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Sample records for clinically apparent metastasis

  1. Brain metastasis of breast cancer: clinical and radiologic findings

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    An, Jin Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub

    2001-01-01

    To analyse the clinical and radiologic findings brain metastasis of breast cancer. Sixty-one of 1399 patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 were affected by brain metastasis. Among these 1399, the stage of the breast cancer, in descending order of frequency, was IIA (n=508), I (n=366), IIB (n=247), IIIA (n=189), IIIB (n=45), 0 (n=33) and IV (n=11). The stage of the 61 brain metastases, similarly ordered, was IIB (12.5%), IIA (3.9%), IIIA (3.1%), IIIB (2.2%) and I (0.8%). In all confirmed breast cancers, the age distribution, in descending order of frequency, was 40-49years (n=610), 50-59 (n=301), 30-39 (n=291), 60-69 (n=124), 20-19 (n=41), 70-79 (n=28), and 80-89 (n=4). The age distribution of brain metastasis was 20-29 (14.6%), 30-39 (7.9%), 50-59 (4.6%). 40-49 (2.6%) and 60-69 (1.6%). Imaging findings were available for 35 of the 61 patients affected by brain metastasis, and symptoms from brain among the 35, analysis of the symptoms of this metastasis, the site of the first distant metastasis to an extracranial or cranial organ, the interval from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis, the interval from brain metastasis to death, and the difference in survival time between patients with initial and succeeding brain metastasis was undertaken. Brain CT findings were analysed in 29 cases and MRI findings in eight. The most common symptoms were headache and vomiting. Among the 35 brain metastasis patients for whom imaging findings were available, other systemic metastasis occurred in 22. Initial brain metastasis occurred in the remaining 13, and in seven of these there was also coincident organ metastasis, while six showed only brain metastasis, The most frequent intervals from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis were 1-2 years(8/35) and 2-3years(8/35). Twenty-six of 35 patients died within one year of brain metastasis. Patients in whom this occurred later survived for longer than those in whom it occurred

  2. Atrial Septal Aneurysm Presenting as Clubbing without Clinically Apparent Cyanosis.

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    Goyal, Laxmi Kant; Banerjee, S; Yadav, R N; Singh, Gajraj; Ganguli, Sujata; Isran, Rohit

    2015-09-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a localised "saccular" deformity which protrudes to the right or the left atrium or on both sides. It is a rare, but well recognised cardiac abnormality. It is usually an incidental finding or may presents as atrial arrhythmias or arterial embolism. Though it is an acyanotic congenital heart disease but it may result in significant right to left shunt and cyanosis. We describe a patient of ASA with atrial septal defect who presented with clubbing and right to left shunt without clinically apparent cyanosis. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  3. Correlation between tissue metabolism and cellularity assessed by standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient in peritoneal metastasis.

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    Yu, Xue; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Lai, Vincent; Chan, Queenie

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) (tissue metabolism) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (water diffusivity) in peritoneal metastases. Patients with peritoneal dissemination detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) were prospectively recruited for MRI examinations with informed consent and the study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. FDG-PET/CT, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MRI, and DWI/MRI images were independently reviewed by two radiologists based on visual analysis. SUVmax/SUVmean and ADCmin/ADCmean were obtained manually by drawing ROIs over the peritoneal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and DWI, respectively. Diagnostic characteristics of each technique were evaluated. Pearson's coefficient and McNemar and Kappa tests were used for statistical analysis. Eight patients were recruited for this prospective study and 34 peritoneal metastases were evaluated. ADCmean was significantly and negatively correlated with SUVmax (r = -0.528, P = 0.001) and SUVmean (r = -0.548, P = 0.001). ADCmin had similar correlation with SUVmax (r = -0.508, P = 0.002) and SUVmean (r = -0.513, P = 0.002). DWI/MRI had high diagnostic performance (accuracy = 98%) comparable to FDG-PET/CT, in peritoneal metastasis detection. Kappa values were excellent for all techniques. There was a significant inverse correlation between SUV and ADC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clinical outcome for patients of solitary bone only metastasis.

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    Hosaka, Seiichi; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Honda, Yosuke; Wasa, Junji; Murata, Hideki; Takahashi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    Solitary bone only metastasis (SBOM) is a rare condition in which metastasis is limited to a single skeletal lesion originating from a previously treated or controllable primary lesion. The study objective was to evaluate the clinical features and survival regarding this rare condition and to clarify its treatment strategy. A total of 1453 patients with bone metastasis registered in our hospital database were enrolled. To assess the primary and/or metastatic lesion we used plain X-ray images, CT, MRI and FDG-PET scans as well as bone scans. Among the patients, only 27 (1.8%) had SBOM. The primary cancers responsible for SBOM were lung in seven patients, breast in five, kidney in four, prostate in two, uterus in two and other types in seven. Treatment of SBOM involved resection in four patients, radiotherapy only in 17, radiotherapy in combination with zoledronate in six and chemotherapy with zoledronate in one. Local recurrence did not develop in the four cases treated with resection. However, in-field recurrence was found in 4 of 22 (18%) patients who underwent radiotherapy. All three patients who received >40 Gy did not develop in-field recurrence. The overall and event free survival rates at 5 years were 63% and 41%, respectively. Solitary bone only metastasis should be treated with wide resection or long-course radiotherapy at doses 40-50 Gy to achieve long lasting local tumor control. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and clinical features of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi; Furutani, Kazuhisa; Boku, Narikazu; Nakasu, Yoko; Nishimura, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma has been considered rare and survival following esophageal carcinoma with distant metastasis is poor. The purpose of this report was to clarify cumulative incidence and risk factors for brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma, and to consider recommended treatments for brain metastasis from esophageal carcinoma. We reviewed 391 patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Median age was 65 years. Clinical stages were I, II, III, and IV in 32, 47, 150, and 162 patients, respectively. Brain imaging was performed usually when patients revealed neurological symptoms. The 3-year cumulative incidence of brain metastasis after chemoradiotherapy was 6.6%. There were 4 patients with single metastasis and 8 with multiple metastases. Initial clinical stages were II, III, and IV in 1, 2, and 9 patients, respectively. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and others in 2 patients. Univariate analysis demonstrated M factor, distant lymph node relapse, and recurrent lung and liver metastasis as significant risk factors of brain metastasis (P<0.05). Median survival time after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 2.1 months. Brain metastasis was not directly related to cause of mortality. The causes were extracranial tumor deterioration in 8 patients and infection in 4 patients. Brain metastasis may increase in the future with improving survival from esophageal carcinoma. However, considering the poor survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis, short-term palliative therapy for brain metastasis appears preferable to vigorous long-term therapy. (author)

  6. Clinically Apparent Arterial Thrombosis in Persons with Systemic Vasculitis

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    Alexander Tsoukas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the incidence rate of clinically apparent arterial thrombotic events and associated comorbidities in patients with primary systemic vasculitis. Methods. Using large cohort administrative data from Quebec, Canada, we identified patients with vasculitis, including polyarteritis nodosa (PAN and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA. Incident acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs after the diagnosis of vasculitis were ascertained in the PAN and GPA group via billing and hospitalization data. These were compared to rates of a general population comparator group. The incidences of comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension were also collected. Results. Among the 626 patients identified with vasculitis, 19.7% had PAN, 2.9% had Kawasaki disease, 23.8% had GPA, 52.4% had GCA, and 1.3% had Takayasu arteritis. The AMI rate was substantially higher in males aged 18–44 with PAN, with rates up to 268.1 events per 10,000 patient years [95% CI 67.1–1070.2], approximately 30 times that in the age- and sex-matched control group. The CVA rate was also substantially higher, particularly in adults aged 45–65. Patients with vasculitis had elevated incidences of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension versus the general population. Conclusion. Atherothrombotic rates were elevated in patients identified as having primary systemic vasculitis. While incident rates of cardiovascular comorbidities were also increased, the substantial elevation in AMIs seen in young adults suggests a disease-specific component which requires further investigation.

  7. Metastasis

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    ... and Care Surgical Treatment Laparoscopic Surgery Vaccine Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Clinical Trials Pain Management Nutrition and Exercise Holistic Care Pathology Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Islet Cell ...

  8. Clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

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    Deng, Jing-Yu; Liang, Han

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignancies in the world, frequently reveals lymph node, peritoneum, and liver metastases. Most of gastric cancer patients present with lymph node metastasis when they were initially diagnosed or underwent surgical resection, which results in poor prognosis. Both the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node involvement are considered as the most important prognostic predictors of gastric cancer. Although extended lymphadenectomy was not considered a survival benefit procedure and was reported to be associated with high mortality and morbidity in two randomized controlled European trials, it showed significant superiority in terms of lower locoregional recurrence and disease related deaths compared to limited lymphadenectomy in a 15-year follow-up study. Almost all clinical investigators have reached a consensus that the predictive efficiency of the number of metastatic lymph nodes is far better than the extent of lymph node metastasis for the prognosis of gastric cancer worldwide, but other nodal metastatic classifications of gastric cancer have been proposed as alternatives to the number of metastatic lymph nodes for improving the predictive efficiency for patient prognosis. It is still controversial over whether the ratio between metastatic and examined lymph nodes is superior to the number of metastatic lymph nodes in prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. Besides, the negative lymph node count has been increasingly recognized to be an important factor significantly associated with prognosis of gastric cancer. PMID:24744586

  9. Apparent diffusion coefficients of breast tumors. Clinical application

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    Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Kamitani, Takeshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Tsuneyoshi, Masazumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for the differential diagnosis of breast tumors and to determine the relation between ADC and tumor cellularity. One hundred and thirty-six female patients (age range, 17-83 years; average age, 51.7 years) with 140 histologically proven breast tumors underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) using the spin-echo echo-planar technique, and the ADCs of the tumors were calculated using 3 different b values, 0, 500, and 1000 s/mm 2 . The diagnoses consisted of fibroadenoma (FA, n=16), invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (IDC, n=117), medullary carcinoma (ME, n=3) and mucinous carcinoma (MU, n=4). Tumor cellularity was calculated from surgical specimens. The ADCs of breast tumors and cellularity were compared between different histological types by analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test. The correlation between tumor cellularity and ADC was analyzed by Pearson correlation test. Significant differences were observed in ADCs between FA and all types of cancers (P 2 =0.451). The ADC may potentially help in differentiating benign and malignant breast tumors. Tumor ADC correlates inversely with tumor cellularity. (author)

  10. Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients for Occult Tonsil Cancer in Patients with Cervical Nodal Metastasis from an Unknown Primary Site at Presentation.

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    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Hye Ok; Kim, Dae Yoon; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Cho, So Hyun; Koh, Myeong Ju; Kim, Namkug; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To explore the added value of histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values over magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the detection of occult palatine tonsil squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in patients with cervical nodal metastasis from a cancer of an unknown primary site. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Differences in the bimodal histogram parameters of the ADC values were assessed among occult palatine tonsil SCC (n = 19), overt palatine tonsil SCC (n = 20), and normal palatine tonsils (n = 20). One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze differences among the three groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best differentiating parameters. The increased sensitivity of histogram analysis over MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of occult palatine tonsil SCC was evaluated as added value. Histogram analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean, standard deviation, and 50th and 90th percentile ADC values among the three groups (P histogram analysis was 52.6% over MR imaging alone and 15.8% over combined conventional MR imaging and (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Adding ADC histogram analysis to conventional MR imaging can improve the detection sensitivity for occult palatine tonsil SCC in patients with a cervical nodal metastasis originating from a cancer of an unknown primary site. © RSNA, 2015.

  11. Tissue invasion and metastasis: Molecular, biological and clinical perspectives.

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    Jiang, W G; Sanders, A J; Katoh, M; Ungefroren, H; Gieseler, F; Prince, M; Thompson, S K; Zollo, M; Spano, D; Dhawan, P; Sliva, D; Subbarayan, P R; Sarkar, M; Honoki, K; Fujii, H; Georgakilas, A G; Amedei, A; Niccolai, E; Amin, A; Ashraf, S S; Ye, L; Helferich, W G; Yang, X; Boosani, C S; Guha, G; Ciriolo, M R; Aquilano, K; Chen, S; Azmi, A S; Keith, W N; Bilsland, A; Bhakta, D; Halicka, D; Nowsheen, S; Pantano, F; Santini, D

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is a key health issue across the world, causing substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Patient prognosis is tightly linked with metastatic dissemination of the disease to distant sites, with metastatic diseases accounting for a vast percentage of cancer patient mortality. While advances in this area have been made, the process of cancer metastasis and the factors governing cancer spread and establishment at secondary locations is still poorly understood. The current article summarizes recent progress in this area of research, both in the understanding of the underlying biological processes and in the therapeutic strategies for the management of metastasis. This review lists the disruption of E-cadherin and tight junctions, key signaling pathways, including urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (PI3K/AKT), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), β-catenin/zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), together with inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity as key targets and the use of phytochemicals, or natural products, such as those from Agaricus blazei, Albatrellus confluens, Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma lucidum, Poria cocos and Silybum marianum, together with diet derived fatty acids gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and inhibitory compounds as useful approaches to target tissue invasion and metastasis as well as other hallmark areas of cancer. Together, these strategies could represent new, inexpensive, low toxicity strategies to aid in the management of cancer metastasis as well as having holistic effects against other cancer hallmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MR imaging of bone marrow metastasis in patients with neuroblastoma. Comparison between mass-screened cases and clinically detected cases

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    Kanegawa, Kimio; Akasaka, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Ryuta; Nishiyama, Shoji; Mabuchi, Osamu; Muraji, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    Seventy-six patients with neuroblastoma who underwent bone marrow MRI were divided into two groups: the first group consisted of patients detected by mass screening (M group, n=55), and the second group of patients detected clinically (non-M group, n=21). Bone marrow metastasis was morphologically classified into two types, nodular type and diffuse type. We studied the incidence of bone marrow metastasis, relationship between the patterns of bone marrow metastasis and the presence of bone metastasis, and morphological changes of bone marrow metastasis after chemotherapy. In M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 7.3% (4 patients) and the patterns of bone marrow metastases were all nodular type not accompanied with bone metastasis and disappeared after chemotherapy. In non-M group, the incidence of bone marrow metastasis was 52.4% (11 patients). Bone marrow metastases had both patterns of metastasis. Forty-five per cent of diffuse type of bone marrow metastasis were accompanied with bone metastasis. All bone marrow metastases disappeared after chemotherapy, but in one of 11, there was recurrence of bone marrow metastasis. (author)

  13. [A single metastasis in the carpal bones as the first clinical manifestation of a hepatocellular carcinoma].

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    Corrales Pinzón, R; Alonso Sánchez, J M; de la Mano González, S; El Karzazi Tarazona, K

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary tumor of the liver. Spreading outside the liver usually takes place in advanced stages of the disease, and bone is the third most common site of metastases. We present a case of hepatocellular carcinoma in which the first clinical manifestation was a single metastasis to the carpal bones. The interest of this case lies in the way this hepatocellular carcinoma manifested as well as in the unusual site of the metastasis. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Solitary Laryngeal Metastasis from Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney: Clinical Case and Review of the Literature

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    Tarek Assi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urogenital tract is a rare origin of laryngeal metastasis; transitional cell carcinoma with laryngeal metastases had never been reported previously. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of the first reported case of a laryngeal metastasis of a TCC followed by a brief review of the literature.

  15. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Ann F; Naumov, George N; Vantyghem, Sharon A; Tuck, Alan B

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  16. Breast metastasis and lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: first clinical observation.

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    Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Verrico, Monica; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Moretti, Valentina; Strudel, Martina; Zoratto, Federica; Minozzi, Marina; Tomao, Silverio

    2017-09-01

    The lung large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a very rare aggressive neuroendocrine tumor with a high propensity to metastasize and very poor prognosis. We report an atypical presentation of lung LCNEC was diagnosed from a metastatic nodule on the breast. Our patient is a 59-years-old woman that presented in March 2014 nonproductive cough. A CT scan showed multiple brain, lung, adrenal gland and liver secondary lesions; moreover, it revealed a breast right nodule near the chest measuring 1.8 cm. The breast nodule and lung lesions were biopsied and their histology and molecular diagnosis were LCNEC of the lung. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of breast metastasis from LCNEC of the lung. Furthermore, breast metastasis from extramammary malignancy is uncommon and its diagnosis is difficult but important for proper management and prediction of prognosis. Therefore, a careful clinical history with a thorough clinical examination is needed to make the correct diagnosis. Moreover, metastasis to the breast should be considered in any patient with a known primary malignant tumor history who presents with a breast lump. Anyhow, pathological examination should be performed to differentiate the primary breast cancer from metastatic tumor. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis of breast metastases may not only avoid unnecessary breast resection, more importantly it is crucial to determine an appropriate and systemic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical value of SPECT/CT imaging in the diagnosis of bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Zhao Yanping; Lu Haijian; Dong Zhanfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) SPECT/CT imaging for the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Methods: Patients suspected for bone metastasis and with bone pain of unknown origin were included in this study (n=237). All cases underwent SPECT and CT imaging at 180 min after 99 Tc m -MDP injection. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology (n=21), more than 2 kinds of radiologieal imaging (MRI, CT, X-ray) (n=106), and clinical follow up in 2 years (n=110). χ 2 -test was used to compare the results of planar and SPECT/CT imaging using SAS 6.12 software. Results: In 237 patients, planar imaging of 142 cases matched the final diagnosis in which 72 had benign lesions and 70 had bone metastases. The definite coincidence rate was 95.30% (142/149). SPECT/CT imaging of 224 cases matched the final diagnosis in which 104 had benign lesions and 120 cases diagnosed as bone metastases. The coincidence and definite coincidence rates were 94.51% (224/237), and 99.48% (192/193). Difference in the definite coincidence rate between planar and SPECT/CT imaging was statistically significant (χ 2 = 5.37, P=0.024). Conclusion: SPECT/CT imaging is valuable for accurate localization of osseous pathology and for improvement of diagnosing bone metastasis. (authors)

  18. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

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    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Stangl, Gerhard; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Michael, Rainer; Weissgram, Silvia; Leitha, Thomas; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz; Bauer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Clinical chemistry reference values for elderly persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger subjects. To understand the links between metabolism and aging, it is paramount to differentiate between "normal" physiological processes in apparently healthy elderly subjects and metabolic changes due to long-lasting diseases. The Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study, which began in 2000 and is continuing, will allow us to do just that, because more than 600 male and female volunteers aged exactly 75 years (to exclude any influence of the "aging" factor in this cohort) are participating in this study. Extensive clinical, neurological, biochemical, psychological, genetic, and radiological analyses, with a special emphasis on consumption of medication and abuse of drugs, were performed on each of the probands. The multitude of data and questionnaires obtained made possible an a posteriori approach to select individuals fulfilling criteria for a reference sample group of apparently healthy 75-year-old subjects for our study. Specific analytes were quantified on automated clinical analyzers, while manual methods were used for hormonal analytes. All clinical chemistry analytes were evaluated using in-depth statistical analyses with SPSS for Windows. In all, reference intervals for 45 analytes could be established. These include routine parameters for the assessment of organ functions, as well as hormone concentrations and hematological appraisals. Because all patients were reevaluated after exactly 30 months in the course of this study, we had the opportunity to reassess their health status at the age of 77.5 years. This was very useful for validation of the first round data set. Data of the second round evaluation corroborate the reference limits of the baseline analysis and further confirm our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In summary, we have established a reliable set of reference data for hormonal, hematological, and clinical chemistry analytes for

  19. Occipital condyle metastasis: an unusual clinical presentation in carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasricha, R.; Mohanty, P.P.; Madan, R.C.; Datta, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Metastases to the base of the skull and occipital condyle metastases are uncommon as a presenting feature of malignancy. Lung cancers are known for their metastatic potential to various sites, some of which could be the only presenting feature of the underlying malignancy. However, occipital condyle metastases are very rare and to the best of our knowledge, metastases to this site from carcinoma of the lung, as a presenting feature, have never been reported in the literature. The present case report describes the clinical, radiological and the therapeutic interventions that were undertaken in a patient presenting with lung cancer who had solely the features of occipital condyle metastasis

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcome of bone-only metastasis in inflammatory and noninflammatory breast cancers.

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    Kai, Megumi; Kogawa, Takahiro; Liu, Diane D; Fouad, Tamer M; Kai, Kazuharu; Niikura, Naoki; Hsu, Limin; Willey, Jie S; Theriault, Richard L; Valero, Vicente; Ueno, Naoto T

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and aggressive presentation of breast cancer. Bone is a common metastatic site in breast cancer, and bone-only metastatic disease is clinically considered to have a better prognosis than visceral metastasis. However, bone-only metastasis in IBC (bone-only IBC) has not been compared with bone-only metastasis in non-IBC (bone-only non-IBC) in terms of clinical features and outcome. Because of the intrinsically aggressive nature of IBC, we hypothesized that bone-only IBC has a poorer prognosis than does bone-only non-IBC. We retrospectively identified patients with stage III primary diagnosed breast cancer who, between January 1997 and December 2012, had a first recurrence located only in the bone. Among the 197 patients that we defined as a study cohort, 50 patients had IBC and 147 patients had non-IBC. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the date of recurrence were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and patient characteristic groups were compared using the log-rank test. OS did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P = .2467), but a shorter PFS was seen in patients with bone-only IBC than in patients with bone-only non-IBC (P = .0357). Among patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease, a much shorter PFS was seen in bone-only IBC than in bone-only non-IBC (P = .0159). Bone-only IBC has a poorer prognosis than does bone-only non-IBC, particularly in those with ER-positive tumors. We might need to consider more aggressive intervention (e.g., chemotherapy) for IBC patients with ER-positive bone-only metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Late Lung Metastasis of a Primary Eccrine Sweat Gland Carcinoma 10 Years after Initial Surgical Treatment: The First Clinical Documentation

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    R. F. Falkenstern-Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a high metastatic potential seen more commonly in elderly patients. The scalp is the most common site of occurrence and it usually spreads to regional lymph nodes. Liver, lungs, and bones are the most common sites of distant metastasis. Late lung metastasis of sweat gland adenocarcinoma after a time span of 5 years is extremely rare. Aim. We report a patient with late lung metastasis of a primary sweat gland carcinoma 10 years after initial surgical resection. Conclusion. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare cancers with a poor prognosis. Surgery in the form of wide local excision and lymph node dissection is the mainstay of treatment. Late pulmonary metastases with a latency of 10 years have never been reported in the literature. This is the first clinical documentation of late lung metastasis from sweat gland carcinoma with a latency period of 10 years.

  2. Chocolate intake and risk of clinically apparent atrial fibrillation: the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study.

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    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Berg Johansen, Martin; Tjønneland, Anne; Chahal, Harpreet S; Mittleman, Murray A; Overvad, Kim

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55 502 participants (26 400 men and 29 102 women) aged 50-64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries. During a median of 13.5 years there were 3346 cases of AF. Compared with chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming 1-3 servings/month (hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.98), 1 serving/week (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92), 2-6 servings/week (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91) and ≥1 servings/day (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; p-linear trend chocolate intake may be inversely associated with AF risk, although residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Defining the incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis in soft tissue sarcoma.

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    Keung, Emily Z; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Voss, Rachel K; Cormier, Janice N; Torres, Keila E; Hunt, Kelly K; Feig, Barry W; Roland, Christina L

    2018-01-01

    The incidence and clinical significance of lymph node metastasis (LNM, N1) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is unclear. Recent studies have focused on extremity/trunk STS (ETSTS). We sought to define the subgroup of patients with LNM at sarcoma diagnosis across all disease sites and histologies. We identified and categorized 89,870 STS patients from the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) by nodal stage. Pathologically confirmed LNM (pN1) were identified in 1404 patients; 1750 had clinically suspicious but not pathologically confirmed LNM (cN1). Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier method. Of 3154 patients (3.5%) with pN1 or cN1 LNM at presentation, 1310 had synchronous distant metastasis (M1). LNM affected a small proportion of patients (5.8% head/neck, 5.3% intrathoracic, 5.1% intra-abdominal, 2.0% ETSTS). Angiosarcoma (6%), epithelioid (13%), clear cell (16%), and small cell sarcoma (19%) had the highest incidence of LNM, although liposarcoma, fibrous histiocytoma, and leiomyosarcoma accounted for the greatest number of LNM patients. For pN1M0 disease, median overall survival (OS) was 28.2 months, varying by histology. Among patients with pN1M0 STS, angiosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and fibrous histiocytoma were associated with worse median OS (19.4, 23.8, 27.1, and 29.3 months) compared to epithelioid sarcoma and liposarcoma (49.6 and 56.0 months, p < 0.001). Despite clinical suspicion, pathologic LN evaluation in STS is inconsistently performed. LNM occurs across anatomic disease sites and is unevenly distributed across histologies. Although M1 disease portends poor prognosis regardless of LN status, LNM predicts worse OS in a histology-dependent manner in M0 disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Hypophyseal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes Quesada, Miguel Angel; Yanes Quesada, Marelys; Lopez Arbolay, Omar; Lima Perez, Mayte; Hernandez Yero, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. We describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. (Author)

  5. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Clinical background and its relation to results of percutaneous needle biopsy of suspected bone metastasis under guidance with CT fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Jun; Koyama, Yoshinori; Morita, Hideo; Takahashi, Ayako; Nakajima, Takahito; Yagi, Akiko; Arai, Kiyokazu; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Hideomi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical background of needle biopsy of suspected bone metastasis under guidance with CT fluoroscopy. During a 3-year period (from April 2000 to March 2003), 103 needle biopsies on 101 lesions of 90 patients were performed for pathological evaluation of suspected bone metastasis. The clinical course of these patients prior to biopsy and its relation to the biopsy results were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-two patients (69% of total cases) were referred for biopsy from orthopedic surgeons, and 51 of these patients consulted orthopedic surgeons on the initial presentation. Malignancy was pathologically proved in 47 (76%) of the 62 orthopedic patients, and in 19 (68%) of the 28 patients referred from other clinicians. Thirteen (21%) of the orthopedic patients had a history of malignancy, while 22 (78%) of the non-orthopedic patients were cancer patients. Metastasis was pathologically proved in 23 (66%) of the 35 patients with a history of malignancy, while malignancy was pathologically proved in 43 (78%) of the 55 patients without known malignancy. Diagnostic accuracy of the needle bone biopsy was 96%, and its complication rate was 0.7%. In the era of CT fluoroscopy, needle biopsy for suspected bone metastasis was most frequently requested for the patients who consulted orthopedic surgeons for the occurrence of local bone pain as the initial symptom of unknown malignancy. Frequency of malignancy proved by the biopsy in those patients was as high as that in the cancer patients referred from other clinicians. (author)

  7. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free cortisol concentration: Some physiological and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Ghione, S.; Zucchelli, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of the apparent free plasma cortisol concentration by means of direct radioimmunological measurement of dialyzed cortisol. This method is characterized by a sufficient degree of reproducibility and high sensitivity. Apparent free cortisol concentration in 40 control subjects of both sexes (blood drawn at 8 a.m.) was 9.00 +- 4.6 ng/ml. The mean value of free cortisol concentration in blood samples drawn at 11-12 p.m. from 21 of these subjects was highly significantly different (2.3 +- 1.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In addition, in 13 of these subjects circadian variation of the apparent free cortisol concentration showed a pattern similar to that of total cortisol concentration. The mean free cortisol concentration found in a group of women during normal pregnancy was significant higher than in non-pregnant women. Patients with renal insufficiency do not show a significant difference in free cortisol plasma levels, whereas higher values were found in hepatic cyrrhosis. (Auth.)

