dysfunction can influence fertility rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS as flow mediated dilatation (FMD is impaired in patients with the disease. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of ovulation induction by letrozole or letrozole plus human menopausal gonadotropins (HMGs in infertile women with PCOS who were resistant to clomiphene citrate based on brachial artery ultrasound findings.Methods: In this double -blind randomized clinical trial, 59 infertile women who had the inclusion criteria for PCOS were evaluated in the Infertility Clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2010-2011. The patients were assigned to two letrozole and letrozole plus HMG groups and were evaluated for FMD in the brachial artery by transvaginal ultrasonography. Later, the values were recorded and analyzed statistically.Results: In the letrozole group, infertility treatment was successful in 15 (57.7% but it failed in 11 (42.3% patients. In letrozole plus HMG group, the treatment was successful in 18 (54.5% while it failed in 15 (45.5% patients. The mean FMD values in the groups with successful and unsuccessful treatment results were 19.42±10% and 18.57±7.2%, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.712. Moreover, the average endometrial thickness in groups with successful and unsuccessful treatment results were 8.4±1.3 mm and 9.8±3.9 mm, respectively but the difference was not significant either (P=0.06.Conclusion: In infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome that are resistant to clomiphene, letrozole or letrozole combined with gonadotropin can be equally effective for ovulation induction.

  5. 氯米芬联合二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征的效果分析%Effect analysis of clomiphene combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖丽华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨氯米芬联合二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征的效果。方法选取2011年2月~2014年2月本院收治的60例多囊卵巢综合征患者作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组。观察组给予二甲双胍和氯米芬治疗,对照组给予氯米芬治疗。比较两组的血清雌二醇、黄体生成素、睾酮水平,并观察两组的妊娠情况。结果观察组的血清雌二醇水平显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的成熟卵泡数显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组的妊娠率显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论氯米芬联合二甲双胍治疗多囊卵巢综合征效果显著,能够改善患者的排卵状况,提高妊娠率。%Objective To explore the effect of clomiphene combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods 60 cases with polycystic ovary syndrome from February 2011 to February 2014 in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group.The observation group was given metformin and clomiphene,the control group was given clomiphene.The level of serum estradiol,luteinizing hormone, testosterone in two groups was compared.The rate of pregnancy in two groups was observed. Results The level of serum estradiol in the observation group was lower than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).the num-ber of mature follicles in the observation group was lower than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05).The pregnancy rate in the observation group was higher than that in the control group,with significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion The effect of clomiphene combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome is significant,which can improve the ovulation in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome ovulation,and improve the pregnancy rate.

  6. Surgical Ovulation Induction in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review

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    Vivian Frank

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently clomiphene citrate is the first-linetreatment to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovariansyndrome (PCOS. Surgical therapy with laparoscopicovarian drilling (LOD may avoid or reduce the need for gonadotropins.Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of LODcompared with ovulation induction in subfertile women withclomiphene-resistant PCOS.Search Strategy: A systematic search was performed on Pub-Med (1966 to August 2007, the Ovid database (1966 to August2007, and EMBASE (1974-2007. The search terms included:infertility, menstrual disorder, hirsutism, PCOS, surgical intervention,electrocautery, electrocoagulation, diathermy, drilling,and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, ovulation, pregnancy rate,post operation adhesions and ovarian blood flow.Selection Criteria: Randomized controlled trials of womenwith clomiphene-resistant PCOS who were treated with LODto induce ovulation were included.Data Collection and Analysis: 3141 patients from 35 trialspreformed in different geographic settings were included. Alltrials were assessed for quality criteria. We included those trialswhich followed hormonal changes, ovulation, and pregnancyrates after LOD. The primary outcomes measured werehormonal changes, ovulation, and pregnancy rates as well asovarian artery blood flow, and the secondary outcome was rateof pelvic organ adhesion.Main Results: The overall ovulation rate after LOD was79.2% (74.9%-83.5% 95% CI. Of all women who ovulatedonly 66.6% (60.8%-72.4% 95% CI conceived. The mean periadnexaladhesion rate was 22.7% (21.4%-24% 95% CI.Conclusion: Compared with medical therapy, LOD has manyadvantages including: to be done once, no need for intensivemonitoring, no chance of multiple pregnancy or ovarianhyperstimulation syndrome. LOD effectively decreases ovarianandrogens and improves folliculogenesis and increases chanceof ovulation and pregnancy rate. Finally, in vitro fertilisationshould be considered as the last resort.

  7. Incorporating patient preference into the management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoroafor UC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ugochi C Okoroafor, Emily S JungheimDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous condition characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Because of the heterogeneous nature of PCOS, women affected by the condition often require a customized approach for ovulation induction when trying to conceive. Treating symptoms of PCOS in overweight and obese women should always incorporate lifestyle changes with the goal of weight-loss, as many women with PCOS will ovulate after losing 5%–10% of their body weight. On the other hand, other factors must be considered including the woman’s age, age-related decline in fertility, and previous treatments she may have already tried. Fortunately, multiple options for ovulation induction exist for women with PCOS. This paper reviews specific ovulation induction options available for women with PCOS, the benefits and efficacy of these options, and the related side effects and risks women can anticipate with the various options that may affect treatment adherence. The paper also reviews the recommended evidence-based strategies for treating PCOS-related infertility that allow for incorporation of the patient’s preference. Finally, it briefly reviews emerging data and ongoing studies regarding newer agents that have shown great promise as first-line agents for the treatment of infertility in women with PCOS.Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulation, clomiphene citrate, letrozole, metformin, obesity

  8. The Values of Basal FSH and Its Responsive Value to GnRH or Clomiphene Citrate for Predicting Ovarian Failure%FSH基值、垂体兴奋试验及克罗米芬刺激试验在预测卵巢功能衰竭中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐肖文; 吕杰强; 林金芳; 王乐丹; 林明; 涂权梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the ovarian reserve function changes and relative endocrine indicators, then to screen the predictive hormones and to determine predictive values for ovarian function failure within three years. Methods 120 cases of menstrual disorder with basal FSH ≥10IU/L or its responsive value to GnRH or clomiphene citrate 5= 10IU/L were selected as our study group. And 40 infertility cases with normal menstrual cycle, biphasic BBT, serum basal FSH and the same responsive values < 10IU/L were as control group. The study group was designed to follow up to the stage of ovarian function failure (study end point). The differences between the two groups in these above indicators correlated with ovarian reserve function were compared by using One -way ANOVA. Receiver operator characteristic curve ( ROC curve) was used to find the critical values of bFSH, peak FSH value and FSHD10 (hat might best predict ovarian function failure within three years. Results All the markers had significant difference between the two groups except bE2. It showed that the values of bFSH, peak FSH and FSHD10 in the women assigned to the research groups were significant higher than those in the control groups( P < 0. 05 ). Using ROC curve, we found the critical values of various indicators for predicting ovarian failure within three years: bFSH 12.95IU/L, pFSH 18.60IL/L, FSHD10 20. 33IU/L. Conclusion Basal FSH and its responsive value to GnRH or clomiphene citrate ≥10IU/L indicated the beginning of ovarian function decline. The critical values for predicting ovarian failure within three years in women with declining ovarian function were; bFSH 12.95 IU/L, pFSH 18.60 IU/L and FSHD10 20.33 IU/L.%目的 通过对卵巢功能衰退患者相关生殖激素指标的跟踪观察,探讨其在预测3年内卵巢功能衰竭中的价值.方法 测定卵巢功能衰退患者FSH基值及对促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)和克罗米酚(CC)的反应峰值,跟踪

  9. Infertility, Ovulation Induction, and Cancers Risk in Women: Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Sharifi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Using fertility treatment has increased markedly in recent decades. However, various concerns associated with the use of fertility drugs, such as increased risk of cancer, has developed. The objective of the present study is to overview studies in the field of infertility, ovulation induction, and its impact on cancer risks in women. Material & Methods: This study is a review of all articles published during the years 1995 and 2014 through databases SID, magiran, Medlib, pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Comprehensive search was done with the keywords of infertility, ovulation induction, the risk of cancer, gynecological cancer, clomiphene citrate, human chorionic gonadotropin, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer for Persian articles and their English equivalents for English articles. After reviewing, a total of 79 articles were included in the study. Results: Various studies revealed the possibility of an increased risk of uterine, ovarian, and breast cancer and hormonal changes associated with ovulation stimulation. But these results are not conclusive because of small sample size, short follow-up periods, and vague information about the type and the way drug is consumed. Conclusion: Mainly women's cancer are associated with hormonal issues. Controversy over research results requisite further evaluation in order to investigate the impact of ovulation-inducing drugs on cancer risk which needs a well designed study.

  10. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  11. Observation on Clinical Curative Effect of Metformin Combined with Clomiphene in Treatment of Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with Infertility%二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征合并不孕的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical effect of metformin combined with clomiphene in treatment of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with infertility. Methods 96 cases of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with infertility in our hospital from 2011 to 2012 were selected, they were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with only clomiphene and metformin combined with clomiphene, the treatment effects of two groups were compared. Results After treatment, the fasting insulin (FINS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting blood glucose (FPG), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T) of the study group were signiifcantly lower than those in the control group, the endometrial thickness of the study group increased signiifcantly comparing to the control group, and the pregnancy rate was signiifcantly better than the control group.Conclusion Metformin combined with clomiphene in treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with infertility can effectively improve patients with hormone levels, increase endometrial thickness, and effectively improve the pregnancy rate after the treatment, it should be deeply studied.%目的:探讨多囊卵巢综合征合并不孕患者治疗中克罗米芬联合二甲双胍的临床效果。方法选取2011年至2012年我院收治的多囊卵巢综合征合并不孕患者96例,随机分为两组,分别采取单纯克罗米芬治疗和克罗米芬与联合二甲双胍治疗,对比两组治疗效果。结果治疗后研究组患者空腹胰岛素(FINS)、促卵泡激素(FSH)、空腹血糖(FPG)、促黄体激素(LH)、睾酮(T)均明显低于对照组,子宫内膜厚度相比对照组明显增加,妊娠率与显著优于对照组。结论二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征合并不孕能够有效改善患者体内激素水平,增加子宫内膜厚度,有效提高治疗后的妊娠率,应当进一步深入研究。

  12. Infertility and pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, S

    2010-12-01

    Management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually spans a woman's reproductive years. While treatment of androgenic symptoms is often a primary concern, periodically, the regimen has to be modified because of a desire for pregnancy. At this time the couple should be evaluated for factors that may contribute to infertility and this should include semen analysis. However, for many, anovulation is likely to be the cause of infertility and ovulation induction is generally required. The premise on which ovulation induction in PCOS is based is two-fold: increasing ovarian exposure to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or correcting hormonal derangements. Potential differences in pathogenesis, evidenced clinically by phenotypic diversity, would suggest that treatment should be individualized. After a brief overview of factors relating to infertility, this paper outlines treatments available for ovulation induction in women with PCOS and provides a critical appraisal of management options. These options include the use of clomiphene citrate, insulin sensitizers, and the combination. Protocols for ovulation induction with FSH injections are outlined and the relative risks of multiple gestation and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of these various protocols discussed. The use of aromatase inhibitors and the occasional use of glucocorticoids are briefly reviewed, and indications for in vitro fertilization and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy outlined. Pregnancy outcome in this patient population is also discussed.

  13. Ovarian response in consecutive cycles of ovarian stimulation in normally ovulating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Ebbiary, N A; Morgan, C; Martin, K; Afnan, M; Newton, J R

    1995-03-01

    Ovarian stimulation combined with intra-uterine insemination (IUI) is an effective treatment of non-tubal infertility but most women undergo several cycles of treatment to achieve a pregnancy. This prospective study was designed to assess the consistency (or variation) of ovarian responses and the effect of various ovarian stimulation protocols on this consistency in consecutive cycles of ovarian stimulation and IUI in women with non-ovulatory infertility. A total of 86 regularly menstruating ovulating patients each completed three to six cycles of ovarian stimulation and IUI (n = 347 cycles). Ovarian stimulation was achieved by sequential clomiphene citrate/human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG), HMG-only or combined gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue--HMG protocols in 33, 29 and 24 patients respectively, and each patient used the same protocol consistently throughout the study. Standard methods were used to monitor ovarian response and to perform IUI. Using each patient as her own control, repeated measurements analysis of variance revealed consistency of ovarian response in consecutive ovarian stimulation cycles, as shown by the number and mean diameter of maturing pre-ovulatory follicles, peak plasma oestradiol, duration of stimulation and mean HMG requirements. This consistency existed using any of the ovarian stimulation protocols. We conclude that regularly menstruating and ovulating women are likely to have similar ovarian responses in consecutive cycles of ovarian stimulation and IUI if the same ovarian stimulation protocol is used consistently.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Efficacy of Metformin Combined with Clomiphene in the Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征合并不孕的疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the the efficacy of metformin combined with clomiphene in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods We analyzed 72 cases who had PCOS,72 cases were randomly divided into 2 groups of 34 case in experimental group who had given clomiphene, and 38 cases in the control group who had given metformin combined with clomiphene. Contrast the level of FSH, FINS, LH, FPG,T,and ovulation rate, pregnancy rate, early abortion rate and thickness of the lining of tow groups. Results The level of FSH, FINS, T were significant difference between two groups( P 0. 05 ). There were significant difference of pregnancy rate and thickness of the liningv P < 0. 05 ) between two groups. There were no significant difference of ovulation rate and abortion rate. Conclusion Metformin and clomiphene treat PCOS infertility can improve the hormone level, increase pregnancy rate and increased endometrial thickness of the role that metformin and clomiphene treat PCOS is worth further clinical application.%目的 观察二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征所致不孕的临床疗效.方法 选取2010年1月至2012年1月收治的多囊卵巢综合征患者72例,按随机数字表法分为观察组38例采用二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗,对照组34例给予克罗米芬治疗.治疗3个周期后,分别检测两组促卵泡激素(FSH)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、促黄体激素(LH)、空腹血糖(FPG)、睾酮(T);两组排卵率、妊娠率及早孕流产率及内膜厚度.结果 观察组与对照组FSH,FINS,T水平比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组妊娠率、内膜厚度比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 二甲双胍与克罗米芬治疗多囊巢综合征不孕症患者具有改善激素水平,提高妊娠率及增加子宫内膜厚度的作用,二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征值得临床进一步应用.

  15. Studying the effect of ovulation stimulation by using clomiphene citrate on serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1ß in sub-fertile women in Holy Kerbala Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha F. Mohammed AL-Ma’aroof

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion The results of this study may implicate a direct role of TNF-α in the fertility and, thus, could raise questions about the possibility of using immune modulation in the treatment of sub-fertility.

  16. Obstetric complications in women with IVF conceived pregnancies and polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Sunita R Tandulwadkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is often accompanied by infertility that necessitates ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins or even in vitro fertilization (IVF. These treatment methods are known to increase the incidence of multiple pregnancies as well as some negative consequences, including a rise in the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, etc., Furthermore, pregnancies established after IVF carry an increased risk for maternal complications. However, the increased risk of developing adverse obstetric complications has been suggested to occur independently of obesity as well as in populations without assisted reproductive techniques. Many studies have been performed to study the effect of PCOS on pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on PCOS. The hormonal milieu that is exaggerated in PCOS women is quite well understood at the biochemical and genetic levels. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of PCOS women who have undergone in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET have not been widely studied till date. This review aims to evaluate the current evidence regarding adverse obstetric outcomes of PCOS women undergoing IVF-ET. The rationale of this review is to study whether the adverse obstetric outcomes are increased in PCOS women in general, or particularly in those PCOS women who are undergoing IVF-ET. It is also important to analyze via a literature review whether the increased adverse outcomes are due to infertility in general or PCOS per se. An attempt has been made to give evidence regarding preventive strategies for obstetric complications in PCOS women who have undergone IVF-ET.

  17. A study of clinic efficiency on the strategy of superovulation based on clomiphene citrate in IVF%IVF周期中克罗米芬促排卵的临床效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙迎利; 张敏; 张建平; 常秀峰; 朱爱萍; 马晓伟; 余裕炉

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore the efficiency on clinic for a ovarian hyperstimulation strategy based on clomiphene citrate (CC) and embryos vitrified cryopreservation technique in IVF. Methods; 101 of IVF cycles, duration of 2006 annum, were randomly divided into CC and GnRHa groups, after in written form consent. For the group CC, ovarian hyperstimulation was done using CC, from the second day of the bleeding, at least duration of 8 days or until on the day of HCG injection, in a fixed dosage of 150 mg per day, supplemented with vary dosages of HMG on whole period of follicular phase, and short life GnRH antagonist (Cetrotide, Serono) on late follicular phase, according to different persons individually; For the group GnRHa, a pituitary down -regulation was done, u-sing GnRHa (Dophereline, Beaufouripsen) and then vary dosages of recombinant FSH (Gonal-F, Serono) were injected individually, as commonly used like elsewhere. A proper number of resulting embryos were transferred into uterus under supervision of an abdomen ultrasound, or all of them was cryopreserved until a proper condition was met, according to the state of their endometrium. Average numbers of ovum picked up, 2PN rates, cleavage rates, rates of grade 1 -2 embryos, fee on medicine for ovarian hyperstimulation, total fee per cycle, live birth rates and average fee for successfully gain a live birth cycle were statistically analyzed. Results; 2PN rates, cleavage rates, rates of grade 1 -2 embryos, implantation rates for FET and take -home baby rates were 84% , 97.4% , 85. 4% , 29. 1% , 37. 5% and 79% , 96. 5% , 83. 3% , 34. 7% , 39. 6% , respectively in CC and GnRHa groups, with no significant differences, and meanwhile, average numbers of ovum picked up, fertilization rates of IVF/ICSI, fee on medicine for ovarian hyperstimulation, total fee per cycle, take -home baby rates and average fee for successfully gain a live birth cycle were 7. 46 ±4. 04, 85. L%/88. 3% , 1779. 65 ±1123. 59 Yuans, 11008. 81 ±2987

  18. Diane-35,progynova,clomiphene sequential drug for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in 50 cases%达英-35、补佳乐、克罗米芬序贯用药治疗多囊卵巢综合征不孕50例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董凤婵; 王巍

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察达英-35、补佳乐、克罗米芬序贯用药治疗多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)的疗效.方法 选择PCOS患者100例,随机分成治疗组(A组)、观察组(B组)各50例,A组用达英-35治疗3个周期后序贯应用补佳乐、克罗米芬、绒毛膜促性腺激素治疗,B组应用克罗米芬、绒毛膜促性腺激素治疗.观察临床指标:月经情况、痤疮、多毛改善情况.生化指标:血清生殖激素水平:黄体素(LH)、卵泡刺激素(FSH)、睾酮(T)、雌二醇(E2).超声指标:排卵率、妊娠率、流产率.结果 患者月经趋于规律,面部痤疮明显减少,毛发生长减少、变细.血清LH值、T值明显下降,LH/FSH值正常.排卵率、妊娠率明显提高,流产率降低.结论 达英-35、补佳乐、克罗米芬序贯用药治疗PCOS不孕症临床症状明显改善,生殖激素水平趋于正常.排卵率、妊娠率得以提高,流产率及LUFS发生率下降.%Objective To investigate the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with Diane-35,progynova drug and clomiphene sequential. Methods One hundred patients with PCOS, half for the treatment, half for the oberservement.Use Diane-35 to the treatment group(group A)for three months, then thecycle sequential treatment of progynova,clomiphene, and the treatment of cashmere promoting. Observation group (group B) used the clomiphene and the treatment of cashmere promoting. Observe the clinical symptoms that whether improved, serum levels of reproductive hormones, ovulation rate, the pregnancy rate and abortion rate and the incidence of LUFS had significant differences. Results Patients tend to menstrual regularity, significantly reduce facial acne, hair growth reduced,thinned. Serum LH values,T values significantly decreased and LH/FSH values became normal. Ovulation rate, the pregnancy rate markedly improved, the abortion rate decreased. Conclusion Diane-35, with progynova, clomiphene sequential treatment of infertility treatment PCOS symptoms

  19. Effect of Letrozole, Berberine, or Their Combination for Infertility in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome:Statistical Analysis Plan for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li Ma; Jing-Shu Gao; Feng Tian; Ernest HY Ng; Xiao-Ke Wu; Jian-Ping Liu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Letrozole showed higher ovulation and live birth rates than clomiphene in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Berberine, a major active component of Chinese herbal medicine rhizomacoptidis, has been used to improve insulin resistance to facilitate ovulation induction in women with PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth or its potential as a complementary treatment to letrozole. We aim to determine the efficacy of letrozole with or without berberine in achieving live births among 644 infertile women with PCOS in Mainland China. Methods and analysis: This is a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blinded, controlled design. Infertile women with PCOS were randomized into three-arm, letrozole and berberine, letrozole and berberine placebo, letrozole placebo and berberine. Data and blood were collected at baseline, the third month and sixth month after treatment, or immediately were collected if subject was pregnant. Statisticians and clinical investigators were blinded to treatment allocation and treatment related study results until the central database was locked for final data extraction and analysis determined. The statistical analysis plan described basic analysis principles, methods commonly encountered in data analysis issues, and the specific statistical procedures for analyzing the primary, secondary, and safety outcomes. Ethics and dissemination: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the First Affiliated Hospital, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry:ChiCTR-TRC-09000376. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:NCT01116167.

  20. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...... of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing...

  1. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...... of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing...

  2. Pregnancy following laparoscopy ovarian drilling for clomiphene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She achieved pregnancy following Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling at the Assisted ... Conception following ovarian drilling. Omokanye .... advocated as this will drastically reduce the time to achieve ... laparoscopic laser diathermy in polycystic.

  3. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  4. Empowering Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, Gro Harlem

    1994-01-01

    An edited version of Prime Minister of Norway Gro Harlem Brundtland's keynote address to the International Conference on Population and Development in September 1994. This address focuses on the role played by women in population growth and emphasizes the urgency of economic and political rights and education for women. (LZ)

  5. Hidden Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolanda Bosch; René Moelker

    2008-01-01

    Discussing the visibility and cultural factors that inf luence the position of women in the armed forces is the object of the study that is presented here. The Netherlands do not have a martial tradition and are believed to have a feminine ‘soft’ culture , but nevertheless women have always been

  6. 二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征有效性的Meta分析%Efficacy on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by Combination Therapy of Metformin plus Clomiphene Citratc: A Meta Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫有敏; 杨菁

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征的有效性.方法:采用计算机检索PUBMED、ScienceDirect、Cochrane图书馆、万方数据库等文献资料库.纳入二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征的有效性的随机对照试验(RCTs),同时按照纳入与排除标准对文献质量进行严格评价和资料提取.对符合质量标准的RCTs用Review manager 5.0软件进行.结果:共纳入9个符合要求的RCT研究,共542例患者;其中二甲双胍及克罗米芬联合用药组(试验组)279例,克罗米芬组(对照组)258例,5例试验组患者因在采用促排卵药物之前已妊娠退出治疗.所纳入的研究根据随机方法、分配隐藏、盲法、失访、意向性分析和基线情况的描述对纳入研究进行质量评价,结果质量均为B级.Meta分析结果显示:二甲双胍及克罗米芬联合用药组(试验组)的妊娠率[OR=2.17,95 %CI(1.18,4.02),P=0.01]高于克罗米芬组(对照组),而试验组与对照组的多周期排卵率[OR=1.26,95%CI(0.35,4.46),P=0.008]及一个周期排卵率[OR=2.71,95%CI(0.09,8.12),P=0.008]无明显的统计学差异.结论:二甲双胍联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征是一种有效的方法,但临床随机对照试验的方法学质量中等,仍需要高质量的多中心随机双盲对照试验加以证实.%Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by combination therapy of metformin plus clomiphene citrate. Methods: According to the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions, we searched the clinical trials from PUBMED, Sci-enceDirect, Chinese database CNKI and Wanfang. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about clomiphene citrate alone versus combined metformin and clomiphene citrate for the efficacy of PCOS were included. Results: Nine RCTs studies meeting the requirement were included and they are in total of 542 cases of patients. Evaluating quality of trails

  7. Analysis of Clomiphene Citrate Combined with Human Menopausal Gonadotropin Treatment of Small Follicle Ovulation Effect%克罗米酚联合人绝经期促性腺激素治疗小卵泡排卵的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海英

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较克罗米酚联合人绝经期促性腺激素(HMG)治疗小卵泡排卵的疗效。方法:将小卵泡排卵36例251个治疗周期,随机分成A、B两组,A组:单独使用HMG;B组:同时用克罗米芬和HMG。观察、比较两组的排卵率、妊娠率、早期流产率等。结果:B组最大卵泡略>A组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);A组每日卵泡MFD≥15mm卵泡个数<B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。②每日子宫内膜、宫颈情况比较:A、B两组子宫内膜平均厚度、宫颈Insler评分相当,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。③治疗效果比较:妊娠率:A组妊娠率、未破裂卵泡黄素化综合征发生率、多胎率均<B组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);早期流产率:A组>B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:克罗米芬联合应用HMG可促进卵泡发育,提高妊娠率和降低早期流产率。%Objective: To compare the clomiphene citrate combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) effect in the treatment of small follicle ovulation.Methods:36 cases of small follicle ovulation 251 treatment cycles, were randomly divided into A, B two groups, group A: HMG alone; group B: at the same time with clomiphene citrate and HMG. Comparison of two groups of observation, the ovulation rate, pregnancy rate, abortion rate etc..Results:In B group, the largest follicle slightly, A group, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05); group A MFD is more than or equal to 15mm daily follicle follicle number was less than B group, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). The comparison of the treatment effect: the pregnancy rate: A group, the pregnancy rate of luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome, the incidence of multiple pregnancy rate were lower than B group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); early abortion rate: A group, B group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0

  8. 桂枝茯苓胶囊联合克罗米芬对多囊卵巢综合征患者激素水平及妊娠率的影响%Influence of Guizhi Fuling Capsule Combined with Clomiphene on the Hormone Level and Pregnancy Rate of Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵靖渊; 刘瑾

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察桂枝茯苓胶囊联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征的临床疗效.方法:选取本院2012年1月-2014年12月收治的88例多囊卵巢综合征患者,随机分为对照组和观察组各44例,对照组采用克罗米芬片治疗,于月经周期第5天开始,每日1次,每次50 mg,连续服用5d.观察组患者在对照组治疗的基础上加服桂枝茯苓胶囊,每日3次,每次3粒.两组患者均连续治疗3个月.观察两组患者临床疗效及相关指标变化结果:观察组有效率为95.5%,显著高于对照组的75.0%,两组有效率比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组的卵泡刺激素(follicle-stimulating hormone,FSH)、黄体生成素(luteinizing hormone,LH)、性激素血催乳素(Blood sex hormone prolactin,PRL)、雌二醇(estra-diol E2)及睾酮(testosterone,T)值均明显低于对照组,具有统计学差异(P<0.05);观察组的排卵率及妊娠率(84.1%,47.7%)均明显优于对照组(43.2%,27.3%),具有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论:桂枝茯苓胶囊联合克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征疗效显著.%Objective:To observe the influence of Guizhi Fuling Capsule combined with Clomiphene on the hormone level and pregnancy rate of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).Methods:Totally 88 patients with PCOS hospitalized between January,2012 and December,2014 were randomized into control group and observation group,with 44 cases in each group.Control group were given Clomiphene for the treatment on the 5th day of the menstruation,once every day with 50mg,for 5d continuous use.Observation group were additionally given Guizhi Fuling Capsule,3 times a day and 3 capsules once.Both groups were treated for continuous 3 months.The clinical effects and changes of relevant indexes in the two groups were observed.Results:The effective rate was 95.5% in observation group,significantly higher than that in control group (75.0%);the difference had statistical significance (P < 0

  9. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    psychology, political and legal circumstances of women. Women NGO's ... directed the searchlight on a variety of issues affecting the status of women in the society. .... marginalization of women in this domain still remains. Some of the ...

  10. Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    When honored guests visit, Tu women will block the door and invite them to show their respect by drinking three cups of wine. Only after this ritual can the guests be led indoors and shown to their seats.

  11. Comparative Study on Chinese Medical Syndrome Typing and Treatment Combined Different Surgical Methods for Treating Clomiphene-resistant Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%中医辨证论治联合不同手术方法治疗耐克罗米芬多囊卵巢综合征的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾蕾; 曾诚; 陶莉莉; 王慧颖; 桑霞; 黄洁明; 吴晓贞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation or unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique under laparoscope for treating clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS). Methods Forty infertility patients with clomiphene-resistant PCOS were assigned to two groups using stratified random sampling method according to age, infertility time, and body mass index, 20 in each group. Patients in Group A were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined cold needle puncture drainage operation, while those in Group B were treated with Chinese medical syndrome typing and treatment combined unipolar electrocoagulation drilling technique. After operation Chinese herbal treatment was administered to all patients according to syndrome typing. The serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), androgen (T), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were determined before and after operation. The ovulation was monitored. The pregnancy rate and the pregnancy outcomes were recorded after operation. Results There was no statistical difference in the 3-month spontaneous ovulation rate or the 1 -year pregnancy rate (P >0. 05). The levels of LH, T, and PRL were significantly lower after operation than before operation in the two groups ( P 0.05).两组术后血LH、T、PRL水平均较术前下降(P<0.05);术后月经及排卵情况改善明显.A组总排卵率95%(19/20),15例成功妊娠,1例发生卵巢过度刺激综合征;B组总排卵率90%(18/20),13例成功妊娠,1例发生卵巢功能减退.A组2例,B组1例发生卵泡不破裂综合征.结论 中医辨证论治结合腹腔镜下卵巢冷针穿刺放液术或单极电凝打孔术均可有效促进排卵,两种手术方法疗效相似.

  12. Women Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Jiangyong County,a remote place in central China's Hunan Province,has been gathering more attention due to a strange-looking language passed down exclusively by women for hundreds of years. The language,which is called nushu,or women's script,is said to originate from Chinese square-block characters,but the orthography and pronunciation are quite different from all other branches of Chinese dialects.

  13. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  16. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  17. 针刺对克罗米芬治疗的多囊卵巢综合征大鼠子宫内膜容受性的影响%Effects of Acupuncture on Endometrial Receptivity of the Rats with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treated by Clomiphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维怡; 黄光英; 刘洁; 张明敏; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acupuncture on endometrial receptivity of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)treated by ovarian stimulation with clomiphene and explore the action mechanism. Methods PCOS rat model was experimentally induced by subcutaneous injection of oil solution of dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)in immature 24-day-old female rats for continuous 20 days. The same dose of oil was given for an equivalent length of time to animals in a control group (group Con). The rats with PCOS were randomly divided into a model group(group M) ,a clomiphene-treated group(group C) . and a clomiphene plus acupuncture group(group C+A). The treatments were given for 5 days since 80 days after birth. Half of the rats were killed by decapitation after treatment,and the uteri and endometria were obtained. The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor(ER) ,progesterone receptor(PR),leukemia inhibitory factor(LIF) ,homeobox gene Al0(HOXA10)and integrin α_vβ_3(Integrin α_vβ_3)on endoimetria was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The remaining rats mated with male rats,and they were killed at the 8th day of pregnancy. The condition of pregnant uteri was observed. Results Compared with group C,the animals in group C+A showed better development of endometrium,and increased mRNA and protein expression of the above molecular markers of endometrial receptivity (P<0. 05), which were closer to those in the control group. Conclusion Acupuncture could improve poor endometrial receptivity of PCOS rats with ovarian stimulation by citrated clomiphene. The effects may be related with the up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of molecular markers of endometrial receptivity.%目的 观察针刺对促排卵治疗的多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)大鼠子宫内膜容受性的影响,探讨其作用机制.方法 对24日龄雌性SD大鼠皮下注射脱氢表雄酮(DHEA)的麻油溶液制作多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)大鼠模型,对照组(Con)同期皮下

  18. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  19. PREGNANT WOMEN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women attending an antenatal clinic and gynaeco- logical clinic ... Other observa- tions are less specific and may be part of the gen- .... be due to the high levels of corticosteroids though there is no direct proof ... Scully C, Cawson RA. Medical ...

  20. Women's Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Arlene Kaplan

    1978-01-01

    The women's movement may show us some of the changes to come in the content and form of the social sciences. Among issues which will be increasingly addressed are those of work and the family, personal growth and social responsibility, and the emotional component in rational, objective, and scientific enterprise. (Author/GC)

  1. Smokefree Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infographic that presents all the benefits to quitting smoking during pregnancy to help you have a happy, healthy birth ... of smoke… Read full story: 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke » share 4 Benefits of Quitting Smoking Many women are surprised by how well… Read ...

  2. Rebellious Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  3. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  4. Clinical Study on the Antagonist Regimen and Clomiphene Micro Stimulus Regimen on the Outcome of Patients with Poor Ovarian Response in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transplantation%拮抗剂方案与克罗米芬微刺激方案对卵巢低反应患者体外受精胚胎移植结局的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀峰; 杜静; 伍畅; 吕燕君; 吴日然

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨拮抗剂方案与克罗米芬微刺激方案在卵巢低反应(POR)患者控制性超促排卵(COH)周期中的临床效果。方法:通过对151例POR患者行体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)周期进行回顾性分析,比较拮抗剂方案102个周期(A组)和微刺激方案49个周期(B组)的临床资料和助孕结局。结果:A组促性腺激素药物(Gn)用量、Gn天数、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(hCG)注射日血清雌二醇(E2)、内膜厚度、获卵数、可利用胚胎数、优质胚胎数、均高于B组,比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:在POR患者促排治疗中,克罗米芬微刺激方案与拮抗剂方案相比有相近的临床结局。因此当拮抗剂方案使用受到客观限制时,克罗米芬微刺激方案可作为一种较好的替代方案。但无论哪种方案均建议取消取消新鲜周期胚胎移植,行冻融胚胎解冻移植。%Objective:To investigate clinical effect of antagonist regimen and Clomiphene micro stimulus regimen with poor ovarian response (POR) patients with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation ovulation (COH) cycle.Method:The 151 POR patients cycles of vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed,the clinical data and pregnancy outcomes of antagonist regimen 102 cycles (group A) and Clomiphene micro stimulus regimen 49 cycles were compared.Result:The dosage of gonadotropin drugs (Gn), Gn days,human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection day of serum estradiol (E2),endometrial thickness, number of retrieved oocytes,the number of available embryos,high quality embryo rate in group A were higher than the group B,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:In patients with POR in ovulation induction treatment,Clomiphene micro stimulus regimen compared with antagonist regimen has similar clinical outcomes.Therefore,when the use of the antagonist regimen is subject to objective

  5. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  6. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  7. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  8. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...

  10. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

        CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, jean.chow.roderick@gmail.com http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...

  11. 对克罗米酚促排卵不满意的WHOⅡ型排卵障碍者促排卵方案探讨%Inquiry of appropriate ovulation induction plan for WHO Ⅱ ovulation failure who axe not satisified in clomiphene cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋洋; 周敏; 朱立春; 李秋颖

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨WHOⅡ型排卵障碍者中克罗米酚抵抗者和用克罗米酚后子宫内膜过薄或内膜类型欠佳者较适合的促排卵方案.方法 回顾性分析我院2007年10月至2009年6月促排卵的WHOⅡ型排卵障碍患者中克罗米酚抵抗者和用克罗米酚后子宫内膜不呈三线征或内膜厚度<8 mm者102例,进行克罗米酚联合人绝经促性腺素(HMG)低剂量step-up-down方案或单用HMG低剂量step-up-down方案促排卵的临床资料,比较HMG用量、使用天数、人绒毛膜促性腺激素(HCG)日直径≥16 mm及10~ 16 mm卵泡数目、子宫内膜厚度、雌二醇水平、排卵率、妊娠率、卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)及多胎妊娠率等.结果 克罗米酚联合HMG组HMG用量、使用天数均低于单用HMG组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).克罗米酚联合HMG组HCG日10 ~ 16 mm卵泡数目、雌二醇水平、OHSS发生率均稍高于单用HMG组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组HCG日直径≥16 mm卵泡数目、子宫内膜厚度、排卵率、妊娠率及多胎妊娠率差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对于克罗米酚抵抗者和使用克罗米酚子宫内膜过薄或内膜类型欠佳者,克罗米酚联合HMG低剂量step-up-down方案和单用HMG低剂量step-up-down方案均安全有效,但联合方案更经济实用,单用HMG方案是否更安全还有待进一步证实.%Objective To inquire appropriate ovulation induction plan for WHO Ⅱ ovulation failure who are clomiphene resisted or have thin endometrium or whose endometrium type are not " A".Methods We retrospectively assess the 102 patients,156 ovarian sitimulation cycles from October 2007 to July 2009.They are all WHO Ⅱ ovulation failure with clomiphene resisted or in CC cycles their endometrial thickness are less than 8 mm or their en dometrium type are not " A".Ovulation induction used CC combined HMG low-dose step-up-down plan or single HMG low-dose step-up-down plan.Compared the two

  12. The Outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in comparison with tubal factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fazel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Infertility with an incidence of about 15% has mainly been one of the community burdens that have even been threatening to the continuity of the family life. One of the most prevalent causes of women infertility is ovarian causes particularly PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of IVF & ET in women with PCOS in comparison with tubal factor.Materials and methods : This was a historical cohort study performed from 1997 to 1999, at Royan Institute. 33 patients with PCOS (without any other causes of infertility who failed standard ovulation induction treatment with clomiphen citrate (≥6 cycles underwent 33 cycles of IVF & ET. Controlled group include 76 patients with only tubal factor infertility. Long protocol with Buserelin (GnRHa/HMG was used in this study.IVF & ET cycle characteristics were compared using students t-test and χ2 and Fisher’s exact test.Results : The results of this research showed that there were statistically significant difference in mean age and incidence of OHSS in two groups. Howerer there were no satistically significant differences in duration of follicular phase, the duration of GnRHa usage up to the onset of HMG, cyst number after using GnRHa, cyst aspiration percent, HMG ampoule retrieved oocyte, produced embryo per person, embryo transfer per person, cycle cancellation and pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in two groups.Conclusion : It seems that IVF & ET are successful procedures in PCOS patients resistant to other usual treatment and hormonal dysfunction of this group of patients did not affect the results.