  8. The clinical course and prognosis of patients with renal adenocarcinoma with solitary metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, M.; Engelholm, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation describes a series of 25 patients with solitary metastasis from a renal adenocarcinoma. Forty-eight percent of the patients had metastatic foci in bones, 24% in the lungs, and 28% in a variety of organs. Radiotherapy was the treatment for 64% of the patients, surgery for 36%. Disease control after treatment was obtained in 88% of the patients. The 5-year survival rate was 39%. Sixteen of 25 patients died after a mean survival time of 36 months; 9/25 patients are still living 28-126 months after treatment. Women survived significantly better than men. Patients with normal pre- and post-treatment erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) survived significantly longer than patients with elevated ESR. A definite relationship between ESR and disease activity was demonstrated in 64% of the patients. It is concluded that solitary metastases in bones can be treated with radiotherapy; even if 64% of the patients die there is significant clinical remission to be obtained after aggressive treatment. Furthermore, ESR seems to be an important indicator of prognosis and disease activity

  9. SNPs in the coding region of the metastasis-inducing gene MACC1 and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Felicitas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the main cancers in the Western world. About 90% of the deaths arise from formation of distant metastasis. The expression of the newly identified gene metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a prognostic indicator for colon cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed for the first time the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of MACC1 for clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, we screened met proto-oncogene (Met, the transcriptional target gene of MACC1, for mutations. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of MACC1 in 154 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III and the crucial exons of Met in 60 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III. We analyzed the association of MACC1 polymorphisms with clinical data, including metachronous metastasis, UICC stages, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and patients’ survival (n = 154, stages I, II and III. Furthermore, we performed biological assays in order to evaluate the functional impact of MACC1 SNPs on the motility of colorectal cancer cells. Results We genotyped three MACC1 SNPs in the coding region. Thirteen % of the tumors had the genotype cg (rs4721888, L31V, 48% a ct genotype (rs975263, S515L and 84% a gc or cc genotype (rs3735615, R804T. We found no association of these SNPs with clinicopathological parameters or with patients’ survival, when analyzing the entire patients’ cohort. An increased risk for a shorter metastasis-free survival of patients with a ct genotype (rs975263 was observed in younger colon cancer patients with stage I or II (P = 0.041, n = 18. In cell culture, MACC1 SNPs did not affect MACC1-induced cell motility and proliferation. Conclusion In summary, the identification of coding MACC1 SNPs in primary colorectal tumors does not improve the prediction for metastasis formation or for patients’ survival compared to MACC1 expression analysis alone. The ct genotype (rs

  10. The clinical value of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Bangkun; Yang Jisheng; Shen Dawei; Zuo Lei; Jiang Ling; Zhou Ya

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical value of 99m Tc-MIBI imaging for axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. Methods: 56 patients with breast cancer proven by pathology were imaged with 99m Tc-MIBI. Images were taken at 5, 30, 60 minutes. The axillary area of affected side was included in imaging field. Results: The primary foci in 55 cases were positive and one case was negative in uptake. Of the 56 cases, 35 had histologically proven axillary lymph node metastases. MIBI uptake was seen in 30 cases and negative in 5 cases. The sensitivity was 85.7% (30/35 cases). In 21 cases who had no metastasis, 3 cases showed false positive uptake and 18 cases were true negative, making the specificity 85.7%. In the case who had negative imaging for primary focus, which was non-palpable, had an enlarged axillary lymphatic node. Positive MIBI uptake of the node area was seen in this case. Conclusion: 99m Tc-MIBI imaging is valuable for the diagnosis of axillary nodal metastasis of breast cancer. Even though there is no palpable primary focus, if there is an enlarged axillary lymphatic node and positive MIBI uptake, metastasis should be considered

  11. New clinically relevant, orthotopic mouse models of human chondrosarcoma with spontaneous metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dass Crispin R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondrosarcoma responds poorly to adjuvant therapy and new, clinically relevant animal models are required to test targeted therapy. Methods Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and FS090, were evaluated for proliferation, colony formation, invasion, angiogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Cell lines were also investigated for VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, and RECK expression. JJ012 and FS090 were injected separately into the mouse tibia intramedullary canal or tibial periosteum. Animal limbs were measured, and x-rayed for evidence of tumour take and progression. Tibias and lungs were harvested to determine the presence of tumour and lung metastases. Results JJ012 demonstrated significantly higher proliferative capacity, invasion, and colony formation in collagen I gel. JJ012 conditioned medium stimulated endothelial tube formation and osteoclastogenesis with a greater potency than FS090 conditioned medium, perhaps related to the effects of VEGF and MMP-9. In vivo, tumours formed in intratibial and periosteal groups injected with JJ012, however no mice injected with FS090 developed tumours. JJ012 periosteal tumours grew to 3 times the non-injected limb size by 7 weeks, whereas intratibial injected limbs required 10 weeks to achieve a similar tumour size. Sectioned tumour tissue demonstrated features of grade III chondrosarcoma. All JJ012 periosteal tumours (5/5 resulted in lung micro-metastases, while only 2/4 JJ012 intratibial tumours demonstrated metastases. Conclusions The established JJ012 models replicate the site, morphology, and many behavioural characteristics of human chondrosarcoma. Local tumour invasion of bone and spontaneous lung metastasis offer valuable assessment tools to test the potential of novel agents for future chondrosarcoma therapy.

  12. Computer-socket manufacturing error: How much before it is clinically apparent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E.; Severance, Michael R.; Allyn, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to pursue quality standards for computer-manufacturing of prosthetic sockets for people with transtibial limb loss. Thirty-three duplicates of study participants’ normally used sockets were fabricated using central fabrication facilities. Socket-manufacturing errors were compared with clinical assessments of socket fit. Of the 33 sockets tested, 23 were deemed clinically to need modification. All 13 sockets with mean radial error (MRE) greater than 0.25 mm were clinically unacceptable, and 11 of those were deemed in need of sizing reduction. Of the remaining 20 sockets, 5 sockets with interquartile range (IQR) greater than 0.40 mm were deemed globally or regionally oversized and in need of modification. Of the remaining 15 sockets, 5 sockets with closed contours of elevated surface normal angle error (SNAE) were deemed clinically to need shape modification at those closed contour locations. The remaining 10 sockets were deemed clinically acceptable and not in need modification. MRE, IQR, and SNAE may serve as effective metrics to characterize quality of computer-manufactured prosthetic sockets, helping facilitate the development of quality standards for the socket manufacturing industry. PMID:22773260

  13. Large Clinically Consequential Imbalances Detected at the Breakpoints of Apparently Balanced and Inherited Chromosome Rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    South, Sarah T.; Rector, Lyndsey; Aston, Emily; Rowe, Leslie; Yang, Samuel P.

    2010-01-01

    When a chromosome abnormality is identified in a child with a developmental delay and/or multiple congenital anomalies and the chromosome rearrangement appears balanced, follow-up studies often examine both parents for this rearrangement. If either clinically unaffected parent has a chromosome abnormality with a banding pattern identical to the affected child's study, then it is assumed that the chromosome rearrangement is balanced and directly inherited from the normal carrier parent. It is ...

  14. CNS metastasis from malignant uveal melanoma: a clinical and histopathological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, S K; Lindegaard, J; Isager, P

    2008-01-01

    was observed in two cases (14%). The amount of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes was pronounced in three cases (23%). CONCLUSION: The proportion of uveal melanoma patients having CNS metastasis was 0.7%. Eleven patients had multiple organ metastases, and the average time from the initial CNS symptoms to death...

  15. Onset and Evolution of Clinically Apparent Myasthenia Gravis After Resection of Non-myasthenic Thymomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Tommaso Claudio; Tamburrini, Alessandro; Schillaci, Orazio; Ambrogi, Vincenzo

    2018-03-06

    Patients with thymoma and without clinical or electromyographical myasthenic signs may occasionally develop myasthenia several years after thymectomy. Hereby, we investigated the predictors and the evolution of this peculiar disease. We performed a retrospective analysis in 104 consecutive patients who underwent thymectomy between 1987 and 2013 for thymoma without clinical or electromyographic signs of myasthenia gravis. Predictors of post-thymectomy onset of myasthenia gravis were investigated with univariate time-to-disease analysis. Evolution of myasthenia was analyzed with time-to-regression analysis. Eight patients developed late myasthenia gravis after a median period of 33 months from thymectomy. No significant correlation was found for age, gender, Masaoka's stage, and World Health Organization histology. Only high preoperative serum acetylcholine-receptor antibodies titer (>0.3 nmol/L) was significantly associated with post-thymectomy myasthenia gravis at univariate time-to-disease (P = 0.003) analysis. Positron emission tomography was always performed in high-titer patients, and increased metabolic activity was detected in 4 of these patients. Surgical treatment through redo-sternotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed in these last cases with a remission in all patients after 12, 24, 32 and 48 months, respectively. No patient under medical treatment has yet developed a complete remission. In our study the presence of preoperative high-level serum acetylcholine receptor antibodies was the only factor significantly associated with the development of post-thymectomy myasthenia gravis. The persistence of residual islet of ectopic thymic tissue was one of the causes of the onset of myasthenia and its surgical removal was successful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prediction of Metastasis and Recurrence in Colorectal Cancer Based on Gene Expression Analysis: Ready for the Clinic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Masaki; Maak, Matthias; Nitsche, Ulrich; Gotoh, Kengo; Rosenberg, Robert; Janssen, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cancers of the colon and rectum, which rank among the most frequent human tumors, are currently treated by surgical resection in locally restricted tumor stages. However, disease recurrence and formation of local and distant metastasis frequently occur even in cases with successful curative resection of the primary tumor (R0). Recent technological advances in molecular diagnostic analysis have led to a wealth of knowledge about the changes in gene transcription in all stages of colorectal tumors. Differential gene expression, or transcriptome analysis, has been proposed by many groups to predict disease recurrence, clinical outcome, and also response to therapy, in addition to the well-established clinico-pathological factors. However, the clinical usability of gene expression profiling as a reliable and robust prognostic tool that allows evidence-based clinical decisions is currently under debate. In this review, we will discuss the most recent data on the prognostic significance and potential clinical application of genome wide expression analysis in colorectal cancer

  17. Prediction of Metastasis and Recurrence in Colorectal Cancer Based on Gene Expression Analysis: Ready for the Clinic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibayama, Masaki [Sysmex Corporation, Central Research Laboratories, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Maak, Matthias; Nitsche, Ulrich [Chirurgische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TUM, München 81657 (Germany); Gotoh, Kengo [Sysmex Corporation, Central Research Laboratories, Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Rosenberg, Robert; Janssen, Klaus-Peter, E-mail: klaus-peter.janssen@lrz.tum.de [Chirurgische Klinik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der TUM, München 81657 (Germany)

    2011-07-07

    Cancers of the colon and rectum, which rank among the most frequent human tumors, are currently treated by surgical resection in locally restricted tumor stages. However, disease recurrence and formation of local and distant metastasis frequently occur even in cases with successful curative resection of the primary tumor (R0). Recent technological advances in molecular diagnostic analysis have led to a wealth of knowledge about the changes in gene transcription in all stages of colorectal tumors. Differential gene expression, or transcriptome analysis, has been proposed by many groups to predict disease recurrence, clinical outcome, and also response to therapy, in addition to the well-established clinico-pathological factors. However, the clinical usability of gene expression profiling as a reliable and robust prognostic tool that allows evidence-based clinical decisions is currently under debate. In this review, we will discuss the most recent data on the prognostic significance and potential clinical application of genome wide expression analysis in colorectal cancer.

  18. Preliminary clinical study of 99Tcm-HL91 imaging in bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoping; Mao Ronghu; Han Xingmin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 99 Tc m -4, 9-diaza-3, 3, 10, 10-tetramethyldodecan-2, 11-dione dioxime (HL91), a new type of hypoxic agents, accumulates in tumor hypoxic tissue specifically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of 99 Tc m -HL91 imaging in the diagnosis of bone metastasis. Methods: Nine- teen cases with bone metastasis (without any treatment) and 8 cases with benign lesions underwent SPECT imaging at 4 h after injection of 740 MBq of 99 Tc m -HL91 along with 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) imaging. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in tumor tissue and contralateral normal tissue respectively, and the radioactivity ratios of tumor-to-normal (T/N) were calculated. The t-test was used for data analysis with SPSS 11.0. Results: There were visible uptake of 99 Tc m -HL91 in 79 out of 85 focuses in 19 patients of bone metastasis; however, there was no obvious uptake of 99 Tc m -HL91 in 12 focuses of 8 patients of benign lesions. Significant difference existed between the T/N values of malignant (1.877 ± 0.288) and benign lesions [(0.735 ± 0.236); t=13.065, P 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicated that 99 Tc m -HL91 was useful in diagnosing the malignant and benign bone lesions. (authors)

  19. Clinical eveluation of metastasis from carcinoma of the prostate by bone scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kiyoki; Igarashi, Jotaro; Nogaki, Joji; Kinoshita, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Eighty radioisotopic bone scintiscans in conjunction with radiographic skeletal survey were carried out in 47 patients with prostatic carcinoma encountered over the past 6 years. Five patients were excluded because of false positive bone scan. None of the patients was found with false negative bone scan irrespective of the presence of osteolytic lesions. In 21 of the remaining 42 cases (40.0%), increased information on bone metastasis was obtained by the bone scan. A positive bone scan was interpreted at 156 sites, of which 67 (42.9%) were negative on bone survey. Bone scan was superior to bone survey for detecting metastatic sites of the sternum, cervical and thoracic spine, ribs, scapula and skull. Serial bone scans in some cases demonstrated an objective response of the metastasis following hormonal treatment. At the time of bone scan, 22 of 47 cases (46.8%) showed an abnormal renal image, which represented the degree of bone metastasis as well as that of renal function. Thus, bone scan represents a useful tool for detecting metastatic lesions from prostatic carcinoma and for assessing the response to treatment. (author)

  20. Excavated pulmonary nodules: an unusual clinical presentation of lung metastasis in two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalya Issam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excavated pulmonary metastasis are rare. We present two cases of excavated pulmonary nodules proved to be metastases from osteosarcoma and gallblader lymphoma. Case presentation The first one is 39-year-old man in whom cholecystectomy made the diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder. He presented in chest CT scan excavated nodules that had been biopsied and confirmed the diagnosis of non hodgkin lymphoma. He underwent 8 courses of chemotherapy CHOP 21 with complete remission. The second one is an 21 years old man who presented a right leg osteoblastic osteosarcoma with only excavated pulmonary nodules in extension assessment. He had 3 courses of polychemotherapy API (doxorubicin, platinum, and ifosfamide with partial response. Unfortunately, he died following a septic shock. Review of the literature shows that excavated pulmonary nodules as metastasis are rare but we should consider this diagnosis every time we are in front of a cancer. Chest computed tomography is the best diagnosis imaging that could make this diagnosis. Differential diagnosis between benign and malignant bullous lesions is important because surgical excision affects survival in some malignancies. Conclusions Although pulmonary nodules are the most common cancer metastasis, a differential diagnosis of a concurrent primary malignancy should always be considered every time we have excavated lesions, even in patients with known malignant disease. Thorough chest evaluation is important, as multiple primary malignancies may occur concomitantly.

  1. An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Gastrointestinal Metastasis From Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of Breast

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    Bathmapriya Balakrishnan MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present an unusual case of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma. Typical areas of metastasis include bone, gynecological organs, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, and gastrointestinal (GI tract, in order of frequency. With regard to GI metastasis, extrahepatic represents a rare site. Case. Two years after being diagnosed with invasive lobular breast carcinoma, a 61-year-old female complained of 3 months of nonspecific abdominal pain and diarrhea. A colonoscopy revealed 5 tubular adenomatous polyps in the ascending and transverse colon. Contrast computed tomography (CT of the abdomen and pelvis was done 7 months after the colonoscopy to further evaluate persistent diarrhea. The CT results were consistent with infectious or inflammatory enterocolitis. Despite conservative management, symptoms failed to improve and a repeat diagnostic colonoscopy was obtained. Random colonic biopsies revealed metastatic high-grade adenocarcinoma of the colon. Discussion. Metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to the GI tract can distort initial interpretation of endoscopic evaluation with lesions mimicking inflammation. The interval between discovery of GI metastasis and diagnosis of lobular breast cancer can vary widely from synchronous to 30 years; however, progression is most often much sooner. Nonspecific symptoms and subtle appearance of metastatic lesions may confound the diagnosis. A high index of suspicion is needed for possible metastatic spread to the GI tract in patients with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma. Perhaps, patients with nonspecific GI symptoms should have an endoscopic examination with multiple random biopsies as invasive lobular carcinoma typically mimics macroscopic changes consistent with colitis.

  2. The Clinical Value of Axillary Ultrasonogra- phy for Detection of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Cases with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Tahmasebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The axillary lymph node stage is one of the single most important determinants in the prognosis of breast cancer patients. The disadvantages of the two previous methods used for evaluating axillary node metastasis, i.e., axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy, have directed researchers to investigate new techniques for this purpose. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of axillary ultrasonography in detecting axillary metastasis. Methods: This study was conducted during a 12-month period. The breast cancer cases included in this study were all clinically diagnosed as stages I and II, with no prior treatment to the axillary region by surgery and/or chemo-radiotherapy. Excluded from the study group were patients with palpable axillary lymph nodes, those who had major organ failure or concomitant malignancy. All included patients with non-palpable axillary lymph nodes underwent axillary ultrasound examination. An ultrasound- guided core needle biopsy was performed on patients with suspected metastasis. Results: There were 125 female patients with a mean age of 49.6 years included in this study. From these, 16 (12.8% cases had positive axillary sonographic findings. Pathologic evaluation of tissue specimens (taken by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in 10 (62.5% out of 16 patients were positive, and in the patient group of 6 (37.5% cases, studies were negative. Axillary ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 35.7%, specificity of 93.8%, positive predictive value of 62.5%, and negative predictive value of 83.5%. Conclusion: The axillary ultrasonogram is a reliable technique in the determination of axillary nodal metastatic involvement in breast cancer patients. By use of this method a significant amount of complications and costs related to the previous techniques can be avoided.

  3. Clinical relevance of the apparent diffusion coefficient value of metastatic bone tumours on diffusion-weighted MRI images: differences according to the types of primary tumour, the affected bones, and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, M J; Yoon, Y C

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of metastatic bone tumours on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images differs according to the type of primary cancer, the affected bone, and clinical factors. For this retrospective study, two radiologists reviewed MRI images, including ADC maps, of 67 patients (M:F=38:29; median age, 48 years) who were diagnosed with bone metastasis by means of histological or clinical confirmation. The primary tumours included 29 lung adenocarcinomas, 15 invasive ductal adenocarcinomas of the breast, 13 hepatocellular carcinomas, six prostatic carcinomas, and four renal cell carcinomas. ADC values of the metastatic tumour were compared according to the type of primary malignancy, the affected bone, and the age and sex of the patient using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni correction. In addition, pre-contrast CT images were available in 38 of 67 patients; a subanalysis of the CT radiodensity and ADC values were performed with Spearman correlation. The mean, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum values of the ADC of metastatic bone tumours did not differ significantly according to type of primary malignancy, the affected bone, or clinical variables (p>0.1). The ADC value was not significantly correlated with CT radiodensity (p=0.24). Intra- and interobserver agreements for the mean ADC values were excellent (intra-observer: p=0.98; interobserver: p=0.98). Assessment of the ADC value of metastatic bone tumours is not reliable for differentiation of the type of primary cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of microRNA in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis and clinical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-López, Antonio; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Cano, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, 20–22 nucleotides in length, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple targets posttranscriptionally. Interestingly, miRNAs have emerged as regulators of most physiological and pathological processes, including metastatic tumor progression, in part by controlling a reversible process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The activation of EMT increases the migratory and invasive properties fundamental for tumor cell spread while activation of the reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is required for metastasis outgrowth. The EMT triggering leads to the activation of a core of transcription factors (EMT-TFs) – SNAIL1/SNAIL2, bHLH (E47, E2-2, and TWIST1/TWIST2), and ZEB1/ZEB2 – that act as E-cadherin repressors and, ultimately, coordinate EMT. Recent evidence indicates that several miRNAs regulate the expression of EMT-TFs or EMT-activating signaling pathways. Interestingly, some miRNAs and EMT-TFs form tightly interconnected negative feedback loops that control epithelial cell plasticity, providing self-reinforcing signals and robustness to maintain the epithelial or mesenchymal cell status. Among the most significant feedback loops, we focus on the ZEB/miR-200 and the SNAIL1/miR-34 networks that hold a clear impact in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal state. Recent insights into the p53 modulation of the EMT-TF/miRNA loops and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the context of metastasis dissemination will also be discussed. Understanding the regulation of EMT by miRNAs opens new avenues for the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors and identifies potential therapeutic targets that might help to negatively impact on metastasis dissemination and increasing patient survival

  5. Role of microRNA in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis and clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-López A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Díaz-López,1 Gema Moreno-Bueno,1,2 Amparo Cano11Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas “Alberto Sols” (CSIC-UAM, IdiPAZ, Madrid, Spain; 2Fundación MDAnderson Internacional, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, 20–22 nucleotides in length, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple targets posttranscriptionally. Interestingly, miRNAs have emerged as regulators of most physiological and pathological processes, including metastatic tumor progression, in part by controlling a reversible process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. The activation of EMT increases the migratory and invasive properties fundamental for tumor cell spread while activation of the reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is required for metastasis outgrowth. The EMT triggering leads to the activation of a core of transcription factors (EMT-TFs – SNAIL1/SNAIL2, bHLH (E47, E2-2, and TWIST1/TWIST2, and ZEB1/ZEB2 – that act as E-cadherin repressors and, ultimately, coordinate EMT. Recent evidence indicates that several miRNAs regulate the expression of EMT-TFs or EMT-activating signaling pathways. Interestingly, some miRNAs and EMT-TFs form tightly interconnected negative feedback loops that control epithelial cell plasticity, providing self-reinforcing signals and robustness to maintain the epithelial or mesenchymal cell status. Among the most significant feedback loops, we focus on the ZEB/miR-200 and the SNAIL1/miR-34 networks that hold a clear impact in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal state. Recent insights into the p53 modulation of the EMT-TF/miRNA loops and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the context of metastasis dissemination will also be discussed. Understanding the regulation of EMT by miRNAs opens new avenues for the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors and identifies potential

  6. Association between US features of primary tumor and axillary lymph node metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min Sun; Shin, Sung Ui; Song, Sung Eun; Ryu, Han Suk; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2018-04-01

    Background Most patients with early-stage breast cancer have clinically negative lymph nodes (LNs). However, 15-20% of patients have axillary nodal metastasis based on the sentinel LN biopsy. Purpose To assess whether ultrasound (US) features of a primary tumor are associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinical T1-T2N0 breast cancer. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 138 consecutive patients (median age = 51 years; age range = 27-78 years) who underwent breast surgery with axillary LN evaluation for clinically node-negative T1-T2 breast cancer. Three radiologists blinded to the axillary surgery results independently reviewed the US images. Tumor distance from the skin and distance from the nipple were determined based on the US report. Association between US features of a breast tumor and axillary LN metastasis was assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for clinicopathologic variables. Results Of the 138 patients, 28 (20.3%) had nodal metastasis. At univariate analysis, tumor distance from the skin ( P = 0.019), tumor size on US ( P = 0.023), calcifications ( P = 0.036), architectural distortion ( P = 0.001), and lymphovascular invasion ( P = 0.049) were associated with axillary LN metastasis. At multivariate analysis, shorter skin-to-tumor distance (odds ratio [OR] = 4.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-16.19; P = 0.040) and masses with associated architectural distortion (OR = 3.80; 95% CI = 1.57-9.19; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of axillary LN metastasis. Conclusion US features of breast cancer can be promising factors associated with axillary LN metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative early-stage breast cancer.

  7. Diabetes insipidus as the first symptom caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands: Clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management

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    J F Mao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central diabetes insipidus (CDI, secondary to pituitary metastatic lesions, is uncommon; however, lung and breast cancer are the commonest malignancies to have metastases to the pituitary. Early management of systemic chemotherapy and pituitary irradiation might improve the prognosis of patients. Aims : To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of CDI caused by lung cancer metastasis to the pituitary glands. Materials and Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients who had CDI as their first symptom before their lung cancers were diagnosed. Their clinical presentations, anterior pituitary gland function, sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, management, and prognosis were described. Settings and Design : This retrospective cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in a medical college hospital. Results : The patient′s mean age was 58.6±7.8 years. Diabetes insipidus was the main complaint when they were referred to our hospital. MRI revealed specific dumbbell-shaped masses in the sella turcica in five patients. In seven patients whose hormones were measured, the levels of hormones from adenohypophysis were abnormally low in six patients. The main treatments included surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and sellar irradiation. Although nine patients had poor prognoses, one patient has survived for more than 3 years, suggesting benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions : New-onset CDI might be the only symptom presented by the patients with pituitary metastasis (PM from lung cancer. Dumbbell-shaped sellar masses in MRI are prone to the diagnosis of PM. A thorough examination for primary cancer should be carried out in these aged and elderly patients.

  8. Clinical, genetic, and structural basis of apparent mineralocorticoid excess due to 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Mabel; Haider, Shozeb; Khattab, Ahmed; Ling, Chen; Mathew, Mehr; Zaidi, Samir; Bloch, Madison; Patel, Monica; Ewert, Sinead; Abdullah, Wafa; Toygar, Aysenur; Mudryi, Vitalii; Al Badi, Maryam; Alzubdi, Mouch; Wilson, Robert C; Al Azkawi, Hanan Said; Ozdemir, Hatice Nur; Abu-Amer, Wahid; Hertecant, Jozef; Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Funder, John W; Al Senani, Aisha; Sun, Li; Kim, Se-Min; Yuen, Tony; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2017-12-26

    Mutations in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene ( HSD11B2 ) cause an extraordinarily rare autosomal recessive disorder, apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). AME is a form of low renin hypertension that is potentially fatal if untreated. Mutations in the HSD11B2 gene result either in severe AME or a milder phenotype (type 2 AME). To date, ∼40 causative mutations have been identified. As part of the International Consortium for Rare Steroid Disorders, we have diagnosed and followed the largest single worldwide cohort of 36 AME patients. Here, we present the genotype and clinical phenotype of these patients, prominently from consanguineous marriages in the Middle East, who display profound hypertension and hypokalemic alkalosis. To correlate mutations with phenotypic severity, we constructed a computational model of the HSD11B2 protein. Having used a similar strategy for the in silico evaluation of 150 mutations of CYP21A2 , the disease-causing gene in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we now provide a full structural explanation for the clinical severity of AME resulting from each known HSD11B2 missense mutation. We find that mutations that allow the formation of an inactive dimer, alter substrate/coenzyme binding, or impair structural stability of HSD11B2 yield severe AME. In contrast, mutations that cause an indirect disruption of substrate binding or mildly alter intramolecular interactions result in type 2 AME. A simple in silico evaluation of novel missense mutations could help predict the often-diverse phenotypes of an extremely rare monogenic disorder.

  9. Early clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma (cT1): Utility of CT in regional nodal metastasis detection and can the clinical accuracy be improved?

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    Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L., E-mail: slbetancourt@mdanderson.org; Sabloff, Bradley, E-mail: bsabloff@mdanderson.org; Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org; Benveniste, Marcelo F., E-mail: mfbenveniste@mdanderson.org; Correa, Arlene M., E-mail: amcorrea@mdanderson.org; Maru, Dipen M., E-mail: dmaru@mdanderson.org; Ajani, Jaffer A., E-mail: jajani@mdanderson.org; Erasmus, Jeremy J., E-mail: jerasmus@mdanderson.org; Hofstetter, Wayne L., E-mail: whofstetter@mdanderson.org

    2017-03-15

    Introduction: Treatment of early esophageal cancer depends on the extent of the primary tumor and presence of regional lymph node metastasis.(RNM). Short axis diameter >10 mm is typically used to detect RNM. However, clinical determination of RNM is inaccurate and can result in inappropriate treatment. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a single linear measurement (short axis > 10 mm) of regional nodes on CT in predicting nodal metastasis, in patients with early esophageal cancer and whether using a mean diameter value (short axis + long axis/2) as well as nodal shape improves cN designation. Methods: CTs of 49 patients with cT1 adenocarcinoma treated with surgical resection alone were reviewed retrospectively. Regional nodes were considered positive for malignancy when round or ovoid and mean size >5 mm adjacent to the primary tumor and >7 mm when not adjacent. Results were compared with pN status after esophagectomy. Results: 18/49 patients had pN+ at resection. Using a single short axis diameter >10 mm on CT, nodal metastasis (cN) was positive in 7/49. Only 1 of these patients was pN+ at resection (sensitivity 5%, specificity 80%, accuracy 53%). Using mean size and morphologic criteria, cN was positive in 28/49. 11 of these patients were pN+ at resection (sensitivity 61%, specificity 45%, accuracy 51%). EUS with limited FNA of regional nodes resulted in 16/49 patients with pN+ being inappropriately designated as cN0. Conclusions: Evaluation of size, shape and location of regional lymph nodes on CT improves the sensitivity of cN determination compared with a short axis measurement alone in patients with cT1 esophageal cancer, although clinical utility is limited.