  13. Younger women with ovulation disorders and unexplained infertility predict a higher success rate in superovulation (SO) intrauterine insemination (IUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viardot-Foucault, Veronique; Tai, Bee Choo; Prasath, Ethiraj Balaji; Lau, Matthew S K; Chan, Jerry K Y; Loh, Seong Feei

    2014-04-01

    Superovulation-intrauterine insemination (SO-IUI) is the most common assisted reproductive technique (ART) in the world, with good evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness. However, parameters affecting its success have not been consistently reported. So in this study, we aim at determining the parameters influencing the success rate of SO-IUI. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 797 SO-IUI cycles from 606 patients, performed between 2007 and 2009 in a single centre. These women received clomiphene citrate (CC), recombinant FSH (rFSH) or both. There were 127 clinical pregnancies with a pregnancy rate (PR) of 15.9% (127/797) per treatment cycle. Factors associated with higher PR included maternal age <38 (P = 0.02), subfertility diagnoses of ovulatory disorders, unexplained infertility, sexual dysfunction and unilateral tubal obstruction (P = 0.02), an endometrial thickness ≥8 mm (P = 0.03), total number motile spermatozoa (TNMS) of ≥1 million (P = 0.03), and spermatozoa normal forms (NF) ≥4% (P <0.01) on bivariate analysis. When CC is used, the endometrial thickness is more likely to be suboptimal (<8 mm). All the above parameters remained significant except the subfertility diagnoses on multivariate analysis. Patients' selection with women <38 years old and preferably with ovulation disorders and unexplained infertility is associated with the highest PR in SO-IUI. Cycle parameters such as the use of rFSH alone, with the avoidance of CC, TNMS ≥1 million and NF ≥4% is likely to result in the best outcomes and reduce the high order multiple pregnancy risk.

  14. Myoinositol as a Safe and Alternative Approach in the Treatment of Infertile PCOS Women: A German Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Adolf Eduard

    2016-01-01

    The use of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Using a questionnaire an observational study was performed under German gynecologists to collect data on ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with infertility. In this observational study, 3602 infertile women used myoinositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myoinositol + 2 × 200 μg folic acid per day. In a subgroup of 32 patients, hormonal values for testosterone, free testosterone, and progesterone were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean time of use was 10.2 weeks. During this time 70% of these women had a restored ovulation, and 545 pregnancies were obtained. This means a pregnancy rate of 15.1% of all the myoinositol and folic acid users. In 19 cases a concomitant medication with clomiphene or dexamethasone was used. One twin pregnancy was documented. Testosterone levels changed from 96.6 ng/ml to 43.3 ng/ml and progesterone from 2.1 ng/ml to 12.3 ng/ml (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks of treatment. No relevant side effects were present among the patients. This study could show that a new treatment option for patients with a PCOS and infertility is available. The achieved pregnancy rates are at least in an equivalent or even superior range than those reported by the use of metformin. PMID:27642297

  15. Rural Women Get Help from Women Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    SINCE more and more rural women have become involved in commercial production, they have become more and more eager to learn about scientific technology. The Women’s Federation of Beijing had long been looking for a direct and effective way to help them. Luo Xiaolu, vicedirector of the Federation, found in her investigation of the present conditions of intellectual women in Beijing that women students were also eager to get in touch with society. Then she had an idea that women students in universities and colleges should go to the countryside. Thus, an activity developed called "women college students and rural women, hand in hand."

  16. Unsettled women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Amy Bock (alias Percy Redwood) created a media sensation when "The Case of the Woman Bridegroom" hit the newspapers throughout New Zealand in 1909. She was hailed as the "queerest and most interesting character that has ever been before the New Zealand public" and "pitiable in her freakish exploits." Debates ensued as to whether her crimes were evidence of a mania, a disease, or simply due to a flawed, criminal character. This article focuses on media portrayals of women who did not conform to normative constructions of acceptable womanhood within the latter decades of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century in New Zealand, as a means of tracing the mutable boundaries of intelligible genders. Newspaper debates and emergent discourses around the medicalisation of social de-viancy are drawn upon to demonstrate how normative constructions of gender were premised upon a defining matrix of mad/bad/woman.

  17. Women and Industrial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkquist, David C.

    1973-01-01

    Deals with these three questions: (1) What is the employment status of women, (2) What do advocates of the women's rights movement want, (3) How should industrial educators respond to the women's rights movement? (SB)

  18. Competition between Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, R.

    1985-01-01

    Examined competition and physical attractiveness among women. Results indicated that a large number of females are highly critical of other women, particularly attractive ones, and are highly concerned about their own appearance in relation to other women. (Author/BL)

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  1. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  2. Gallstones in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Home / Digestive Health Topic / Gallstones in Women Gallstones in Women Basics Overview Did you know that women are at increased risk for gallstones? Gallstones occur in up to 20% of American ...

  3. Bleeding Disorders in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Bleeding Disorders in Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... risk for a bleeding disorder. What is excessive bleeding in women? Women with excessive bleeding may experience ...

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  6. Minority Women and Advocacy for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Morssink, Christiaan B.; Nestle, Marion

    2001-01-01

    US minority health issues involve racial/ethnic disparities that affect both women and men. However, women's health advocacy in the United States does not consistently address problems specific to minority women. The underlying evolution and political strength of the women's health and minority health movements differ profoundly. Women of color comprise only one quarter of women's health movement constituents and are, on average, socioeconomically disadvantaged. Potential alliances may be inhibited by vestiges of historical racial and social divisions that detract from feelings of commonality and mutual support. Nevertheless, insufficient attention to minority women's issues undermines the legitimacy of the women's health movement and may prevent important advances that can be achieved only when diversity is fully considered. PMID:11527764

  7. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  8. Useful predictors of ovarian stimulation response in women undergoing in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stege, JG; van der Linden, PJQ

    2001-01-01

    Eighty-seven patients undergoing in vitro fertilization were studied to evaluate the prognostic value of different tests in predicting ovarian stimulation response. We studied basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) value on cycle day 3, the clomiphene citrate (CC) challenge test and serum estradio

  9. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other ... YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get Other FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information ...

  10. Resources for Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger, Robert B.

    Over 120 bibliographies and other reference sources relevant to women's studies are identified in this annotated listing. Subjects include feminist scholarship, women in management, popular culture, autobiographies, other cultures and countries, history, lesbian women, women's education, the arts, politics, and rape. In addition to author, title,…

  11. Hypertension in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta; Wofford, Marion; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2012-06-01

    Blood pressure is typically lower in premenopausal women than in men. However, after menopause, the prevalence of hypertension in women is higher than it is in men. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in women and men, but cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Furthermore, there is evidence that blood pressure may not be as well-controlled in women as in men, despite the fact that most women adhere better to their therapeutic regimens and medications than do men, and have their blood pressures measured more frequently than do men. This review describes possible mechanisms by which blood pressure may be increased in postmenopausal women.

  12. WOMEN AND RUSSIAN MODERNIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    KIREGIAN ELISE

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes Russian women and their ability to embrace Western educational and business practices following the fall of the Soviet Union. As recently as the 1980s, women managers in Russia were rare. Today, a total of 42 percent of senior management posts in Russia are held by women. Unlike women in Western nations who tend to frame their emerging role in ideological terms, Russian women enrolled in academic programs that gave them valuable skills for the market economy. The paper a...

  13. Women Battle Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WTTH women parliamentarians worldwide gathering in Beijing on 15 September 1996, China’s capital city was once again in the spotlight as women gathered to promote gender equality. One year after the Fourth World Conference on Women and the NGO Forum, and one day before the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) held its 96th Conference, 150 women parliamentarians from more than 70 countries gathered in Beijing to attend the 96th Women

  14. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizire, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the prevalence of violence against women in Uganda. The incidence of violence against women has been increasing despite efforts by law enforcement orders. In the broadest sense, violence against women is any violation of a woman's personhood, mental or physical integrity or freedom of movement. Violence against women is considered as an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Moreover, the act violates and impairs women's rights and fundamental freedoms. The low social and economic status of women can be both a cause and a consequence of violence against women. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, limit the ability to make choices on women's lives.

  15. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  16. Women's rights to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Women's rights and health are threatened by cultural, religious, and social biases against women that create barriers in women's ability to access health information, education, and services. The fact that women's basic human rights include a right to health has been incorporated in international rights covenants, but violations occur in the form of 1) direct state actions, such as coercive abortion; 2) failure of states to meet health needs; 3) discrimination that denies health care to specific groups; and 4) failure of states to protect women from violence, child marriage, female infanticide, and other forms of health- and life-threatening discrimination. In order to improve this situation, a basic set of indicators must be developed to monitor implementation of agreements to protect women. Health professionals must continue to incorporate women's rights into the ethics or charters of health practices, to improve service to women, and to increase governmental advocacy on behalf of women. Governments must acknowledge the benefits of applying a rights approach to women's health status and must develop plans to implement recommendations arising from international conferences on women's rights. Women-centered nongovernmental organizations must create a clear framework on women's rights to health and develop advocacy and networking strategies.

  17. Alternatives for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Jean M.

    1975-01-01

    This article summarized the perspective of this issue by recognizing the validity of the issues being raised by the women's rights movement and also recognizing that the "liberation of women" means the liberation of men. (Author/RK)

  18. Women and schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thara, R; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives...

  19. Women in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, George E

    2016-08-01

    More than a decade ago, women achieved parity with men in the number of matriculants to medical school, nearly one-third of the faculty of medical schools were women, and there were some women deans and department chairs. These trends were promising, but today there are still significant differences in pay, academic rank, and leadership positions for women compared with men in academic medicine. Though there has been progress in many areas, the progress is too slow to achieve previously recommended goals, such as 50% women department chairs by 2025 and 50% women deans by 2030.The author points to the findings presented in the articles from the Research Partnership on Women in Biomedical Careers in this issue, as well as research being published elsewhere, as an evidence base for the ongoing discussion of gender equity in academic medicine. More attention to culture and the working environment will be needed to achieve true parity for women in academic medical careers.

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors ... ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials ...

  1. Anorgasmia in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can decrease blood flow to the vagina and clitoris, which can delay or stop orgasm entirely. Psychological ... women need direct or indirect stimulation of the clitoris in order to orgasm, but not all women ...

  2. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  3. Women's Career Development Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Pamela J.

    1998-01-01

    Women's career development is characterized by balance of work and family, career interruptions, and diverse career paths. Alternative work arrangements such as flexible schedules, telecommuting, and entrepreneurial opportunities may offer women more options for work. (SK)

  4. How Women Changed History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivienne; Gill; 袁爱萍

    2003-01-01

    Men sometimes say, "We are better and cleverer than women. Women never invent things. We do. " It is true that men have invented a lot of useful things: the alphabet, machines, rockets, and guns, too.

  5. Women of Jino Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The dress of the Jino nationality differs greafiy from village to village. The upper photo shows the women of Xinyuan Village, Mengwang Township, with the photo on the right featuring women from Jiamazhai Village, Jino Township.

  6. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the College Women's Social Media Kit! College Women's Social Media Toolkit Use the Social Media Toolkit to ... International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & ...

  7. Women Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...

  8. Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

  9. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  10. Women in Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mary L.

    Perhaps the most significant challenge of the 1970's will be the effect the women's rights movement will have on the nation's established institutions and the extent to which the nation responds to the call of women for equal opportunities. Social pressures and expectations have been, until recently, such that women simply have not opted for jobs…

  11. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  12. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  13. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing or ... It's the major reason people have heart attacks. Heart diseases that affect women more than men include Coronary ...

  14. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  15. Four Women Bank Directors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    FOUR of the five directors of state banks in Beihai City in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region are women. These women show that women are no longer only able to manage family finance, but they are able to take charge of the important responsibility for state finance. The mayor of Beihai City calls them the city’s outstanding financial affairs managers.

  16. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  17. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  18. Women residents, women physicians and medicine's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.

  19. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  20. First Mayan Women's Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissedre, S

    1997-01-01

    In October 1997, over 200 participants attended the First Mayan Women's Congress in Mexico and called for financial assistance, capacity building, and training to help Mayan women escape poverty. The Congress was initiated by the UN Development Fund for Women in collaboration with the Small Grants Program of the UN Development Program. Traditionally, Mayan women and men have played distinct roles in society, and efforts are underway to increase gender sensitivity and achieve a new balance of power. Mayan women attending the Congress reported that they face daily challenges in gaining their husbands' approval for participation in income-generating activities outside of the home. Eventually, however, some husbands also start working in these enterprises and are learning to assume their share of domestic responsibilities. Mayan women have been forced to reevaluation their role in society by a prevailing agricultural and environmental crisis as well as a high unemployment rate. Crafts that were once produced only for household consumption are now considered for export. Because the women need funds to initiate income-generating activities, the Conference linked women's groups with development practitioners, policy-makers, and donors. The women requested financial aid for more than 30 specific projects, and Congress participants agreed to pursue innovate strategies to support the enterprises with funds, training, and technical assistance. The Congress also encouraged environmental nongovernmental organizations to include Mayan women in mainstream development activities. This successful Congress will be duplicated in other Mexican states.

  1. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  2. Chinese Women Laborers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    FOR the last three years I have been working on two big projects about women around the world. One is Mothers of the World, and the other one is Working Women of the World. So I travel to different parts of the world to meet Women and photograph them. I knew from the start that I would be able to see China only very superficially, because there was no way I could spend more than two to three weeks there. I therefore

  3. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu,

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  4. Organization Champions Menopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    CURRENTLY, the ageing of the population has created problems for a developing China. Jiangsu is one of the provinces that has encountered these problems, where the average lifespan for women is 73. Women aged 40 to 55 who are going through menopause account for about 8 percent of Jiangsu’s total population. Whether this group is able to live a healthy life during menopause or not decides whether the women are healthy and happy and influences the rest of society.

  5. Women's empowerment: what works

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea, Cornwall

    2016-01-01

    With radical roots in the 1980s, women’s empowerment is now a mainstream development concern. Much of the narrative focuses on instrumental gains—what women can do for development rather than what development can do for women. Empowerment is treated as a destination reached through development’s equivalent of motorways: programmes rolled out over any terrain. But in the process, pathways women are travelling in their own individual or collective journeys of empowerment remain hidden. Revisiti...

  6. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  7. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  8. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  9. Women in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Advances in gender equality have been sought in the field of medicine for centuries, including the specialty of otolaryngology. Currently, about 14.5% of practicing otolaryngologists are women. Strides have been made to support equality by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery through the development of the Women in Otolaryngology Section in 2010, among other efforts. This article reviews the literature of women in otolaryngology, as well as current trends toward equality among otolaryngologists of all genders.

  10. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  11. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  12. [Women's participation in science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, María Alejandra; Corona-Vázquez, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The participation of women in higher education in Mexico took place in the late 19th and early 20th century. The rise of women's enrollment in universities known as the "feminization of enrollment" occurred in the last thirty years. In this review we analyze how the new conditions that facilitated better access to higher education are reflected in the inclusion of women in science. We include an overview of the issues associated with a change in the demographics of enrollment, segregation of academic areas between men and women and participation in post graduate degrees. We also review the proportion of women in science. While in higher education the ratio between male and women is almost 50-50 and in some areas the presence of women is even higher, in the field of scientific research women account for barely 30% of professionals. This is largely due to structural conditions that limit the access of women to higher positions of power that have been predominantly taken by men.

  13. Women and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, M V

    2000-03-01

    Several important questions emerge from the study of gender differences in schizophrenia: Why does schizophrenia begin later in women? Why is outcome superior in women, at least in the first 15 years after onset? What causes sex differences in symptoms? What can gender differences teach us about the etiology of schizophrenia? Do men and women require substantially different treatments? What interventions during pregnancy and after childbirth ensure optimal health for the children of mothers with schizophrenia? Although complete answers may not yet be forthcoming, it is important to define the questions and keep them in mind when delivering services to women suffering from this severe, persistent mental illness.

  14. Rediscovering Women Mathematicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Karen D.

    The lives and mathematical contributions of seven famous women mathematicians are presented. They are: Hypatia, Agnesi, Sophie Germain, Mary Sommerville, Augusta Lovelace, Sofya Kovalevsky, and Emmy Noether. (MP)

  15. Health of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.

  16. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  17. Health screening - women - over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  18. Women's lives, mothers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M

    1985-01-01

    This document dealing with women's lives and the health of mothers identifies factors conditioning the health and nutritional status of women and girls (life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, and the birthrate); considers nutritional requirements of pregnant and lactating women, weight gain during preganncy, mothers' age and number of children and interbirth interval, maternal nutritional status and breastfeeding, anemia, work and women's health, pregnancy in adolescents, abortion, the growth of small girls and its effect on future pregnancies, and sexual mutilations; and reports on actions aimed at improving the health of women as well as health problems facing rural women. The 3 key concepts of this reflection on women's lives are: women's health should be taken into account as well as children's health; the development of the whole human being should be respected, implying ongoing surveillance of the health status of women and of their children; and the overall living conditions of women within the family and society must be analyzed at the different phases of their life, so as to encourage integrated actions rather than various uncoordinated efforts. Women's health status, like the health status of everyone, depends on a multitude of socioeconomic and sanitational factors. A figure illustrates several of the many interrelations between the various factors which influence the nutritional status of all individuals. Women of childbearing age are at greater risk than other population groups, due to their reproductive function and their ability to nurse children: pregnancy, like lactation, generates metabolic changes and increases nutritional needs. Delivery itself presents a series of risks for the woman's health, and only regular surveillance of pregnancy may prevent many of these. A woman's health status and, most of all her nutritional status during pregnancy and delivery, condition her future health and ability to assume her many tasks as well as

  19. Professional Women and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  20. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  1. African Women Writing Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  2. Women and Computer Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breene, L. Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses issues concerning women in computer science education, and in the workplace, and sex bias in the computer science curriculum. Concludes that computing environment has not improved for women over last 20 years. Warns that, although number of white males entering college is declining, need for scientists and engineers is not. (NB)

  3. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  4. Women Lead the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  5. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  6. Vietnamese women love physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Kim Tran; Vu, Thi Bich; Nguyen, Ngoc Toan; Do, Tran Cat; Vo, Thach Son

    2013-03-01

    More and more females are studying physics and applying their physics knowledge in Vietnam. Women are well represented in physics in Vietnam, occupy high positions in the field, and win many national and international science awards. Overwhelmingly, women in physics in Vietnam have happy families with children who love physics.

  7. Entrepreneurs: Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Lilialyce

    A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…

  8. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  9. American Women and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jane; Bingham, Marjorie

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan dealing with women and sport in U.S. history. Discusses the themes of physical capabilities, propriety, and femininity. Describes exercises and projects that can be used to integrate the lesson into different subjects. Includes a reading list, modified rules for women's basketball, and portions of the social debate on women…

  10. Women and Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The Platform for Action adopted at the United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women acknowledges the media’s role in eliminating sexual discrimination and promoting women’s development.It lists women and media as one of the ten fields that require strategic targeting and action.

  11. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    oil multinational companies to enthrone justice, peace and development in the region. ... political autonomy of their land. Together with ... In situations of war, between ethnic group women are called ... children, and also taking care of their feeding health and training. .... “Women and Conflict Resolution: Feminism, Peace-.

  12. Women and Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading killer of Americans. But it kills more women than men. The American Heart Association says heart disease and other cardiovascular (心血管的) disorders kill about five hundred thousand women a year. That is more than the next seven causes of death combined.

  13. Androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Vera H

    2003-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known in women as female pattern hair loss, is caused by androgens in genetically susceptible women and men. The thinning begins between ages 12 and 40 years, the inheritance pattern is polygenic, and the incidence is the same as in men. In susceptible hair follicles, dihydrotestosterone binds to the androgen receptor, and the hormone-receptor complex activates the genes responsible for the gradual transformation of large terminal follicles to miniaturized follicles. Both young women and young men with AGA have higher levels of 5alpha reductase and androgen receptor in frontal hair follicles compared to occipital follicles. At the same time, young women have much higher levels of cytochrome p-450 aromatase in frontal follicles than men who have minimal aromatase, and women have even higher aromatase levels in occipital follicles. The diagnosis of AGA in women is supported by early age of onset, the pattern of increased thinning over the frontal/parietal scalp with greater density over the occipital scalp, retention of the frontal hairline, and the presence of miniaturized hairs. Most women with AGA have normal menses and pregnancies. Extensive hormonal testing is usually not needed unless symptoms and signs of androgen excess are present such as hirsutism, severe unresponsive cystic acne, virilization, or galactorrhea. Topical minoxidil solution is the only drug available for promoting hair growth in women with AGA. Efficacy has been shown in double-blind studies using hair counts and hair weight.

  14. Chinese Women in Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    According to international research only when the percentage of women with decision-making power reaches 30 percent can their effect on policy making be seen. In 1994, women accounted for an average of 5.7 percent of state cabinet seats throughout the world. Authoritative thinking is that in the past decade almost no progress was made in realizing the 30

  15. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  16. Women's Rights Network (WRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, K; Cuthbert, C

    1997-02-01

    The Massachusetts-based Women's Rights Network (WRN) was founded in 1995 in response to the need to develop collaborative, crosscultural, and international strategies to eliminate domestic violence. The WRN initiated meetings with local advocates to identify the most pressing issues facing the US battered women's movement and then began to contact advocates for battered women throughout the world. To date, the WRN offers a resource center documenting strategies used around the world to end domestic violence, gives workshops and presentations to increase public education and awareness about domestic violence, organizes international strategy sessions between women's advocates in Massachusetts and those in other countries, facilitates one-on-one partnerships between groups for battered women in Massachusetts and sister organizations in other countries, and participates in the annual "16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence." The WRN also plans to publish a biannual journal.

  17. Iranian Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Seiedfadaei, Azita

    2009-04-01

    Women in the world have made great contributions to science. In Iran more than 60% of undergraduate university students are women, most in physics. Women's representation in postgraduate studies is lower; however, these numbers do not account for those who go to other countries to continue their studies, of which there are many. Alinoush Tarian, the oldest woman professor in Iran, the first Iranian woman professor of physics, and the founder of the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran, is one of them. There are some women physicists in Iran that are working as professors at the universities and famous institutes such as the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Iranians have always showed their talents and intelligence everywhere in the world, and nowadays, some of the women physics teachers in Iran are trying to teach physics with new methods to attract more students.

  18. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  19. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  1. Do women lack ambition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Anna

    2004-04-01

    For men, ambition is considered a necessary and desirable part of life. Most women, however, associate ambition with egotism, self-aggrandizement, or manipulation. Getting to the bottom of why this is so required study of what ambition consists of--for both sexes. In childhood, the research uncovered, girls are clear about their ambitions. Their goals are grand, and they make no apologies for them. In nearly all childhood ambitions, two distinct factors are in place: the mastery of a special skill, and recognition for it. And what's true in childhood is no less true in later life: We all want our efforts and accomplishments acknowledged. Yet there are dramatic differences in how women and men create, reconfigure, and realize (or abandon) their goals. Most women are demure when praised for their achievements. One could chalk up this behavior to women's innate modesty or see it as a passive way of highlighting their accomplishments. But the fear of recognition that many women express suggests otherwise. Research has shown that such behavior varies according to social context: Women more openly seek and compete for affirmation when they are with other women, but they behave differently when competing with men. The underlying problem has to do with cultural ideals of femininity. Women face the reality that to appear feminine, they must provide or relinquish scarce resources to others--and recognition is indeed a scarce resource. Although women have more opportunities than ever before, they still come under social scrutiny that makes hard choices--such as when and whether to start a family or advance in the workplace--even harder. There are no easy solutions, but there are ways women can hold fast to their dreams. They must band together, learn to blow their own horns, and structure their lives in a way that promotes recognition.

  2. HIV in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulcahy F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally over 50% of HIV-infected individuals are women. With the widespread use of HAART, we can expect women to have mortality rates approaching normal. Indeed, studies have shown that women may expect a slower disease progression than men following seroconversion; furthermore, it appears that female who injects drugs can live longer than their male counterparts. However, other studies from cohort analysis have reported worse outcomes in women. In essence, many studies are consistently underpowered to adequately address these questions. The proportion of women in clinical trials remains at 20 to 30%, with pregnancy potential being a major exclusion factor. Hence, many questions remain unanswered. Recent data suggest women are more likely to present late with a new AIDS diagnosis. Why this should be the case is not well understood. In addition, HIV-positive women should have the same access to reproduction health as their negative counterparts, but unfortunately many inequalities remain. Advise on contraception and fertility services are very variable across both the developed and developing world. Data are limited on the most appropriate use of contraceptives in the presence of HAART, the possible drug interactions and possible increased risk of HIV transmission. There remain significant differences in guidelines regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT across Europe, and implications of stopping and starting HAART for MTCT have not been adequately addressed. The mode of timing of delivery, and the effect of length of time of ruptured membranes on this decision is also contentious. Further issues relate to the desire for HIV-positive women to breastfeed in the setting of HIV viral suppression, where some guidelines now support women in this situation and others categorically would inform child protection authorities. Finally as women age it is more difficult to separate the effect of the menopause and its symptoms from the

  3. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  4. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Girls ADHD Medication and Pregnancy Women and Girls Knowledge of ADHD in women at this time ... Impact of ADHD in women ADHD in young girls is often overlooked, the reasons for which remain ...

  5. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to drink than their peers. Staying Away From Alcohol. Young women under age 21 should not drink alcohol. ... talk frankly with their daughters about not drinking alcohol. Women in Young and Middle Adulthood Young women in their twenties ...

  6. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  7. Women's Status on the Rise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YUNYUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On the afternoon of March 8,Beijing's department stores and shopping malls were crowded with women on shopping sprees to celebrate International Women's Day.This year marks the 100th anniversary of the establishment of International Women's Day.

  8. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  9. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr Anshu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed. This paper is based on a research intended to provide acomparative analysis of the status of women entrepreneurs and men entrepreneurs in Family Business in India. It first draws demographic & psychographic profiles of women and men entrepreneurs in family business, identifies & addresses operational problems faced by women and men entrepreneurs in family business, draws theirinclination for future plans for growth and expansion and also for the furtherance of research on women entrepreneurs in India.

  10. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing.

  11. SEXUAL ASSAULT ON WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Durga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Our India is a vast nation with rich cultural heritage and social diversity. We have been respecting women in the highest form as Goddesses since ages. There have been several laws to protect women from many centuries in this ancient country. Yet our country is still facing difficulties in achieving women safety. And the situation is no different in the rest of the world. The prevailing situation, laws and suggestions to prevent atrocities were discussed. AIM: The current situations of women hardships around the world were mentioned. The current legal situation and recent legal changes were described. The mammoth task ahead of us to achieve the desired social objective of women safety and respect were discussed. MATERIAL & METHODS: various news articles, police journals, legal textbooks and forensic medicine text books. CONCLUSION: Many things were done to prevent sexual assaults on women, yet the true goal is still a mirage. It’s time to look into the issue from its true grass root levels, i.e., from the psycho-social view apart from legal measures, to achieve the much desired objective of prevention of sexual assaults on women.

  12. Ten Outstanding Women Chosen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    BEFORE the celebration of the 85th anniversary of International Women’s Day, the All-China Women’s Federation sponsored an activity to choose ten outstanding Chinese women, which involved the Ministries of Labor and Personnel, the General Political Department of the People’s Liberation Army, the All-China Federation of Trade Union, the Youth League of China, the China Association of Science and about a dozen Chinese news agencies. The results were recently announced, and including following women: Yue Xicui, one of the third generation of women aviators. Since she joined the air force she has accumulated 5,180 hours

  13. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  14. Smoking and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  15. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  16. Migraine in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Christine L; Broner, Susan W

    2009-05-01

    Of the nearly 32 million Americans with migraine, 24 million are women. It is a disorder affecting women throughout their lifetimes, from childhood and puberty through the postmenopausal years. In childhood, before puberty girls are afflicted with migraine at approximately the same rate as boys, but after puberty, there is an emerging female predominance. Estrogen plays a key role in this epidemiologic variation but is not the only factor. There are numerous times when hormonal influences have an impact on migraine and its pattern, including menarche, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, perimenopause, and menopause. Hence practitioners treating women with migraine need to have a clear understanding of these special considerations.

  17. Effect of pretreatment with compound cyproterone acetate-metformin combination on the outcome of ovulation induction in the infertility women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hai-yan; Ye Bi-lu; Zhao Jun-zhao; Lin Jin-ju; Lin Wen-qin; Chi Hai-hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of compound cyproterone acetate (Daine-35) in combination with metformin on the endocrinologic, metabolic changes and the outcomes of ovulation induction in the infertility women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods: A prospective study recruited 65 PCOS patients and 30 non-PCOS infertility women. The body mass index (BMI), waist: hip ratio (WHR), Ferriman-Gallwey score, gonadotrophin, testosterone (T), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, apoA, apoB and HDL-cholesterol were determined in all patients before the treatment and served as the baseline. At the end of 12-week therapy, these parameters were re-measured. 50 PCOS infertile patients as study group were treated with combination of Daine-35 with metformin for three months. Clomiphene citrate (CC) and human menopause gonadotrophin (hMG) were added for three cycles to induce ovulation. Other 15 PCOS cases as control group directly underwent ovulation induction with CC and hMG for three cycles. Results: The PCOS patients had higher levels of LH, T, E2, fasting insulin, FG/FI, total cholesterol and triglyceride, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol when compared with the non-PCOS women (P<0.001-P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of LH, T, E2 were significantly decreased (58.9%, 38% and 30.1%, respectively) and the levels of apoB and HDL-C were significantly increased (17.2% and 20%, respectively) in the study group (P<0.001-P<0.05). FI and FG/FI showed a slight change in the study group, but no significant difference was found. The rates of ovulation and pregnancy were higher than those in control group (71% vs 60.5% and 38% vs 13.3%, respectively).Conclusions: Metformin in combination with compound cyproterone acetate (Daine-35) therapy may normalize the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities, and improve the ovarian response to ovulation induction drugs and increase the pregnancy rate of infertility patients with PCOS.

  18. The Right for Women--After Professions for women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文莉

    2000-01-01

    Woolfwas a flag of right fighter for women. Women fight for their rights genaration after genaration and devote themselves in different professions like men. It was proved that women can do every thing as they are willing ,women can creat many outstanding achievements in their professional life.

  19. Infertility and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with production or quality of sperm. What causes female infertility? About 25 percent of women with infertility have ... 40 percent of infertility cases are due to female infertility, but just as many cases are due to ...

  20. Women Astronomers through History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, Lj.

    2008-10-01

    We review the contributions of women to astronomy starting from the antique Greece and Alexandria, and mention briefly some works of nun-scientists in the Middle Ages, which are of interest only for keeping alive the spirit of inquiry during this Dark Age. We discuss in more details important contributions coming after the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, made by women working within their families, as assistants to their brothers or husbands. We show that by the late 19th century the role of women in astronomy becomes more independent, with more women working not only as "computers" in the great observatories, but also making important discoveries that placed them in a very high position as scientists at the dawn of 20th century.

  1. Drum Performance Tnvolues Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    DRUM teams from along the Yellow River are known not only in China but by many foreign friends. Recently women have formed their own teams and their performances have further increased the popularity of this ancient Chinese folk art.

  2. Women and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an advertisement for Dr. Pierce's "Favorite Prescription," which he developed in the 1880's to relieve women of nervous symptoms caused by disease of the...

  3. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...

  4. Mostly Women and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses educational leadership and women with a focus on roles, characteristics, stereotypes, and change. Describes some sources that deal with this topic, including an article, a study, two books, and some websites. (AEF)

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  6. Women, Men, and Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  7. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign- ...

  8. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  9. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  10. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Registries - Sign-up for a study to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women ... in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA ...

  12. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adopted policies that specifically placed women at a disadvantage, either by charging them higher premiums than men ... SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 ASEC Supplement to the Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  14. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your sex life. Certain medicines (such as oral contraceptives and chemotherapy drugs), diseases (such as diabetes or ... have heard that taking sildenafil (Viagra) or the male hormone testosterone can help women with sexual problems. ...

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. ... FEAR Act Site Map Nondiscrimination Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver ...

  16. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  17. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women Insulin - easy- ...

  18. Democracy and Women's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Safaei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly.However, none of them have a focus on women's health.This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need depends on your health and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you ... Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ...

  20. Democracy and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  1. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol.” What is dyslipidemia? Having abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides is called dyslipidemia . A common dyslipidemia in the ... the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. When should my cholesterol levels be measured? Women ...

  2. Center for Women Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014-2020 VA Plans, Budget, & Performance VA Claims Representation RESOURCES Careers at VA Employment Center Returning Service Members Vocational Rehabilitation & Employment Homeless Veterans Women Veterans Minority Veterans Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents ...

  3. Substance Use in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency room or die from overdose or other effects of certain substances. Women who are victims of domestic violence are at increased risk of substance use. Divorce, loss of child custody, or the death of ...

  4. Democracy and Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health.

  5. Women in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Central and Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States Regional Monitoring Report focuses on the experiences of girls and women during the transition, highlighting their role in regional progress and the obstacles they face. The Report covers a broad range of issues, including women’s participation in the emerging market economy and democratic governments, female access to health and education, trends in family formation and violence against women and girls. The Report cal...

  6. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  7. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  8. Women and the sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, Carmelita; Castellino, Santina; Cicchetti, Teresa; Rastelli, Stefania; Mallamaci, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The education level of women has increased significantly in recent decades. However, although there is a continued positive trend overall, women remain underrepresented (or misrepresented?) in the main fields of science. In Europe the proportion of women in scientific research is growing faster than that of men, but women are more likely than men to choose education, arts and humanities, health and welfare. Moreover, of the total number of women graduating in all faculties (55%), the percentage of women graduating in medicine is 65%-68%, in Europe as in the United States. As far as nephrology is concerned, unpublished data from the Italian Society of Nephrology indicate that female nephrologists make up almost 30% of the total number in the age group between 40 and 55, and this proportion is even higher in the age group younger than 40 years. In comparison with the past, there are some hints that things are going to change, but the path is still a difficult one, much effort is needed and there is a long way ahead.

  9. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Domestic violence constitutes historical behavior in accord with patriarchal systems. Family and domestic violence includes female infanticide, higher female mortality, female genital mutilation, bride burning, rape, wife battering, and early marriage. These practices are commonly integrated into values and beliefs. Women accept domestic violence in violation of their basic human rights due to social prejudice and low self esteem. Mothers who perpetuate female genital mutilation believe that they are acting in the best interests of the child by adhering to centuries-long traditions. Women who allow female infanticide or female abortion are motivated to do so in order to maintain the security of their marriage. Women are in unequal power relationships and submit to their own detriment. Negative attitudes against women are perpetuated through incorrect interpretations of religious principles and myths. Economic self-reliance gives women the courage to stand up against domestic violence. Empowerment through education and appropriate and protective legislation also gives women the means to fight violence. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) at the national, regional, and international levels are active in creating awareness of domestic violence and influencing policy change. The NGO Working Group on Traditional Practices and the Inter-African Committee have a 10-year history of fighting against practices such as female genital mutilation. In order to bring about change, there must be cooperative and joint action among governmental and inter-governmental groups and NGOs.

  10. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  11. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  12. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  13. An Extraordinary Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne Marcum

    2011-01-01

    "Missing Chapters: Ten Pioneering Women in NCTE and English Education" is the first historical text to explore the impact women have had on English education. It is true that women have been a vital part of National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) since the Council's founding in 1911 when 13 of the 34 founding members were women. As part of…

  14. The Commoditization of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Hill

    1989-01-01

    Documents women's historically low place in Chinese culture as an integral part of a complex economic pattern. Covers the following topics: (1) women, family, and economy; (2) the Chinese modes of production; (3) views of commodity production in China; (4) class relations; (5) women's labor; and (6) textiles, women, and class. (JS)

  15. 来曲唑与克罗米芬治疗多囊卵巢综合征致不孕的临床效果比较%Comparison of clinical effects of letrozole and clomiphene citrate on polycystic ovary syndrome inertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩凤; 林兰; 林善英

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较来曲唑和克罗米芬对多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)致不孕患者诱发排卵的临床效果及妊娠结局.方法 将67例PCOS致不孕患者按治疗方法分成来曲唑组(34例)和克罗米芬组(33例),先分别给予炔雌醇环丙孕酮片1片/(次·d)和二甲双胍0.5g/次,每日2次,共3~6周期来调整其内分泌相关指标,相关指标恢复正常后来曲唑组于月经周期第3~7天口服来曲唑5 mg/d,连续5d;克罗米芬组于月经周期第3~7天口服克罗米芬50 mg/d,连续5d,通过超声监测、血清学检查观察来曲唑与克罗米芬对卵泡发育、子宫内膜、性激素水平、妊娠结局等方面的影响.观察1~3个月经周期.结果 克罗米芬组患者成熟卵泡数量及平均直径均大于来曲唑组[(2.2±1.5)个比(1.4±1.1)个;(25 ±6)mm比(20±5)mm],子宫内膜厚度及宫腔容积均小于来曲唑组[(7.6±2.0)mm比(9.5 ±1.8) mm;(3.5±1.8)ml比(5.4±1.2)m1],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).在注射人绒毛膜促性腺激素当日来曲唑组的雌二醇水平明显低于克罗米芬组[(869±131) pmol/L比(1 248±112) pmol/L],黄体生成素峰天数明显高于克罗米芬组[(14.3±1.5)d比(12.5±2.1)d],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).来曲唑组患者的排卵率、未破裂卵泡黄素化综合征发生率(LUFS)、卵巢过度刺激综合征(OHSS)发生率均明显低于克罗米芬组[64.7% (44/68)比80.0%(56/70);2.3%(1/44)比14.3%(8/56);0.0% (0/44)比10.7% (6/56)],生化妊娠率、临床妊娠率均明显高于克罗米芬组[50.0%(22/44)比32.1% (17/56);47.7% (21/44)比28.6% (16/56)],差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 虽然克罗米芬治疗PCOS致不孕患者的促排卵效果优于来曲唑,但来曲唑的妊娠率较高,多胎妊娠率、LUFS发生率及OHSS发生率较低.%Objective To compare the effect of induced ovulation and pregnancy results of letrozole(LE) and clomiphene citrate(CC) treating polycystic

  16. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  17. Androgens and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, G P

    1998-01-01

    Androgenic disorders are those conditions in women characterized by excessive androgen action. They are the most common endocrinopathy of women, affecting from 10% to 20%. Signs are: persistent acne, hirsutism and androgenic alopecia, which is the female equivalent of male pattern baldness. A subgroup, those traditionally labeled as having polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), additionally have anovulation, as well as menstrual abnormalities and, often, obesity. Although women with androgenic disorders usually present themselves for help with the skin or menstrual changes, there are other important implications regarding their health. Women with PCOS have varying degrees of insulin resistance, and an increased incidence of Type II diabetes mellitus, as well as unfavorable lipid patterns. The presence of these risk factors is suggested by upper segment obesity, darkening of the skin, and the other skin changes that make up acanthosis nigricans. Diagnosis involves measurement of circulating androgens (of which free testosterone is most important), together with prolactin and FSH when menstrual dysfunction is present. Many women with androgenic skin changes have normal serum androgen levels, suggesting increased end organ sensitivity to androgens. Others have hyperandrogenism (of ovarian or adrenal origin). Treatment is usually successful in controlling acne, reducing hirsutism and stabilizing, or partially reversing, androgenic alopecia. Pharmacological approaches involve suppressing androgen levels, for example, the use of an appropriate oral contraceptive, or antagonizing androgen action with several medications that have this activity. Unfortunately, most women with androgenic disorders are frustrated in their efforts to obtain medical help. Understanding androgenic disorders will enable the physician to significantly help the majority of women with these conditions.