  10. Clinical utility of Gd-DTPA subtraction MR imaging for spinal bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Keiichi; Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa

    1993-01-01

    Based on reports that Gd-DTPA contributes to the detection of tumors, we used it in 31 cases (97 lesions) of spinal bone metastases. The result was that Gd-DTPA increased the intensity of tumors and the surrounding bone marrow to almost the same level in 53%. To show the metastases clearly, an existing subtraction command system was utilized. The technique included the pixel-by-pixel method, to obtain a Gd-DTPA T1-weighted image (T1WI) subtracted by the original T1WI. The detectability of the subtraction image was improved up to 96%, but was less than the original T1WI (99%). Because of the different imaging rationale between two methods, a means to assess the quality of diagnosis must be proposed. To check the normal background, the same kind of postprocessing was performed in 21 patients without malignancy. Gd-DTPA prefusion was highest in the paravertebral veins, moderate in muscles and epidural fat, and lowest in the spinal cord, intervertebral disk and bone cortex. Gd-DTPA enhanced subtraction MR imaging provides a new diagnostic tool to detect and to assess bone metastasis. (author)

  11. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

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    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  12. Brain metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Hirosawa, Tomoichiro; Ogawa, Shinpei; Noguchi, Eiichiro; Takemoto, Kaori; Shirotani, Noriyasu; Kameoka, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of brain metastasis from colorectal cancer. Five patients with brain metastasis from colorectal cancer treated at our institute between 2001 and 2005 were included in the study. Clinical findings and survival time were determined and an appropriate system for follow-up in such cases was considered. Brain metastasis was found after surgery for colorectal cancer in 4 cases. In addition, colorectal cancer was found after diagnosis of brain metastasis in 1 case. At the time of diagnosis of brain metastasis, all patients had lung metastasis and 3 had liver metastasis. The mean periods between surgery for colorectal cancer and lung and brain metastases were 19.5 and 38.2 months, respectively. In all cases, brain metastasis was diagnosed by imaging after the appearance of neurological symptoms. Brain metastases were multiple in 1 case and focal in 4 cases. We performed gamma knife radiation therapy, and the symptoms disappeared or decreased in all cases. Mean survival time after brain metastasis was 3.0 months. Prognosis after brain metastasis is poor, but gamma knife radiation therapy contributed to patients' quality of life. (author)

  13. Tongue metastasis mimicking an abscess.

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    Mavili, Ertuğrul; Oztürk, Mustafa; Yücel, Tuba; Yüce, Imdat; Cağli, Sedat

    2010-03-01

    Primary tumors metastasizing to the oral cavity are extremely rare. Lung is one of the most common primary sources of metastases to the tongue. Although the incidence of lung cancer is increasing, tongue metastasis as the initial presentation of the tumor remains uncommon. Due to the rarity of tongue metastasis, little is known about its imaging findings. Herein we report the magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings of a lingual metastasis, mimicking an abscess, from a primary lung cancer.

  14. Clinical application of determination of serum ICTP and PINP contents in cancer patients with bone metastasis for diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haizhong; Li Bin; Zhu Yaling

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical usefulness of determination of serum carboxy terminal telepeptide type I collagen (ICTP) and aminoterminal prepeptide type I procollagen (PINP) in cancer patients with bone metastasis for diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Serum ICTP and PINP contents were measured with RIA in 115 patients and 30 controls. These patients consisted of : 1) Group A, less than 6 metastatic foci, n=47 2) Group B, 6-20 foci, n=42 3) Group C, over 20 foci, n=26. A second measurement of these markers was done in 35 of the 115 patients after comprehensive treatment. Results: The Serum ICTP and PINP contents in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (p<0.01). The contents increased steadily from Group A to Group C, with significant differences between those in successive groups (p<0.01 or p<0.05). Levels of the two markers correlated well to the number of foci (r=0.68, p<0.01; r=0.52, p<0.01). In the 35 treated patients, the levels dropped significantly (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Both ICTP and PINP level determinations could reflect the clinical status of metastatic size and treatment effect (ICTP more sensitive)

  15. What’s the clinical significance of adding diffusion and perfusion MRI in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme and solitary brain metastasis?

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    Amr F. Mourad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the additional diagnostic value of diffusion and perfusion MRI in the differentiation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and solitary brain metastasis. Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 24 patients with histologically proven brain tumors who underwent conventional MRI with analysis of diffusion (DWI and perfusion (PWI MRI findings of each tumor. The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC values were calculated in the minimum (ADC-MIN, mean (ADC-MEAN, and maximum (ADC-MAX in all the tumors and the peritumoral regions. The PWI data was expressed as maximum regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV of the tumors and peritumoral regions. Results: After adding diffusion and perfusion to conventional MRI findings, we found that the accuracy of differentiation between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and solitary metastasis increased from 70% to 90%.There is a significant difference in DWI signal intensity between GBM and metastatic tumors (P < 0.05. The ADC values of GBM were lower than that of metastatic tumors. On perfusion MRI, the maximum rCBV of the peritumoral region (rCBVP of GBM was higher than that of brain metastases (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The addition of diffusion and perfusion to the MRI protocol increases the accuracy of differentiation between GBM and solitary brain metastasis and should be considered routinely. Keywords: Diffusion MRI, Perfusion MRI, GBM, Solitary brain metastases

  16. Differentiated thyroid cancer (papillary). Brain tumor metastasis as clinical onset. surgical treatment and "1"3"1I. 8 years disease-free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, D.; Pena, M.; Alvarez, L.; García del Rio, H.; Bruno, O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. The major manifestation belongs to the papillary variant (65-90%). The prognosis tends to be very favorable, with a mortality rate of 1.8 % and a disease-free rate up to 10 years of around 90-95 %. The distant metastasis in brain accounts for 0.1-5 %. There are no established protocols for the management of brain metastasis. Therapeutic options are: surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy / radiosurgery, and "1"3"1I. The successful management of this case is an option for brain metastasis from thyroid papillary carcinoma. Case report: A 77 year-old female begins with double vision (diplopia). She underwent twice a surgery for brain tumor with a histopathological report on thyroid papillary tissue. The endocrine evaluation determines euthyroid state except thyroglobulin (TG) 2300 ng/ml. Total thyroidectomy with classic thyroid papillary carcinoma. A diagnostic "1"3"1I scan after surgery shows for first time brain metastasis uptake. The patient receives 25 mCi of "1"3"1I as initial therapeutic dose, and subsequent therapeutic doses (50, 50, 75, 75, 50 mCi) in 2 years, in accordance with the evolution of magnetic resonance, clinic, endocrine lab, hematological analysis, and "1"3"1I scintigraphy, that shows the possible remission of the disease. The follow-up was carried out by means of a clinical control, thyroglobulin values, U.S., "1"3"1I scans, and magnetic resonance. The patient is at the present time over 11 years survival and 8 years disease-free. Discussion: Even though the distant metastasis is not very common in brain and is generally associated with aggressive variants of tumor, our case started with a metastatic brain tumor in an euthyroid patient with no thyroid pathology background and with low-risk post-thyroidectomy criterion. The "1"3"1I scan turned positive in brain metastasis when the patient was thyroidectomized. This detail must be considered important, since it

  17. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

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    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  18. Clinical results of sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy for oral cancer. Relationship between SN localization and metastasis in tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Satoru; Nakashiro, Koh-ichi; Hino, Satoshi; Terakado, Nagaaki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Attempts were made to detect micrometastasis in N0 neck of oral cancer patients using sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy (SNB). We previously described our approach to identify SN using a radioisotope ( 99m Tc-Tin colloid)-guided and dye-guided method. Micrometastases were detected by means of serial sections and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen mRNA. In this study, we evaluated the radiolocalization of SN and identification of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer patients. The positive rate of metastatic lymph node in N0 oral cancer was 35% and the diagnostic sensitivity of SNB was 95%. The SNB detected subclinical metastases in 4 of 10 N0 patients with tongue cancer. Moreover, in 3 of these 4 cases, all metastatic lymph nodes consisted with SNs. Postoperative cervical metastasis was observed in a patient whose SNB was negative. While more experience is needed, we believe the SN concept for tongue cancer is established, and practical application in clinical settings is anticipated. (author)

  19. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer who develop brain metastasis: a single institution experience.

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    Fountzilas, Christos; Chang, Katherine; Hernandez, Brian; Michalek, Joel; Crownover, Richard; Floyd, John; Mahalingam, Devalingam

    2017-02-01

    The development of brain metastasis (BM) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a rare and late event. We sought to investigate the clinical characteristics, disease course and safety using biologic agents in our patients with CRC who develop brain metastases. A retrospective review of patients with CRC with brain metastases treated at our institution from 01/2005-01/2015 was performed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Forty patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 55.5 years, 67.5% were males, and 28% had a KRAS mutation. Twenty-four percent were treatment-naive at the time of BM diagnosis. Patients had a median of two brain lesions. Sixty-five percent of the patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, 22.5% had both surgical resection and brain radiotherapy. Median overall survival was 3.2 months after development of BM. Overall survival was longer in patients who received combined modality local therapy compared to patients treated with surgical resection or radiotherapy alone. Patients who received systemic treatment incorporating biologics following development of BM had a median overall survival of 18.6 months. Overall, the administration of biologic agents was safe and well tolerated. In summary, BM is an uncommon and late event in the natural history of metastatic CRC. The ability to deliver combined-modality local brain therapy as well as availability of more systemic therapy options appear to lead to improved outcomes.

  20. The clinical value of "9"9Tc"m-MDP whole body bone imaging in diagnosing bone metastasis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yigang; Gou Zhengxing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of whole body bone imaging on lung cancer bone metastases diagnosis, so as to evaluate the staging of lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 113 cases of patients diagnosed with lung cancer received whole body imaging, alkaline phosphatase and blood calcium examination. Bone metastasis probability of lung cancer was assessed based on different pathological types. Accuracy rates of bone metastases was compared by whole body bone imaging and suspicious bone metastasis factors (Including one or several items in ostalgia, alkaline phosphatase rising and hypercalcemia). Results The occurrence rate of lung cancer bone metastasis is 36.7%, and the bone metastasis occurrence rate of adenocarcinoma of lung is higher than that of squamous cell lung carcinoma (P < 0.01). Whole body Imaging diagnose of lung cancer bone metastases had sensitivity (92.7%), specificity (83.2%) and accuracy (85.7%). Conclusion: "9"9Tc"m-MDP whole body imaging is a highly sensitive tool to review whole body bone. Lung cancer patients are recommended to receive routine whole body bone imaging. (authors)

  1. Ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis

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    I-Ting Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater is a rare gastrointestinal tumor. Additionally, cutaneous metastasis from such an internal malignancy is also uncommon. We reported the case of a 55-year-old man afflicted with ampullary carcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. The patient did not undergo the standard Whipple procedure but received chemotherapy due to apparent left neck lymph node metastasis noted by initial PET/CT imaging. The skin metastasis presented as a left neck infiltrating purpuric lesion, which was confirmed by skin biopsy approximately one year after the patient's disease was first diagnosed. Thereafter, the patient received further chemotherapy pursuant to his course of medical management. Skin metastasis usually represents a poor patient prognosis. In these cases, treatment of cutaneous metastasis typically includes systemic chemotherapy and local management such as radiation therapy or tumor excision. And when choosing a chemotherapy regimen for the ampullary cancer, the histological subtypes (intestinal or pancreatobiliary should be comprehensively considered. In our review of the literature, the intestinal type seems to have less distant lymph node metastasis, advanced local invasion, as well as recurrence than pancreatobiliary type of ampullary cancer.

  2. Communicating Hydrocephalus Associated with Small- to Medium-Sized Vestibular Schwannomas: Clinical Significance of the Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Nakai, Tomoaki; Kohta, Masaaki; Kimura, Hidehito; Kohmura, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of hydrocephalus associated with the small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas is still controversial. We investigated tumor-specific factors related to the association of hydrocephalus with small- to medium-sized vestibular schwannomas. Among the 77 patients with vestibular schwannoma smaller than 30 mm, 9 patients demonstrated associated communicating hydrocephalus. Patient medical records, radiologic data, and histopathologic specimens were reviewed retrospectively. The age of the patients, and size, mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, and histologic features of the tumors were compared with those of patients without hydrocephalus. The symptoms related to hydrocephalus improved in all patients after tumor removal. Both the mean size and ADC values exhibited a statistically significant difference between the tumors with and without hydrocephalus (P hydrocephalus. The increased tumor ADC value was considered to be the result of degenerative change and suggested the involvement of protein sloughing in the etiology of the associated hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The clinical application of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hilar lymphatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guangsheng; Zhang Yuewei; Yang Xiaohong; Li Chuang; Zhao Mu; Wang Wenqing; Wang Ruoyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the technique and the clinical effect of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis. Methods: Under ultrasonographic guidance,percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent, so-called chemo-ablation, into the diseased lymph nodes was performed in thirteen patients with hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis. The therapeutic results were evaluated based on the post-operative imaging examinations as well as the alleviation of the clinical symptoms. Results: Percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent into the diseased lymph nodes was successfully carried out in all thirteen patients. After the procedure,the patients were followed up for a mean period of 13.5 months. The therapeutic effectiveness was 100%, while the regression rate of the lesions was 76.9%. No operation-related complications occurred. Conclusion: Percutaneous transhepatic injection of iodized oil containing chemotherapeutic agent into the diseased lymph nodes under ultrasonographic guidance is an effective and safe treatment for hepatic hilar lymphatic metastasis with reliable effectiveness. (authors)

  4. Influence of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery on stroke apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and its clinical application

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    Ni Jianming [Medical Imaging Department, Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, 68 Zhong Shan Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214002 (China); Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China); Mogensen, Monique A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen Zengai [Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China); Shuang Chen; Shen Tianzhen [Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Huang Gang, E-mail: huang2802@163.co [Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background and purpose: The application of a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery pulse with a conventional diffusion-weighted MRI sequence (FLAIR DWI) decreases the partial volume effects from cerebrospinal fluid on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. For this reason, FLAIR DWI may be more useful in the evaluation of ischemic stroke, but few studies have looked at the effect of FLAIR on ADC measurements in this setting. This study quantitatively compares FLAIR DWI and conventional DWI in ischemic stroke of varying ages to assess the potential advantages of this technique. Methods: We respectively analyzed 139 DWI studies in patients with ischemic stroke with and without FLAIR at varying time points ranging from hyperacute to chronic. ADC values were measured in each lesion, as well as in the contralateral normal side. Comparisons were made between the ADC values obtained from the DWI sequences with and without FLAIR for both the lesion and the normal contralateral side. Results: The ADC measurements within the ischemic lesion were very similar on FLAIR DWI and conventional DWI for lesions less than 14 days old (p > 0.05), but were significantly decreased on FLAIR DWI for lesions between 15 and 30 days old and in lesions >31 days old (chronic stage) (p < 0.01). The contralateral ADC values were all significantly decreased on the FLAIR DWI sequence compared with conventional DWI (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The application of an inversion pulse does not significantly affect the ADC values for early stage ischemic stroke (less than 14 days from symptom onset), but results in a more accurate relative ADC measurement by reducing the cerebrospinal fluid partial volume effects of the normal contralateral side. In addition, combined with the conventional DWI, FLAIR DWI may be helpful in determining the age of ischemic lesions.

  5. Comparison of the prognosis and recurrence of apparent early-stage ovarian tumors treated with laparoscopy and laparotomy: a meta-analysis of clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Fan, Shuying; Xiang, Yang; Duan, Hua; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prognosis and recurrence of apparent early-stage ovarian tumors treated with laparoscopy compared with laparotomy. Clinical studies published in English were retrieved from the computerized databases Medline and Embase. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the differences in the efficacy and safety of laparoscopy versus laparotomy in terms of postoperative complications, lengths of hospital stay, recurrence rates, and disease-free survival times using the random effects model. The studies were independently reviewed by two investigators. Data from the eligible studies were extracted, and the meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program, version 2 (CMA-2; Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA). A total of 8 studies were included in the analysis. The results showed that laparoscopic surgery was significantly associated with lower rates of complications (OR = 0.433, P = 0.019) and shorter postoperative hospital stays (weighted mean difference [WMD] = −0.974, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the rates of recurrence (OR = 0.707, P = 0.521) between patients with apparent early-stage ovarian tumors who were treated using laparoscopy and those who underwent laparotomy. No publication bias was detected. Laparoscopic surgery shows favorable prognostic outcomes in terms of postoperative complication rates and postoperative hospital stay durations. Further studies with longer follow-up periods are required to confirm recurrence and survival outcomes after laparoscopic surgery in patients with apparent early-stage ovarian tumors

  6. Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma

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    Krishnendra Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis in anorectal adenocarcinoma is a rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old female who presented with yellowish-brown, irregular, solid, elevated rashes over the pubis with a recent history off palliative colostomy for anorectal adenocarcinoma. Clinically, we suspected metastasis that was proved on biopsy. We report this case due to the rare presenting site (i.e., perineum of a metastatic adenocarcinoma.

  7. Detection of cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer patients with clinically N0 neck—a meta-analysis comparing different imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Li-Jen; Lo, Wu-Chia; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Wang, Chi-Te; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2012-01-01

    How to properly manage clinically negative neck of head and neck cancer patients is a controversial topic. Research is now directed toward finding a method sensitive enough to bring the risk of occult metastases below 20%. The aim of this review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalities, including CT, MRI, PET and US, in clinically N0 head and neck cancer patients. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, PubMed and the Cochrane Database were searched for relevant original articles published up to May 2011. Inclusion criteria were as follows: articles were reported in English; CT, MRI, PET or US were performed to identify cervical metastases in clinically N0 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; and data were sufficient for the calculation of true-positive or false-negative values. A bivariate random effect model was used to obtain pooled sensitivity and specificity. The positive and negative test probability of neck metastasis was generated based on Bayesian theory and collected data for different pre-test possibilities. Of the 168 identified relevant articles, 7 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria for CT, 6 studies for MRI, 11 studies for PET and 8 studies for US. There was no difference in sensitivity and specificity among these imaging modalities, except CT was superior to US in specificity. The pooled estimates for sensitivity were 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% ~ 65%), 65% (34 ~ 87%) 66% (47 ~ 80%), and 66% (45 ~ 77%), on a per-neck basis for CT, MRI, PET and US, respectively. The pooled estimates for specificity were 93% (87% ~ 97%), 81% (64 ~ 91%), 87% (77 ~ 93%), and 78% (71 ~ 83%) for CT, MRI, PET and US, respectively. With pre-examination nodal metastasis probabilities set at 10%, 20% and 30%, the post-exam probabilities of positive nodal metastasis rates were 47%, 66% and 77% for CT; 27%, 46% and 59% for MRI; 36%, 56% and 69% for PET; and 25%, 42% and 56% for US, respectively. Negative nodal metastasis

  8. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of apparent therapy-resistant hypertension in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cross-sectional cohort study in secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beus, Esther; van der Sande, Nicolette G C; Bots, Michiel L; Spiering, Wilko; Voskuil, Michiel; Visseren, Frank L J; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2017-09-06

    Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of apparent therapy-resistant hypertension (aTRH) in patients with clinical manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to study clinical characteristics related to aTRH in this population. The SMART (Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease) study is a large, single-centre cohort study in secondary care. Office blood pressure (BP) at inclusion was used to evaluate BP control in 6191 hypertensive patients with clinical manifest (cardio)vascular disease. Therapy-resistant hypertension was defined as BP ≥140/90 mm Hg despite use of antihypertensive drugs from ≥3 drug classes including a diuretic or use of ≥4 antihypertensive drugs irrespective of BP. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between clinical characteristics measured at baseline and presence of aTRH. The prevalence of aTRH was 9.1% (95% CI 8.4 to 9.8). Prevalence increased with age and when albuminuria was present and was higher in patients with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Presence of aTRH was related to diabetes, female sex, duration and multiple locations of vascular disease, body mass index and waist circumference. Carotid intima-media thickness was higher (0.99±0.28 vs 0.93±0.28 mm) and ankle-brachial index lower (1.07±0.20 vs 1.10±0.19) in patients with aTRH compared with patients without aTRH. aTRH is prevalent in patients with clinical manifest CVD and is related to clinical factors known to be related with increased vascular risk, and with lower eGFR. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps for assessing thymic epithelial tumours: correlation with world health organization classification and clinical staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Hai; Shi, Hai-Bin; Feng, Qing; Xu, Xiao-Quan; Yu, Tong-Fu

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) histogram analysis for assessing World Health Organization (WHO) pathological classification and Masaoka clinical stages of thymic epithelial tumours. 37 patients with histologically confirmed thymic epithelial tumours were enrolled. ADC measurements were performed using hot-spot ROI (ADC HS-ROI ) and histogram-based approach. ADC histogram parameters included mean ADC (ADC mean ), median ADC (ADC median ), 10 and 90 percentile of ADC (ADC 10 and ADC 90 ), kurtosis and skewness. One-way ANOVA, independent-sample t-test, and receiver operating characteristic were used for statistical analyses. There were significant differences in ADC mean , ADC median , ADC 10 , ADC 90 and ADC HS-ROI among low-risk thymoma (type A, AB, B1; n = 14), high-risk thymoma (type B2, B3; n = 9) and thymic carcinoma (type C, n = 14) groups (all p-values histogram analysis may assist in assessing the WHO pathological classification and Masaoka clinical stages of thymic epithelial tumours. Advances in knowledge: 1. ADC histogram analysis could help to assess WHO pathological classification of thymic epithelial tumours. 2. ADC histogram analysis could help to evaluate Masaoka clinical stages of thymic epithelial tumours. 3. ADC 10 might be a promising imaging biomarker for assessing and characterizing thymic epithelial tumours.

  10. To evaluate disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients and its impact on overall survival: An institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate clinical staging is important for patient counseling, treatment planning, prognostication, and rational design of clinical trials. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, discrepancy between clinical and pathological staging has been reported. Objective: To evaluate any disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC patients and any impact of the same on survival. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review from year 2007 to 2013, at a tertiary care center. Statistical Analysis: All survival analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 15 (Chicago, IL, USA. Disease-free survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with OCSCC were analyzed. Seventy-nine (62.2% were males and 48 (37.8% females with a mean age at presentation 43.6 years (29-79 years. The highest congruence between clinical and pathological T-staging seen for clinical stage T1 and T4 at 76.9% and 73.4% with pathological T-stage. Similarly, the highest congruence between clinical and pathological N-stage seen for clinical N0 and N3 at 86.4% and 91.7% with pathological N-stage. Of clinically early stage patients, 67.5% remained early stage, and 32.5% were upstaged to advanced stage following pathological analysis. Of the clinically advanced stage patients, 75% remained advanced, and 25% were pathologically downstaged. This staging discrepancy did not significantly alter the survival. Conclusion: Some disparity exists in clinical and pathological TNM staging of OCSCC, which could affect treatment planning and survival of patients. Hence, more unified and even system of staging for the disease is required for proper decision-making.

  11. To evaluate disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients and its impact on overall survival: An institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Karan; Panda, Naresh K; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Das, Ashim

    2015-01-01

    Accurate clinical staging is important for patient counseling, treatment planning, prognostication, and rational design of clinical trials. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, discrepancy between clinical and pathological staging has been reported. To evaluate any disparity between clinical and pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patients and any impact of the same on survival. Retrospective chart review from year 2007 to 2013, at a tertiary care center. All survival analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows version 15 (Chicago, IL, USA). Disease-free survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier algorithm. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with OCSCC were analyzed. Seventy-nine (62.2%) were males and 48 (37.8%) females with a mean age at presentation 43.6 years (29-79 years). The highest congruence between clinical and pathological T-staging seen for clinical stage T1 and T4 at 76.9% and 73.4% with pathological T-stage. Similarly, the highest congruence between clinical and pathological N-stage seen for clinical N0 and N3 at 86.4% and 91.7% with pathological N-stage. Of clinically early stage patients, 67.5% remained early stage, and 32.5% were upstaged to advanced stage following pathological analysis. Of the clinically advanced stage patients, 75% remained advanced, and 25% were pathologically downstaged. This staging discrepancy did not significantly alter the survival. Some disparity exists in clinical and pathological TNM staging of OCSCC, which could affect treatment planning and survival of patients. Hence, more unified and even system of staging for the disease is required for proper decision-making.

  12. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  13. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  14. Clinical study of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yajie; Wang Shubin; Guo Yiling; Chen Zuowei; Zhang Yingnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the curative effect and side effects of 89 Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms. Methods: Ninety-seven patients were divided into 4 groups respectively: group A, 89 Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen (24 patients); group B, 89 Sr + nicotinamide(22 patients); group C, 89 Sr + carbogen (25 patients); group D, 89 Sr, (26 patients). 89 SrCl was intravenously injected at a dose of 1.48-2.22 MBq/kg. Nicotinamide was taken orally 1 hour before 89 SrCl injection, 6 g/day, tid, d1-d5. Aspiration of carbogen(95%O 2 + 5%CO 2 ) gases, 6 L/min, 10 minutes, qd, d1-d5. Results: The effective rate of pain control and QOL improvement in A group were higher than in groups B, C and D (91.7% VS 77.3%, 76.0% and 69.2%, P=0.048). The lesions assessed by SPECT imaging in every group was not significantly different at three months after treatment. I to II degree toxic effect on bone marrow appeared in every group and there were no significantly inter-group differences. Conclusions: Combinative therapy using 89 Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen is more effective to treat multiple metastatic bone pain and for improvement of QOL. The side effects are not increased. (authors)

  15. Bridging cancer biology with the clinic: relative expression of a GRHL2-mediated gene-set pair predicts breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Yang

    Full Text Available Identification and characterization of crucial gene target(s that will allow focused therapeutics development remains a challenge. We have interrogated the putative therapeutic targets associated with the transcription factor Grainy head-like 2 (GRHL2, a critical epithelial regulatory factor. We demonstrate the possibility to define the molecular functions of critical genes in terms of their personalized expression profiles, allowing appropriate functional conclusions to be derived. A novel methodology, relative expression analysis with gene-set pairs (RXA-GSP, is designed to explore the potential clinical utility of cancer-biology discovery. Observing that Grhl2-overexpression leads to increased metastatic potential in vitro, we established a model assuming Grhl2-induced or -inhibited genes confer poor or favorable prognosis respectively for cancer metastasis. Training on public gene expression profiles of 995 breast cancer patients, this method prioritized one gene-set pair (GRHL2, CDH2, FN1, CITED2, MKI67 versus CTNNB1 and CTNNA3 from all 2717 possible gene-set pairs (GSPs. The identified GSP significantly dichotomized 295 independent patients for metastasis-free survival (log-rank tested p = 0.002; severe empirical p = 0.035. It also showed evidence of clinical prognostication in another independent 388 patients collected from three studies (log-rank tested p = 3.3e-6. This GSP is independent of most traditional prognostic indicators, and is only significantly associated with the histological grade of breast cancer (p = 0.0017, a GRHL2-associated clinical character (p = 6.8e-6, Spearman correlation, suggesting that this GSP is reflective of GRHL2-mediated events. Furthermore, a literature review indicates the therapeutic potential of the identified genes. This research demonstrates a novel strategy to integrate both biological experiments and clinical gene expression profiles for extracting and elucidating the genomic

  16. SU-E-QI-21: Iodinated Contrast Agent Time Course In Human Brain Metastasis: A Study For Stereotactic Synchrotron Radiotherapy Clinical Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Esteve, F; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Isere (France); Tessier, A; Balosso, J [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Isere (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT) is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays from a synchrotron source. Phase I/II clinical trials on brain metastasis are underway using venous infusion of iodinated contrast agents. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the amount of iodine in the tumor and its time course. In the present study, the reproducibility of iodine concentrations between the CT planning scan day (Day 0) and the treatment day (Day 10) was assessed in order to predict dose errors. Methods: For each of days 0 and 10, three patients received a biphasic intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent (40 ml, 4 ml/s, followed by 160 ml, 0.5 ml/s) in order to ensure stable intra-tumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Two volumetric CT scans (before and after iodine injection) and a multi-slice dynamic CT of the brain were performed using conventional radiotherapy CT (Day 0) or quantitative synchrotron radiation CT (Day 10). A 3D rigid registration was processed between images. The absolute and relative differences of absolute iodine concentrations and their corresponding dose errors were evaluated in the GTV and PTV used for treatment planning. Results: The differences in iodine concentrations remained within the standard deviation limits. The 3D absolute differences followed a normal distribution centered at zero mg/ml with a variance (∼1 mg/ml) which is related to the image noise. Conclusion: The results suggest that dose errors depend only on the image noise. This study shows that stable amounts of iodine are achievable in brain metastasis for SSRT treatment in a 10 days interval.

  17. A meta-analysis of lymph node metastasis rate for patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer and its implication in delineation of clinical target volume for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Zhang, J; Li, B; Wang, Z; Huang, W; Zhou, T; Wei, Y; Li, H

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to pool the lymph node metastasis rate (LNMR) in patients with thoracic oesophageal cancer (TOC) and to determine which node level should be included when undergoing radiation therapy. Methods Qualified studies were identified on Medline, Embase, CBM and the Cochrane Library through to the end of April 2011. Pooled estimates of LNMR were obtained through a random-effect model. Possible effect modifiers which might lead to the statistical heterogeneity were identified through meta-regression, and further subgroup analyses of factors influencing LNMR were performed. Results 45 observational studies with a total of 18 415 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimates of LNMR in upper, middle and lower TOC were 30.7%, 16.8% and 11.0% cervical, 42.0%, 21.1% and 10.5% upper mediastinal, 12.9%, 28.1% and 19.6% middle mediastinal, 2.6%, 7.8% and 23.0% lower mediastinal, and 9%, 21.4% and 39.9% abdominal, respectively. Lymph node metastasis most frequently happened to paratracheal, paraoesophageal, perigastric 106recR and station 7. The most obvious difference (≥15%) of LNMR between two-field and three-field lymphatic dissection occurred in cervical, paratracheal, 106recR and 108. Conclusions Through the meta-analysis, more useful information was obtained about clinical target volume (CTV) delineation of TOC patients treated with radiotherapy. However, our study is predominantly a description of squamous carcinoma and the results may not be valid for adenocarcinoma. PMID:22700258

  18. Metastasis in renal cell carcinoma: Biology and implications for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although multiple advances have been made in systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC, metastatic RCC remains incurable. In the current review, we focus on the underlying biology of RCC and plausible mechanisms of metastasis. We further outline evolving strategies to combat metastasis through adjuvant therapy. Finally, we discuss clinical patterns of metastasis in RCC and how distinct systemic therapy approaches may be considered based on the anatomic location of metastasis.