  18. The Contemporary Women's Movement and Women's Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ila

    1998-03-01

    The contemporary women's movement in India (1975-present) has played an important role in bringing gender issues to the forefront of development planning and defining feminist politics. This paper examines how this movement has addressed the issue of women's education. The first section highlights contributions of the social reformist movement in the 19th century and the nationalist movement in promoting women's education. The role of the contemporary women's movement in changing school curricula is examined in the second section, followed by discussion on how women's studies has contributed to redefining knowledge. The fourth section discusses women's empowerment and education from the perspective of the women's movement. The article concludes by highlighting challenges facing the women's movement in promoting women's education for equality and empowerment.

  19. Namibian women and land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andima, J J

    1994-03-01

    More than 50% of Namibia's 1.5 million inhabitants live in reserved communal areas; most of these are women who make up a third of the country's total population. Women are the main food producers, but access to land, livestock, water, and fuelwood is determined for women by marriage arrangements and settlements. In some parts of the country, women can obtain land in their own right, but they suffer from such subtle discouragements as receiving inferior land or having their stock mysteriously disappear. In some villages, a fee must be paid to a village head upon the allocation of land. This fee guarantees land tenure until the death or eviction of the person who paid the fee. In some areas, only men or widows (and sometimes divorced women) are eligible, and widows must reapply for permission to stay on their husband's land. Women also have a heavy labor burden. Since most of the men migrate to the urban areas for wage employment, the women must tend livestock and harvest and store the grain as well as run their households. Woman also may be evicted from commercial farms if their husbands die. In some areas, all property reverts to a husband's family upon his death, and the wife must return to her own relative. In some tribes, widows must leave their houses empty-handed; their sisters-in-law inherit any stored grain or clothing available. Other tribes are more liberal, and property remains with the widow. In this case, a male relative will be assigned to help the widow manage the property. Reform efforts which attempt to end such abuses by bringing common and customary law in compliance with the Namibian constitution are having an effect. The Women and Law Committee of the Law Reform and the Development Commission is working with the Customary Law Commission to involve traditional leaders in the adaptation of customary law to modern requirements which make discrimination against women unlawful. Until woman have security of land tenure, they are unwilling to invest

  20. Celebrating women in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rolf Heuer

    2010-01-01

    Next Monday the 8th of March is International Women’s Day. In an ideal world, there would be no need for such an event – equality would be taken as read. But since the world is not there yet, let’s take the opportunity to celebrate women in physics, and indeed the full cultural diversity of our field. Perceived as a discipline dominated by men, reality has been diverging from that perception for a long time. Today at CERN, women play key roles in every aspect of the Organization’s activities.   On Women’s Day, we will be sending a clear message to all young women interested in science and engineering that this is also a field for them. In the CERN Control Centre, half of the Engineers-in-Charge who take responsibility for operating the world’s most powerful particle accelerator are women. In the experiments, in all CERN departments and in the management, women are increasingly represented. That’s because at CERN, and in particl...

  1. [Advances in women's rights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Colombia's Constitutional Court has frequently dealt with the theme of women's rights in its pursuit of the inalienable human rights recognized in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. Equality remains a goal, as inequalities persist. The Constitutional proposal to end the historic situation of inferiority suffered by women authorizes the adoption of positive measures to correct de facto inequalities, compensate past abuses, and promote true economic and social equality. The Court has decried the invisibility and lack of social and economic recognition of domestic work. It has declared that the right to health carries the right to medical protection of reproduction and to necessary treatment. The reproductive autonomy of women has been supported with the declaration that prison regulations cannot impose the requirement to control fertility as a condition of conjugal visits, because it constitutes an arbitrary intrusion into private life and a disregard of the social functions of motherhood. The Court has also ordered the reintegration of pregnant adolescents expelled from educational establishments. It has ordered immediate protection for women suffering from aggression and abuse at the hands of their husbands or partners. These pronouncements are unprecedented in Colombian jurisprudence. The high court merits recognition by women, whose basic rights it has begun to protect.

  2. [Hypertension in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria

    2013-02-01

    The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.

  3. Contraception in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merki Feld G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today obesity is an epidemic. Within Europe the prevalence of obesity is 20–30% with a tendency to increase further. Obesity is associated with severe complications like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE and metabolic syndrome. Especially availability of efficient methods which do not further enhance the cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk in obese women is an important point. Using contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is recommended to all women whatever their weight, as it reduces the risks of unplanned pregnancy, which is higher in women with overweight. Progestin-only contraceptives and IUDs have no or minimal metabolic effects and are first choices options, also it has to be taken in account that oral progestins and the implant might have lower efficacy in very obese women. CHC are associated with a higher risk for VTE in obese women,but should be used if other methods are not acceptable. A long-cycle or use of preparations with 30 mcg EE can contribute to improve efficacy.

  4. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  5. Discrimination against women and the human rights of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different levels of the public and the private spheres of society, as a substantial part of the universal regime of human rights.

  6. [Episiotomy: focusing women's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previatti, Jaqueline Fátima; de Souza, Kleyde Ventura

    2007-01-01

    Enough scientific evidences exist for the recommendation of the abolition of the used episiotomia in a liberal way. With objective of identifying the vision of a group of post-partum women in relation to the episiotomy it was done a study of qualitative approach, with the participation of 20 women, in the postpartumn period. It was used for data collection a semi-structured tool applied from April to June, 2004. The results were analyzed based in thematic analysis. The women's ignorance was verified in relation to the episiotomy and on their own body; although, they did not receive information, in any moment that this is a selective intervention, indicating the need of knowledge amplification and of the ransom of the woman's autonomy in the childbirth process and birth.

  7. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Neena; Sharma, Indira; Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, M S; Chaudhuri, Uday; Parial, Sonia; Sharma, Avdesh; Kataria, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem in the country. The problem is grossly under-reported. A number of factors have been blamed for crimes against women. An inefficient law enforcing machinery has often been targeted for the increasing number of cases being reported. There is little recognition that psychiatric morbidity can perpetuate such crimes. Of late, there appears to a continuous increase in the number of crimes committed against women; especially the very serious ones like gang rapes. The latter have shaken the very conscience of people. Even harsher legislation does not seem to have made any effect. One wonders how this could be possible in a society heading toward high education, economic and technological development. Media has played a pivotal role by highlighting the problem to the masses. The need for the hour is for mental health professionals to take the challenge and present a comprehensive proposal for definite action to prevent all forms of VAW.

  8. Sleep in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeta, Sônia Maria Garcia; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio; de Oliveira, Eleonora Menicucci

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that most influence the perception of sleep quality in postmenopausal women. We used the methodological strategy of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD), which is based on a theoretical framework of social representations theory. We obtained the data by interviewing 22 postmenopausal Brazilian women who were experiencing insomnia. The women gave accounts of their difficulties with sleep; a variety of dimensions were identified within the data. The onset of sleep disorders might have occurred during childhood or in situations considered to be stressful, and were not necessarily associated with menopause. We found that hormonal alterations occurring during menopause, psychosocial factors, and sleep-breathing disorders triggered occasional sleep disturbances during this time of life. Participants were aware of the consequences of sleep deprivation. In addition, inadequate sleep hygiene habits figured prominently as determinants in the persistence of sleep disturbances.

  9. Spirituality in Childbearing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Khalaf, Inaam

    2010-01-01

    Childbearing is the ideal context within which to enrich spirituality. The purpose of this study was to generate themes regarding spirituality and religiosity among culturally diverse childbearing women. A secondary analysis was performed, using existing narrative data from cross-cultural studies of childbearing women. The following themes emerged from the data: childbirth as a time to grow closer to God, the use of religious beliefs and rituals as powerful coping mechanisms, childbirth as a time to make religiosity more meaningful, the significance of a Higher Power in influencing birth outcomes, and childbirth as a spiritually transforming experience. In clinical settings, understanding the spiritual dimensions of childbirth is essential. Assessments of childbearing women may include the question, “Do you have any spiritual beliefs that will help us better care for you?” PMID:20498751

  10. Women and Wissenschaft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pelle Oliver

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark women gained academic citizenship in 1875 but it took almost half a century before they obtained formal access to the professorships. Contrary to Germany where the mandarins – to use Fritz K. Ringer’s term – opposed women’s entrance into the academic world, the Danish case was much more...... double sided. Though there was indeed a strong opposition against female students and their membership of the students’ associations, there was also a stronger and stronger group among the mandarins who not only accepted women but even welcomed them – also to university chairs should they be qualified....... Around the turn of the century the modernizers had prevailed. From the beginning of the 20th century a woman would without much doubt have been appointed to a professorship if she had been thought to be the best candidate. One of the main reasons why this did not happen is, of course, that few women were...

  11. Status of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  12. Women and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  13. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  14. Can women detect cues to ovulation in other women's faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Bobst, Cora; Probst, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that men find portraits of ovulatory women more attractive than photographs of the same women taken during the luteal phase. Only few studies have investigated whether the same is true for women. The ovulatory phase matters to men because women around ovulation are most likely to conceive, and might matter to women because fertile women might pose a reproductive threat. In an online study 160 women were shown face pairs, one of which was assimilated to the shape of a late follicular prototype and the other to a luteal prototype, and were asked to indicate which face they found more attractive. A further 60 women were tested in the laboratory using a similar procedure. In addition to choosing the more attractive face, these participants were asked which woman would be more likely to steal their own date. Because gonadal hormones influence competitive behaviour, we also examined whether oestradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels predict women's choices. The women found neither the late follicular nor the luteal version more attractive. However, naturally cycling women with higher oestradiol levels were more likely to choose the ovulatory woman as the one who would entice their date than women with lower oestradiol levels. These results imply a role of oestradiol when evaluating other women who are competing for reproduction. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Women Doctors in 1914

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE five women shown here are doctors. Eighty-four years ago, they sat for this photographic portrait. The photo depicts the tasteful combination of East and West. While the photographic studio was decorated in the European style, the women doctors were dressed in traditional Chinese fashion with their hair coiled in Japanese style. We can also see that though the ladies were in vogue for their time, they still displayed shyness facing a male photographer, as most can be observed shifting their eyesight away from the lens.

  16. Pride of Uygur Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    WOMEN of the Uygur nationality are known near and far for their delicate features and good manner. A popular Uygur folk song sings their praises: "Take off the scarf covering your face, Let me look at you. Your rosy cheeks smooth and glowing, Like an apple that ripens in autumn; Your eyebrows arched and fair, Like the new moon in the sky. …." Since China opened its door to the outside world a decade ago, Uygur women have taken an active part in social

  17. PHYSICAL (INACTIVITY AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity simply means movement of the body that uses energy. Physical inactivity is more common among women than men. In women physical activity reduces the risk of dying from coronary heart disease and stroke and of developing high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, reduces blood cholesterol level, helps control weight and reduce body fat, helps control and prevention osteoporosis and artritis, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, reduces the risk for breast cancer. From health benefits, physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and add up to at the least 30 minutes a day.

  18. Social representations of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Estramiana, José Luis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Representations is one of the most important theories in contemporary social psychology. Since the social psychologist Serge Moscovici developed his theory of social representations to explain how a scientific theory such as the psychoanalysis turns into a common sense knowledge many studies have been done by different social psychologists. The analysis of the social representations of women as represented in myths and popular beliefs is an excellent opportunity to study how this theory can be applied to this representational field. At the same time it makes possible to understand the formation of attitudes towards women

  19. Images of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderberg, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Images of Women, which took place in Copenhagen in March 1970, at the same time as the first political interventions of the feminist movement, the "Redstockings", was the first feminist art exhibition in Scandinavia. The essay analyses the content of this collaborative project and demonstrates how...... the artists radically approptiated the exhibition space as a platform for political confrontation and involvement, while upholding the idea of artistic space as a utopian space. Thus the exhibition addressed the actual social situation of women as well as their position within the representational field....

  20. Women as Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2011-01-01

    This part of the project report contain an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the Eurosphere interview data, with a specific view to addressing the two broad research areas ‘where are the women?’ and ‘gendering as a process'. We consider two aspects of whether gender matters...... for the overall research questions of the project: I) women´s position/presence within the organizations, and II) gender differences in attitudes towards key questions in the interview guide....

  1. Promoting nutrition in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Pugh, Linda C

    2005-01-01

    Nurses have a vital role in providing nutritional education to breastfeeding women. In this article, the authors discuss the nutritional requirements for breast-feeding women in terms of micronutrients, macronutrients, and minerals. They provide recommendations for women with vegetarian diets and low-income women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children program who may have dietary deficiencies, and they present a directed case study to provide an example of how to perform a dietary assessment and the educational support that may be offered by nurses to breastfeeding women.

  2. Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women\\'s Involvement In Dry Season Vegetable Production And Marketing In Ezinihitte Local Government Area Of Imo State, Nigeria. ... On the other hand, education and income were negative and statistically significant at 1% and 5% ...

  3. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  4. The Menba Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Gama Qunzong, director of the women’s federation of Lebu District, Cona County, Tibet; Menba nationality women usually wear a woolen gown with a cap and a string of colorful beads. A family enjoying home-made wine. The Menbas usually live in bamboo houses.

  5. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  6. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatme

  7. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Causes of sexual dysfunction References Miller M. Sexual dysfunction in women. First Consult. Available at: www.clinicalkey.com/#!/content/medical_topic/21-s2.0-1016356?scrollTo=%23top. Elsevier BV. Revised Mar 11, 2014. ... CK. Female sexual function and dysfunction. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, ...

  8. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  9. Women at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To mark International Women's Day on 8 March, the Weekly Bulletin has looked at the careers of six female physicists, engineers and administrators working at CERN. A frequent question on the lips of newcomers to CERN as they take a quick look around them is 'But where are the women?' However, while it's true that the Laboratory has never had a huge number of female personnel, a closer look reveals that there are in fact quite a few around. To mark International Women's Day, the Bulletin has interviewed six women working at CERN to find out how they see the Organization, what they do and what they think about their daily working lives. Creating a link 'Maybe because I grew up during World War II, my parents always taught me to respect people of other nationalities, religions, colour, etc., so one thing I have always appreciated about CERN is that it promotes this tolerance and understanding by giving us the great privilege of working side by side with colleagues from many cultures and walks of life.' Pegg...

  10. Women at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiant, Sharon

    During the prehistoric era, most advances in society were developed by women. These advances included agriculture, building, weaving, basketry, pottery, woodworking, trading, and domesticating animals. Pottery and basketry allowed for the long-term storage of food and water and permitted humanity to stop living the nomadic life and begin the first…

  11. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Oct 21, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email ... of the ACA on women’s coverage. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.5 million ...

  12. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women ...

  13. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  14. Microneurographic research in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eFu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews microneurograpic research on sympathetic neural control in women under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions across the lifespan. Specifically, the effects of sex, age, race, the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement therapy, and normal pregnancy on neural control of blood pressure in healthy women are reviewed. In addition, sympathetic neural activity during neurally mediated (presyncope, the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, obesity, the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, chronic essential hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction in women are also reviewed briefly. It is suggested that microneurographic studies provide valuable information regarding autonomic circulatory control in women of different ages and in most cases, excessive sympathetic activation is associated with specific medical conditions regardless of age and sex. In some situations, sympathetic inhibition or withdrawal may be the underlying mechanism. Information gained from previous and recent microneurographic studies has significant clinical implications in women’s health, and in some cases could be used to guide therapy if more widely available.

  15. Women in Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.

    This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…

  16. Women in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Indovino, Shaina

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be a physicist? Lise Meitner, Katharine Blodgett, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Chien-Shiung Wu, Ursula Franklin, Argelia Velez-Rodriguez, Sau Lan Wu, Shirley Ann Jackson, Lisa Randall and opportunities for women in physics today.

  17. Hardiness among Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnild, Gail; Young, Heather

    Hardiness has been defined as a mediator in life stress and, within the health/illness context, has been conceptualized as a personality characteristic. This study used a descriptive exploratory design to examine the concept of hardiness among elderly women. The Stress, Appraisal, and Coping model developed by Lazarus and Folkman (1986) was the…

  18. Women in Sport Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Mary Ann; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The philosophy, purpose, grading procedure, and course requirements for the University of Delaware's "Women in Sports" course are set forth. A course outline is provided, along with tips and a resource materials listing for those interested in initiating similar programs. (LH)

  19. What Women Do Better

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    As any woman can attest, there are some things at which her gender naturally excels. In the past decade,academic research has offered insight into the feminine advantage. The Language Gap. Studies show that, on average, women perform better in all aspects of language usage,says Diane Halpern,a psychology professor and author of Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. The differ-

  20. Inguinal herniorrhaphy in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Inguinal hernias in women are relatively rare, and an outcome in this specific subgroup of hernias has not been documented in the literature. An analysis was performed using data from the prospective recording of 3,696 female inguinal hernia repairs in the national Danish hernia database, in the 5...

  1. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...

  2. Women and Literacy. Women and World Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    This book examines the connection between poverty and illiteracy among women in a global context and presents guidelines for developing literacy activities for women. The following topics are covered: defining literacy (negative effects of illiteracy and literacy programs for women); global context (literacy gap, gender disparities, urban/rural…

  3. Women and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ellen Hirschman

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of insomnia in women is influenced in great part by the complex hormonal cycles they undergo. Patterns of insomnia in younger women may be physiologically different on a hormonal basis from those found in older women. Although significant objective sleep disturbances have been difficult to demonstrate across the menstrual cycle in normal women, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) includes premenstrual insomnia and premenstrual hypersomnia as sleep disorders within the category of menstrual-associated sleep disorder. On the other hand, during pregnancy and after childbirth, profound fluctuations in steroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related hormones produce significant physiological changes, including sleep disruption. During the menopausal transition, significant sleep disruptions are provoked by sleep-disordered breathing, vasomotor disturbance, and mood disorders. Regardless of age, women with chronic insomnia are at higher risk for developing or sustaining depression. Thoughtful management approaches must consider known relationships between menstrual or menopausal status and various sleep disorders, and should rely on pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, or a combination of treatments to achieve successful relief from insomnia. The off-label, first-line use of antidepressants for treating insomnia in the absence of depression is now considered debatable. The long-term efficacy and safety of the newer benzodiazepine receptor agonists (BZRAs) for insomnia, whether taken nightly or episodically, are supported by existing clinical experience. US Food and Drug Administration guidelines limiting the use of hypnotics to only a few weeks predate the newer generation BZRAs, and, as such, the guidelines may no longer be truly appropriate for these new agents.

  4. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Publication available in: PDF ( ... Are Available? Resources For Your Information What Is Osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones ...

  5. Employment Age Discrimination on Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄捧

    2015-01-01

    Employment age discrimination against women is not an unusual phenomenon in China.Through describing the present situation and negative effect of this phenomenon,this paper claims laws are very important weapon to eliminate age discrimination against women.

  6. Women are still the key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    and marketing.3,4 Despite their traditional specialisation in food production .... A third strategy is for extension agents, whether men or women, to ... was used, for example, for a course on integrated pest .... communication, 1995). Women in ...