  19. Microenvironment Determinants of Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chenyu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastasis accounts for 90% of cancer-related mortality. Brain metastases generally present during the late stages in the natural history of cancer progression. Recent advances in cancer treatment and management have resulted in better control of systemic disease metastatic to organs other than the brain and improved patient survival. However, patients who experience recurrent disease manifest an increasing number of brain metastases, which are usually refractory to therapies. To meet the new challenges of controlling brain metastasis, the research community has been tackling the problem with novel experimental models and research tools, which have led to an improved understanding of brain metastasis. The time-tested "seed-and-soil" hypothesis of metastasis indicates that successful outgrowth of deadly metastatic tumors depends on permissible interactions between the metastatic cancer cells and the site-specific microenvironment in the host organs. Consistently, recent studies indicate that the brain, the major component of the central nervous system, has unique physiological features that can determine the outcome of metastatic tumor growth. The current review summarizes recent discoveries on these tumor-brain interactions, and the potential clinical implications these novel findings could have for the better treatment of patients with brain metastasis.

  20. Reactive Astrocytes in Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wasilewski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis, the secondary growth of malignant cells within the central nervous system (CNS, exceeds the incidence of primary brain tumors (i.e., gliomas by tenfold and are seemingly on the rise owing to the emergence of novel targeted therapies that are more effective in controlling extracranial disease relatively to intracranial lesions. Despite the fact that metastasis to the brain poses a unmet clinical problem, with afflicted patients carrying significant morbidity and a fatal prognosis, our knowledge as to how metastatic cells manage to adapt to the tissue environment of the CNS remains limited. Answering this question could pave the way for novel and more specific therapeutic modalities in brain metastasis by targeting the specific makeup of the brain metastatic niche. In regard to this, astrocytes have emerged as the major host cell type that cancer cells encounter and interact with during brain metastasis formation. Similarly to other CNS disorders, astrocytes become reactive and respond to the presence of cancer cells by changing their phenotype and significantly influencing the outcome of disseminated cancer cells within the CNS. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the contribution of reactive astrocytes in brain metastasis by focusing on the signaling pathways and types of interactions that play a crucial part in the communication with cancer cells and how these could be translated into innovative therapies.

  1. Pulmonary Metastasis from Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Kitai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a rare clinical condition, where copious mucinous ascites accumulate in the peritoneal cavity due to dissemination of mucin-producing tumor. Because of this disseminating, yet nonmetastasizing, behavior, PMP attracts much interest from surgical oncologists in that aggressive locoregional therapy can give the opportunity of long survival and even cure. Although extra-abdominal metastasis is exceptionally rare, the lung is the most likely site in such a case. In this paper, the clinical findings and treatment of eleven cases with pulmonary metastasis from PMP were reviewed, including ten cases in the literature and one case which we experienced. The clinical features of PMP cases with pulmonary metastasis were similar to cases without pulmonary metastasis. The histological type was low-grade mucinous neoplasm in most cases. Pulmonary lesions were resected in seven cases in which abdominal lesions were controlled by cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy or another therapeutic modality. Disease-free state was maintained in five cases at the end of the follow-up period. However, it should be noted that rapid progression after resection was seen in two cases, suggesting that biological features may have changed by surgical intervention.

  2. Mechanics of apparent horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.

    1992-01-01

    An equation for the variation in the surface area of an apparent horizon is derived which has the same form as the thermodynamic relation TdS=dQ. For a stationary vacuum black hole, the expression corresponding to a temperature equals the temperature of the event horizon. Also, if the black hole is perturbed infinitesimally by weak matter and gravitational fields, the area variation of the apparent horizon asymptotically approaches the Hartle-Hawking result for the event horizon. These results support the idea that a local version of black-hole thermodynamics in nonstationary systems can be constructed for apparent horizons

  3. The Clinical Presentation, Survival Outcomes, and Management of Patients With Renal Cell Carcinoma and Cardiac Metastasis Without Inferior Vena Cava Involvement: Results From a Pooled Clinical Trial Database and Systematic Review of Reported Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri Malone, Mariuxi A; Ares, Gustavo Ruiz; De Velasco, Guillermo; Brandão, Raphael; Lin, Xun; Norton, Craig; Simantov, Ronit; Moslehi, Javid; Krajewski, Katherine M; Choueiri, Toni K; McKay, Rana R

    2018-04-01

    Cardiac metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are uncommon and there are limited data regarding the presentation and outcomes of this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RCC with cardiac metastasis without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvement. We conducted a pooled retrospective analysis of metastatic RCC patients treated in 4 clinical trials. Additionally, we conducted a systematic review of cases reported in the literature from 1973 to 2015. Patients with cardiac metastases from RCC without IVC involvement were included. Patient and disease characteristics were described. Additionally, treatments, response to therapy, and survival outcomes were summarized. Of 1765 metastatic RCC patients in the clinical trials database, 10 had cardiac metastases without IVC involvement. All patients received treatment with targeted therapy. There was 1 observed partial response (10%) and 6 patients showed stable disease (60%). The median progression-free survival was 6.9 months. The systematic review of reported clinical cases included 39 patients. In these patients, the most common cardiac site of involvement was the right ventricle (51%; n = 20). Patients were treated with medical (28%; n = 11) and/or surgical treatment (49%; n = 19) depending on whether disease was isolated (n = 13) or multifocal (n = 26). To our knowledge, this is the first series to report on the presentation and outcomes of patients with cardiac metastasis without IVC involvement in RCC. We highlight that although the frequency of patients with cardiac metastases without IVC involvement is low, these patients have a unique clinical presentation and warrant special multidisciplinary management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgery as a Double-Edged Sword: A Clinically Feasible Approach to Overcome the Metastasis-Promoting Effects of Surgery by Blunting Stress and Prostaglandin Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benish, Marganit; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2010-01-01

    Surgery remains an essential therapeutic approach for most solid malignancies, including breast cancer. However, surgery also constitutes a risk factor for promotion of pre-existing micrometastases and the initiation of new metastases through several mechanisms, including the release of prostaglandins and stress hormones (e.g., catecholamines and glucocorticoids). However, the perioperative period also presents an opportunity for cell mediated immunity (CMI) and other mechanisms to eradicate or control minimal residual disease, provided that the deleterious effects of surgery are minimized. Here, we discuss the key role of endogenous stress hormones and prostaglandins in promoting the metastatic process through their direct impact on malignant cells, and through their deleterious impact on anti-cancer CMI. We further discuss the effects of anesthetic techniques, the extent of surgery, pain alleviation, and timing within the menstrual cycle with respect to their impact on tumor recurrence and physiological stress responses. Last, we suggest an attractive perioperative drug regimen, based on a combination of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor and a β-adrenergic blocker, which we found effective in attenuating immune suppression and the metastasis-promoting effects of surgery in several tumor models. This regimen is clinically applicable, and could potentially promote disease free survival in patients operated for breast and other types of cancer

  5. Radiotherapy for asymptomatic brain metastasis in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer without prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment: a retrospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, SongRan; Qiu, Bo; Chen, LiKun; Wang, Fang; Liang, Ying; Cai, PeiQiang; Zhang, Li; Chen, ZhaoLin; Liu, ShiLiang; Liu, MengZhong; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis (BM) harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation shows good response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study is to assess the appropriate timing of brain radiotherapy (RT) for asymptomatic BM in EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. There were 628 patients diagnosed with EGFR mutant NSCLC between October 2005 and December 2011. Treatment outcomes had been retrospectively evaluated in 96 patients with asymptomatic BM without prior TKI treatment. 39 patients received first-line brain RT, 23 patients received delayed brain RT, and 34 patients did not receive brain RT. With a median follow-up of 26 months, the 2-year OS was 40.6 %. Univariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status (p = 0.006), other distant metastases (p = 0.002) and first line systemic treatment (p = 0.032) were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses revealed that other sites of distant metastases (p = 0.030) were prognostic factor. The timing of brain RT was not significantly related to OS (p = 0.246). The 2-year BM progression-free survival (PFS) was 26.9 %. Brain RT as first-line therapy failed to demonstrate a significant association with BM PFS (p = 0.643). First-line brain RT failed to improve long-term survival in TKI-naïve EGFR mutant NSCLC patients with asymptomatic BM. Prospective studies are needed to validate these clinical findings

  6. Surgery as a Double-Edged Sword: A Clinically Feasible Approach to Overcome the Metastasis-Promoting Effects of Surgery by Blunting Stress and Prostaglandin Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benish, Marganit; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar, E-mail: shamgar@post.tau.ac.il [Neuroimmunology Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-11-24

    Surgery remains an essential therapeutic approach for most solid malignancies, including breast cancer. However, surgery also constitutes a risk factor for promotion of pre-existing micrometastases and the initiation of new metastases through several mechanisms, including the release of prostaglandins and stress hormones (e.g., catecholamines and glucocorticoids). However, the perioperative period also presents an opportunity for cell mediated immunity (CMI) and other mechanisms to eradicate or control minimal residual disease, provided that the deleterious effects of surgery are minimized. Here, we discuss the key role of endogenous stress hormones and prostaglandins in promoting the metastatic process through their direct impact on malignant cells, and through their deleterious impact on anti-cancer CMI. We further discuss the effects of anesthetic techniques, the extent of surgery, pain alleviation, and timing within the menstrual cycle with respect to their impact on tumor recurrence and physiological stress responses. Last, we suggest an attractive perioperative drug regimen, based on a combination of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor and a β-adrenergic blocker, which we found effective in attenuating immune suppression and the metastasis-promoting effects of surgery in several tumor models. This regimen is clinically applicable, and could potentially promote disease free survival in patients operated for breast and other types of cancer.

  7. Cross-species comparison of biological themes and underlying genes on a global gene expression scale in a mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis and in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmacher Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion-related genes over-expressed by tumor cells as well as by reacting host cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. Results This study examined the suitability of a murine model (CT26/Balb/C of colorectal liver metastasis to represent clinical liver metastasis specimens using a global gene expression approach. Cross-species similarity was examined between pure liver, liver invasion, tumor invasion and pure tumor compartments through overlap of up-regulated genes and gene ontology (GO-based biological themes on the level of single GO-terms and of condensed GO-term families. Three out of four GO-term families were conserved in a compartment-specific way between the species: secondary metabolism (liver, invasion (invasion front, and immune response (invasion front and liver. Among the individual GO-terms over-represented in the invasion compartments in both species were "extracellular matrix", "cell motility", "cell adhesion" and "antigen presentation" indicating that typical invasion related processes are operating in both species. This was reflected on the single gene level as well, as cross-species overlap of potential target genes over-expressed in the combined invasion front compartments reached up to 36.5%. Generally, histopathology and gene expression correlated well as the highest single gene overlap was found to be 44% in syn-compartmental comparisons (liver versus liver whereas cross-compartmental overlaps were much lower (e.g. liver versus tumor: 9.7%. However, single gene overlap was surprisingly high in some cross-compartmental comparisons (e.g. human liver invasion compartment and murine tumor invasion compartment: 9.0% despite little histolopathologic similarity indicating that invasion relevant genes are not necessarily confined to histologically defined compartments. Conclusion In summary, cross

  8. Renal Metastasis from Primary Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Kim, See Hyung; Kwon, Sun Young

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis of malignant tumors to the kidney is clinically rare and often discovered by autopsy. Primary lymphoma and lung cancer are known that can metastasize to the kidney. Other malignant tumor metastasis to the kidney is very unusual. Primary cervical cancer metastasis to adjacent pelvic organs and lymph nodes are well known followed by abdominal solid organs such as the liver and adrenal glands. However, reported primary cervical cancer metastasis to the kidney is extremely rare and mostly appeared as bilateral multiple renal masses. We report here on a rare case of unilateral single renal metastasis from primary cervical cancer after concur- rent chemoradiotherapy.

  9. Genomic analyses of breast cancer progression reveal distinct routes of metastasis emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound...... clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis....

  10. The CT diagnose of pleural metastasis tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liqun; Han Kaibin; Pan Heng; Huang Xiaoru; Zhou Bingcao; Huang Yuehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the CT characteristic of pleural metastasis tumour,enhance the diagnostic level of pleural metastasis tumour. Methods: Review 30 cases which have been performed CT scan in our hospital during March 2002 to June 2003, which have been approved to pleural metastasis tumour by pathology and clinic. Make use of GE Hispeed.zx/i spiral CT,10mm thickness,10mm increment, l.5 pitch, some of them use 10mm or high resolution mode. All cases have been performed normal scan, 25 cases with contrast scan. Results: The CT representation of pleural metastasis tumour are encapsulated pleural effusion with irregular pleural thickening(56.6%), nodular pleural thickening(46.6%), pleural masses (13.3%), pneumothorax (3.3%), etc. Encapsulated pleural effusion and nodular pleural thickening are 76.6%, use contrast mode to scan pleural pathological changes enhance upon middle level, CT value increment > 20HU, there are 66.6% cases with other chest metastasis symptom, 73.3% primary lesion are pulmonary cancer, and 20% no primary lesion are found. Conclusion: Combine primary lesion history and other chest metastasis symptom, Spiral CT examination can differentiate most of pleural metastasis tumour, but it is difficult to differentiate the cases between with a little pleural effusion or light band pleural thickening and reactive alteration. (authors)

  11. Clinical application of genomic profiling to find druggable targets for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients with metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soojin; Lee, Jeongeun; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sim, Sung Hoon; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Tae Min; Kim, Dong-Wan; Heo, Dae Seog; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Although adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers are characterized by biological features and clinical outcomes distinct from those of other age groups, the molecular profile of AYA cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyzed cancer genomes from rare types of metastatic AYA cancers to identify driving and/or druggable genetic alterations. Prospectively collected AYA tumor samples from seven different patients were analyzed using three different genomics platforms (whole-exome sequencing, whole-transcriptome sequencing or OncoScan™). Using well-known bioinformatics tools (bwa, Picard, GATK, MuTect, and Somatic Indel Detector) and our annotation approach with open access databases (DAVID and DGIdb), we processed sequencing data and identified driving genetic alterations and their druggability. The mutation frequencies of AYA cancers were lower than those of other adult cancers (median = 0.56), except for a germ cell tumor with hypermutation. We identified patient-specific genetic alterations in candidate driving genes: RASA2 and NF1 (prostate cancer), TP53 and CDKN2C (olfactory neuroblastoma), FAT1, NOTCH1, and SMAD4 (head and neck cancer), KRAS (urachal carcinoma), EML4-ALK (lung cancer), and MDM2 and PTEN (liposarcoma). We then suggested potential drugs for each patient according to his or her altered genes and related pathways. By comparing candidate driving genes between AYA cancers and those from all age groups for the same type of cancer, we identified different driving genes in prostate cancer and a germ cell tumor in AYAs compared with all age groups, whereas three common alterations (TP53, FAT1, and NOTCH1) in head and neck cancer were identified in both groups. We identified the patient-specific genetic alterations and druggability of seven rare types of AYA cancers using three genomics platforms. Additionally, genetic alterations in cancers from AYA and those from all age groups varied by cancer type. The online version of this article

  12. Remembering apparent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment systematically investigates the role of narrative templates (Wertsch, 2002) in remembering. To stimulate the construction of a diversity of narratives I used Heider and Simmel’s (1944) celebrated “apparent behavior” film, in which geometric shapes moving around a screen...

  13. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    Background The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3) encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival. Results B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.026), FIGO stage (P cervical cancer patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26709519

  14. Cavitary pulmonar metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, E.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of cavitary lung metastasis, four from head and neck neoplasma, two from uterine carcinoma and one from hepatoma are reported. The physiopathology and the most common sites of this kind of lesion are discussed. The rarity of the solitary excavated metastasis from hepatoma, not reported previously in the literature reviewed, is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  15. Bone scintigraphy for metastasis detection in canine osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of serial bone scintigraphy in the detection of skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Twenty-six dogs with primary, appendicular osteosarcoma were entered into a limb-sparing protocol. Bone scintigraphy was performed upon presentation, after neoadjuvant therapy but prior to surgery and at selective intervals after limb-sparing surgery to evaluate for the presence of metastasis. Thoracic radiographs, and radiographs of other sites, were also made at the time of each bone scan. All dogs had a complete necropsy. No dog had bone or lung metastases detected prior to treatment. The bone scans, medical records, and radiographs of each dog were reviewed retrospectively. All but one dog developed metastatic disease. Bone metastatic sites were confirmed at necropsy in 12 of the 26 dogs. Seven of these 12 dogs had bone metastatic sites which were not producing clinical signs, i.e. an occult metastasis. In five of the seven dogs, the occult site was the first metastatic site detected. Extraskeletal metastases were identified scintigraphically in six of the 26 dogs, but these were clinically apparent prior to bone scintigraphy in each dog. Suspected malignant scintigraphic lesions were proven benign in six dogs. In five dogs with malignant bone lesions at necropsy the last bone scan prior to euthanasia was normal. The time interval between scintigraphy and necropsy was variable in these five dogs. All dogs without bone metastases at necropsy had normal bone scans. This study validates the usefulness of bone scintigraphy for detection of occult bone metastasis and improved ability for tumor staging in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma

  16. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  17. Evaluating the significance of density, localization, and PD-1/PD-L1 immunopositivity of mononuclear cells in the clinical course of lung adenocarcinoma patients with brain metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Téglási, Vanda; Reiniger, Lilla; Fabian, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Management of lung cancer patients who suffer from brain metastases represents a major challenge. Considering the promising results with immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment, evaluating the status of immune cell (IC) infiltrates in the prognosis of brain metastasis may lead to better...

  18. Experimental melanoma metastasis in lungs of mice with congenital coagulation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Niers, Tatjana M.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Experimental animal studies as well as clinical trials have shown that interventions targeting the blood coagulation cascade inhibit cancer cell metastasis. These data support the hypothesis that congenital prothrombotic disorders, like factor V Leiden, facilitate metastasis whereas bleeding

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming the gold standard in liver metastasis detection and treatment response assessment. The most sensitive magnetic resonance sequences are diffusion-weighted images and hepatobiliary phase images after Gd-EOB-DTPA. Peripheral ring enhancement, diffusion restriction, and hypointensity on hepatobiliary phase images are hallmarks of liver metastases. In patients with normal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings and high clinical suspicion of metastasis, MRI should be performed for diagnosis of unseen metastasis. In melanoma, colon cancer, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, MRI allows confident diagnosis of treatment-related changes in liver and enables differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors. Focal nodular hyperplasia-like nodules in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy, hypersteatosis, and focal fat can mimic metastasis. In cancer patients with fatty liver, MRI should be preferred to CT. Although the first-line imaging for metastases is CT, MRI can be used as a problem-solving method. MRI may be used as the first-line method in patients who would undergo curative surgery or metastatectomy. Current limitation of MRI is low sensitivity for metastasis smaller than 3mm. MRI fingerprinting, glucoCEST MRI, and PET-MRI may allow simpler and more sensitive diagnosis of liver metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Lymphatic Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the most challenging human malignancies, pancreatic cancer is characterized by its insidious symptoms, low rate of surgical resection, high risk of local invasion, metastasis and recurrence, and overall dismal prognosis. Lymphatic metastasis, above all, is recognized as an early adverse event in progression of pancreatic cancer and has been described to be an independent poor prognostic factor. It should be noted that the occurrence of lymphatic metastasis is not a casual or stochastic but an ineluctable and designed event. Increasing evidences suggest that metastasis-initiating cells (MICs and the microenvironments may act as a double-reed style in this crime. However, the exact mechanisms on how they function synergistically for this dismal clinical course remain largely elusive. Therefore, a better understanding of its molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in pancreatic lymphatic metastasis is urgently required. In this review, we will summarize the latest advances on lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

  1. S-adenosylmethionine blocks osteosarcoma cells proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo: therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, Surabhi; Cheishvili, David; Arakelian, Ani; Hussain, Zahid; Tanvir, Imrana; Khan, Haseeb Ahmed; Szyf, Moshe; Rabbani, Shafaat A

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic form of primary bone cancer affecting young children and adults. Previous studies have shown that hypomethylation of critical genes is driving metastasis. Here, we examine whether hypermethylation treatment can block OS growth and pulmonary metastasis. Human OS cells LM-7 and MG-63 were treated with the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its inactive analog S-adenosylhomocystine (SAH) as control. Treatment with SAM resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, cell migration, and cell cycle characteristics. Inoculation of cells treated with 150 μmol/L SAM for 6 days into tibia or via intravenous route into Fox Chase severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice resulted in the development of significantly smaller skeletal lesions and a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis as compared to control groups. Epigenome wide association studies (EWAS) showed differential methylation of several genes involved in OS progression and prominent signaling pathways implicated in bone formation, wound healing, and tumor progression in SAM-treated LM-7 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis confirmed that SAM treatment blocked the expression of several prometastatic genes and additional genes identified by EWAS analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human bone and tissue array from OS patients showed significantly high levels of expression of one of the identified gene platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA). These studies provide a possible mechanism for the role of DNA demethylation in the development and metastasis of OS to provide a rationale for the use of hypermethylation therapy for OS patients and identify new targets for monitoring OS development and progression

  2. Pulmonary metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Rajashekharrao, B.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Although thyroid cancer (TC) in its differentiated form is generally associated with a good prognosis and a near normal life expectancy, a subset of patients especially with distant metastatic disease may run an aggressive course leading to poor survival and early death. The clinical presentation and the manner in which the disease progresses differs with the site and type of the metastatic disease. The behaviour and course of skeletal metastasis has been described elsewhere. The biological behaviour and treatment of pulmonary metastatic disease is focussed on

  3. Lymphatics and cancer : VEGF-C and nitric oxide in lymphatic function, lymphangiogenesis, and metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The lymphatics are a primary route for cancer metastasis and lymph node metastasis is an important clinical prognostic factor. The process of lymphatic metastasis is, however, not well understood. This thesis examines the function of lymphatic vessels in relation to cancer progression and

  4. A Case Report of Intraocular Metastasis Treated with Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Jun [Daegu Catholic University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Intraocular metastasis is the most common malignancy of the eye. The frequency of intraocular metastasis in all the patients dying of cancer is about 12% and ocular metastases will be detected more frequently in the future because the patients with malignant tumor are now living longer. Intraocular metastasis can cause a serious clinical problem such as blindness. The early recognition and treatment of intraocular metastasis are very important clinical oncologic issues to maintain vision and to maximize the quality of life. However, significance of intraocular metastasis is still under-evaluated for practicing oncologists. External beam radiotherapy is a safe, effective palliative treatment in terms of preserving both the vision and the eye globe.

  5. Clinical value of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT PET /CT for the detection of primary and regional lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of18F-FDG and18F-FLT PET/CT for the detection of primary and regional lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer.Methods Thirty-seven patients with gastric cancer underwent preoperative18F-FLT and18F-FDG PET/CT within one week from March 2011 to April 2013.Postoperative histopathology confirmation was obtained in all patients.The PET/CT images were assessed visually and semi-quantitatively.Two-sample t andχ2tests were analyzed using SPSS overall diagnostic

  6. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  7. Understanding the biology of urothelial cancer metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kobayashi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of unresectable urothelial cancer (UC has been a clinical challenge for decades. While drug resistance is a key issue, precise understanding of biology of UC metastasis is another challenge for the improvement of treatment outcome of UC patients. Introduction of the cell biology concepts including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cancer stemness seems to explain UC metastasis. Molecular genetics based on gene expression profiling, next generation sequencing, and explosion of non-coding RNA world has opened the door to intrinsic molecular subtyping of UC. Next steps include, based on the recently accumulated understanding, the establishment of novel disease models representing UC metastasis in various experimental platforms, particularly in vivo animal systems. Indeed, novel knowledge molecular genetics has not been fully linked to the modeling of UC metastasis. Further understanding of bladder carcinogenesis is needed particularly with regard to cell of origin related to tumor characteristics including driver gene alterations, pathological differentiations, and metastatic ability. Then we will be able to establish better disease models, which will consequently lead us to further understanding of biology and eventually the development of novel therapeutic strategies for UC metastasis.

  8. Lung Metastasis Mimicking Fingertip Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Salih; Demiroglu, Murat; Yayla, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Korhan; Alpan, Bugra; Ozger, Harzem

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis fingers (acral metastasis) are finding a poor prognosis. Past medical history should be questioned and metastasis from primary tumor should be kept in mind in patients with pain, swelling, and hyperemia in fingers. Successful surgical treatment on acral metastasis does not extend the life expectancy; however, it reduces the patient's pain during his terminal period, saves the functions of the limb, and increases life comfort. PMID:26236517

  9. Lung Metastasis Mimicking Fingertip Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis fingers (acral metastasis are finding a poor prognosis. Past medical history should be questioned and metastasis from primary tumor should be kept in mind in patients with pain, swelling, and hyperemia in fingers. Successful surgical treatment on acral metastasis does not extend the life expectancy; however, it reduces the patient’s pain during his terminal period, saves the functions of the limb, and increases life comfort.

  10. Molecular mechanism and potential targets for bone metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of bone metastasis has been increasing in all cancers in recent years. Bone metastasis is associated with substantial morbidity, including bone pain, pathological fracture, neurological deficit and/or hypercalcemia. Thus, the management of bone metastasis in patients is a clinically significant issue. In the process of bone metastasis, the primary mechanism responsible for bone destruction is cancer cell-mediated stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption, which results in osteolysis and release of various growth factors from the bone matrix. These growth factors are prerequisites for successful colonization and subsequent invasive growth of cancer cells in bone, which is called a 'vicious cycle.' Thus, it is important to elucidate what molecules are involved in this step of bone destruction, and the understanding of these molecular mechanisms could lead to develop molecular-target therapies for bone metastasis. Bisphosphonates introduced in the treatment for bone metastasis have been shown to reduce skeletal morbidity. In Japan, the most potent bisphosphonate, zoledronate (ZOMETA), was introduced in this past April, and a phase III clinical trial of humanized anti-receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) monoclonal antibody (Denosumab) against bone metastasis is under way as a global study. These new agents, which are targeted to osteoclasts, are considered to be standard management in the care of bone metastasis patients in combination with chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. (author)

  11. Angiosarcoma of the Thyroid and Regional Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfi Dogan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid angiosarcomas are typically infiltrative and large tumors with very similar clinical findings of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid. Early hematogenous metastasis is very frequent, but regional lymph node metastasis is quite rare. We present a case of angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in a 68 years old man with regional lymph node metastasis. Total thyroidectomy with right modified radical neck dissection was applied. Four out of 19 lymph nodes dissected were seen to contain metastasis. Metastatic tumor was composed of sarcomatous areas containing large numbers of blood filled clefts. There after the surgery PET-CT was performed and multiple metastatic involvements were reported. Thyroid angiosarcomas are completely different tumors from angiomatoid anaplastic carcinomas. Longer survival with these tumors is only possible with agressive surgery and in case of regional LN metastasis, neck dissection should be done.

  12. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug Development for Metastasis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontebasso, Yari; Dubinett, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of death from solid tumors. However, only a minority of metastasis-specific targets has been exploited therapeutically, and effective prevention and suppression of metastatic disease is still an elusive goal. In this review, we will first summarize the current state of knowledge about the molecular features of the disease, with particular focus on steps and targets potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We will then discuss the reasons underlying the paucity of metastatic drugs in the current oncological arsenal and potential ways to overcome this therapeutic gap. We reason that the discovery of novel promising targets, an increased understanding of the molecular features of the disease, the effect of disruptive technologies, and a shift in the current preclinical and clinical settings have the potential to create more successful drug development endeavors.

  14. Colonic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma: helical-CT demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Candamio, M.J.; Pombo, S.; Pombo, F.

    2000-01-01

    Clinically evident colonic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is rare. In the present study a hypervascular sigmoid mass was demonstrated on arterial-phase helical CT using a water enema in a patient who had suffered left nephrectomy 8 years previously for RCC. The intense and early enhancement of the lesion suggested the possibility of a solitary colonic metastasis from RCC, a diagnosis which was pathologically confirmed. (orig.)