  7. Women and Computers: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Ruth; Greber, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Discusses women's central role in the development of the computer and their present day peripheral position, a progression paralleled in the fields of botany, medical care, and obstetrics. Affirms the importance of computer education to women. (DM)

  8. The Dress of Tu Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Women of the Tu ethnicity, who live on the highlands in northwest China, wear bright and colorful dresses. The married women favor shirts with sleeves decorated in a rainbow of colored flowers: yellow, green, blue, red, purple, black

  9. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, T.; Budhathoki, B.; Sen, A.; Adhikari, D.; Bamjan, J.; Pathak, S.; Basnet, A.; Trani, J. F.; Costello, A.; Manandhar, D.; Groce, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. PMID:26519006

  10. Conditions of Elderly Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ACCORDING to the fourth national census in 1990, the population of women over the age of 60 had reached 51 million. With the increasing population of elderly people, the number of elderly women is becoming larger and larger The number of women who are 80 or more. is twice that of men over age 80. The problems of elderly women are attracting public attention. The information given in this article mainly comes from the 1990 national census except where noted otherwise.

  11. Sustainable development: women as partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dem, M

    1993-02-01

    The economic recession and the structural adjustment programs imposed y the International Monetary Fund have caused sluggish or no economic growth and a decline in living conditions in sub-Saharan Africa. Senegal's New Agricultural Policy has eliminated subsidies for agricultural inputs, worsening the already declining living conditions. Population growth in Senegal exceeds food production; it is very rapid in cities (urban growth rate, 2.7%). Women, especially, suffer from the economic crisis; it increases the burden on women for income generation, but the increased workload does not equate more income. This workload restricts women's opportunities to improve their physical environment and does not improve their status within society. Women still face discrimination daily; power lies with men. Oxfam supports urban women financially and technically as they organize and pursue income generation activities to institute change leading to sustainable development. It has helped a Serere women's group in Dakar to organize and provided credit funds to support their trading activities and family planning sensitization training. Oxfam also finances rural women coming to Dakar during the dry season to pound millet to sell. Problems which have to be overcome to achieve sustainable development acceptable to women are numerous. Women need access to the ways and means of food production. Resources are insufficient and inaccessible to women because women are excluded from the decision-making process. Women generally do not have access to information and training which would help them make their own choices and manage their own lives. Political and sociocultural environments, especially those of the poor, do not easily allow women opportunities for independent reflection and expression. Grassroots women's groups provide the best base to develop female solidarity and women's representation, leading to sustainable development. Development organizations must take up a new dynamic

  12. Three Generations of Lancashire Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscomb, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In 1914 opportunities for working-class women's sports participation were limited and peripheral, but the 1980s, policy reforms resulted in the then Sports Council identifying women as a "target group". Subsequently the notion that barriers to women's participation are issues to be identified and resolved has become commonplace in contemporary…

  13. Women and Entrepreneurship. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…

  14. Women's Rights Are Human Rights!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaam, Kalamu Ya

    1979-01-01

    This article emphasizes that the women's rights movement must be viewed as a vital part of the human rights struggle. It is argued that both men and women should speak out against sexism and support the struggles of women to defend and develop themselves. (Author/EB)

  15. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  16. Business Education for Women Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of entrepreneurship to the American economy, presents a profile of women small business owners, reviews the research pertaining to business education for women entrepreneurs, and indicates an agenda directed toward the educational needs of women venture initiators. (NRJ)

  17. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  18. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  19. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  20. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  1. Success and Women's Career Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)

  2. Women Prove Theil Mayoral Qualifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    OF the 517 large and small cities in the country, more than 300 have women mayors and vice mayors. These women play an important role in the construction and development of their cities. Ordinary Chinese people like to call their local officials "father-and- mother officials," but these women

  3. Lightening the load for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvinic, M

    1995-01-01

    Research is confirming the fact that women suffer more from poverty than men and that the consequences of poverty in women are felt for succeeding generations. Female poverty is linked to the rise of female-headed households with children to support. Also, between 1965 and 1988, the number of rural women living in poverty rose 51% versus 41% for men. As women have sought low-income employment or spent more of their time in unpaid community work to compensate for government cutbacks associated with structural adjustment programs, a vicious cycle of poverty has developed. Overburdened women workers hand over child care responsibilities to their oldest daughters who must then leave school, thus ensuring a continuation of the cycle of poverty. On the other hand, women's employment has a more positive effect on their children's health and nutrition than does a father's earnings. Women prefer to invest their earnings to insure the well-being of their children; therefore, the earnings of women have greater benefit to society at large than the earnings of men. It is likely that women must earn a certain level of income to avoid perpetuating poverty. Policies should be implemented that enforce the virtuous cycle of investment in children instead of the vicious cycle of deprivation. Agricultural policies should target poor farmers and give women farmers access to land, credit, and technical assistance; financial policies should promote the growth of small enterprises and foster entrepreneurship among women; and labor-intensive economic growth policies should be "pro-poor." Policy-oriented research will be necessary in such areas as the dynamics of families headed by women, the transmission of disadvantage between mothers and children, changes in women's work which occur with changes in economic conditions, and analyses of the consequences of targeting interventions to women who are heads of households and poor women.

  4. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  5. Women need health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Groups of 15-20 women in Dacca, Bangladesh received a 2-week training program in basic health and nutrition in addition to advice on contraceptive methods and use. Contraceptives were also supplied. There were 18 field teams at work, operating in 24 union councils around Dacca city. The basic health training included 1 week of theoretical classes on sore eyes, scabies and parasites. The 2nd week was devoted to practical application and demonstration. At this time the mothers were given the formula to prepare saline water -- oral rehydration fluid. The mothers then prepared the saline and used it for the children in case of any diarrheal incidence in the community. It was the experience of the fieldworkers of the Concerned Women for Family Planning (CWFP) that the communities under their program live under unsanitary conditions.

  6. Features of Women's language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何延凌

    2008-01-01

    Language is a means of verbal communication.People use language to communicate with each other.In the society,no two speakers are exactly alike in the way of speaking.Some differences are due to age,gender,statue and personality. Above all,gender is one of the obvious reasons.The writer of this paper tries to describe the features of women's language from these perspectives: pronunciation,intonation,diction,subjects,grammar and discourse.From the discussion of the features of women's language,more attention should be paid to language use in social context.What's more,the linguistic phenomena in a speaking community can be understood more thoroughly.

  7. Urinary incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  8. Acne in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-e-Silva, M; Ramos-e-Silva, S; Carneiro, S

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the subject of acne in women, a disease that is increasingly common and that can also affect men. Adult acne differs from the type of acne that occurs in teenagers, and it may persist beyond adolescence or have its onset at an older age (adult-onset acne or late acne). Acne can have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients at any age, leading to a negative body image and decrease in self-esteem, and in older patients it can result in discrimination in the workplace and in other social environments. Acne in women must be understood as a specific problem, and here we discuss the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, psychology and treatment of this very prevalent problem. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Women'S issues and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Katherine H; Pack, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) may experience changes in seizure control related to alterations in neuronal excitability mediated by estrogen and progesterone. A third or more of women will reliably note seizures that are linked to menstruation or ovulation. Reproductive hormone-related exacerbation of seizure control is also observed during perimenopause. Seizures and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) also can adversely affect reproductive health. WWE have higher than expected rates of menstrual disorders and infertility. Enzyme-inducing AEDs interact with hormonal contraceptives, potentially limiting options for birth control. Exposure to AEDs during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital malformations and cognitive impairments in children born to WWE. Chronic AED use increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, decreased bone quality and density, and fractures. These concerns heighten the need to taper AEDs when appropriate and to manage WWE on the simplest AED regimen that will maintain seizure freedom.

  10. WOMEN WITH FACIAL TATTOOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    For a long time in the past,the Derungs were known for having their women's faces tattooed.I had got to know before leaving for the Nujiang Canyon that this somewhat strange tradition had long been abandoned. Once in the Derung area,however,I decided to find out whence this “tradition”, so to speak, had originated and if there wer still “living specimens” of it.

  11. Women's Educacion on Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Aparecida Poluca Proença

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A EDUCAÇÃO DAS MULHERES NA TEORIA ROUSSEAUNIANA Resumo: neste artigo nos propomos a explorar os aspectos da vida e obra de Rousseau, evidenciando os fatos que envolveram sua relação com as mulheres. O texto mostra pontos importantes para que Jean-Jacques Rousseau viesse a desenvolver suas ideias a respeito da educação e comportamento da mulher na sociedade francesa do século XVIII. Para a sustentação de nossas hipóteses, compusemos um estudo bibliográfico de aproximação sócio-histórico-filosófica, explorando a formação de Rousseau como pessoa e identificando mulheres importantes em sua formação, apresentaremos as questões sociais e condutas, vivenciadas por Rousseau. Na formação desse cenário compomos o quanto a influência das mulheres na vida de Rousseau determinaram a sua proposta educacional. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Educação das Mulheres. Século XVIII Abstract: In this text, we intend to explore aspects of Rousseau's life and writings, putting in evidence the facts which involved his relationship with women. The text shows relevant topics so that Jean-Jacques Rousseau could develop his ideas about education and women's behavior in 18th century of French society. To support our hypothesis, we composed a bibliographical study of philosophical-social-historical characteristics, exploring Rousseau's formation as a subject and identifying important women in his formation and on his prospect of education. Keywords: Rousseau. Women's education. 18th century.

  12. Stroke and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Benbir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the differences in vascular risk factor and etiology of stroke in two sexes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of 2798 patients being followed-up in our Stroke Clinic between the years 1996-2011. The stroke subtypes and risk factors were recorded on the basis of clinical data, physical and neurological examinations, and neuroimaging findings. Data were collected in SPSS 11.5 system and Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of a total of 2798 patients, 2564 patients (91,6% had ischemic stroke, and 234 of them (8,4% had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean follow-up duration was 50.2+42.7 months. Of whole study population, 1289 patients were women (46%, 1509 of them were men (54%. The analysis of stroke subtypes showed that the most common subtype was stroke of unknown etiology in both sexes. Following this, the most common subtype was atherothrombotic stroke in men, and cardioembolic stroke in women. Coronary heart disease was more common in men, while atrial fibrillation and other rhythm anomalies were more common in women. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common in men. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that there are major differences in stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors. Better knowledge of these differences, as well as influencing factors, is of crucial value – in addition to the need of hormonal changes, pregnancy and depression to be better identified in women – for both primary and secondary prevention.

  13. Women Writers in Macheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Many centuries ago, Li Zhi (1527-1602), thinker andwriter of the Ming Dynasty edtablished a famousfemale-only school in China. Today, there has emergeda group of women writers. They are sparing their timefrom work and household chores and have entered thesacred hall of literature by expending greater effortsthan their male counterparts. Many of their works havebeen published. They are full of talent and have wonseveral national level prizes.

  14. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    offee Morning Tuesday 12th  June 2012, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at "The Physalis" in Prévessin Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  15. Cheering On Women Journalists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    RECENTLY, a special seminar on Lu Xiaofei’s news works was held at the People’s Daily, the most authoritative newspaper in China. Lu is editor-in-chief of the page "Local News of the Nation" for the People’s Daily. She is one of some 200 women journalists who has made a name for herself at the newspaper. Her work, Real Facts on the Issue of the Tibet Population, reflects the sensitivity and

  16. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

  17. Footprints of Women Reporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In every important historical event from the Founding Ceremony of New China in 1949 to today's opening and reform, from domestic economic construction to regional wars in the word, Chinese women journalists have left their footprints. The eight pictures shown here are not able to display all of their charms, but at least our readers may see how they cover their reports with diligence and hard work.

  18. Hui’an Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    HUI’AN women in eastern Hui’an County of Fujian’s Quanzhou are well-known for their industriousness as well as their unique dressing habits and marriage customs. The peculiarity of Hui’an women’s dress mainly focuses on the upper coats, trousers, silver chains around their waists, scarves and bamboo hats. The dresses are indigo blue, apple green, black or half green and half white. Some

  19. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th November 2011, 9:00 - 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 - DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Organization of our Christmas Sale In favour of “Terre des Hommes” Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  20. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th January 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  1. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club des cernoises

    2011-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th October, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale TERRE DES HOMMES New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  2. Women and radicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Badran, Margot

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  3. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  4. Women in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Since 1963 women have successfully flown and worked in space so much so that having a female aboard the shuttle, on Soyuz or on the International Space Station is considered commonplace. We do know that women have historically been virturally equal in capabilities and performance with their male counterparts. For example, there have been superb shuttle pilots, shuttle commanders, EVA participants as well as mission specialists and payload specialists. Thus, gender is not an issue within the ranks, rather a simple fact. In addition, there is a positive psychological factor that has been noted in that a mixed crew seems to have better intercommunications dynamics. JAXA has conducted the experiments on 7 subjects on bone mineral density in short duration of space flight and noticed a slight decrease in that density in both male and female. Lean body mass was also examined and found to be reduced by 3.0 % on average. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects in short duration of space flight. Unfortunately, only 1 of the 7 subjects was a woman. In fact, only 48 women have flown in total, some more than once, and science is still discovering the effects of the space experience. This is due to the limited exposure on orbit and in microgravity and the limited number of potential subjects. Time in space is beginning to increase with the continued progress of the ISS, thereby creating a demand for more knowledge on what effects long term exposure will have on the female of the species. The presentation will address these and other concerns involved with women in space from the perspective of a female scientist and an astronaut.

  5. Women on the move

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. González Ramos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The special issue Women on the Move that the reader holds in their hands is the result of the hard work of very creative specialists in gender and mobility. Research on mobility and gender has progressively advanced from traditional, non-gender-specific literature on migration or mobility of highly skilled people. And, as these authors prove, the topic is already quantitatively and qualitatively relevant.

  6. Prolonged labour : women's experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Nystedt, Astrid

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to illuminate, describe, and promote understanding of women’s experiences of prolonged labour. The thesis compromises four studies. Methods: Paper I describes a case-referent study that recruited women (n = 255) giving singleton live birth to their first child by spontaneous labour after more than 37 completed weeks’ pregnancy. Participants completed a questionnaire that investigated childbirth experiences, previous family relationships, and childhood e...

  7. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Women's Club

    2014-01-01

      CERN WOMEN’S CLUB   Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th  June 2014, 12:30   Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Le Coq Rouge” in St-Genis-Pouilly Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  8. Cern women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2014-01-01

    CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  May 2014, 9:30 Bldg 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3   Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 15th  May 2012, 9:00 Building 504,  (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Annual General Meeting Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  10. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th April 2013, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  11. Cern Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 5th  February 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st  Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Nous Aussi Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/    

  12. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 12th March 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Eastern Tradition Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  13. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 10th September 2013, 9:00 Bldg 504, (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Registration Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  14. Cern Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 15th January 2013, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Epiphany (French tradition – “Tirer les rois”) Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  15. CERN Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2013-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 11th  June 2013, 12:30 Annual Club Lunch at the restaurant “Bois Joly” in Crozet Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  16. Women, work and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Evolahti, Annika

    2012-01-01

    Work-related stress has become a major public health problem in Western societies. In Sweden women account for the majority of long-term sick leave and the most common reasons are psychiatric conditions such as depression and stress-related diagnoses. Stressful working conditions have been shown to influence both physical and psychological health by acting as important mediating factors in the development of e.g. cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms of depr...

  17. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    2016-11-01

    Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the management of anovulatory PCOS. The evidence to support providing recommendations involved a collaborative process for: (i) identification of priority questions and critical outcomes, (ii) retrieval of up-to-date evidence and exiting guidelines, (iii) assessment and synthesis of the evidence and (iv) the formulation of draft recommendations to be used for reaching consensus with a wide range of global stakeholders. For each draft recommendation, the methodologist evaluated the quality of the supporting evidence that was then graded as very low, low, moderate or high for consideration during consensus. Evidence was synthesized and we made recommendations across the definition of PCOS including hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle regulation and ovarian assessment. Metabolic features and the impact of ethnicity were covered. Management includes lifestyle changes, bariatric surgery, pharmacotherapy (including clomiphene citrate (CC), aromatase inhibitors, metformin and gonadotropins), as well as laparoscopic surgery. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was considered as were the risks of ovulation induction and of pregnancy in PCOS. Approximately 80% of women who suffer from anovulatory infertility have PCOS. Lifestyle intervention is recommended first in women who are obese largely on the basis of general health benefits. Bariatric surgery can be considered where the body mass index (BMI) is ≥35 kg/m(2) and lifestyle therapy has failed. Carefully conducted and monitored pharmacological ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative pregnancy rates and multiple pregnancy rates can be

  18. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  19. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  20. Women and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hesse

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders belong to the class of externalizing behaviours that are generally more common among men than women. Those women who do have substance disorders therefore deviate more from the norms of society compared with men, tend to live in an environment characterized by high risk of violence and other forms of abuse, and tend to be survivors of childhood trauma. In terms of seeking treatment, women often have difficulty acknowledging their problems with substance use disorders, and professionals are reluctant to ask women about drug or alcohol use. Even when they do seek treatment, women in many countries face practical and financial barriers to access treatment. For women who do enter treatment, outcomes are generally comparable to outcomes for men, suggesting that facilitating entry into treatment can yield substantial benefits for women with addictions.

  1. Enforcing women's rights through law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1995-06-01

    Because women have to be equal partners in development to insure its sustainability, the human rights of women must be foremost on development agendas. Ratification of and adherence to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (the Women's Convention) would be a powerful international tool in this regard. In various countries, progress towards legalizing rights for women is passing through a first stage which focusses on the protection of specific rights to a second stage in which sex is included as a prohibited ground of discrimination to a third stage which addresses the pervasive and structural nature of the violation of women's rights. It is expected that governments will renew their commitment to the Women's Convention at the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and, thus, take more seriously their obligations to report progress and remove reservations. Regional initiatives, such as the Organization of American States' 1994 Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women, can also be used to protect women's rights, and the application of national constitutions and domestic laws remains the first line of defence for women. Particular attention must be paid to laws which apply to property rights, nationality, equality within the family, reproductive and other health issues, and violence against women. The Draft Plan of Action prepared for the WCW challenges states to specify their plans to eliminate discrimination. While this Plan may prove to lack vision, women's nongovernmental organizations are playing a major role in accelerating the movement of international and domestic law towards justice for women.

  2. Melatonin deficiencies in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Uwe D; Herold, Jens

    2002-04-15

    The pineal hormone melatonin is the mediator of external light to physiologic adaptation to day and night rhythms, it regulates reproduction in animals but attempts to utilize melatonin in women for contraception have failed. Melatonin seems to be the natural hormone to facilitate sleep in insomniac patients and causes no hang over. When applied together with benzodiazepine it allows reduction of benzodiazepine without withdrawal effects. It should be applied 2 h before sleeping time in doses between 3 and 5 mg. Melatonin acts via the gamma-aminobutyric acid- and benzodiazepine receptor explaining its success in treatment of seizures in children and in adults. Constant application of benzodiazepine reduced the production of natural melatonin in rats, supporting the evidence that long-term application of benzodiazepine in humans does not restore sleeping habits but reduces natural sleeping habits even more. Low melatonin levels were seen in bulimia or neuralgia and in women with fibromyalgia; replacement reduced pain, sleeping disorders, and depression in fibromyalgia and bulimia. Melatonin profiles are a diagnostic tool to distinguish between several forms of depression, like major depression, winter depression (SAD), unipolar depression, delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS). In patients with a major depression success with antidepressants correlated with an increase in their melatonin profiles but only patients suffering from DSPS can be successfully treated with melatonin. In perimenopausal women melatonin administration did produce a change in LH, FSH and thyroid hormones. Some oncostatic properties are supported by cell culture work and studies in animals. In Nordic countries indigenous people suffer less from breast and prostate cancer, winter darkness seems to protect. The supposedly increased melatonin levels created the 'melatonin hypothesis'. Epidemiological studies did show that blind people indeed have half the rate of breast cancers, supporting the

  3. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  4. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R O

    1993-03-01

    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  5. What women want : how companies can encourage women's career motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ittonen Sjögren, Pia; Wieske, Kathrin

    2007-01-01

    The under-representation of women in higher hierarchical positions and company boards today is a fact that affects not only the women striving for these positions but also the companies that face a loss of competent personnel in their companies. We found it interesting to find out whether or not women are striving for leading positions, in the first place and what factors motivate and discourage them to strive for a career and what incentives companies could offer to increase their motivation...