  15. Intracranial metastasis from a sacrococcygeal chordoma. Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Mahmoud Hamdy

    2012-02-03

    Chordoma is a locally invasive tumor of low metastatic potential. Only six cases of chordoma that metastasized to the brain are found in the English literature. Most of these lesions were clinically silent and all were associated with extraneural metastases. The authors report a case of symptomatic brain metastasis from a sacrococcygeal chordoma in the absence of other metastases. The incidence, sites, and factors predictive of chordoma metastasis are discussed.

  16. [A Case of Central Diabetes Insipidus That Was Caused by Pituitary Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma and Was Controlled by Radiation Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yusuke; Masuda, Takeshi; Nabeshima, Shinji; Horimasu, Yasushi; Nakashima, Taku; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Murakami, Yuji; Hamada, Hironobu; Nagata, Yasushi; Hattori, Noboru

    2017-06-01

    Pituitary metastasis of lung cancer is rare; however, it often causes diabetes insipidus. Although the majority of such patients are treated with radiation therapy, it remains unclear whether diabetes insipidus can be controlled by radiation therapy. A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for hemosputum, headache, and polyuria. A chest CT scan showed a 3.0 cm mass in the left upper lobe of his lung. Bronchofiberscopy results confirmed the pathological diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Based on the findings from PET-CT, head MRI, and endocrine tests, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma( cT1bN0M1b, stage IV)accompanied with central diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary metastasis was made. Oral administration of desmopressin reduced urine volumes; however, chemotherapy for achieving stable disease in the primary tumor was ineffective in controlling the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Chemotherapy was discontinued after 4 months because of severe hematological toxicity. During 2 months after the cessation of chemotherapy, polyuria worsened and, therefore, radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis was started. Following the radiation therapy, an apparent reduction in urine volume was observed. Our experience of this case suggests that radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis should be considered at the time when diabetes insipidus becomes clinically overt.

  17. A case of central diabetes insipidus that was caused by pituitary metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma and was controlled by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Yusuke; Masuda, Takeshi; Nabeshima, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary metastasis of lung cancer is rare; however, it often causes diabetes insipidus. Although the majority of such patients are treated with radiation therapy, it remains unclear whether diabetes insipidus can be controlled by radiation therapy. A 72-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for hemosputum, headache, and polyuria. A chest CT scan showed a 3.0 cm mass in the left upper lobe of his lung. Bronchofiberscopy results confirmed the pathological diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. Based on the findings from PET-CT, head MRI, and endocrine tests, the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (cT1bN0M1b, stage four) accompanied with central diabetes insipidus caused by pituitary metastasis was made. Oral administration of desmopressin reduced urine volumes; however, chemotherapy for achieving stable disease in the primary tumor was ineffective in controlling the symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Chemotherapy was discontinued after 4 months because of severe hematological toxicity. During 2 months after the cessation of chemotherapy, polyuria worsened and, therefore, radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis was started. Following the radiation therapy, an apparent reduction in urine volume was observed. Our experience of this case suggests that radiation therapy for pituitary metastasis should be considered at the time when diabetes insipidus becomes clinically overt. (author)

  18. Expression and clinical significance of extracellular matrix protein 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-C in lymphatic metastasis of human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiu-Wan; She, Hong-Qiang; Liang, Jing; Huang, Yu-Fan; Yang, Qing-Mo; Yang, Qiao-Lu; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    metastatic properties of breast cancer. We conclude, therefore, that ECM1 and VEGF-C may have a synergistic effect on lymphangiogenesis to facilitate lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer

  19. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  20. Additional value of FDG-PET to contrast enhanced-computed tomography (CT) for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer. A Japanese multicenter clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Murakami, Koji; Inoue, Tomio; Itoh, Harumi; Saga, Tsuneo; Shiomi, Susumu; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This study was a controlled multicenter clinical study to verify the diagnostic effects of additional fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to contrast-enhanced CT for mediastinal lymph node metastasis in patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC patients with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (short diameter, 7-20 mm), confirmed using contrast-enhanced CT, were examined using FDG-PET to detect metastases prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was the accuracy for concomitantly used CT and FDG-PET showing the additional effects of FDG, compared with CT alone. The secondary endpoints were the clinical impact of FDG-PET on therapeutic decisions and adverse reaction from FDG administration. The images were interpreted by investigators at each institution. Moreover, blinded readings were performed by an image interpretation committee independent of the institutions. The gold standard was the pathological diagnosis determined by surgery or biopsy after PET, and patients in whom a pathological diagnosis was not obtained were excluded from the analysis. Among 99 subjects, the results for 81 subjects eligible for analysis showed that the accuracy improved from 69.1% (56/81) for CT alone to 75.3% (61/81) for CT + PET (p=0.404). These findings contributed to treatment decisions in 63.0% (51/81) of the cases, mainly with regard to the selection of the operative procedure. The results of the image interpretation committee showed that the accuracy improved from 64.2% (52/81) (95% confidence interval (CI) 52.8-74.6) for CT to 75.3% (61/81) (95% CI 64.5-84.2) for CT + PET. The accuracy for 106 mediastinal lymph nodes improved significantly from 62.3% (66/106) (95% CI 52.3-71.5) for CT to 79.2% (84/106) (95% CI 70.3-86.5) for CT + PET (p<0.05). We found that no serious adverse drug reactions appeared in any of the 99 patients who received FDG, except for transient mild outliers in the laboratory data for two patients. The addition of FDG

  1. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pericardial metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Wen Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is prevalent in Taiwan and is characterized by a high frequency of nodal metastasis. The most common organs with distal metastases are the bones, lungs, and liver, with extremely rare cases to the pericardium. Herein, we report a rare case with NPC who presented with dyspnea and orthopnea. Serial studies, including pericardial biopsy, revealed NPC with pericardial metastasis and pericardial effusion. The tumor cells of both the original and metastatic tumors were positive for Epstein–Barr virus by in situ hybridization. This is the first histologically confirmed case of NPC with pericardial metastasis.

  2. A Clinical Decision Support System Using Ultrasound Textures and Radiologic Features to Distinguish Metastasis From Tumor-Free Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients With Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian Ardakani, Ali; Reiazi, Reza; Mohammadi, Afshin

    2018-03-30

    This study investigated the potential of a clinical decision support approach for the classification of metastatic and tumor-free cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma on the basis of radiologic and textural analysis through ultrasound (US) imaging. In this research, 170 metastatic and 170 tumor-free LNs were examined by the proposed clinical decision support method. To discover the difference between the groups, US imaging was used for the extraction of radiologic and textural features. The radiologic features in the B-mode scans included the echogenicity, margin, shape, and presence of microcalcification. To extract the textural features, a wavelet transform was applied. A support vector machine classifier was used to classify the LNs. In the training set data, a combination of radiologic and textural features represented the best performance with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) values of 97.14%, 98.57%, 97.86%, and 0.994, respectively, whereas the classification based on radiologic and textural features alone yielded lower performance, with AUCs of 0.964 and 0.922. On testing the data set, the proposed model could classify the tumor-free and metastatic LNs with an AUC of 0.952, which corresponded to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.33%, 96.66%, and 95.00%. The clinical decision support method based on textural and radiologic features has the potential to characterize LNs via 2-dimensional US. Therefore, it can be used as a supplementary technique in daily clinical practice to improve radiologists' understanding of conventional US imaging for characterizing LNs. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  4. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko

    1996-01-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  5. Survival and Prognostic Factors for Metachronous Peritoneal Metastasis in Patients with Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Soichiro; Hata, Keisuke; Murono, Koji; Kaneko, Manabu; Yasuda, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    The clinical course of metachronous peritoneal metastasis of colorectal origin is poorly understood. In this retrospective study, we aimed to elucidate survival and prognostic factors for metachronous peritoneal metastasis. Patients with metachronous peritoneal metastasis after curative resection for stage I-III colon cancer were retrospectively reviewed, and the incidence and prognosis of metachronous peritoneal metastasis were investigated. Prognostic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 1582 surgically resected stage I-III colon cancer patients, 65 developed metachronous peritoneal metastasis. The 5-year cumulative incidence rate was 4.5%, and the median survival after diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis was 29.6 months. None of the patients underwent peritonectomy or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Independent prognostic factors included right colon cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-5.64; p = 0.011], time to metachronous peritoneal metastasis of Cancer Index (PCI) >10 (HR 3.68, 95% CI 1.37-8.99; p = 0.012), concurrent metastases (HR 4.09, 95% CI 2.02-8.23; p colon cancer patients with metachronous peritoneal metastasis may benefit from combined peritoneal nodule resection and systemic chemotherapy. Right colon cancer, early peritoneal metastasis, a high PCI, and concurrent metastases negatively affected prognosis in patients with metachronous peritoneal metastasis.

  6. Histone Demethylase RBP2 Is Critical for Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic modifications contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene-expression data sets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes, including TNC. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutic targeting of RBP2 is a potential strategy for inhibition of tumor progression and metastasis.

  7. Omics-based profiling of carcinoma of the breast and matched regional lymph node metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, J.; Gromov, P.; Gromova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effor...

  8. Incremental Prognostic Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Analysis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Yuan, Ying; Ren, Jiliang; Shi, Yiqian; Tao, Xiaofeng

    2018-03-26

    We aimed to investigate the incremental prognostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and integrate it into a multivariate prognostic model. A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging findings was conducted in patients with pathologically confirmed HNSCC between June 2012 and December 2015. For each tumor, six histogram parameters were derived: the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of ADC (ADC 10 , ADC 50 , and ADC 90 ); mean ADC values (ADC mean ); kurtosis; and skewness. The clinical variables included age, sex, smoking status, tumor volume, and tumor node metastasis stage. The association of these histogram and clinical variables with overall survival (OS) was determined. Further validation of the histogram parameters as independent biomarkers was performed using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models combined with clinical variables, which was compared to the clinical model. Models were assessed with C index and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the 12- and 36-month OS. Ninety-six patients were eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 877 days (range, 54-1516 days). A total of 29 patients died during follow-up (30%). Patients with higher ADC values (ADC 10  > 0.958 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC 50  > 1.089 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC 90  > 1.152 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, ADC mean  > 1.047 × 10 -3 mm 2 /s) and lower kurtosis (≤0.967) were significant predictors of poor OS (P histogram analysis has incremental prognostic value in patients with HNSCC and increases the performance of a multivariable prognostic model in addition to clinical variables. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-04-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate. Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymph node metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymph node metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.).

  10. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastasis: Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, L.; Germain, I.; Cornu, P.; Boisserie, G.; Dormont, D.; Hardiman, C.; Tep, B.; Faillot, T.; Duffau, H.; Simon, J.M.; Dendale, R.; Delattre, J.Y.; Poisson, M.; Marsault, C.; Philippon, J.; Fohanno, D.; Baillet, F.; Mazeron, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of the influence of clinical and technical factors on local control and survival after radiosurgery for brain metastasis. From january 1994 to December 1996, 42 patients presenting with 71 metastases underwent radiosurgery for brain metastasis. The median age was 56 years and the median Karnofsky index 80. Primary sites included: lung (20 patients), kidney (seven), breast (five), colon (two), melanoma (three), osteosarcoma (one) and it was unknown for three patients. Seventeen patients had extracranial metastasis. Twenty-four patients were treated at recurrence which occurred after whole brain irradiation (12 patients), surgical excision (four) or after both treatments (eight). Thirty-six sessions of radiosurgery have been realized for one metastasis and 13 for two, three or four lesions. The median metastasis diameter was 21 mm and the median volume 1.7 cm 3 . The median peripheral dose to the lesion was 14 Gy, and the median dose at the isocenter 20 Gy. Sixty-five metastasis were evaluable for response analysis. The overall local control rate was 82% and the 1-year actuarial rate was 72%. In univariate analysis, theoretical radioresistance (P = 0.001), diameter less than 3 cm (P = 0.039) and initial treatment with radiosurgery (P 0.041) were significantly associated with increased local control. Only the first two factors remained significant in multivariate analysis. No prognostic factor of overall survival was identified. The median survival was 12 months. Six patients had a symptomatic oedema (RTOG grade 2), only one of which requiring a surgical excision. In conclusion, 14 Gy delivered at the periphery of metastasis seems to be a sufficient dose to control most brain metastases, with a minimal toxicity. Better results were obtained for lesions initially treated with radiosurgery, theoretically radioresistant and with a diameter less than 3 cm. (authors)

  11. Nodal metastasis in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The biological behavior and hence the prognosis of thyroid cancer (TC) depends among other factors on the extent of spread of the disease outside the thyroid bed. This effect is controversial, especially for nodal metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDC). Nodal metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis behaves differently depending on the histology, age of the patient, presence of extrathyroidal extension, and the sex of the individual. The type of the surgery, administration of 131 I and thyroxin suppression also to some extent influence the rate of recurrence and mortality. Experience has shown that it is not as innocuous as a small intrathyroidal tumor without any invasion outside the thyroid bed and due consideration should be accorded to the management strategies for handling patients with nodal metastasis

  12. Intracardiac metastasis originated from chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurea, Nicola; Ragone, Gianluca; Coppola, Carmela; Caronna, Antonietta; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Agozzino, Lucio; Apice, Gaetano; Iaffaioli, Rosario V

    2017-05-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare. By comparison, metastatic involvement of the heart is over 20 times more common and has been reported in autopsy series in up to one in five patients dying of cancer. Cardiac metastasis of chondrosarcoma is absolutely not frequent. In the recent literature, a cardiac metastasis from chondrosarcoma has never been described. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a diagnosis of cardiac metastasis that originated from a left scapular chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma is a skeletal tumor with various grades of malignancy, rapidly evolving, and with a strong tendency to metastasize, with low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The onset of characteristic systemic symptoms in the late stage of the disease led to the diagnosis of a mass localized in the right atrium. Management and differential diagnosis of infective heart lesions were also very complex in a rapidly evolving life-threatening condition.

  13. Relapsing pattern of brain metastasis after brain irradiation in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Kono, Koichi; Yoden, Eisaku; Mori, Takeki

    1997-01-01

    Many reports concerning radiation therapy for brain metastasis have been published, and which of the various methods urged by these reports provide optional control is still controversial. According to developing diagnosis of metastasis in CNS, therapeutic problems should be referred. We reviewed 67 patients with small cell lung cancer and brain metastasis who underwent brain irradiation (Ave. 47 Gy/5W), and all 15 patients with brain relapse after the irradiation. Relapsing patterns in this clinical setting were divided into local regrowth in the same lesions and re-metastasis (reseeding) in other regions, by reviewing follow up CT and MRI studies. Total survival among 15 patients with brain relapse and 52 without relapse was longer in the former cases than the later: 1-, and 2-year survival (47/19%, 13/8%) and MST (10.8/5.7 months), from the initial brain irradiation. The concerned significant factors limited in younger age, low value of LDH and improvement of NF. Of the 15 patients with brain relapse, 4 developed local regrowth and 11 did re-metastasis. The period of remission since brain irradiation were 172±94.4 and 393±281 days, respectively. Lower number of brain metastasis and lower value of LDH were shown in re-metastasis patients. At the time of brain relapse, 11 patients had recurrence of carcinomatous meningitis. 4 patients were treated with whole brain re-irradiation. All patients died of cancer, including 12 of relapsing CNS diseases and 3 of primary lesion and hepatic metastasis. Leukoencephalopathy developed in 2 patients. Survival since the brain relapse was 2 to 238 days without significant difference in cases of local regrowth and re-metastasis. According to our data on relapsing pattern of brain metastasis after conventional fractionated brain irradiation with an objective dose of 50 Gy, 75% of brain relapse were re-metastasis, we appreciate this irradiation for initial brain metastasis if limited to the brain. (author)

  14. Peritoneal carcinomatosis, an unusual and only site of metastasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated peritoneal metastases of lung adenocarcinoma are very rare, even exceptional, occurring most often in the context of a multi-metastatic disease. This report presents a rare clinical case of isolated peritoneal metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. We report a 56-year-old male who was monitored for lung ...

  15. A rare case of ileal metastasis from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, L; David, L; Orban, C; Herlea, V; Toma, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old woman, with a history of radiation-treated and surgically- resected cervical cancer, who was admitted to our clinic for intermittent sub occlusive symptoms. CT scan revealed a liver nodule and intestinal obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for excision of suspected liver metastasis and resolution of intestinal obstruction.Intraoperatively an ileal tumour was found to be the cause of the obstruction. Anatomo-pathological findings were consistent with an ileal metastasis from the cervical cancer.The liver nodule was only an area of focal steatosis. Celsius.

  16. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Simões

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  17. [Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Maria Inês; Marcão, Isabel; Toscano, Mário; Borges, Luís

    2018-03-29

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis through an exercise of clinical and histological differential diagnosis of an inguinal adenopathy in a young adult.

  18. Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, H J L M; Brouwers, F M; Hermus, A R M M; Sweep, F C G J; Verhofstad, A A J; Verbeek, A L M; Pacak, K; Lenders, J W M

    2008-12-01

    The treatment of choice for non-metastatic pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. Its goals are to abolish catecholamine hypersecretion, normalize blood pressure, and prevent further tumor growth or progression to metastatic disease. Data on long-term mortality and morbidity after pheochromocytoma surgery are limited. We here report a retrospective study on the long-term outcome after surgery for apparently benign pheochromocytoma at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Data on clinical presentation, treatment, post-surgical blood pressure and recurrence, metastasis and death were collected of 69 consecutive patients (January 1966-December 2000; follow-up: until death or January 2006). Survival was compared with survival of a matched reference population. Two patients died of surgical complications. All ten patients with metastatic disease (including three diagnosed at first surgery) died. At follow-up, 40 patients were alive and recurrence free and three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients experienced a benign recurrence. Mean+/-s.d. follow-up was 10.2+/-7.5 (median 9, range 1-38) years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for 5- and 10-year survival since surgery were 85.8% (95% CI: 77.2-94.4%) and 74.2% (95% CI: 62.0-86.4%) for patients versus 95.5 and 89.4% in the reference population (Prisk of developing metastatic disease. Only one-third becomes normotensive without antihypertensive medication. Therefore, lifelong follow-up is warranted.

  19. MRI features of meningeal metastasis from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xuemao; Long Wansheng; Jin Zhifa; Hu Maoqing; Mai Xuyu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathway and MRI findings of meningeal metastasis original from lung cancer. Methods: 44 cases with cerebro-spinal meningeal metastasis original from lung cancer proven by clinical and pathology were retrospectively reviewed. All cases undergone plain MRI scan and Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI scan on brain and/or spine. Results: MRI plain scan indicated 28 cases with brain metastases, 3 cases with meningeal nodosity or irregularly patchy abnormal signal, 1 case with nodule in left cavernous sinus, 10 cases with abnormal signal in spine, 2 cases with abnormal signal in spinal dura mater. 34 cases with cerebro meningeal metastases were found in MRI enhancement scan. Among them, 11 cases displayed cerebral dura mater-arachnoid enhancement, 17 cases revealed cerebral pia mater-arachnoid enhancement and 6 cases with mixed typed enhancement. Osteoclasia in skull was found in 4 cases, spinal metastasis was revealed in 17 cases, and patchy abnormal enhancement in spinal dura mater was showed in 12 cases. Conclusion: Hematogenous metastasis is a main route of meningeal metastasis caused by lung cancer and enhanced MRI scan is of important diagnostic value. (authors)

  20. Metastasis features of 546 patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer at first visit and the significance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fenghu; Lu Bing; Fu Heyi; Han Lei; Li Qingsong; Li Huiqin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical metastasis features and the possibility of 3 dimensional radiotherapy of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The clinical materials of 546 patients with stage IV NSCLC and the relationship b T and N stage and metastasis were retrospectively analyzed. Results In 546 patients with stage IV NSCLC, the number with bone metastasis was 294, the number with brain metastasis was 167, the number with lung metastasis was 137, the number with liver metastasis was 79, the number with adrenal gland metastasis was 66, 37 with lymph node metastasis, 35 with subcutaneous metastasis and 10 with other organ metastasis. The number with single organ metastasis was 379 (69.4%) ,in which 37.7% with bone metastasis, 19.8% with brain metastasis, 16.9% with lung metastasis, 7.4% with liver metastasis, 7.4% with adrenal gland metastasis, 4.5% with lymph node metastasis, 5.5% with subcutaneous metastasis and 0.8% with other organ metastasis. The bone metastasis probability of T 3+4 patient was similar with T 1+2 (69.4%, 30.6%, χ 2 = 7.65, P = 0.067), but N 2+3 patient was more than N 0+1 (69.7%, 30.3%, χ 2 = 7.89, P = 0.044). The brain metastasis probability of T 3+4 patient was more than T 1+2 (70.7%, 29.3%, χ 2 = 10.64, P = 0.018), but N 2+3 patient was similar with N 0+1 (54.5%, 45.5%, χ 2 = 7.14, P = 0.079), and N 1+3+3 patient was more than N 0 (86.8%, 13.2%, χ 2 = 10.26, P = 0.024). Conclusions: In 546 patients with stage IV NSCLC, the most common metastatic organ is bone, the second is brain, the third is lung, the forth is liver, followed by adrenal gland; single organ metastasis is more common than multiple organ metastasis. The later the T stage is, the more severe is the metastasis. Through 3 dimensional radiotherapy, not only the quality of life of some stage IV patients is improved, but also the survival time was prolonged observably. (authors)

  1. Cutaneous metastasis of bilateral renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fariba; Alizadeh, Mansur; Noroozinia, Farahnaz; Moradi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant lethal tumour with high potential of metastasis. However, metastasis from RCC to the skin is much less common. It is virtually a sign of poor prognosis. We represent a 42 years old man with bilateral RCC of clear cell type followed by metastasis to the scalp one month later. In this case the relatively young age of the patient, bilaterality of RCC and occurance of skin metastasis in the absence of recurrent kidney tumour are interesting.

  2. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  3. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammed S

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone, and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are rare with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of a Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and ileo-cecal junction metastasis.

  4. Gut metastasis from breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, Mohammad S.

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in women. Common sites of metastases include the liver, lung, bone and the brain. Metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are with patients presenting with small-bowel perforation, intestinal obstruction and gastrointestinal bleeding. Here we report a case of Saudi female presenting with invasive lobular carcinoma and i leo-junction metastasis. (author)

  5. CT manifestation of peritoneal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Soon Joo; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1989-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is frequent mode of dissemination of intraabdominal malignancies. Radiologic diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis has relied on indirect evidence on a barium UGI series and small bowel examination. With the advent of CT scanning, CT is capable of direct imaging of peritoneum. The sensitivity of CT in detecting peritoneal metastasis and CT manifestation of peritoneal metastatic lesions had reported occasionally, but rarely in Korea. So, authors illustrated the CT manifestation of peritoneal metastatic lesions in 32 cases of macroscopically proven cases in laparoscopy or laparotomy in Korea University Hae Wha Hospital during recent 4 years. The results are as follows. 1. Of total 32 cases, 18 cases were male and 14 cases were female. Age incidence was the most common in 6th decade. 2. The most common type of malignancy that cause peritoneal metastasis was the stomach cancer and next common type of malignancies were pancreas cancer in men and ovarian cancer in women. 3. Of total 32 cases of peritoneal metastasis which was confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy macroscopically, 23 cases (72%) were detected peritoneal thickening and/or omental pathology by CT, and the remaining 9 cases (28%) were not detected by CT. 4. Ascites was present in 19 cases (59%). 5. Parietal peritoneal thickening was present in 16 cases (50%) by CT and sheetlike pattern was the most common findings. The patterns of peritoneal thickening was relatively nonspecific and was not correlated with primary tumor type. 6. Tumor involvement of greater omentum by CT was present in 19 cases (59%). There were 7 cases of smudged appearance pattern, 6 cases of nodular pattern, 6 cases of omental cake pattern and no cystic mass pattern. The patterns of omental pathology was relatively nonspecific and was nor correlated with primary tumor type

  6. MRI findings of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the mid-sigmoid colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Arco, Felice; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Romano, Federica; Natella, Valentina; Laccetti, Ettore; Storto, Giovanni; Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A remote vaginal metastasis from a colo-rectal carcinoma is extremely rare. Only few cases have been described in the literature. The radiological appearances of a vaginal metastasis from colon-rectal cancer have not been extensively investigated. We report the MRI findings with clinical and pathological correlations of a remote and isolated vaginal metastasis revealing a mid-sigmoid adenocarcinoma in a 67 years old woman

  7. Cutaneous metastasis: clinicopathological study of 72 patients from a tertiary care center in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Jinane; Khalifeh, Ibrahim; Kibbi, Abdul-Ghani; Abbas, Ossama

    2014-02-01

    Cutaneous metastasis is the result of malignant cell spread from primary malignancy to the skin. This is not uncommon, and rates reported in the literature are as high as 10.4%. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies assessing the epidemiologic, clinical, and histopathological features of cutaneous metastasis in our region. To assess the clinical and histopathological findings of all patients diagnosed with cutaneous metastasis at the American University of Beirut - Medical Center (AUB-MC) and to compare our findings with those published in the literature. Retrospective clinical and histopathologic evaluation of all cases diagnosed as cutaneous metastasis at AUB-MC between 1992 and 2010. A total of 72 patients (50 females and 22 males) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years. The most common primary cancer was breast cancer in women and laryngeal cancer in men. The most common clinical presentation was a single nodule in 27% of cases followed by multiple nodules in 23%. Cutaneous metastasis lesions were asymptomatic in the majority. The chest was the most commonly affected site. On microscopy, the majority of metastatic cases were adenocarcinomas (74%). This is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the epidemiological, clinical, and histopathological features of cutaneous metastasis in the Lebanese population. The clinical and histopathological features observed were in concordance with the published literature, with minor differences. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Clinicopathological factors associated with survival in patients with breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Kui; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    Brain metastasis from breast cancer generally represents a catastrophic event yet demonstrates substantial biological heterogeneity. There have been limited studies solely focusing on the prognosis of patients with such metastasis. In this study, we carried out a comprehensive analysis in 108 consecutive patients with breast cancer brain metastases between 1997 and 2012 to further define clinicopathological factors associated with early onset of brain metastasis and survival outcomes after development of them. We found that lobular carcinoma, higher clinical stages at diagnosis, and lack of coexisting bone metastasis were significantly associated with a worse brain relapse-free survival when compared with brain-only metastasis. High histologic grade, triple-negative breast cancer, and absence of visceral involvement were unfavorable prognostic factors after brain metastasis. Furthermore, high histologic grade, advanced tumor stages, and lack of coexisting bone involvement indicated a worse overall survival. Thus, the previously established prognostic factors in early stage or advanced breast cancers may not entirely apply to patients with brain metastases. Furthermore, the prognostic significance of the clinicopathological factors differed before and after a patient develops brain metastasis. This knowledge might help in establishing an algorithm to further stratify patients with breast cancer into prognostically significant categories for optimal prevention, screening, and treatment of their brain metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinicopathological and Molecular Histochemical Review of Skull Base Metastasis from Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Akira; Murakami, Mineko; Hoya, Katsumi; Yamada, Shoko M.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Yamada, So; Son, Jae-Hyun; Nishido, Hajime; Ide, Fuyuaki; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Sugaya, Mutsumi; Hirohata, Toshio; Mizutani, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Skull base metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma including follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare clinical entity. Eighteen FTC cases and 10 PTC cases showing skull base metastasis have been reported. The most common symptom of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC is cranial nerve dysfunction. Bone destruction and local invasion to the surrounding soft tissues are common on radiological imaging. Skull base metastases can be the initial clinical presentation of FTC and PTC in the presence of silent primary sites. The possibility of skull base metastasis from FTC and PTC should be considered in patients with the clinical symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and radiological findings of bone destruction. A variety of genetic alterations in thyroid tumors have been identified to have a fundamental role in their tumorigenesis. Molecular histochemical studies are useful for elucidating the histopathological features of thyroid carcinoma. Recent molecular findings may provide novel molecular-based treatment strategies for thyroid carcinoma

  10. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  11. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shawn Carbonell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  12. Testicular Metastasis of Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Kusaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of secondary neoplasms of the testis during autopsies is approximately 2.5%. Although most secondary testicular metastases are due to prostate cancer, only a few patients with prostate cancer have clinically manifested testicular metastasis. We report the case of a prostate cancer patient with testicular metastasis who was diagnosed after the presence of a palpable mass in the right testis. A 56-year-old Japanese male presented to our hospital with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA level of 137 ng/ml. He was diagnosed with stage IV (T3N1M1b prostate cancer and received androgen deprivation therapy, followed by various hormonal manipulations. His serum PSA level was undetectable for 1 year. No distant metastases were detected during imaging examinations. He received radiation therapy; however, his serum PSA level increased gradually. Four months later, he presented with right testicular swelling. Computed tomography revealed a heterogenous mass in the right testis and a right high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Histopathological analysis showed that the right testis was infiltrated with metastatic adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 8. This is a rare case of right testicular metastasis in a patient with prostate cancer. Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer can be aggressive and metastasize.

  13. Uterine Adenocarcinoma with Pulmonary, Liver and Mesentery Metastasis in a Holstein Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stilwell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and pathology features of a cow with uterine adenocarcinoma and multiple metastasis are described. Weight loss, inappetence, mild respiratory signs, and reduced milk yield were evident on clinical examination. Grossly deformed uterus, enlarged iliac lymph nodes, and rosary arranged nodules in the mesentery were felt by rectal palpation. Right side laparotomy revealed numerous small masses covering the omentum, and mesentery. Euthanasia was performed. Necropsy and histopathology exam revealed a uterine adenocarcinoma with multiple pulmonary, liver and mesentery metastasis. Uterine adenocarcinoma with metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cows showing weight loss and mild respiratory distress and palpation of numerous firm nodules in the mesentery should be suggestive of neoplasias' metastasis.

  14. Oral gingival metastasis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini Aswath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity is a rare target for metastasis with an incidence of 1% among all oral cancers. In 24% of such cases, oral metastasis is the first indication of an undiagnosed primary. Metastatic oral malignancies have been reported in the mandible, tongue, and gingiva. Although gingival metastasis has been reported from lung, prostate, rectal carcinoma in men and carcinoma of breast, adrenal glands, and genitalia in females, gingival metastasis from carcinoma of the penis has not been reported. Herein, a case of metastatic gingival carcinoma that developed after extraction of teeth from primary carcinoma of the penis is presented. An extensive literature search revealed no such similar case reports.

  15. CT diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xueying; Chen Xiaoqi; Qi Le; Huang Feng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings and diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis. Methods: The CT findings of 17 cases with surgical- pathologically proved peritoneal metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Results The CT findings of peritoneal metastasis included: (1)ascites (12 cases ); (2)the aternation of parietal peritoneum including broad band thickening (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), and massive thickening (1 cases); (3) the involved omentum and mesenterium: 'smut' appearances (7 cases), nodular sign (2 cases), 'omental cake' (5 cases); (4) the invlovement of mesenteric vessels; (5) single-or multi-cystic lesions within peritoneum (1 case) . Conclusion: CT scan is the first choice for metastasis of peritoneum. (authors)

  16. Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma with brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ling YAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study clinicopathological features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis of mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC.  Methods One case of MANEC with brain metastasis was reported focusing on the following aspects: clinical manifestations, histopathological features and immunophenotypes, and the relevant literatures were reviewed.  Results A 35-year-old male presented headache and vomiting, and his head CT scan showed a lesion located in the right temporal lobe. The tumor was detected after separating the cerebral cortex during the surgery. The tumor diameter was 3 cm. The tumor was soft and rubbery with ill-defined margins, and rich in blood supply. Under optical microscopy, the tumor was consisted of small round cells of the same size, with focal tumor cells arranged around blood vessels in a pseudorosette manner or papillary manner with brisk mitotic activity. The boundary between tumor and brain tissue was ill-defined. By using immunohistochemical staining, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for synaptophysin (Syn and CD56, and negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, pan cytokeratin (PCK, CD3, CD20, vimentin (Vim, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, S-100 protein (S-100, neurofilament (NF, nestin (Nes, CK5/6, CK8/18 and CD99. Ki-67 labeling index was about 62%. Sigmoidoscopy was performed later in another hospital and showed a mass in the patient's colon. The colon tumor was biphasic in appearance, and was consisted of two distinct components: isomorphic small round cells and low-middle differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. The small round tumor cells were diffusely positive for Syn and CD56, and negative for PCK. The adenocarcinoma cells showed opposite results.  Conclusions MANEC is a rare tumor, which is defined in 2010 by WHO Classification of Digestive, and to the best of our knowledge, MANEC of the colon with brain metastasis has never been described

  17. Pancreatic Metastasis from Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreas is an unusual location for metastases from other primary cancers. Rarely, pancreatic metastases from kidney or colorectal cancers have been reported. However, a variety of other cancers may also spread to the pancreas. We report an exceptional case of pancreatic metastasis from prostate cancer. Differences in management between primary and secondary pancreatic tumors make recognition of metastases to the pancreas an objective of first importance. Knowledge of unusual locations for metastatic spread will reduce diagnostic delay and lead to a timely delivery of an appropriate treatment.

  18. Dissecting and Targeting Latent Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Option in Brain Metastasis Manuel Valiente,1 Anna C. Obenauf,1 Xin Jin,1 Qing Chen,1 Xiang H.-F. Zhang,1,8 Derek J. Lee,1 Jamie E. Chaft,2 Mark G. Kris,2...of poor response to tamoxifen therapy in recurrent breast cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87, 751–756. Francia, G., Cruz -Munoz, W., Man, S., Xu, P... Manuel Valiente1, Xin Jin1†, Ekrem Emrah Er1, Ruzeen Patwa1, Ke Xu3 and Joan Massagué1 1 Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, 2 Department of

  19. Endocannabinoids as Guardians of Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Tegeder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids including anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are involved in cancer pathophysiology in several ways, including tumor growth and progression, peritumoral inflammation, nausea and cancer pain. Recently we showed that the endocannabinoid profiles are deranged during cancer to an extent that this manifests in alterations of plasma endocannabinoids in cancer patients, which was mimicked by similar changes in rodent models of local and metastatic cancer. The present topical review summarizes the complexity of endocannabinoid signaling in the context of tumor growth and metastasis.

  20. Metástasis hipofisaria Hypophyseal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mayoría son lesiones silentes descubiertas accidentalmente en las autopsia. La aparición de metástasis sintomáticas es, en cambio, excepcional. DESARROLLO: se describen aquí los hallazgos clínicos y radiológicos de una paciente femenina de 69 años, con un carcinoma indiferenciado del pulmón, diagnosticado hace 2 años y medio, que comenzó con cefalea y trastornos visuales sin hipopituitarismo ni diabetes insípida. Se le realizó resonancia magnética nuclear y se le diagnosticó una lesión hipofisaria, que fue operada por vía tranesfenoidal, y se informó por anatomía patológica una metástasis del carcinoma del pulmón. CONCLUSIONES: la paciente se encuentra en estos momentos recibiendo quimioterapia, radioterapia y anticuerpo monoclonal con evolución favorable.INTRODUCTION: metastatic tumors of hypophyseal gland are infrequent. Most are silent lesions discovered accidentally in necropsy. Appearance of symptomatic metastasis is however, exceptional. DEVELOPMENT: we describe here clinical and radiological findings in a female patient aged 69, presenting with a non-differential carcinoma of lung, diagnosed two years a half ago, starting with headache and visual disorders without hypopituitarism and insipidus diabetes. We made a nuclear magnetic resonance and diagnosis was a hypophyseal lesion operated on by trans-esphenoidal route, and Pathological Anatomy Service reports a metastasis of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: patient receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and monoclonal antibody with a favorable evolution.

  1. Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis from colonic carcinoma presenting as Brown-Sequard syndrome: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaballo, Mohammed A

    2011-08-02

    Abstract Introduction Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis is very rare. The majority are discovered incidentally during autopsy. Most symptomatic patients present with rapidly progressive neurological deficits and require immediate examination. Few patients demonstrate features of Brown-Séquard syndrome. Radiotherapy is the gold-standard of therapy for Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. The overall prognosis is poor and the mortality rate is very high. We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis of colorectal carcinoma presenting as Brown-Séquard syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 71-year-old Caucasian man with colonic adenocarcinoma who developed Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis and showed features of Brown-Séquard syndrome, which is an uncommon presentation of Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis. Conclusion This patient had an Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis, a rare form of metastatic disease, secondary to colonic carcinoma. The metastasis manifested clinically as Brown-Séquard syndrome, itself a very uncommon condition. This syndrome is rarely caused by intramedullary tumors. This unique case has particular interest in medicine, especially for the specialties of medical, surgical and radiation oncology. We hope that it will add more information to the literature about these entities.

  2. Application of metabolomics in prediction of lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Won; Han, Kyunghwa; Lee, Jandee; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Kwak, Jin Young

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find useful metabolites to predict lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) through a metabolomics approach and investigate the potential role of metabolites as a novel prognostic marker. Fifty-two consecutive patients (median age: 41.5 years, range 15-74 years) were enrolled who underwent total thyroidectomy and central LN dissection with or without lateral LN dissection in Severance Hospital between October 2013 and July 2015. The study specimens were provided by the Severance Hospital Gene Bank, and consisted of PTC from each patient. The specimens were prepared for proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Spectral data by 1H-NMR spectroscopy were acquired, processed, and analyzed. Patients were grouped in three ways, according to the presence of LN metastasis, central LN metastasis and lateral LN metastasis. Chi-square test and the student t-test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables, respectively. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for univariate analysis of metabolites. Orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used for multivariate analysis to discriminate metabolic differences between the two groups. Among 52 patients, 32 had central LN metastasis and 19 had lateral LN metastasis. No clinical or histopathological characteristic was significantly different for all comparisons. On univariate analysis, no metabolite showed significant difference for all comparisons. On multivariate analysis, OPLS-DA did not discriminate the presence and absence of LN metastasis. Lactate was found to be the most promising metabolite. No metabolite could discriminate the presence of LN metastasis. However, lactate was found to be the most promising metabolite for discrimination. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to elucidate significant metabolites which can indicate the presence of LN metastasis in patients with PTC.

  3. The efficacy of preoperative positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for detection of lymph node metastasis in cervical and endometrial cancer: clinical and pathological factors influencing it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Yuya; Banno, Kouji; Irie, Haruko; Iida, Miho; Kisu, Iori; Masugi, Yohei; Tanaka, Kyoko; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Okuda, Shigeo; Murakami, Koji; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    We studied the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in cervical and endometrial cancers with particular focus on lymph node metastases. Seventy patients with cervical cancer and 53 with endometrial cancer were imaged with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography before lymphadenectomy. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the final pathological diagnoses as the golden standard. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography. In cervical cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 33.3, 92.7, 55.6 and 83.6%, respectively. When evaluated by the area of lymph nodes, the results were 30.6, 98.9, 55.0 and 97.0%, respectively. As for endometrial cancer, the results evaluated by cases were 50.0, 93.9, 40.0 and 95.8%, and by area of lymph nodes, 45.0, 99.4, 64.3 and 98.5%, respectively. The limitation of the efficacy was found out by analyzing it by the region of the lymph node, the size of metastatic node, the historical type of tumor in cervical cancer and the prevalence of lymph node metastasis. The efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography regarding the detection of lymph node metastasis in cervical and endometrial cancer is not established and has limitations associated with the region of the lymph node, the size of metastasis lesion in lymph node and the pathological type of primary tumor. The indication for the imaging and the interpretation of the results requires consideration for each case by the pretest probability based on the information obtained preoperatively. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. BMI1 and H-RAS Cooperate to Drive Breast Cancer Metastasis | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been significant improvements in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages of the disease. However, even when patients are identified early, there is a 30 percent chance of recurrence after apparently successful treatment of the initial tumor. The major cause of death for breast cancer patients is metastasis of the tumor to other organs but, unfortunately, the mechanisms of metastatic progression and cancer recurrence are poorly understood.

  5. The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Riddle of the Apparently Hollow Himalaya. Ramesh .... It was as if the Himalayas were hollow inside. ... block would be consistent with the ground elevation in such a ... Alternative models and possible preference: Many refinements of.

  6. First case report of retroperitoneal metastasis of fascioliasis after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Ma, Wen-Jie; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Er-Liang; Yang, Qin; Hu, Hai-Jie; Liu, Fei; Li, Quan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Fascioliasis is a rare cause of liver abscesses, and its clinical course consists of hepatic phase and biliary phase. Patient concerns: We describe a 58-year-old female patient who presented with a 2-month history of intermittent fever and abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed confluent low-density lesions in the liver. Complete surgical resection of these abscesses was performed, and postoperative pathological examination and serological tests confirmed a diagnosis of fascioliasis. However, 4 months after the surgery, follow-up CT revealed a lesion in the retroperitoneal area. Meanwhile, ultrasonography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the retroperitoneal lesion was performed, and a parasitic infection was suspected. Diagnoses: Retroperitoneal metastasis of hepatic phase fascioliasis. Interventions: The patient received parasitic resistance treatment with triclabendazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d for 2 consecutive days. Outcomes: After 2 courses of triclabendazole therapy, the retroperitoneal metastasis regressed to a minor lesion. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of retroperitoneal metastasis of fascioliasis, aimed at helping recognize the clinical features and treatment options of this rare disease. PMID:29390366

  7. First case report of retroperitoneal metastasis of fascioliasis after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Ma, Wen-Jie; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Er-Liang; Yang, Qin; Hu, Hai-Jie; Liu, Fei; Li, Quan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Fascioliasis is a rare cause of liver abscesses, and its clinical course consists of hepatic phase and biliary phase. We describe a 58-year-old female patient who presented with a 2-month history of intermittent fever and abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed confluent low-density lesions in the liver. Complete surgical resection of these abscesses was performed, and postoperative pathological examination and serological tests confirmed a diagnosis of fascioliasis. However, 4 months after the surgery, follow-up CT revealed a lesion in the retroperitoneal area. Meanwhile, ultrasonography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the retroperitoneal lesion was performed, and a parasitic infection was suspected. Retroperitoneal metastasis of hepatic phase fascioliasis. The patient received parasitic resistance treatment with triclabendazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d for 2 consecutive days. After 2 courses of triclabendazole therapy, the retroperitoneal metastasis regressed to a minor lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of retroperitoneal metastasis of fascioliasis, aimed at helping recognize the clinical features and treatment options of this rare disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Small cell lung cancer with metastasis to the thyroid in a patient with toxic multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgu, Eylem Sercan; Gen, Ramazan; Ilvan, Ahmet; Ozge, Cengiz; Polat, Ayşe; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer is rarely observed in clinical practice. The primary cancers which metastasize to the thyroid gland are mostly renal cell carcinoma, lung cancer, and breast cancer. Transient destructive thyrotoxicosis is caused by massive metastasis of extrathyroid tumors. We herein present a case report of a patient with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. A 66-year-old man complained of swelling around the right side of the neck, dyspnea, progressive weight loss, and palpitation starting since 3 months before his admission. The patient was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of lung with metastasis to the thyroid and thyrotoxicosis due to toxic multinodular goiter. The case report presented here illustrates the challenge of making a definitive and adequate diagnosis, particularly if the patient presents with 2 potential causes of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid scintigraphy is an important tool for differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis.

  9. Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma to the Gingiva: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajini Kanth

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumors account for 1% of all oral malignancies. Metastasis to jaw bones is common, particularly in the mandible, rare in the oral soft tissues, and account for only 0.1% of oral malignancies. The majority of metastatic cases (70% reported in the literature have primary tumors located in the lung, breast, kidney, and colon. Metastasis is a biological complex process that involves detachment from the surrounding cells, regulation of cell motility, invasion, survival, proliferation, and evasion of the immune system. Clinical presentation of metastatic tumors is variable, which may create diagnostic dilemma or may lead to erroneous diagnosis. Metastatic tumors clinically mimic as dental infections. Metastasis to the oral soft tissue from lung cancer, especially gingiva is a rare condition. Metastasis to the gingiva can affect the oral function, speech, and nutrition. Most of the cases in the literature reported that lesion presented in oral soft tissues before the diagnosis of primary tumors. Here we report a case of 62-year-old male patient with metastasis from lung to the gingiva, where the metastasis was detected before primary tumor.

  10. Metástasis cervical contralateral en el carcinoma epidermoide de la cavidad oral: Estudio clínico analítico retrospectivo en 315 pacientes primariamente tratados con cirugía Contralateral neck metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: An analytical retrospective clinical study of 315 patients primarily treated with surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-García

    2008-06-01

    carcinoma epidermoide de lengua. El tiempo de supervivencia medio libre de enfermedad fue 147± 6 meses. Veintinueve (9,1% pacientes desarrollaron recurrencia cervical ipsilateral, mientras que 18 (5,69% mostraron recurrencia cervical contralateral. Para los pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de lengua, y considerando los porcentajes en relación a los 203 pacientes con esta entidad, estas cifras fueron de 20 (9,8% y 9 (4,4%, respectivamente. El tiempo medio de aparición de las metástasis cervicales desde la cirugía fue de 12,52 meses (rango: 3-49, algo menor para el subgrupo de pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de lengua (11,4 meses, rango: 3-27. Dieciocho de los 29 pacientes con recurrencia cervical ipsilateral murieron finalmente de la enfermedad. Siete de 18 pacientes con metástasis contralateral murieron igualmente de la enfermedad. En el subgrupo de pacientes con carcinoma epidermoide de lengua, estas cifras fueron: catorce de 20 pacientes con metástasis cervical ipsilateral y ocho de 9 pacientes con metástasis cervical contralateral. Varios factores clínicopatológicos mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa (pObjectives. There are numerous studies in the literature on the prognostic factors involved in the appearance of ipsilateral neck metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. However, there are no extensive clinical studies on the association of clinicopathological factors and the appearance of contralateral neck metastasis after the surgical resection of the primary tumor. The object of this study is to analyze the factors implied in the appearance of contralateral neck metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated primarily with surgery. Patients and methods. A series of 315 consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, who had not been treated previously, were analyzed. A complementary study of a subgroup of 203 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lateral

  11. Stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Daisne, J.F.; Thillays, F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is now well implanted in the radiotherapy treatment tools of brain metastasis. The dose can be delivered in one or multiple sessions. Results seem equivalent. CT scan and MRI imaging are required to delineate and calculate dosimetry. Doses are variable according to the size of the metastases, localization, pathology or equipment. Stabilization or reduction of tumour size is the rules after stereotactic treatment. Impact in terms of overall survival is more difficult to apprehend because of the general context of the disease. Many questions remain unresolved, such as the usefulness of whole brain irradiation, adaptation of the treatment schedule to tumour pathophysiology, role of stereotactic treatment after surgery of metastases, etc. (authors)

  12. Colon cancer metastasis to the mandibular gingiva with partial occult squamous differentiation: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Quan-Guang; Huang, Tao; Yang, Sheng-Li; Hu, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death among patients with colon cancer. However, the number of available studies regarding oral cavity metastases from colon cancer is currently limited. We herein report an unusual case of a 60-year-old male patient who developed an oral cavity metastasis from colon cancer. A total of 12 clinical case studies reporting colon cancer metastases to the mandibular gingival region were also reviewed, with the aim to elucidate the clinical and pathological charac...

  13. Late prostatic metastasis of an uveal melanoma in a miniature Schnauzer dog

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Esmeralda; Silva, Jo?o X.; Pissarra, Hugo; Peleteiro, Maria C.; Dubielzig, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This manuscript describes a previously unreported clinical case of canine uveal melanoma in a miniature Schnauzer dog with an unusual location of metastasis (prostate) and delayed occurrence (3 years after primary tumor diagnosis and enucleation). Immunohistochemical labeling of both tumors with Melan A, Ki?67, and c?kit added some valuable information.

  14. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state - A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2 and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1, which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. Methods/Design The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT. As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation. Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2 but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread, Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module, and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve

  15. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state) - A prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2) and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1), which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. Methods/Design The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT). As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation). Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2) but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design) after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread), Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module), and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve for establishment of

  16. Effectiveness of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with oropharyngeal and floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma and concomitant histological verification of singular ipsilateral cervical lymph node metastasis (pN1-state)--a prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial using a comprehensive cohort design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moergel, Maximilian; Jahn-Eimermacher, Antje; Krummenauer, Frank; Reichert, Torsten E; Wagner, Wilfried; Wendt, Thomas G; Werner, Jochen A; Al-Nawas, Bilal

    2009-12-23

    Modern radiotherapy plays an important role in therapy of advanced head and neck carcinomas. However, no clinical studies have been published addressing the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with small tumor (pT1, pT2) and concomitant ipsilateral metastasis of a single lymph node (pN1), which would provide a basis for a general treatment recommendation. The present study is a non-blinded, prospective, multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT). As the primary clinical endpoint, overall-survival in patients receiving postoperative radiation therapy vs. patients without adjuvant therapy following curative intended surgery is compared. The aim of the study is to enroll 560 adult males and females for 1:1 randomization to one of the two treatment arms (irradiation/no irradiation). Since patients with small tumor (T1/T2) but singular lymph node metastasis are rare and the amount of patients consenting to randomization is not predictable in advance, all patients rejecting randomization will be treated as preferred and enrolled in a prospective observational study (comprehensive cohort design) after giving informed consent. This observational part of the trial will be performed with maximum consistency to the treatment and observation protocol of the RCT. Because the impact of patient preference for a certain treatment option is not calculable, parallel design of RCT and observational study may provide a maximum of evidence and efficacy for evaluation of treatment outcome. Secondary clinical endpoints are as follows: incidence and time to tumor relapse (locoregional relapse, lymph node involvement and distant metastatic spread), Quality of life as reported by EORTC (QLQ-C30 with H&N 35 module), and time from operation to orofacial rehabilitation. All tumors represent a homogeneous clinical state and therefore additional investigation of protein expression levels within resection specimen may serve for establishment of surrogate parameters of

  17. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  18. Inhibition of apparent photosynthesis by nitrogen oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A C; Bennett, J H

    1970-01-01

    The nitrogen oxides (NO/sub 2/ and NO) inhibited apparent photosynthesis of oats and alfalfa at concentrations below those required to cause visible injury. There appeared to be a threshold concentration of about 0.6 ppm for each pollutant. An additive effect in depressing apparent photosynthesis occurred when the plants were exposed to a mixture of NO and NO/sub 2/. Although NO produced a more rapid effect on the plants, lower concentrations of NO/sub 2/ were required to cause a given inhibition after 2 hour of exposure. Inhibition by nitric oxide was more closely related to its partial pressure than was inhibition by NO/sub 2/.

  19. Figure-ground segregation modulates apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Anstis, S

    1986-01-01

    We explored the relationship between figure-ground segmentation and apparent motion. Results suggest that: static elements in the surround can eliminate apparent motion of a cluster of dots in the centre, but only if the cluster and surround have similar "grain" or texture; outlines that define occluding surfaces are taken into account by the motion mechanism; the brain uses a hierarchy of precedence rules in attributing motion to different segments of the visual scene. Being designated as "figure" confers a high rank in this scheme of priorities.

  20. Platelets Promote Metastasis via Binding Tumor CD97 Leading to Bidirectional Signaling that Coordinates Transendothelial Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona Ward

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Tumor cells initiate platelet activation leading to the secretion of bioactive molecules, which promote metastasis. Platelet receptors on tumors have not been well-characterized, resulting in a critical gap in knowledge concerning platelet-promoted metastasis. We identify a direct interaction between platelets and tumor CD97 that stimulates rapid bidirectional signaling. CD97, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, is an overexpressed tumor antigen in several cancer types. Purified CD97 extracellular domain or tumor cell-associated CD97 stimulated platelet activation. CD97-initiated platelet activation led to granule secretion, including the release of ATP, a mediator of endothelial junction disruption. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA derived from platelets induced tumor invasiveness via proximal CD97-LPAR heterodimer signaling, coupling coincident tumor cell migration and vascular permeability to promote transendothelial migration. Consistent with this, CD97 was necessary for tumor cell-induced vascular permeability in vivo and metastasis formation in preclinical models. These findings support targeted blockade of tumor CD97 as an approach to ameliorate metastatic spread. : Tumor-initiated platelet activation promotes tissue invasion of cancer cells and metastasis. Ward et al. demonstrate that a common tumor-associated antigen, CD97, accounts for platelet activation and participates directly in LPA-mediated signal transduction leading to tumor cell invasion. CD97 promotes vascular extravasation and metastasis in pre-clinical models. Keywords: platelets, metastasis, transendothelial migration, circulating tumor cells, CD97, adhesion GPCR, LPA

  1. [Evaluation and classification of drug therapy for breast cancer with bone-only metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X Y; Song, S T

    2017-03-23

    Skeleton is one of the most common metastatic organs for breast cancer, which has a better prognosis than visceral metastases. Bone-only metastasis was defined"non-measurable" in the RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) criteria, and was excluded by clinical trials. However, patients with bone-only metastasis are also in need of effective treatment to prolong survival. Endocrine therapy is the most important treatment for bone metastatic patients. Tumor response of bone metastases can be determined objectively by bone-window CT. Effective treatment should be continued if the symptoms are relieved or osteogenesis is observed. Osteoblastic change in bone-window CT is a sign of improvement after treatment. Endocrine therapy is proper for ER-positive patients. The patients with initial osteoblastic metastasis should not be treated with salvage chemotherapy or anti-HER2 treatment, only if osteolytic metastasis or visceral metastasis is observed. Bishosphonates are just auxiliary drugs in bone metastasis, which should not be abused.

  2. Breast as an unusual site of metastasis- series of 3 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Ashwin K; Shashidhar, K; S, Krishna Murthy; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    Background and objectives Metastasis to the breast from extra mammary sites is uncommon with an incidence ranging from 1.2 to 2 % in clinical reports. Approximately 300 cases of breast metastasis from extra mammary sites have been reported, mostly in small series or as a single case report. Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma metastasising to the breast is also very rare and only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Metastatic deposits within the breast may be difficult to distinguish from primary breast carcinoma. Radiological features and immunohistochemistry especially for steroid hormone receptors (ER/PR) and expression of gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP) and presence of other immunohistochemistry protein factors in breast metastasis which are specific to primary site may be helpful in differentiating these two conditions. Materials and methods In this series of 3 cases of breast as an unusual site of metastasis, we present different cases of adenocarcinoma of stomach, sigmoid colon and kidney with metastasis to the breast and discuss the differential diagnosis and management plans. Conclusion In conclusion, secondary tumors to the breast are rare and thus differentiating primary tumors from metastatic breast carcinoma is important for rational and optimum therapy and avoidance of unnecessary radical surgery. Palpable breast lump without typical radiological signs of primary breast carcinoma in patients with known primary should be suspected of representing metastasis.

  3. Immunomodulation of murine B16 melanoma metastasis: thymosin, thymectomy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.H.; Bhakoo, H.S.; Rosen, F.; Paolini, N.S.; Goldstein, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Thymosin, a product of the endocrine system, was used to further define the effects of immunomodulation of metastasis. Adult thymectomized C57BL/6 mice, 4 wk post-irradiation (400 R) had a decrease in the number of pulmonary metastases (compared to controls) following tail vein injection of 5 X 10 4 B16 melanoma cells. Thymosin fraction 5 (fr. 5) administration (200 μg/mouse, 3 times weekly beginning 2 days post-thymectomy) returned the number of metastases to the nonthymectomized values. Thymosin treatment of sham-operated, sham-operated irradiated, or thymectomized nonirradiated mice did not significantly elevate the number of metastases compared to the respective controls. Variant tumors which have an increase in metastasis following thymectomy and irradiation were also used. Thymosin administration reversed the effects of thymectomy in such variants, resulting in a decrease in metastasis. Metastases in thymosin-treated control mice were not significantly altered. A role for the thymus in metastasis via an endocrine product (thymosin) is suggested by these studies. Since thymosin did not increase metastasis in intact mice with tumors, further clinical trials with thymosin in cancer patients are not counterindicated by the results. These experiments confirm that thymosin fr. 5 is an important probe of the immunoendocrine events involved in tumor growth and metastasis. (Auth.)

  4. Isolated metachronous splenic metastasis from synchronous colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aker Fugen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated splenic metastases from colorectal cancer are very rare and there are only 13 cases reported in the English literature so far. Most cases are asymptomatic and the diagnosis is usually made by imaging studies during the evaluation of rising CEA level postoperatively. Case presentation A 76-year-old man underwent an extended left hemicolectomy for synchronous colon cancers located at the left flexure and the sigmoid colon. The tumors were staged as IIIC (T3N2M0 clinically and the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. During the first year follow-up period, the patient remained asymptomatic with normal levels of laboratory tests including CEA measurement. However, a gradually rising CEA level after the 14th postoperative month necessitated further imaging studies including computed tomography of the abdomen which revealed a mass in the spleen that was subsequently confirmed by 18FDG- PET scanning to be an isolated metastasis. The patient underwent splenectomy 17 months after his previous cancer surgery. Histological diagnosis confirmed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with no capsule invasion. After an uneventful postoperative period, the patient has been symptom-free during the one-year of follow-up with normal blood CEA levels, although he did not accept to receive any further adjuvant therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this 14th case of isolated splenic metastasis from colorectal carcinoma is also the first reported case of splenic metastasis demonstrated preoperatively by 18FDG PET-CT fusion scanning which revealed its solitary nature as well. Conclusion Isolated splenic metastasis is a rare finding in the follow-up of colorectal cancer patients and long-term survival can be achieved with splenectomy.