  6. Women-Only Tourism: Agency and Control in Women's Leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Levy

    2013-01-01

    A trend in the travel industry has been the growth of tours marketed for women only. These often involve travel with the goal of learning new skills, developing competence, or sharing group experiences. In this study, I analyze these tours using feminist leisure theory to illustrate how women are using their agency to take control of their own leisure. Using interviews with tour participants and participant observation, I conclude that taking part in a women-only tour is a unique leisure e...

  7. Gender Jihad: Muslim Women, Islamic Jurisprudence, and Women's Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie P. Mejia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Muslim women's rights have been a topic of discussion and debate over the past few decades, and with a good reason. Islamic Law (Shariah is considered by many as patriarchal and particularly oppressive to women, and yet there are also others-Muslim women-who have rigorously defended their religion by claiming that Islam is the guarantor par excellence of women's rights. A big question begs to be answered: is Islam particularly oppressive to women?The Qur'an has addressed women's issues fourteen hundred years ago by creating certain reforms to improve the status of women; however, these reforms do not seem to be practiced in Muslim societies today.1 How is this so? I contend that Islam, as revealed to Muhammad, is not oppressive to women; rather, its interpretation, in so far as it is enacted in the family laws and everyday living, is patriarchal and hence needs to be examined.2 The goal of this work is to discuss what the Qur'an says about certain problems which gravely affect Muslim women, specifically: 1. gender equality 2. polygamy 3. divorce and the concept of nushuz

  8. Women, work, and poverty women centered research for policy change

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Heidi I

    2003-01-01

    Find out how welfare reform has affected women living at the poverty levelWomen, Work, and Poverty presents the latest information on women living at or below the poverty level and the changes that need to be made in public policy to allow them to rise above their economic hardships. Using a wide range of research methods, including in-depth interviews, focus groups, small-scale surveys, and analysis of personnel records, the book explores different aspects of women's poverty since the passage of the 1986 welfare reform bill. Anthropologists, economists, political scientists, socio

  9. Hypothyroidism in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Donna; Turner, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Hypothyroidism, a disease in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone, is the second most common endocrine disorder among women. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include fatigue, weight gain, alteration in cognition, infertility, and menstrual abnormalities. The most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States is Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The American Thyroid Association recommends an initial screening for thyroid disease at age 35years and every 5years thereafter. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is highly sensitive to thyroid dysfunction and is used to evaluate thyroid disorders. Monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard for treating hypothyroidism. Diagnosing hypothyroidism requires appropriate diagnostic tests to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmendra MEHTA; Mehta, Naveen K.; Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2014-01-01

    In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

  11. Women in My Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ihave many women in my life, such as my wife, mother, mother-in-law, colleagues and customers. I feel pressure from them in different ways when I am in contact with them. Sometimes these pressures make me lose my breath, but on the other hand, they also are the motivation behind my success. I was born to a common family. There are three brothers and no sisters. I was the oldest. The woman I knew the earliest was my mother. She also came from a common familv, was hardly educated and

  12. WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Breznik, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The world of management has always been in favor of men. Women and their abilities to manage companies have stayed unnoticed for a long time. We are all familiar with the sayings “Behind every successful man is a woman” and “A woman holds up three corners of the house, and supports the fourth. « The mentality that a woman must support her partner and take care of the family is deep-rooted into our society. Therefore we wonder whether a woman can be a successful mother and wife, as well as a s...

  13. Cern Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cern Women's club

    2014-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 14th October 2014, 9:30 – 11:30 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Les Jardins de Voltaire” Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/  

  14. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  15. Obstetricians and violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sonya

    2011-12-01

    I argue that the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), as an organization and through its individual members, can and should be a far greater ally in the prevention of violence against women. Specifically, I argue that we need to pay attention to obstetrical practices that inadvertently contribute to the problem of violence against women. While intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon, I focus on the coercive control of women and adherence to oppressive gender norms. Using physician response to alcohol use during pregnancy and court-ordered medical treatment as examples, I show how some obstetrical practices mirror the attitudes of abusive men insofar as they try to coercively control women's behavior through manipulation and violence. To be greater allies in the prevention of violence against women, obstetricians should stop participating in practices that inadvertently perpetuate violence against women.

  16. Protecting Grass-roots Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    AS the president of Qianxi County Women's Federation in Hebei Province, Wang Shuzhen presents the sort of confident, modern image not normally associated with her position. Resplendent in a brooch decorated black business suit with rose-red silk shirt she looks younger and healthier than one might expect. Presenting an introduction on the situation of local women at a seminar on women's laws, the Hebei native's clear and

  17. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Velandia Morales; Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  18. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  19. Health Disparities in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Bryan, Alicia; Skidmore Edwards, Elizabeth; Madzima, Takudzwa; Massey, Kelly; May, Linda; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND SCOPE Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health is an international, open-access, peer-reviewed journal which considers manuscripts on all aspects of the diagnosis, management, and prevention of disorders specific to women, in addition to related genetic, pathophysiological, and epidemiological topics. Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health aims to provide researchers working in this complex, quickly developing field with online, open access to highly relevant scholarly articles by leading international researchers. In a field where the literature is ever-expanding, researchers increasingly need access to up-to-date, high-quality scholarly articles on areas of specific contemporary interest. This supplement is on Health Disparities in Women. This supplement aims to address this by presenting high-quality articles that allow readers to distinguish the signal from the noise. The editor in chief hopes that through this effort, practitioners and researchers will be aided in finding answers to some of the most complex and pressing issues of our time. PMID:28579867

  20. Romance Tourism and Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  2. Women in Physics in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraddin, Sakina

    2009-04-01

    We presents the progress of women in Yemen in various fields of science in general and in physics in particular. Women in Yemen attending universities tend to choose science after medicine. The percentage of women in physics is low compared with those for other departments. As a special case, in Sana'a University the percentage of women in the physics department has increased greatly in the last decade. At the level of teaching staff there are only two females with PhD degrees in the whole of Yemen.

  3. Career choices of lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  4. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  5. Women in the labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, R H

    1994-01-01

    Unlike the rate for men, the labor force participation rate for women has increased significantly over the past three decades or so. This trend is expected to continue at least through 2005. Among the reasons for the growing role of women in the labor market are higher levels of educational attainment, improved employment opportunities, changing values in society, and economic pressures and aspirations that require women to assume dual careers as homemakers and family income producers. By the year 2005, it is estimated that women workers will number about 72 million, with more than 63 percent of all women age 16 and over either working or actively looking for work. While traditional occupations such as secretarial and clerical administrative support and professions such as nursing and teaching still predominate, about 4 million women are now in executive, administrative and managerial positions in the private sectors of the economy. As for the types of industry in which women are employed, service industries clearly predominate. Projections suggest that women workers of the future will be older on average, with the fastest growth occurring in the 45-64 age cohort. They will also be a more diverse group as the number of black, Asian and Hispanic women workers grows more rapidly than the number of white non-Hispanic labor force participants.

  6. Romance Tourism and Finnish Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jussila, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Romance tourism is a discussed quite a lot in media both in Finland and abroad. The media has create a certain kind of image of women`s romance tourism. The main aim of this study was to study how Finnish women perceive the romance tourism. The research questions were: does women travel to abroad to seek for holiday romance and why do they travel to abroad to seek for the romance. To find out women’s mental images of romance tourism was also one aim of the research. The phenomenon of women’s ...

  7. Women Empower Women: Volunteers and Their Clients in Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…

  8. Just Do It: Women Superintendents Speak to Aspiring Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method study using surveys and in-depth interviews was conducted with women school superintendents in four Midwestern states during the 1999-2000 school year to understand how they perceive their leadership skills, their uses of power in their positions, and how they generally talk about the job. Results of how the women perceived their…

  9. Women's rights are human rights -- why development has failed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Oxfam UK/I believes that all women have the right to a livelihood, reproductive choice, health care, education, and employment. Access to resources, decision-making, political and religious freedom of expression, and freedom from all forms of violence are also equally important. Oxfam UK/I recognizes that women worldwide from a diversity of cultures and religions are arguing for similar rights, but continuing efforts to create women's equality and empowerment have had only limited success. There has been no significant improvement in women's lifestyles, the feminization of poverty is increasing, growing religious fundamentalism threatens advances made toward equality, and there has been an increasing violation of women's individual human rights to development in the last decade. Human rights instruments to tackle gender inequality exist, but they are not implemented. The rights approach to development recognizes that unless inequalities at local, national, and international levels are seen and challenged, women will continue to face poverty, inadequate representation of their needs and views, and policies which are contrary to their interests. The rights approach encompasses all aspects of women's lives, recognizing that women's rights in the civil, political, social, economic, and cultural spheres are indivisible from one another in the realities of daily life. Oxfam UK/I acknowledges the complexity of the rights debate.

  10. Proceedings of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Holtz, E. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This report documents events of the LLNL Technical Women`s Symposium. Topics include; future of computer systems, environmental technology, defense and space, Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics, technical communication, tools and techniques for biology in the 1990s, automation and robotics, software applications, materials science, atomic vapor laser isotope separation, technical communication, technology transfer, and professional development workshops.

  11. Women miners in developing countries: pit women and others

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Martha Macintyre [Australian National University (Australia). Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies

    2006-05-15

    Contrary to their masculine portrayal, mines have always employed women in valuable and productive roles. Yet, pit life continues to be represented as a masculine world of work, legitimizing men as the only mineworkers and large, mechanized, and capitalized operations as the only form of mining. Bringing together a range of case studies of women miners from past and present in Asia, the Pacific Region, Latin America and Africa, this book makes visible the roles and contributions of women as miners. It also highlights the importance of engendering small and informal mining in the developing world as compared to the early European and American mines. The book shows that women are engaged in various kinds of mining and illustrates how gender and inequality are constructed and sustained in the mines, and also how ethnic identities intersect with those gendered identities. Chapters dealing with coal mining include: Introduction: Where life is in the pits (and elsewhere) and gendered; Japanese coal mining: women discovered; Mining gender at work in the Indian collieries: identity construction; Women in the mining industry of contemporary China; Roti do, ya goli do! (give us bread, or give us bullets!): stories of struggles of women workers in Bhowra colliery, India and Globalization and women's work in the mine pits in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. 17 ills.

  12. The women of the Maghreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghurayyib, R

    1992-01-01

    Women's status in Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia is briefly summarized. It is based on a pamphlet produced by the Women's Committee of the Center for Arab Studies for Development, Canada. In Algeria, women's status has been severely restricted by fundamentalism. The independence of 1963 brought with it fundamentalist conditions: mosques became places for political sermons and schools were filled with Islamic zealots. The Family Code of 1984 was imposed. It considered women minors for life, polygamy and divorce freely available for men, and threats to women's right to vote. In 1990, women's organizations in a large rally protested abolition of the 1984 law. The 1991 elections reflected the differences in opinions on women's issues and a 3rd party may be formed with democratic tendencies and support for the Women's Liberation Movement. Morocco also has an antidemocratic regime. 78% of women in 1982 were illiterate. Many work as domestics (56.5%) or in the textile (62%), agricultural, and industrial sectors. Little girls also work as apprentices in exchange for food and clothing. 100% of women are untrained while 100% of men are trained. Rural seasonal workers are ignored. Female employment rose in public services from 16% to 28% in 1989. 53% are engaged in menial occupations; 36% are teachers, secretaries, or nurses. Prostitution thrived when oil merchants invaded. Most women are divorced or widowed, and consequently must work for subsistence because the family code does not permit these women economic independence. In the 1970s men and women protested the royal family's codes. Tunisian women have a more privileged position, due in part to the support from the male feminist leader, Tahar El Haddad, who wrote a book espousing the right of divorce and equal rights in education, and condemning polygamy, sex segregation, and the veil. In 1956, the code changed and forced marriage and polygamy were prohibited. Implementation lags behind the law. Islamic law still gives

  13. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  14. Thyroid disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, J

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid disorders include autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer. AITD mainly consist of autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves disease. The common characteristic of thyroid disorders is female preponderance in their prevalence. The female-to-male rate ratio is reported at 4~6:1 for AITD and about 3~4:1 for thyroid nodule. For PTC, it is greatest during reproductive age and drops from five and more in patients aged 20-24, to 3.4 in patients aged 35-44 to one in patients over 80. The effects of female gonadal hormones and X chromosome inactivation on thyroid gland and immune system greatly contribute to the female predilection of AITD. The former mainly include prolactin and estrogen. The direct actions of estrogen on the thyroid tissue contribute to the development of thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer in women.

  15. Once Ordinary Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON each of their name cards, Yuan Jinxiang, Shi Yun and Ruan Youlan have distinguished titles: general manager of the Jinxiang Industrial and Commercial Company; general manager of the Dapeng Group Co. Ltd.; and chairman of the board of the Malan Direct Trading Co. Ltd., and general manager of Zhengfu Real Estate Co. Ltd. Their total capital comes to over 100 million. But when you know their history, you’ll discover a decade ago they were only a farmer, an educated youth who went to the countryside and later returned to the city, and an housewife from Hong Kong.China’s reform and opening have brought many marvels in the country’s history, but the marvels about people, especially women, are most impressive.

  16. Women at risk: Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, I

    1996-01-01

    In Indonesia, women, commercial sex workers, truck drivers, migrant workers, and people who live in port areas easily accessible to tourists and fishermen are particularly at risk of becoming infected with HIV. Recognizing the country's potential vulnerability to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the government and the World Bank agreed to fund a $35.4 million, 3-year HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) prevention project to strengthen the capacity of government, nongovernmental organizations, and community-based organizations to carry out the basics of HIV/AIDS prevention, extend the sentinel surveillance system, ensure blood safety, launch public education campaigns, educate health workers on universal precautions and safe waste disposal, promote safer sex skills and behavioral change, and test the sensitivity of certain antibiotics to syphilis and gonorrhea. The program will also establish a STD control program and address the economic impact of the disease by improving the livelihood strategies of HIV/AIDS-affected communities.

  17. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Low sex drive in women By Mayo Clinic Staff A woman's sexual desire naturally fluctuates over the years. Highs and lows commonly ... and anti-seizure medications also can cause low sex drive in women. If you have a persistent ...

  18. World Religions, Women and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  19. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  20. Comparative research on women's employment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Dijk, L. van

    2002-01-01

    Women's employment has been widely studied in both Western countries and Eastern Europe. In this article, the most frequently used measurements and descriptions of women's paid work are given, namely, participation rate, number of hours worked, gender segregation, and the gender gap in earnings. Nex

  1. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  2. Chinese Women Lawyers Society Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON November 12, 1993, the Chinese Women Lawyers Society was established in Beijing. The more than 10,000 women lawyers in the country were excited to have their own organization. Xu Weihua, secretary-general of the society and a lawyer working in the All-China Women’s Federation, said: "The society’s establishment will promote the participation of

  3. Difficulties in Science for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Val Castillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When we think in scientists, we remember scientic men. What about scientic women? In ancient times women had been considered by men for homework, without right to study at the university. In the beginning Hypatia from Alejandria was a pioneer scientic woman but she was assassinated for not become Christian in 416. From then sex discrimination went on by ages.

  4. Women's employment and household work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, T. van der; Drobnic, S.; Treas, J.

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, women are more likely to have a paid job than to be housewives in almost all industrialized countries, a statement one could not imagine just after World War II. The increased participation of women in the labor market has had clear implications for family life

  5. Women of Ice and Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The anthology offers 11 original contributions about the women in GoT, the transmedial universe of George R.R. Martin's book series A Song of Ice and Fire, the HBO TV series Game of Thrones, computer games and online fan activities. The anthology examines the representation of women, and activity...

  6. [Women's knowledge of folic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (Pfolic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations for Married Career Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Linda Nielsen

    1976-01-01

    If women are to benefit to the fullest from new legislation and opportunities, an examination of many life styles is imperative. From the available literature, valuable data regarding the combination of marriage and career can be ascertained in an effort to facilitate the process for young women who choose this option. (Author)

  8. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  9. Women in Adult Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  10. Teaching about Women and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kathy

    A course entitled "Women and Violence in Literature and the Media" extends the definition of violence to include not only physical and emotional abuse but psychological manipulation and destruction as well. The course has two major objectives: to establish that violence against women does occur in our society and is culturally approved of and…

  11. FastStats: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF – 926 KB] The Association of Marital Status and Offers of Employer-Based Health Insurance Coverage for Employed Women Aged 27–64: United States, 2014–2015 Use of Family Planning and Related Medical Services among Women Aged ...

  12. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  13. Women and rural water management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandara, Christina Geoffrey; Niehof, Anke; Horst, van der Hilje

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how informal structures intersect with women's participation in formally created decision-making spaces for managing domestic water at the village level in Tanzania. The results reveal the influence of the informal context on women's access to and performance in the formal de

  14. Alcohol and Women. Pamphlet Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky

    Reasonable and moderate drinking is considered acceptable by the major portion of the population. Although women consume less alcohol than men, alcohol has a greater intoxicating effect for women than for men because of the differences in body water content and proportion of fatty tissue. The prevalence rate of drinking is virtually identical for…

  15. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  16. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  17. Course Plan for Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Linda A.

    In view of women's misconceptions about their bodies, their sexuality, their mental health, and the health care system, this three-credit evening community college course on women's health needs and concerns was designed. Course objectives include recording and analyzing the effects of nutrition, sleep, exercise, and stress on various body…

  18. Job Inequities Persist for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Women earn only 64 cents for every dollar earned by men. Five and a half million women number among the "working poor." The following are suggested for change: (1) raise the minimum wage; (2) institute gender- and race-blind pay scales; (3) establish child care centers; and (4) enforce anti-discrimination laws. (PS)

  19. Defeating Stereotypes of Muslim Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Leila Ahmed's memoir, "A Border Passage: From Cairo to America--A Woman's Journey", pulses with a theme of many women's stories: the struggle to define oneself in the face of social restraints. The 1999 book by Ahmed, the first professor of women's studies in religion at Harvard's Divinity School, came long before the recent wave of memoirs…

  20. Women in Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  1. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  2. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  3. World Religions, Women and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious traditions--Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, and Western Christianity--to see how women were taught and what knowledge was transmitted to them. Notes that women have always had some access to religious knowledge in informal ways but were excluded from formal education once sacred knowledge became transmitted in an…

  4. Hirsutism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, David; Seehusen, Dean A; Baird, Drew

    2012-02-15

    Hirsutism is excess terminal hair that commonly appears in a male pattern in women. Although hirsutism is generally associated with hyperandrogenemia, one-half of women with mild symptoms have normal androgen levels. The most common cause of hirsutism is polycystic ovary syndrome, accounting for three out of every four cases. Many medications can also cause hirsutism. In patients whose hirsutism is not related to medication use, evaluation is focused on testing for endocrinopathies and neoplasms, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, adrenal hyperplasia, thyroid dysfunction, Cushing syndrome, and androgen-secreting tumors. Symptoms and findings suggestive of neoplasm include rapid onset of symptoms, signs of virilization, and a palpable abdominal or pelvic mass. Patients without these findings who have mild symptoms and normal menses can be treated empirically. For patients with moderate or severe symptoms, an early morning total testosterone level should be obtained, and if moderately elevated, it should be followed by a plasma free testosterone level. A total testosterone level greater than 200 ng per dL (6.94 nmol per L) should prompt evaluation for an androgen-secreting tumor. Further workup is guided by history and physical examination, and may include thyroid function tests, prolactin level, 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, and corticotropin stimulation test. Treatment includes hair removal and pharmacologic measures. Shaving is effective but needs to be repeated often. Evidence for the effectiveness of electrolysis and laser therapy is limited. In patients who are not planning a pregnancy, first-line pharmacologic treatment should include oral contraceptives. Topical agents, such as eflornithine, may also be used. Treatment response should be monitored for at least six months before making adjustments.