  5. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Genetic regulation of human breast carcinoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Danny R; Steeg, Patricia S; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W

    2000-01-01

    The present is an overview of recent data that describes the genetic underpinnings of the suppression of cancer metastasis. Despite the explosion of new information about the genetics of cancer, only six human genes have thus far been shown to suppress metastasis functionally. Not all have been shown to be functional in breast carcinoma. Several additional genes inhibit various steps of the metastatic cascade, but do not necessarily block metastasis when tested using in vivo assays. The implications of this are discussed. Two recently discovered metastasis suppressor genes block proliferation of tumor cells at a secondary site, offering a new target for therapeutic intervention

  6. Leptomeningeal metastasis mimicking Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Saurabh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of Leptomeningeal Metastasis varies widely. It can also present a condition very similar to Chronic Subdural Hematoma. One should have a low threshold for suspicion while diagnosing such conditions to avoid catastrophic events.

  7. Leptomeningeal metastasis mimicking Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jain Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    The presentation of Leptomeningeal Metastasis varies widely. It can also present a condition very similar to Chronic Subdural Hematoma. One should have a low threshold for suspicion while diagnosing such conditions to avoid catastrophic events.

  8. Colorectal cancer presenting as bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M C Suresh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, the patients of colorectal cancer presenting with bone metastasis were of male sex and younger age. The factors that were associated with reduced survival were extraosseous and liver involvement.

  9. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  10. [The related factors of head and neck mocosal melanoma with lymph node metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, G F; Guo, W; Chen, X H; Huang, Z G

    2017-12-05

    Objective: To investigate the related factors of mucosal melanoma of head and neck with lymph node metastasis for early diagnosis and further treatments. Method: A retrospective analysis of 117 cases of head and neck mucosal malignant melanoma patients which received surgical treatment was performed. Eleven cases of patients with pathologically confirmed lymph node metastasis and 33 cases without lymph node metastasis (1∶3) were randomly selected to analyze. The related factors of lymph node metastasis of head and neck mucosal melanoma patients including age, gender, whether the existence of recurrence, bone invasion, lesion location were analyzed. The single factor and logistic regression analysis were performed, P difference was statistically significant. Result: The lymph node metastasis rate of head and neck mucosal melanoma was 9.40%(11/117), the single factor analysis showed that there were 3 factors to be associated with lymph node metastasis, which was recurrence ( P =0.0000), bone invasion ( P =0.001), primary position ( P =0.007). Recurrence ( P =0.021) was a risk factor for lymph node metastasis according to the Logistic regression analysis, and the impact of bone invasion ( P =0.487) and primary location ( P =0.367) remained to be further explored. Conclusion: The patients of head and neck mucosal melanoma with the presence of recurrent usually accompanied by a further progression of the disease, such as lymph node metastasis, so for recurrent patients should pay special attention to the situation of lymph node and choose the reasonable treatment. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  11. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  12. 89Sr and 153Sm-EDTMP therapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junning; Hong Chengjiao; Zhu Shoupeng

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 72 patients with disseminated skeletal metastasis to evaluate the effect of strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy. There existed 87.88% of clinical response, 12.12% of no response in the group treated with strontium-89 as compared with 90.24% of clinical response, 9.76% no response in one treated with samarium-153 EDTMP; and there were no correlation between the treatment results and the amounts of isotopes administrated. The results suggest that strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy is a method of first choice in the palliative treatment for disseminated skeletal metastasis

  13. {sup 89}Sr and {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP therapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junning, Zhang; Chengjiao, Hong; Shoupeng, Zhu [Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China)

    2001-07-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 72 patients with disseminated skeletal metastasis to evaluate the effect of strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy. There existed 87.88% of clinical response, 12.12% of no response in the group treated with strontium-89 as compared with 90.24% of clinical response, 9.76% no response in one treated with samarium-153 EDTMP; and there were no correlation between the treatment results and the amounts of isotopes administrated. The results suggest that strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy is a method of first choice in the palliative treatment for disseminated skeletal metastasis.

  14. Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral temperature and cardiovascular responses of apparently healthy subjects to passive and active warm-up. BOA Adegoke, OO Ogwumike, FA Maruf. Abstract. This study investigated and compared the effects of active and passive warm-up on oral temperature and cardiovascular parameters of forty (20 males and 20 ...

  15. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  16. Apparent exchange rate imaging in anisotropic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Lundell, Henrik M; Søgaard, Lise V

    2014-01-01

    Double-wave diffusion experiments offer the possibility of probing correlation between molecular diffusion at multiple time points. It has recently been shown that this technique is capable of measuring the exchange of water across cellular membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the effect of macroscopic tissue anisotropy on the measurement of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) in multicompartment systems....

  17. Apparent directional selection by biased pleiotropic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-07-01

    Pleiotropic effects of deleterious mutations are considered to be among the factors responsible for genetic constraints on evolution by long-term directional selection acting on a quantitative trait. If pleiotropic phenotypic effects are biased in a particular direction, mutations generate apparent directional selection, which refers to the covariance between fitness and the trait owing to a linear association between the number of mutations possessed by individuals and the genotypic values of the trait. The present analysis has shown how the equilibrium mean value of the trait is determined by a balance between directional selection and biased pleiotropic mutations. Assuming that genes act additively both on the trait and on fitness, the total variance-standardized directional selection gradient was decomposed into apparent and true components. Experimental data on mutation bias from the bristle traits of Drosophila and life history traits of Daphnia suggest that apparent selection explains a small but significant fraction of directional selection pressure that is observed in nature; the data suggest that changes induced in a trait by biased pleiotropic mutation (i.e., by apparent directional selection) are easily compensated for by (true) directional selection.

  18. Treatment of lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shian; Guo Weijian; Wu Guohua; Lin Qing; Jiang Mawei; Yao Yuan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of treatment with interventional chemotherapy combined radiotherapy for lymphatic nodes metastasis in advanced cancer. Methods: Treated with interventional chemotherapy for 27 cases of lymphatic rode metastasis once a month with average 2-3 times totally. Simultaneously treated with linear accelerator radiotherapy with average dose of 40-50 Gy/20-25 times/4-5 weeks. Results: To evaluate the clinical effects after finished the whole treatment program two months later. CR + PR reached 77.8% (24/27). All patients showed tolerance to accept the treatment. Conclusion: Treatment for lymphatic node metastasis in advanced cancer with interventional chemotherapy combined radiation therapy seems to be a valuable way

  19. 18F-DG PET/CT in detection of recurrence and metastasis of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of 18F-DG PET/CT in detecting recurrence and/or metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC).METHODS: Combined visual analysis with semiquantitative analysis, the 18F-DG PET/CT wholebody imaging results and the corresponding clinical data of 68 postoperative CRC patients including 48 male and 20 female with average age of 58.1 were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS: Recurrence and/or metastasis were confirmed in 56 patients in the clinical follow-up after the PET/CT imaging. The sensitivity of PET/CT diagnosis of CRC recurrence and/or metastasis was 94.6%, and the specificity was 83.3%. The positive predictive value (PPV)was 96.4% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 76.9%. PET/CT imaging detected one or more occult malignant lesions in 8 cases where abdominal/pelvic CT and/or ultrasonography showed negative findings, and also detected more lesions than CT or ultrasonography did in 30.4% (17/56) cases. Recurrence and/or metastasis was detected in 91.7% (22/24) cases with elevated serum CEA levels by 18F-DG PET/CT imaging.CONCLUSION: 18F-DG PET/CT could detect the recurrence and/or metastasis of CRC with high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. A prognostic gene signature for metastasis-free survival of triple negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Unjin; Frankenberger, Casey; Yun, Jieun; Bevilacqua, Elena; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Rueda, Oscar M; Reinitz, John; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2013-01-01

    Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS), based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS) that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.

  1. Metastasis to the penis in a patient with adenocarcinoma of lung, case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fu-Fu; Zhang, Zhong-Yun; Dai, Yu-Ping; Liang, Yue-You; Deng, Chun-Hua; Tao, Yu

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis of lung cancer to the penis is very rare; it causes various clinical symptoms seriously affecting the quality of life. Early recognition and appropriate management will likely enhance survival in these patients. Here, we report a case of penile metastasis secondary to pulmonary carcinoma along with a review of the literature. One case of penile metastasis secondary to pulmonary carcinoma was detected in a 51-year-old patient who was admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University with persistent cough along with swelling of the perineum and penis. The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease along with a relevant literature are reviewed and discussed. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify similar reports in the literature. CT scan revealed lung mass, and a glans penis ulcer and enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes was discovered upon physical examination. CT-guided percutaneous puncture of the lung mass revealed adenocarcinoma of lung, and biopsies of the glans penis ulcer and inguinal lymph nodes confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. The patients received chemotherapy and died of acute pulmonary embolism in less than 2 months. Metastasis of lung cancer to the penis is extremely rare. It presents an advanced form of lung cancer, and thus survival is extremely short. Although treatment of penile metastasis is almost always palliative, early recognition may enhance survival for these patients.

  2. Rare vertebral metastasis in a case of Hereditary Paraganglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Manuel Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paragangliomas are rare tumours with a prevalence of 1/10000 to 1/30000. Tumors arising from the paraganglia are characteristically of low malignant potential. Vertebral metastases are exceedingly rare, and only isolated case reports have described them. The authors present the clinical course of a 47 years-old female patient with a familial paraganglioma [PGL] with vertebral metastastization, who underwent an intralesional tumor excision and corpectomy. Genetic screening demonstrated a new germinal frameshift mutation of the SDHB exon 6 [c.587-591DelC]. After surgery there was normalization of the analytical parameters and imagiologic screening. One year later she presented a new image in the the pedicle of T11 on the contralateral side of the surgical incision. She performed 2 treatments with MIBG and 1 cicle of radiotherapy that made the new lesion regress. Currently the patient does not present any clinical or analytical evidence of new metastasis. This case outlines the clinical course of a patient with a PGL syndrome for whom a rare vertebral metastasis was diagnosed. It highlights the importance of identifying patients with germline SDHB mutations, as these patients are at a high risk of developing malignant disease.

  3. Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

  4. A study of bone metastasis of cervical carcinoma by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Shinsuke; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Takayoshi; Sano, Takashi; Ueki, Minoru; Sugimoto, Osamu; Sakata, Tsunehiko; Yamasaki, Kouichi; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1985-01-01

    In carrying out bone scintigraphy in 224 cases over the 5 years from June, 1978 to May, 1983 as a part of the post-treatment management of cervical carcinoma. Bone metastases were seen in 12.5% (28 cases) of the subjects, about 6% of the total post-treatment cases of cervical carcinoma in the corresponding period (466 cases). Bone metastases were seen in 9.3% (16/172) of post-operative cases, compared with 23.1% (12/52) of non-operative cases. Bone metastases were not seen in clinical stages Ia through IIa (49 cases) but were seen in IIb or higher stages. Bone metastasis rates by histological type, according to WHO classification, were 12.8% (26/203) in squamous cell carcinoma, 5.9% (1/17) in adenocarcinoma, and 25% (1/4) in adenosquamous carcinoma. Among the squamous cell carcinoma cases, small cell non-keratinizing type had the highest bone metastasis rate (p<0.05). Of 172 post-operative cases, 20.8% (11/53) of those with lymphnode metastasis exhibited bone metastasis, higher than the 4.2% (5/119) in cases without lymphnode metastasis. As to CPL classification, bone metastasis was seen more often in L type (18.8%) than C(0.0%) or P types (6.6%). Our risk classification of 168 cases demonstrated that bone metastasis was not seen in risk I group (74 cases), but was seen in 6.7% (1/17) of risk II group and in 19.0% (15/79) of risk III group. Twenty-eight cases with bone metastasis included 11 cases with local recurrence, 8 with pulmonary metastases, 4 with hepatic metastases and 4 with Virchow's lymphnode metastases. The 28 bone metastasis cases included 10 cases with multiple bone metastases and 5 with only a single bone metastasis. Most bone metastases were seen in the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvic bone. Post-operative cases had more distant metastases than non-operative cases. On diagnosis of bone metastases and 17 of the 28 patients had pain, 6 of the remaining 11 patients developing pain thereafter. (J.P.N.)

  5. Association of SDF-1 with Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patient at Sanglah Hospital, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristanto Yuli Yarso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More than 24% breast cancer patients came to Sanglah Teaching Hospital with distant metastasis which cause 90% of cancer related death. Distant metastasis is complex process of interaction between tumor cells and its micro environment involving a chemoattractant cytokines which lead circulating tumor cells toward target organs. One of the most common cytokines involved in metastasis of multiple tumor is SDF-1, produces by target organ or tumor cells itselves. However, only few stucy ever evaluate the relationship between its concentrations in tumor tissue with metastasis. Method: A cross sectional analysis study was conducted involving clinical data and paraffin blocks from 46 patients. Samples were grouped into metastasis and non-metastasis group and level of tumor tissue SDF-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Numerical conversion was done using modified “Mirisola” technique and statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 16 software. Results: The overall median expression of SDF-1 was 4.83 in which the median is 4.08±2.25 in non-metastatic group and 5.71±2.61 in metastatic group (p=0.012. In addition, parenchymal carcinoma cell had significantly higher expression of SDF-1 compared with microenvironmental cell both in metastatic group (carcinoma cell vs microenvironment; 4,57+1,91 vs 3,68 +2,06; p=0,004 and non-metastatic group (3,19 +2,29 vs 2,16+1,11; p=0.011. Finally, logistic regression analysis of SDF-1 expression also gave significant result that MBC had significantly higher expression of SDF-1 (p=0.039.  Conclusions: There was significant association between of SDF-1 expression and distant metastasis in breast cancer and majority of SDF was produced by cancer cells

  6. Significance of SYT8 For the Detection, Prediction, and Treatment of Peritoneal Metastasis From Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Shimizu, Dai; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masamichi; Iwata, Naoki; Niwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Murotani, Kenta; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    To develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets specific for peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer (GC). Advanced GC frequently recurs because of undetected micrometastases even after curative resection. Peritoneal metastasis has been the most frequent recurrent pattern after gastrectomy and is incurable. We conducted a recurrence pattern-specific transcriptome analysis in an independent cohort of 16 patients with stage III GC who underwent curative gastrectomy and adjuvant S-1 for screening candidate molecules specific for peritoneal metastasis of GC. Next, another 340 patients were allocated to discovery and validation sets (1:2) to evaluate the diagnostic and predictive value of the candidate molecule. The results of quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were correlated with clinical characteristics and survival. The effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown on phenotype and fluorouracil sensitivity of GC cells were evaluated in vitro, and the therapeutic effects of siRNAs were evaluated using a mouse xenograft model. Synaptotagmin VIII (SYT8) was identified as a candidate biomarker specific to peritoneal metastasis. In the discovery set, the optimal cut-off of SYT8 expression was established as 0.005. Expression levels of SYT8 mRNA in GC tissues were elevated in the validation set comprising patients with peritoneal recurrence or metastasis. SYT8 levels above the cut-off value were significantly and specifically associated with peritoneal metastasis, and served as an independent prognostic marker for peritoneal recurrence-free survival of patients with stage II/III GC. The survival difference between patients with SYT8 levels above and below the cut-off was associated with patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Inhibition of SYT8 expression by GC cells correlated with decreased invasion, migration, and fluorouracil resistance. Intraperitoneal administration of SYT8-siRNA inhibited the growth of peritoneal nodules and

  7. Association between lymph node size and metastasis in dogs with oral malignant melanoma: 100 cases (1987-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurel E; Packer, Rebecca A

    2003-05-01

    To determine the association between lymph node size and metastasis and to assess measurement of lymph node size as an accurate and reliable means of tumor staging in dogs with oral malignant melanoma. Retrospective study. 100 dogs with histologically confirmed oral malignant melanoma. Clinical records for dogs with oral malignant melanoma were reviewed. Data regarding size and results of cytologic or histologic examination of lymph nodes were evaluated. The association between lymph node size and metastasis was determined. Forty-seven (47%) dogs, of which 23 (49%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, had no cytologic or histologic evidence of metastasis. Of 53 (53%) dogs with cytologic or histologic evidence of mandibular lymph node metastasis, 37 (70%) had enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, and 16 (30%) had mandibular lymph nodes of normal size. Overall, 16 of the 40 (40%) dogs with normal-sized lymph nodes had microscopic evidence of metastatic disease. Sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis were 70 and 51%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 62 and 60%, respectively. Although a significant relationship was identified between lymph node size and metastasis to the lymph node, this association did not appear strong enough to be clinically relevant. Results suggest that lymph node size alone is insufficient for accurate clinical staging of oral malignant melanoma in dogs; cytologic or histologic examination of regional lymph nodes should routinely be performed, regardless of size of those nodes.

  8. Late prostatic metastasis of an uveal melanoma in a miniature Schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Esmeralda; Silva, João X; Pissarra, Hugo; Peleteiro, Maria C; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2016-07-01

    This manuscript describes a previously unreported clinical case of canine uveal melanoma in a miniature Schnauzer dog with an unusual location of metastasis (prostate) and delayed occurrence (3 years after primary tumor diagnosis and enucleation). Immunohistochemical labeling of both tumors with Melan A, Ki-67, and c-kit added some valuable information.

  9. Regulation of tumor progression and metastasis by bone marrow-derived microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Rayes, Tina; Gao, Dingcheng; Altorki, Nasser K.

    2017-01-01

    Activating mutations in driver oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes contribute to tumor progression and metastasis. Accordingly, therapies targeting key tumor cell-intrinsic signaling pathways are being used in clinical trials, and some have met FDA approval. However...

  10. MicroRNA classifier and nomogram for metastasis prediction in colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens-Beumer, I.J.; Derr, R.S.; Buermans, H.P.; Goeman, J.J.; Bohringer, S.; Morreau, H.; Nitsche, U.; Janssen, K.P.; Velde, C.J. van de; Kuppen, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colon cancer prognosis and treatment are currently based on a classification system still showing large heterogeneity in clinical outcome, especially in TNM stages II and III. Prognostic biomarkers for metastasis risk are warranted as development of distant recurrent disease mainly

  11. Particle reacceleration and apparent radio source structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The radio galaxy model which uses magnetohydrodynamic turbulence generated by surface instabilities to reaccelerate the radiating electrons has striking consequences for apparent source structure. Strong wave damping in the plasma results in a narrow turbulent edge. Particles accelerated in this edge must diffuse across field lines into the radio source; this predicts strong limb brightening in some cases. The structure of this edge and diffusion into the source are described. The relevance of this model to jets, radio tails, and standard double sources is discussed

  12. Fourth ventricular ependymoma with a distant intraventricular metastasis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Ambekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymoma is one of the uncommon tumors of the central nervous system (CNS in the adult age group. These tumors have a distinct propensity for metastasis, both within and outside the CNS. However, dissemination at the time of first presentation and retrograde dissemination of the tumor is rare. We report the case of a patient with fourth ventricular anaplastic ependymoma who presented with left lateral ventricular metastasis which was anatomically different from the primary tumor. We describe the clinic-pathological detail of the patient and discuss the probable pathophysiological basis for this rare presentation and its significance in management of the patient.

  13. Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition---A Hallmark of Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Binhua P

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that converts polarized, immotile epithelial cells to migratory mesenchymal cells. In addition, EMT was initially recognized as a key step for morphogenesis during embryonic development. Emerging evidences indicate that this important developmental program promotes metastasis, drug resistance, and tumor recurrence, features that are associated with a poor clinical outcome for patients with breast cancer. Therefore, better understanding of regulation and signaling pathways in EMT is essential to develop novel targeted therapeutics. In this review, we present updated developments underlying EMT in tumor progression and metastasis, and discuss the challenges remaining in breast cancer research.

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma with axillary metastasis; a case report of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Culcu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare primer neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. It is an extremely aggressive tumor. This rare carcinoma is seen with high local and regional recurrence ratios and distant metastasis. We report that a 64 years old female patient who had undergo an excision in another center because of a mass on 4 cm proximal of her right elbow had been diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma with positive surgical margins. She was treated with wide re-excision and axillary dissection at our clinic. Keywords: Merkel cell carcinoma, Skin, Axillary metastasis

  15. [Surgical managment of colorectal liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prot, Thomas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas

    2007-06-27

    Surgery offer the only curative treatment for colorectal hepatic metastasis. Nowadays, five-year survival increases up to 58% in selected cases, due to the improvement and combination of chemotherapy, surgery and ablative treatment like embolisation, radio-frequency or cryoablation. Surgery should be integrated in a multi disciplinary approach and initial work-up must take in account patient general conditions, tumor location, and possible extra hepatic extension. Thus, a surgical resection may be performed immediately or after preparation with chemotherapy or selective portal embolization. Management of liver metastasis should be carried out in oncological hepato-biliary centre.

  16. The role of exosomes in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbichler, Teresa Bernadette; Dudás, József; Riechelmann, Herbert; Skvortsova, Ira-Ida

    2017-06-01

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a size ranging from 40 to 100nm. They can serve as functional mediators in cell interaction leading to cancer metastasis. Metastasis is a complex multistep process of cancer cell invasion, survival in blood vessels, attachment to and colonization of the host organ. Exosomes influence every step of this cascade and can be targeted by oncological treatment. This review highlights the role of exosomes in the various steps of the metastatic cascade and how exosome dependent pathways can be targeted as therapeutic approach or used for liquid biopsies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234

  18. Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.

  19. Duodenal Metastasis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Chi Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is uncommon at the time of initial diagnosis. The gastrointestinal lumen is rarely found at autopsy in patients with widespread disease. Here, we describe an extremely rare case of isolated duodenal metastasis of sarcomatoid mesothelioma of the pleura in a 73-year-old man, without memory of any direct exposure to asbestos. The possibility of gastrointestinal tract metastasis should be considered in the presence of anemia or positive occult blood test in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  20. Effective Treatment of Solitary Pituitary Metastasis with Panhypopituitarism in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer by Lapatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmok; Kim, Hyemin; Kim, Eui-Hyun; Suh, Chang-Ok; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis affects one third of patients with HER2-positive breast cancer after treatment with trastuzumab. Surgical resection and radiation therapy are often unsuccessful at accomplishing complete control of metastasis. Lapatinib is presumed to cross the blood-brain barrier, and exhibits clinical activities for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A 43-year-old woman was treated for early breast carcinoma with total mastectomy, axillary lymph-node dissection, and adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin. After the end of adjuvant trastuzumab therapy, she was diagnosed with panhypopituitarism due to pituitary metastasis. Surgical removal and whole brain radiation therapy were performed, but a portion of viable tumor remained. Only taking lapatinib, the size of the metastatic lesion began to shrink. Trastuzumab may have controlled the micro-metastasis of breast cancer, but it was unable to control its progression to the central nervous system. Lapatinib is a possible option for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients with brain metastasis.

  1. Prognostic outcomes in advanced breast cancer: the metastasis-free interval is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiansheng; Gao, Cheng; Zhang, Kui; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-12-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a diverse clinical course. There have been limited studies regarding prognostic outcomes in patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer versus those with metastatic recurrence, with controversial observations. In this study, we sought to examine the difference in survival outcomes among patients with advanced breast cancer stratified based on metastasis-free interval (MFI) and to further explore the role of systemic therapy in these patient groups. Of 569 consecutive patients with stage IV breast cancer between 1998 and 2013, 201 had de novo metastatic disease (metastasis at diagnosis) and 368 developed metastatic recurrence, including 168 with an MFI≤24 months and 200 with an MFI>24 months. In the 492 patients who received systemic therapy, de novo metastasis was an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival after metastasis when compared with metastatic recurrence irrespective of MFI. Compared with the patients with metastatic recurrence with an MFI≤24 months, those with an MFI>24 months had a superior survival outcome, although it did not reach statistical significance by multivariate analysis. In contrast, de novo metastatic breast cancer was associated with a worse prognosis when compared with recurring metastasis in the patients who did not receive systemic treatment. These findings provide more insight into the natural history of advanced breast cancer, thus necessitating further investigation into the molecular mechanism of drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thioredoxin-1 promotes colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis through crosstalk with S100P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feiyan; Zhang, Peili; Zuo, Zhigui; Wang, Fule; Bi, Ruichun; Shang, Wenjing; Wu, Aihua; Ye, Ju; Li, Shaotang; Sun, Xuecheng; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lei

    2017-08-10

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a small redox-regulating protein, which plays an important role in several cellular functions. Despite recent advances in understanding the biology of Trx-1, the role of Trx-1 and its underlying signaling mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis have not been extensively studied. In this study, we observed that Trx-1 expression is increased in CRC tissues compared to the paired non-cancerous tissues and is significantly correlated with clinical staging, lymph node metastasis and poor survival. Overexpression of Trx-1 enhanced CRC cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, suppression of Trx-1 expression decreased cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, Trx-1 activates S100P gene transcription. S100P, in turn, promotes Trx-1 expression and nuclear localization by upregulating p-ERK1/2 and downregulating TXNIP expression. Our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of Trx-1/S100P axis in the promotion of CRC metastasis, and suggests that the Trx-1/S100P axis and their related signaling pathways could be novel targets for the treatment of metastatic CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. True versus apparent shapes of bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Yong, Jorge A.; Henney, William J.

    2018-06-01

    Astrophysical bow shocks are a common result of the interaction between two supersonic plasma flows, such as winds or jets from stars or active galaxies, or streams due to the relative motion between a star and the interstellar medium. For cylindrically symmetric bow shocks, we develop a general theory for the effects of inclination angle on the apparent shape. We propose a new two-dimensional classification scheme for bow shapes, which is based on dimensionless geometric ratios that can be estimated from observational images. The two ratios are related to the flatness of the bow's apex, which we term planitude, and the openness of its wings, which we term alatude. We calculate the expected distribution in the planitude-alatude plane for a variety of simple geometrical and physical models: quadrics of revolution, wilkinoids, cantoids, and ancantoids. We further test our methods against numerical magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar bow shocks and find that the apparent planitude and alatude measured from infrared dust continuum maps serve as accurate diagnostics of the shape of the contact discontinuity, which can be used to discriminate between different physical models. We present an algorithm that can determine the planitude and alatude from observed bow shock emission maps with a precision of 10 to 20 per cent.

  4. Inhibition of Breast Cancer Metastasis by Heregulin-Beta 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Dihua

    1999-01-01

    The major goal of this Idea proposal is to determine whether and how HRG-Beta1 inhibits breast cancer metastasis and to identify the functional domains that are sufficient for inhibition of breast cancer metastasis...

  5. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Soo Youn; Hwang, Seong Su; Choi, Hyun Joo [St. Vincent Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Rupture of adrenal tumor from various primary origins is a rather rare event. We report here on a ruptured adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma, and this ruptured metastasis was observed at the time of the initial diagnosis.

  6. Analysis of the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Yong; Zhang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ultrasonic image of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of fourteen patients with adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. In all the cases, US-guided percutaneous biopsy was performed for pathological evaluation during the clinical diagnosis. Results and Conclusion: In ultrasonography the adrenal metastatic tumors were manifested as solitary in all the cases, well-defined in 10 cases, irregularly shaped in 10 cases, hypoechoic in 13 cases, and 1 case showed cystoid structure in the tumor. The maximum diameter of the tumor was 3.0-15.3 cm. 9 cases were metastatic adenocarcinoma. The sonographic appearance of adrenal metastasis in primary lung cancer has its characteristics. Ultrasonography can find adrenal metastalic tumors easily and contribute to diagnosis. (authors)

  7. Mortality is higher in patients with leptomeningeal metastasis in spinal cord tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Amoreira Gepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord tumors are a rare neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS. The occurrence of metastases is related to poor prognosis. The authors analyzed one series of metastasis cases and their associated mortality. METHODS: Clinical characteristics were studied in six patients with intramedullary tumors with metastases in a series of 71 surgical cases. RESULTS: Five patients had ependymomas of which two were WHO grade III. The patient with astrocytoma had a grade II histopathological classification. Two patients required shunts for hydrocephalus. The survival curve showed a higher mortality than the general group of patients with no metastases in the CNS (p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Mortality is elevated in patients with metastasis and greater than in patients with only primary lesions. The ependymomas, regardless of their degree of anaplasia, are more likely to cause metastasis than spinal cord astrocytomas.