  5. Voices of women in physics...

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We asked a few female physicists for their thoughts about why women are under-represented in the sciences, how this problem can be solved, and whether the challenges of pursuing a scientific career are different for women and men. Their responses were as diverse as their backgrounds. Here's what they had to say...   Margarete Muehlleitner is a theoretical physicist, a French university lecturer and a fellow in CERN's Theory Group. She says that in Germany, her home country, 'Only a small percentage of women studying physics go on to do a master's degree, and even fewer go further than that in their subject.' She continues, 'As far as I know, about 1% of university physics professors are women, a situation that hasn't changed much in 100 years!' In her opinion, this dramatic imbalance between the sexes can be explained by two problems. 'Women don't think they are capable of making a career in physics or maths,'...

  6. Depression and codependency in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hammer, C; Martsolf, D S; Zeller, R A

    1998-12-01

    Seven million American women are depressed, and 40 million Americans, primarily women, have been labeled as codependent. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of codependency in women undergoing treatment for depression, examine the relationship between codependency and depression, and determine which of the symptoms of codependency are most highly predictive of depression scores. Depression and codependency were measured in a sample of 105 depressed women by using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Codependency Assessment Tool. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's Product Moment Correlation, and multiple regression were used for analysis. Of these depressed women, 36% were moderately to severely codependent. Depression and codependency were strongly related, with the significant gamma = .92 (P codependency subscales, Low Self-Worth and Hiding Self correlate most strongly with depression; Other Focus/Self-Neglect added the least-independent--explanatory power. Thus, future research should be directed toward the relationship of codependency to power, alienation of self, and personality disorders.

  7. Formal Women-only Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesèche, Florence; Josserand, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    implications: The paper contributes to research showing that the social structure of interactions and context can impact women’s standing in the workplace. Originality/value: The paper sheds light on the under-studied and under-theorised phenomenon of formal women-only business networks. Beyond the individual...... internal and external women-only networks and use the broader social capital and network literature to frame their arguments and develop propositions. Findings: Propositions are developed regarding how both internal and external formal women-only business networks can be of value for members, firms....../organisations and the wider social group of women in business. Research limitations/implications: The authors focus on the distinction between external and internal formal women-only networks while also acknowledging the broader diversity that can characterise such networks. Their review provides the reader with an insight...

  8. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  9. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... an assessment of the mothers’ capacity to internalize and act upon advice. It is argued that supporting Roma women’s access to human rights is likely to have positive outcomes for the women and their families, especially the young children...

  10. The power of women on April 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumalo, B

    1994-04-01

    Women make up 54% of voters in South Africa. A delegation of 80 groups representing 2 million women under the Women' National Coalition delivered many research reports on women's issues (e.g., rape, violence, women's status, women workers' rights) to the Transitional Executive Council. If political parties want women to support them, they need to address the inequalities and discrimination women encounter at work, in their homes, and in society. The research findings were a result of 23 focus groups and will be used to draft a Women's Charter. The Coalition will use the Charter to bring about maximum equality within the constitutional framework. The research revealed that sexual harassment at work was more common than was recognized. Black women reported that men of all races in responsible positions seek sex for jobs or for promotion. 50% of women are raped. 1 of 6 women are beaten by their partner. In the past, women's groups were not well supported because White women tended to be satisfied with the status quo. Specifically, they had a servant, leisure time, and a high standard of living. Women are starting to understand that they can be forces of change. A common thread among the diversity of women in the research was a desire for control of their lives. Other issues emerging from the research were women and law, women at work, women and violence, and political awareness among women. The women call for changes in marital law to make sure that women are considered as majors. For example, they should be able to buy property and sign contracts. Women want equal pay for work of equal value, equal treatment when applying for a job. Women want society, including family members, not to ignore domestic violence. They also call on authorities and police to respond more vigorously to domestic violence. Women are becoming more involved in politics, locally, regionally, and nationally.

  11. African women act on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E

    1991-07-01

    In Africa, normally women bear a disproportionate burden since they must perform their roles as individuals, mothers, and health care providers, but now they must also deal with their own HIV infection or that of family members. In 1988, the Society for Women and AIDS in Africa (SWAA) emerged because there was a need for women to address these concerns, specifically the gaps between men and women in information and education messages, interventions, AIDS policy and program development, and use in prevention initiatives. SWAA pursues prevention activities that consider the deeply rooted cultural beliefs and sensitivities of these women and their socioeconomic realities. It believes that once women have appropriate knowledge and are aware of their problem solving options, they will make decisions that bring about a change in actions which reduce their risk of HIV infection and risk behaviors of their partners and family members. Some of their activities involve motivating women to eliminate or modify practices that put them at risk of HIV infection, e.g., male promiscuity and wife sharing, change traditional norms that make women sexually submissive and nonassertive, and curb female prostitution. SWAA has 5 different regions and the country level is the operational base. Each of the 23 countries designs and executes its own programs, usually with women's health groups. It is branching out into women support networks, counseling, home and community care of AIDS patients, etc. It has been somewhat successful in reducing the misconception that prostitutes are the key transmitters of HIV. SWAA continues to work towards a positive working relationship with the basically male controlled institutions responsible for AIDS policy development.

  12. Women, work and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, S

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, 1/3 of infants are born weighing less than 2500 grams. A study conducted in Ethiopia among women consuming about 1600 kcal/day, those who were very physically active during pregnancy bore smaller babies, and gained less weight during pregnancy, than those who were not so active. Average birth weight was 3068 grams for the 1st group, 3270 grams for the less active. The active group of women gained an average of 6.5 kilograms, and the less active 9.2 kilograms. Women who did not engage in heavy work during pregnancy, although they were undernourished, apparently did not bear growth-retarded babies. Indirect evidence for the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcome comes from studies conducted in Taiwan, and the Gambia. These studies, and others from Malawi, Burkina Faso, and Kenya have shown that women's energy expenditures vary greatly with the agricultural season. Daily housekeeping tasks, however, also consume a lot of women's energy. Technologies that allow women to reduce energy expenditure can have beneficial effects, if they do not simultaneously reduce their incomes. For instance, programs improving water or fuel availability, or reducing fuel needs, reduce women's energy expenditures. Food processing mills can help too if women have access to them, and are thus not in danger of being displaced from their jobs and losing necessary income. Examples of technology improving women's tasks are pedal drying machines for nice in Bangladesh, using a greater and pressing machine to prepare gari in Ghana; but growing thicker rice stalks in Indonesia displaced women workers and reduced income.

  13. Ischemic heart disease in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Iraklianou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease has long been recognized as the leading cause of death among middle-aged men and an equally important cause of death and disability among older women. Women with acute ischemic syndromes tend to be older than men with such syndromes. This is considered to be attributed to the protective effects of female ovarian sex hormones. Estrogen express an antiatherogenic profile via mechanisms that cause favorable modifications of lipoprotein levels, coagulation and fibrolytic system and alterations in the wall of vessels that cause vasodilation. Women are susceptible to coronary heart disease because of differences in the anatomy and physiology of their vessels. Women's coronary arteries are smaller and have more diffuse disease than men's. Ischemia can be induced in women without flow limiting stenosis because of endothelial dysfunction or coronary spasm. Usually, the way of manifestation of the disease and ECG abnormalities are not typical in women. Female patients usually delay to seek treatment for their symptoms .The way of evaluation and treatment is usually conservative in women than male counterparts. The diagnosis of the disease is overestimated in men and the treatment is more often invasive, even in the category of low risk. Reversely, women of high risk are less likely to undergo a full assessment and invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions are seldom. Recommendations of the American Heart Association for ischemic heart disease in women are in accordance to alterations in the way of life interventions in major risk factors such as arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, preventive use of medications and drugs that are not recommended. In this category of medications belong hormone replacement therapy (HRT.The last is not recommended for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in women.

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Childhood Abuse in Battered Women: Comparisons with Maritally Distressed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Millie C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence rates among battered women and nonbattered, maritally distressed women. Battered women exhibited significantly higher rates of PTSD than the maritally distressed women. Women with PTSD were more likely than non-PTSD women to have experienced self-reported childhood sexual abuse and numerous…

  15. The Committee for Women and Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    FOR a long time, many Chinese women workers appealed to the government to set up a special organization for women and children under the State Council. They believed with the women movement developing rapidly, many

  16. Nazi Women Before 1933: Rebels Against Emancipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonz, Claudia

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the political affiliation of German women with the past Nazi party before 1933. He discusses why German women supported the anti-feminist Nazi group which showed open contempt for women. (Author/RM)

  17. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infection in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection in women in general and in postmenopausal women in particular. Two groups of elderly women with recurrent UTI should be differentiated regarding age and general status: healthy, young postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years who are neither institutionalized or catheterized and elderly institutionalized women with or without a catheter. Bacteriuria occurs more often in elderly functionally impaired women, but in general it i...

  19. Women Economy Reforming the New Market Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ From August 12 to 13, "2006women Economy Forum" was held in Beijing. This forum is organized by China Association of Women Entrepreneurs, United Nations Development Fund for Women (Beijing), USA US-China Economic and Trade Promotion Council, China Women and Children Development Center, China International Economy TV and Talents magazine. The theme of this forum is:Women Economy Power and Women Entrepreneur Spirit.

  20. Conference empowers many women, dismays others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, J

    1999-11-01

    The goal of the 1999 National Conference on Women and HIV/AIDS was to share information and politically and mentally empower women to manage their health care. One major session, entitled HIV in Women in Color Communities, addressed the changing role of women in the history of the disease. Women were initially seen as carriers, but their image has changed to that of victim. Trends continue to show that infection rates among women are rising faster than those among men. Women were urged to change their roles as victims, and to demand more women-centered treatment programs, better laws to protect them from violence, and leadership development.

  1. [Valvular heart disease in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Pilar

    2006-08-01

    Very few studies of valvular heart disease have been specifically carried out in women. It is well known that the prevalence of some types of valve disease is influenced by sex: rheumatic mitral stenosis is very common in women but degenerative valve disease affects both sexes similarly. A number of sex differences in the physiopathology of degenerative aortic stenosis have been reported: the degree of calcification is less in women than men and women's ventricles respond to equivalent reductions in valve area with a greater increase in gradient and greater contractility. With regard to prognosis, it is generally accepted that mortality associated with heart surgery is higher in women than men, for both coronary artery and valve surgery. The underlying reasons for the increase in mortality are not clear. Pregnancy presents particular difficulties for women with valvular heart disease. In those with significant valve lesions, it is advisable to correct the valve disease before pregnancy is considered. Anticoagulant treatment involves serious problems for pregnant women with a mechanical prosthesis. They suffer increased risks of prosthetic valve thrombosis and of fetal embryopathy if they take oral anticoagulants during the first trimester.

  2. Women's Centers and Women Administrators: Breaking the Glass Slipper Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellow, Gail O.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on benefits of mutually supportive relationships between female administrators and women's center directors. Identifies specific roles that female administrators can play (guardian angel, mentor). Also discusses benefits that administrators derive from closer ties with center directors. (NB)

  3. Women-Only Tourism: Agency and Control in Women's Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A trend in the travel industry has been the growth of tours marketed for women only. These often involve travel with the goal of learning new skills, developing competence, or sharing group experiences. In this study, I analyze these tours using feminist leisure theory to illustrate how women are using their agency to take control of their own leisure. Using interviews with tour participants and participant observation, I conclude that taking part in a women-only tour is a unique leisure experience with the ability to remove women from the constraints of everyday role expectations and offer them opportunities to assert independence and develop life skills that are potentially life changing and empowering.

  4. Three Laid-off Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE problems of laid-off women have become a common concern in Shanghai. Laid-off women believe they should be able to find employment instead of returning to their kitchens. Women’s organizations, which are called women’s parents’ home, are also helping laid-off women return to their jobs by every possible means. Chen Xiaoli was a worker at a knitting mill which employed several hundred workers in Shanghai. She is tall, healthy and open-minded. During the "cultural revolution," teaching work was stopped in

  5. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  6. Psychogenic seizures--why women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, M

    2000-01-01

    The only consistent finding in studies of psychogenic seizures is the approximately threefold higher incidence in women. Therefore, why women? Charcot and Freud emphasized the sexual aspects of the seizure as has the current interest in childhood sexual abuse. From case studies and review of the literature the author believes that psychogenic seizures in women express rage, fear, and helplessness against the dominant and abusive male rather than sexual conflicts. Emphasizing the aggressive component of seizures does not minimize the traumatic effects of sexual abuse but rather includes it as leading to rage and helplessness.

  7. New horizons for Mexico's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando De Cosio, R

    1993-11-01

    In Mexico, a rural woman's sole worth lies in her ability to have children. Her husband's status in the community also rests on this ability. Family planning and enjoyment of sex by a woman are taboo. Physical abuse of women by men is accepted and common. Education of young girls and women, which leads to increase self-esteem and trust in outsiders, is necessary to begin the process that will allow rural women to take control of their lives and their relationships with men. This process is the adoption of family planning practices.

  8. [Hyperandrogenism in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigné, Maëliss; Villers-Capelle, Anne; Robin, Geoffroy; Dewailly, Didier

    2013-11-01

    Clinical signs of hyperandrogenism include hirsutism, acne and/or seborrhea, androgenic alopecia, menstrual disorders and at maximum virilization. Hirsutism is defined by the presence of a coarse and pigmented hair in male territory. In the Caucasian populations, a Ferriman Gallwey score ≥ 6 means hirsutism. Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of hyerandrogenism in women (70 % of cases) but must remain a diagnosis of exclusion. A neoplasm origin is suspected in case of recent onset of hyperandrogenism, which is rapidly progressive and with signs of virilization. The serum level of total testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone and pelvic ultrasonography are the first line tests in case of clinical hyperandrogenism. Combined oral contraceptive pill can be the first line treatment in case of moderate hyperandrogenia, associated, if needed, with a specific acne treatment. Cyproterone acetate is the best-known and most effective antiandrogenic treatment. It decreases the hair density, speed of regrowth and pigmentation. It is indicated in severe hirsutism and must be combined with cosmetic cares.

  9. Women who made history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Named after the first female doctor in the Dominican Republic and established in 1987 with the goal of providing high-quality services in a welcoming atmosphere at low prices, the Evangelina Rodriguez Maternal and Child Health Clinic now serves 80% of all residents of north Santo Domingo city. The center's 6 physicians and 3 nurse's aides provide maternal and child health care, including family planning and gynecological services, to 300 people daily in a marginalized area of the city where people live in overcrowded neighborhoods. The Director of Services in the southern region of PROFAMILIA, the family planning association in the Dominican Republic, supervises the clinic's services. Another of PROFAMILIA's clinics is named after an advocate of women's rights in the country, Rosa Cisneros, a lawyer who was murdered in her home, in San Salvador, on August 18, 1981, in the context of a civil war in the country. The Rosa Cisneros Clinic in Santiago de los Caballeros has 16 employees, including administrative staff, counselors, doctors, and nurses who serve almost 300 people per day.

  10. Breast Cancer In Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  11. Young Women\\'s Anger in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Sierra, Ana L

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated how young women "do" and "undo" gender in relation to their anger in romantic relationships. With this aim, I conducted in-depth interviews with 24 young women between the ages of 18 and 25. I interviewed participants about the characteristics of their current romantic relationships and their experiences of anger in this context. I used a constructivist grounded theory methodology involving open, axial, and theoretical coding to analyze the data collected thr...

  12. Women in physics in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzuzi, Kukka

    2013-03-01

    The representation of women in physics and related fields of study in Finland, career advancement of female physicists in Finland, and the actions carried out in recent years to improve the situation are summarized.

  13. Women, motherhood and early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper explores the question of how Roma women’s situation influences Roma children’s survival, growth and development in the early years. It focuses specifically on the barriers and opportunities for action that Roma women experience and how these influence their possibilities to engage...... in efforts for their young children. The paper adopts the perspective that in poor and socially excluded Roma communities, young children’s survival, growth and development cannot be addressed effectively if the rights of women are overlooked. Roma women navigate in contexts where they, as women, experience...... multiple barriers to their agency in particular due to multiple forms of discrimination and living in poverty on the margins of society. In such contexts of disempowerment, programme responses are likely to meet with limited success if they seek to teach mothers about child care and rearing, without...

  14. [Stress incontinence in elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loertzer, H; Schneider, P

    2013-06-01

    Stress incontinence is one of the major challenges in geriatric medicine. This is becoming more apparent in routine urology practice with the demographic changes in the population. A thorough diagnosis for a correct treatment of stress incontinence is as important in elderly women as it is in younger patients. This includes assessing the risk factors of incontinence and obesity, parturition, pelvic surgery and changes in hormone levels are risk factors usually found in elderly women. These are the main reasons why this patient group is most frequently affected. Treatment options do not differ significantly from these of younger women. Lifestyle modification, weight loss and supervised pelvic floor training are the mainstays of conservative therapy and surgical treatment should only be considered after these options have been exhausted. In these cases minimally invasive surgical techniques offer clear advantages especially for elderly often multimorbid women.

  15. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  16. Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pelvic pain in women Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Chronic pelvic pain is pain in the area below your bellybutton ... your hips that lasts six months or longer. Chronic pelvic pain can have multiple causes. It can be a ...

  17. Women in Astronomy Workshop Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brough, Sarah; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (http://asawomeninastronomy.org/meetings/wia2011/), which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The workshop consisted of four sessions, with presentations by invited speakers on demographics, leadership, varied career paths, and how institutions & individuals can help. The workshop ended with a discussion panel that summarised the day's debate and presented a list of recommendations for the Australian astronomical community (both individuals and institutions) that are provided in this report.

  18. Affordable Care Act and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outcomes Research Trust Fund (PCORTF) Poverty Poverty Guidelines Poverty Analysis Teen Pregnancy Prevention Homelessness MACRA Publications Data and Tools Evaluation Database The Affordable Care Act and Women 03/20/2012 Home The Affordable Care Act ...

  19. Sexual Health Issues in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  20. of nutritional status of women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was administered to pregnant women, lactating ..... Authority. Ethiopia .Demographic and Health Survey 2000. Central Statistics Authority, Addis Ababa. 2001. Tuazan, M.A.. ... Parental Care, and Nutritional. Status of.