  8. A study of skeletal metastasis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanouchi, Miki; Sui, Osamu; Kashihara, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    Between January 1980 and December 1988, 373 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated at the Department of Radiology, Tokushima University Hospital. Of the 373 patients, 229 were treated by radiotherapy alone, and 144 were treated by post-operative radiotherapy. The incidence of skeletal metastasis was 6.4%, 24 patients out of 373. Ten of these patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 14 with radical surgery and radiotherapy. Nineteen patients belonged in the early clinical stage (stage Ia through stage IIb). Lesions of skeletal metastases were usually detected within 2 years after the initial treatment, and the most common site of skeletal metastasis was the pelvic bone, followed by the lumbar spine. Most patients with skeletal metastases were treated by radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combined radio- and chemotherapy. Severe pain due to skeletal metastasis was relieved by radiotherapy and combined therapy, but no method of treatment could extend the prognosis. (author)

  9. Appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Naoki; Furonaka, Makoto; Kikutani, Kazuya; Haji, Keiko; Fujisaki, Seiji; Nishida, Toshihiro

    2016-07-01

    Peritoneal disseminations from lung cancer are difficult to detect during the patient's clinical course. Therefore, complications of this condition are unclear. We report a case in which peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis. A 74-year-old man with lung cancer who was receiving maintenance therapy presented at our hospital because of abdominal pain. It was the seventh day after the 14th cycle of maintenance therapy with bevacizumab. He was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The resected appendix showed acute appendicitis complicated by appendiceal metastasis from lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma was observed predominantly in the serous membrane from the neck to the tail of the appendix. The distribution of the adenocarcinoma was diffuse. Peritoneal dissemination was considered the route of metastasis. He was admitted to the palliative care unit 10 months after appendectomy. Appendiceal metastasis via peritoneal dissemination from lung cancer complicated appendicitis in our patient who had been receiving bevacizumab.

  10. Canine spirocercosis-associated extraskeletal osteosarcoma with central nervous system metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pazzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A five-year-old male Boerboel presented for examination, collapsed for an unknown period of time. On clinical examination, multifocal subcutaneous masses and enlarged prescapular lymph nodes as well as neurological deficits that suggested a multifocal neurological syndrome were found. Fine needle aspirates of the prescapular lymph nodes revealed cells suggestive of osteosarcoma. Radiographs showed foci of mineralisation within the soft tissue masses as well as diffuse pulmonary metastasis and a caudodorsal mediastinal mass believed to be a Spirocerca lupi nodule. Computed tomography imaging, necropsy and histopathology confirmed S. lupi oesophageal neoplastic transformation (extraskeletal osteosarcoma, believed to be the primary lesion, and the majority of secondary metastasis to the brain, spine, heart, multiple muscular groups and abdominal organs. This is the first known report of extraskeletal osteosarcoma metastasis to the brain and spinal cord in a dog.

  11. Gastrointestinal metastasis from primary lung cancer. Case series and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Andrea; D Subiela, José; Bollo, Jesús; Martínez, Carmen; Rodriguez Luppi, Carlos; Hernández, Pilar; Pascual-González, Yuliana; Quaresima, Silvia; M Targarona, Eduard

    2018-04-01

    Aim of the present study is to report clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in authors' hospital for GI metastasis from primary lung cancer, and to report and analyse the same data concerning patients retrieved from a systematic literature review. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, and a systematic review using the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ninety-one patients were included, 5 patients from the authors' hospital and 86 through PubMed database using the keywords "intestinal metastasis" AND "lung cancer". The median time between primary lung cancer diagnosis and GI metastasis diagnosis was 2 months and the median overall survival was 4 months. This group of patients present a poor prognosis and the gold standard treatment is not defined. None of the reported treatments had a significant impact on survival. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  13. Predicting Brain Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients: Stage Versus Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hamdy A; Abdel-Malek, Raafat; Kassem, Loay

    2018-04-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) is a life-threatening event in breast cancer patients. Identifying patients at a high risk for BM can help to adopt screening programs and test preventive interventions. We tried to identify the incidence of BM in different stages and subtypes of breast cancer. We reviewed the clinical records of 2193 consecutive breast cancer patients who presented between January 1999 and December 2010. We explored the incidence of BM in relation to standard clinicopathological factors, and determined the cumulative risk of BM according to the disease stage and phenotype. Of the 2193 included women, 160 (7.3%) developed BM at a median follow-up of 5.8 years. Age younger than 60 years (P = .015), larger tumors (P = .004), lymph node (LN) positivity (P < .001), high tumor grade (P = .012), and HER2 positivity (P < .001) were associated with higher incidence of BM in the whole population. In patients who presented with locoregional disease, 3 factors independently predicted BM: large tumors (hazard ratio [HR], 3.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-8.38; P = .003), axillary LN metastasis (HR, 4.03; 95% CI, 1.91-8.52; P < .001), and HER2 positivity (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.0-3.41; P = .049). A Brain Relapse Index was formulated using those 3 factors, with 5-year cumulative incidence of BM of 19.2% in those having the 2 or 3 risk factors versus 2.5% in those with no or 1 risk factor (P < .001). In metastatic patients, 3 factors were associated with higher risk of BM: HER2 positivity (P = .007), shorter relapse-free interval (P < .001), and lung metastasis (P < .001). Disease stage and biological subtypes predict the risk for BM and subsequent treatment outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenite-loaded nanoparticles inhibit the invasion and metastasis of a hepatocellular carcinoma: in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaoqin; Yin, Zhenyu; Jin, Jianbin; Li, Hui; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenxiu; Xie, Chengrong; Li, Jie; Feng, Min; Lin, Hongyu; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Jinhao

    2017-11-01

    Postoperative recurrence and metastasis are the major problems for the current treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in the clinic, including hepatectomy and liver transplantation. Here, we report that arsentic-loaded nanoparticles (ALNPs) are able to reduce the invasion of HCC cells in vitro, and, more importantly, can strongly suppress the invasion and metastasis of HCC in vivo without adverse side effects. Compared to free drug arsenic trioxide , ALNPs can deliver the drug into cancer cells more efficiently, destroy the structure of microtubules and reduce the aggregation of microfilaments in cell membranes more significantly. Furthermore, our results also reveal that tumor cells in murine blood were reduced remarkably after intravenous injection of ALNPs, indicating that this nano-drug may efficiently kill circulating tumor cells in vivo. In conclusion, our nano-drug ALNPs have great potential for the suppression of metastasis of HCC, which may open up a new avenue for the effective treatment of HCC without metastasis and recurrence.

  15. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  16. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal. (orig.)

  17. Computed tomography demonstration of a hypothalamic metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1983-05-01

    This case report describes a patient who presented with panhypopituitarism secondary to hypothalamic metastasis. A primary hypothalamic abnormality was suggested by computed tomographic (CT) demonstration of a small enhancing circular mass centered within the hypothalamus. Sellar radiographs and cerebral angiography were normal.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajama, Carlos; Lorenzoni, Jose; Tagle, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral metastasis occur in 20 to 30 percent of patients with systemic cancer and are the most common type of intracranial tumor. The median survival of untreated patients is one month with a slightly longer survival in those treated with steroids. Patients treated with whole brain radiation therapy survive between 3 to 6 months. In selected cases survival can increase to 10 to 12 months with combination of surgery and radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery alone or associated to radiotherapy. Most brain metastasis arise from lung, breast and melanomas. The most important criteria for selecting patients who will benefit from surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery are a Karnofsky score of 70 or more, systemic control of the cancer and absence of leptomeningeal involvement. Surgery is indicated in patients with a single lesion located in an accessible zone and stereotactic radiosurgery is indicated for lesions up to 3 cm of diameter, and in patients with up to 3 or 4 metastasis, no matter their location. The survival benefit of chemotherapy in brain metastasis has not been demonstrated

  19. A new protein Girdin in tumor metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; FU Li; GU Feng; MA Yong-jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt serine/threonine kinase system regulates multiple cellular processes through the phosphorylation of a great number of downstream substrates and has been recognized as an important pathway for signal transduction, and in cancer invasion and metastasis.

  20. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  1. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  2. The protein C pathway in cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, C. Arnold; Arruda, Valder R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is frequently associated with activation of blood coagulation, which in turn has been suggested to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Indeed, low molecular weight heparin treatment significantly prolongs the survival of a wide variety of patients with cancer. Based on this notion that

  3. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  4. Presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, K.W.; Rosenwasser, G.O.; Alexander, E. III; Rossitch, G.; Dutton, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin tumor of neural crest origin and is part of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylase system. It typically occurs on the face of elderly people. Distant metastasis is almost uniformly fatal. Choroidal metastasis, to our knowledge, has not been described. We report a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma who had a synchronous solid choroidal tumor and a biopsy-proven brain metastasis. Our 56-year-old patient presented with a rapidly growing, violaceous preauricular skin tumor. Computed tomography of the head disclosed incidental brain and choroidal tumors. Light and electron microscopy of biopsy specimens of both the skin and the brain lesions showed Merkel cell carcinoma. Ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and A and B echography revealed a solid choroidal mass. The brain and skin tumors responded well to irradiation. A radioactive episcleral plaque was applied subsequently to the choroidal tumor. All tumors regressed, and the patient was doing well 28 months later. To our knowledge this is the first case of presumed choroidal metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma

  5. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  6. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  7. Contrast configuration influences grouping in apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; Clifford, Colin W G; Wenderoth, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the same principles that influence grouping in static displays also influence grouping in apparent motion. Using the Ternus display, we found that the proportion of group motion reports was influenced by changes in contrast configuration. Subjects made judgments of completion of these same configurations in a static display. Generally, contrast configurations that induced a high proportion of group motion responses were judged as more 'complete' in static displays. Using a stereo display, we then tested whether stereo information and T-junction information were critical for this increase in group motion. Perceived grouping was consistently higher for same contrast polarity configurations than for opposite contrast polarity configurations, regardless of the presence of stereo information or explicit T-junctions. Thus, while grouping in static and moving displays showed a similar dependence on contrast configuration, motion grouping showed little dependence on stereo or T-junction information.

  8. Apparent CPT violation in neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Nelson, Ann E.; Walsh, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    We consider searching for light sterile fermions and new forces by using long baseline oscillations of neutrinos and antineutrinos. A new light sterile state and/or a new force can lead to apparent CPT violation in muon neutrino and antineutrino oscillations. As an example, we present an economical model of neutrino masses containing a sterile neutrino. The potential from the standard model weak neutral current gives rise to a difference between the disappearance probabilities of neutrinos and antineutrinos, when mixing with a light sterile neutrino is considered. The addition of a B-L interaction adds coherently to the neutrino current potential and increases the difference between neutrino and antineutrino disappearance. We find that this model can improve the fit to the results of MINOS for both neutrinos and antineutrinos, without any CPT violation, and that the regions of parameter space which improve the fit are within experimental constraints.

  9. The apparent motion of the Sun revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Oliver

    2002-05-01

    The knowledge of the apparent motion of the Sun - due to the combined effects of the rotation of the Earth around its proper axis and the translation around the Sun - is important both in natural and man-made systems. In particular, a proper explanation of the seasons requires an understanding of this solar geometry. In this paper we present a simple derivation of the relevant formulae based on vector algebra. The possible trajectories are discussed in detail. An approximate explicit formula for the seasonal variations of solar radiation is derived and discussed. The calculations give useful insights into the geometry of the problem and are thought to be helpful for the undergraduate teaching of solar energy engineering, classical mechanics and astronomy.

  10. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  11. Pterostilbene acts through metastasis-associated protein 1 to inhibit tumor growth, progression and metastasis in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    Full Text Available The development of natural product agents with targeted strategies holds promise for enhanced anticancer therapy with reduced drug-associated side effects. Resveratrol found in red wine, has anticancer activity in various tumor types. We reported earlier on a new molecular target of resveratrol, the metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1, which is a part of nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD co-repressor complex that mediates gene silencing. We identified resveratrol as a regulator of MTA1/NuRD complex and re-activator of p53 acetylation in prostate cancer (PCa. In the current study, we addressed whether resveratrol analogues also possess the ability to inhibit MTA1 and to reverse p53 deacetylation. We demonstrated that pterostilbene (PTER, found in blueberries, had greater increase in MTA1-mediated p53 acetylation, confirming superior potency over resveratrol as dietary epigenetic agent. In orthotopic PCa xenografts, resveratrol and PTER significantly inhibited tumor growth, progression, local invasion and spontaneous metastasis. Furthermore, MTA1-knockdown sensitized cells to these agents resulting in additional reduction of tumor progression and metastasis. The reduction was dependent on MTA1 signaling showing increased p53 acetylation, higher apoptotic index and less angiogenesis in vivo in all xenografts treated with the compounds, and particularly with PTER. Altogether, our results indicate MTA1 as a major contributor in prostate tumor malignant progression, and support the use of strategies targeting MTA1. Our strong pre-clinical data indicate PTER as a potent, selective and pharmacologically safe natural product that may be tested in advanced PCa.

  12. [Effect of hepatic resection on development of liver metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, I; Palomares, T; Alonso, A; Portugal, V; Castro, B; Caramés, J; Méndez, J

    2003-11-01

    In the early stages of metastasis, development of the disease is dependent on growth factors produced by the host. There are clinical situations associated with an increase in these factors, such as partial resection of metastasized liver. Given the important role of hepatotrophic factors in liver regeneration, we have studied the effect of partial hepatectomy on the development of residual micrometastases in the liver, and on the neoplastic process as a whole. We used a murine model in which a rabdomiosarcoma was established by subcutaneous inoculation of syngeneic tumor cells in male Wag rats. Subsequently, the primary tumor was resected and/or a 40% hepatectomy was performed. The effect of these two surgical procedures on the tumor process was analyzed on the 25th and 35th days post-inoculation, and the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes was assessed. Both the tumorectomy and liver resection, when not combined, produced an increase in regional adenopathies without modifying the evolution of metastasis in the liver. However, when tumor excision and partial hepatectomy were performed simultaneously, there was a net increase in the metastatic process. In addition to a rapid spread of the disease (lung, mediastinum, retroperitoneum), the number of liver metastases increased by 300%. This development coincided with a steep rise in the percentage of regenerating hepatocytes, which nearly doubled that of the group subjected only to liver resection. We conclude that liver resection, alone or combined with excision of the primary tumor, may enhance tumor progression, both locally and at the metastasic level.

  13. Multi-detector row CT in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Shogo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic capability instead of clinical efficacy of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. MDCT was performed in 63 patients with breast cancer, and multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR) images were reconstructed for the evaluation of bilateral axillary lymph nodes. Two hundred sixty eight lymph nodes were depicted with MDCT, and correlation with pathological findings was performed. The short axis length of lymph node was measured on MPR image, and the shape of the nodes was analyzed with the pathological results statistically. The diagnostic criteria on size and shape of lymph node metastasis were discussed Dynamic study with contrast media was also performed, and the CT value ratios (CTVR) of the lymph nodes and breast tumors were calculated. No relevance of axillary lymph node metastasis was noted to the pathological types of breast cancer. The average short axis length of the ipsilateral axillary nodes was 8.9 mm±3.8 (SD) while that of the contralateral nodes was 4.9 mm±1.1 (SD) showing significant difference. More than 6.5 mm in short length of the lymph node was thought to be an effective criterion for positive metastasis, and its sensitivity was 96%. Soybean-shape lymph node was statistically common in metastasis, while non-metastatic nodes were commonly demonstrated as letter ''c'' shape or ring-like shape. Statistical relevance was obtained between the CTVR of axillary lymph nodes and that of breast tumors, suggesting clinical usefulness of dynamic study using contrast media in the evaluation of lymph node metastasis. With MPR and VR images using MDCT, more accurate morphological evaluation of axillary lymph nodes was possible. When soybean-shape node with more than 6.5 mm in short axis is depicted in the axillar region on MDCT metastasis should be the consideration. Comparison with the contralateral side as a control in coronal

  14. A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Qualizza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara.

  15. Unusual metachronous isolated inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parodo Giuseppina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to describe an unusual case of metachronous isolated inguinal lymph nodes metastasis from sigmoid carcinoma. A 62-year-old man was referred to our department because of an obstructing sigmoid carcinoma. Colonoscopy showed the obstructing lesion at 30 cm from the anal verge and abdominal CT revealed a sigmoid lesion infiltrating the left lateral abdominal wall. The patient underwent a colonic resection extended to the abdominal wall. Histology showed an adenocarcinoma of the colon infiltrating the abdominal wall with iuxtacolic nodal involvement. Thirty three months after surgery abdominal CT and PET scan revealed a metastatic left inguinal lymph node involvement. The metastatic lymph node was found strictly adherent to the left iliac-femoral artery and encompassing the origin of the left inferior epigastric artery. Histology showed a metachronous nodal metastasis from colonic adenocarcinoma. Despite metastastic involvement of inguinal lymph node from rectal cancer is a rare but well known clinical entity, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of inguinal metastasis from a carcinoma of the left colon. Literature review shows only three other similar reported cases: two cases of inguinal metastasis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the cecum and one case of axillary metastasis from left colonic carcinoma. A metastatic pathway through superficial abdominal wall lymphatic vessels could be possible through the route along the left inferior epigastric artery. The solitary inguinal nodal involvement from rectal carcinoma could have a more favorable prognosis. In the case of nodal metastasis to the body surface lymph nodes from colonic carcinoma, following the small number of such cases reported in the literature, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Study on 41Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang; Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang; Pang, Yijun; Yang, Xianlin; Ruan, Xiangdong; Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of 41 Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl 2 solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi 41 Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for 41 Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of 41 Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that 41 Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  17. The Role of Immunoglobulin Superfamily Cell Adhesion Molecules in Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wai Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical problem and results in a poor prognosis for most cancers. The metastatic pathway describes the process by which cancer cells give rise to a metastatic lesion in a new tissue or organ. It consists of interconnecting steps all of which must be successfully completed to result in a metastasis. Cell-cell adhesion is a key aspect of many of these steps. Adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig-SF commonly play a central role in cell-cell adhesion, and a number of these molecules have been associated with cancer progression and a metastatic phenotype. Surprisingly, the contribution of Ig-SF members to metastasis has not received the attention afforded other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs such as the integrins. Here we examine the steps in the metastatic pathway focusing on how the Ig-SF members, melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, L1CAM, neural CAM (NCAM, leukocyte CAM (ALCAM, intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1 and platelet endothelial CAM-1 (PECAM-1 could play a role. Although much remains to be understood, this review aims to raise the profile of Ig-SF members in metastasis formation and prompt further research that could lead to useful clinical outcomes.

  18. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thobe, Megan N. [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Clark, Robert J. [Department of Molecular Pathogenesis and Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bainer, Russell O. [Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W., E-mail: crinkers@uchicago.edu [Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-01-27

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies.

  19. Optimizing prognosis-related key miRNA-target interactions responsible for cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongying; Yuan, Huating; Hu, Jing; Xu, Chaohan; Liao, Gaoming; Yin, Wenkang; Xu, Liwen; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinxin; Shi, Aiai; Li, Jing; Xiao, Yun

    2017-12-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that the abnormality of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their downstream targets is frequently implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancers, however, the clinical benefit of causal miRNA-target interactions has been seldom studied. Here, we proposed a computational method to optimize prognosis-related key miRNA-target interactions by combining transcriptome and clinical data from thousands of TCGA tumors across 16 cancer types. We obtained a total of 1,956 prognosis-related key miRNA-target interactions between 112 miRNAs and 1,443 their targets. Interestingly, these key target genes are specifically involved in tumor progression-related functions, such as 'cell adhesion' and 'cell migration'. Furthermore, they are most significantly correlated with 'tissue invasion and metastasis', a hallmark of metastasis, in ten distinct types of cancer through the hallmark analysis. These results implicated that the prognosis-related key miRNA-target interactions were highly associated with cancer metastasis. Finally, we observed that the combination of these key miRNA-target interactions allowed to distinguish patients with good prognosis from those with poor prognosis both in most TCGA cancer types and independent validation sets, highlighting their roles in cancer metastasis. We provided a user-friendly database named miRNATarget (freely available at http://biocc.hrbmu.edu.cn/miRNATar/), which provides an overview of the prognosis-related key miRNA-target interactions across 16 cancer types.

  20. From Prostate to Bone: Key Players in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thobe, Megan N.; Clark, Robert J.; Bainer, Russell O.; Prasad, Sandip M.; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie W.

    2011-01-01

    Bone is the most common site for metastasis in human prostate cancer patients. Skeletal metastases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and overall greatly affect the quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of primary prostate tumors, our knowledge of how and why secondary tumors derived from prostate cancer cells preferentially localize bone remains limited. The physiochemical properties of bone, and signaling molecules including specific chemokines and their receptors, are distinct in nature and function, yet play intricate and significant roles in prostate cancer bone metastasis. Examining the impact of these facets of bone metastasis in vivo remains a significant challenge, as animal models that mimic the natural history and malignant progression clinical prostate cancer are rare. The goals of this article are to discuss (1) characteristics of bone that most likely render it a favorable environment for prostate tumor cell growth, (2) chemokine signaling that is critical in the recruitment and migration of prostate cancer cells to the bone, and (3) current animal models utilized in studying prostate cancer bone metastasis. Further research is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the extravasation of disseminated prostate cancer cells into the bone and to provide a better understanding of the basis of cancer cell survival within the bone microenvironment. The development of animal models that recapitulate more closely the human clinical scenario of prostate cancer will greatly benefit the generation of better therapies

  1. Tris-base buffer: a promising new inhibitor for cancer progression and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Abrahams, Dominique; Enriquez-Navas, Pedro M; Luddy, Kim; Gatenby, Robert A; Gillies, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    Neutralizing tumor external acidity with oral buffers has proven effective for the prevention and inhibition of metastasis in several cancer mouse models. Solid tumors are highly acidic as a result of high glycolysis combined with an inadequate blood supply. Our prior work has shown that sodium bicarbonate, imidazole, and free-base (but not protonated) lysine are effective in reducing tumor progression and metastasis. However, a concern in translating these results to clinic has been the presence of counter ions and their potential undesirable side effects (e.g., hypernatremia). In this work, we investigate tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, (THAM or Tris), a primary amine with no counter ion, for its effects on metastasis and progression in prostate and pancreatic cancer in vivo models using MRI and bioluminescence imaging. At an ad lib concentration of 200 mmol/L, Tris effectively inhibited metastasis in both models and furthermore led to a decrease in the expression of the major glucose transporter, GLUT-1. Our results also showed that Tris-base buffer (pH 8.4) had no overt toxicity to C3H mice even at higher doses (400 mmol/L). In conclusion, we have developed a novel therapeutic approach to manipulate tumor extracellular pH (pHe) that could be readily adapted to a clinical trial. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. RKIP Suppresses Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Bone by Regulating Stroma-Associated Genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, E.; Frankenberger, C.A.; Rosner, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade cancer research has recognized the importance of tumor stroma interactions for the progression of primary tumors to an aggressive and invasive phenotype and for colonization of new organs in the context of metastasis. The dialogue between tumor cells and the surrounding stroma is a complex and dynamic phenomenon, as many cell types and soluble factors are involved. While the function of many of the players involved in this cross talk have been studied, the regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control their expression have not been investigated in depth. By using a novel, interdisciplinary approach applied to the mechanism of action of the metastasis suppressor, Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), we identified a signaling pathway that suppresses invasion and metastasis through regulation of stroma-associated genes. Conceptually, the approach we developed uses a master regulator and expression arrays from breast cancer patients to formulate hypotheses based on clinical data. Experimental validation is followed by further bioinformatics analysis to establish the clinical significance of discoveries. Using RKIP as an example we show here that this multi-step approach can be used to identify gene regulatory mechanisms that affect tumor-stroma interactions that in turn influence metastasis to the bone or other organs

  3. Usp7 promotes medulloblastoma cell survival and metastasis by activating Shh pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Meixiao; Sun, Xiaohan; Liu, Jinxiao; Li, Yan; Li, Yong; He, Xu; Zhou, Zizhang; Lu, Ligong

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitin-specific protease Usp7 plays roles in multiple cellular processes through deubiquitinating and stabilizing numerous substrates, including P53, Pten and Gli. Aberrant Usp7 activity has been implicated in many disorders and tumorigenesis, making it as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Although it is clear that Usp7 is involved in many types of cancer, its role in regulating medulloblastoma (MB) is still unknown. In this study, we show that knockdown of Usp7 inhibits the proliferation and migration of MB cells, while Usp7 overexpression exerts an opposite effect. Furthermore, we establish Usp7 knockout MB cell line using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and further confirm that Usp7 knockout also blocks MB cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, we reveal that knockdown of Usp7 compromises Shh pathway activity and decrease Gli protein levels, while P53 level and P53 target gene expression have no obvious changes. Finally, we find that Usp7 inhibitors apparently inhibit MB cell viability and migration. Taken together, our findings suggest that Usp7 is important for MB cell proliferation and metastasis by activating Shh pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for MBs. - Highlights: • Loss of usp7 blocks the proliferation and metastasis of MB cells. • Usp7 regulates MB cell growth and migration through stimulating Shh pathway. • Usp7 inhibitors hamper MB cell proliferation and migration. • Usp7 inhibitors could attenuate Shh pathway activity.

  4. Application of semiquantitative analysis of whole body bone imaging on distal femoral metaphysis osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Wang Huixiang; Zhou Tao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of semiquantitative analysis of whole body bone imaging on distal femoral metaphysis osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with confirmed neuroblastoma by pathological reports were divided into group of metastasis and group of no metastasis by bone marrow slides, X-ray, CT, MRI or clinical follow-up. Whole body bone imaging was performed pre-or postoperation. All cases were analysed by two methods: (1) Semi-quantitative analysis: Regions of interest on bilateral distal femoral metaphysic and middle of femoral were drawn, and their average counts were measured. The ratio of radioactivity of distal femoral metaphysic to middle of femoral was calculated; (2) Visual analysis:Bilateral distal femoral metaphysic metastasis were diagnosed by visual analysis according to whole body bone imaging. The differences between this two methods were compared. Results: There were differences of the ratio of radioactivity of distal femoral metaphysic to middle of femoral between group of metastasis and group of no metastasis (t =8.334, P<0.01), and there was no significant difference between t the two methods (χ 2 =0.68, P>0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of semiquantitative analysis in detecting osseous metastasis were 90.5% , 95.7% , 94.4% , 86.4% and 97.1% , while visual analysis were 81% , 100% , 95.6% , 100% and 94.5% . Conclusions: Radionuclide whole body bone imaging was of great importance in diagnosis of osseous metastasis of neuroblastoma. The diagnostic accuracy was improved by combination of visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis. (authors)

  5. Cancer metabolism and the dynamics of metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, G; Guiot, C; Delsanto, P P; Ottaviani, P L; Pagnutti, S; Deisboeck, T S

    2009-02-07

    Cancer growth dynamics, commonly simulated with a Gompertzian model, is analyzed in the framework of a more recent and realistic model. In particular, we consider the setting of a tumor embedded in a host organ and investigate their interaction. We assume that, at least in some cases, tumor metastasis may be triggered by an 'energetic crisis', when the tumor exceeds the 'carrying capacity' of the host organ. As a consequence, dissemination of clusters of cancer cells is set in motion, with a statistical probability given by a Poisson distribution. The model, although still at a preclinical level, is fully quantitative and is applied, as an example, to the case of prostate cancer. The results confirm that, at least for the more aggressive cancers, metastasis starts very early during tumorigenesis and a quantitative link is found between the tumor's doubling time, its 'aggressiveness' and the metastatic potential.

  6. Contemporary treatment with radiosurgery for spine metastasis and spinal cord compression in 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sam Uel; Yoon, Han Hah; Stessin, Alexander; Gutman, Fred; Rosiello, Arthur; Davis, Raphael [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook (United States)

    2015-03-15

    With the progress of image-guided localization, body immobilization system, and computerized delivery of intensity-modulated radiation delivery, it became possible to perform spine radiosurgery. The next question is how to translate the high technology treatment to the clinical application. Clinical trials have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of spine radiosurgery and efficacy of the treatment in the setting of spine metastasis, leading to the randomized trials by a cooperative group. Radiosurgery has also demonstrated its efficacy to decompress the spinal cord compression in selected group of patients. The experience indicates that spine radiosurgery has a potential to change the clinical practice in the management of spine metastasis and spinal cord compression.

  7. What is the value of routinely testing full blood count, electrolytes and urea, and pulmonary function tests before elective surgery in patients with no apparent clinical indication and in subgroups of patients with common comorbidities: a systematic review of the clinical and cost-effective literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoski-Murray, C; Lloyd Jones, M; McCabe, C; Claxton, K; Oluboyede, Y; Roberts, J; Nicholl, J P; Rees, A; Reilly, C S; Young, D; Fleming, T

    2012-12-01

    The evidence base which supported the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) published Clinical Guideline 3 was limited and 50% was graded as amber. However, the use of tests as part of pre-operative work-up remains a low-cost but high-volume activity within the NHS, with substantial resource implications. The objective of this study was to identify, evaluate and synthesise the published evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the routine use of three tests, full blood counts (FBCs), urea and electrolytes tests (U&Es) and pulmonary function tests, in the pre-operative work-up of otherwise healthy patients undergoing minor or intermediate surgery in the NHS. The aims of this study were to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine pre-operative testing of FBC, electrolytes and renal function and pulmonary function in adult patients classified as American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grades 1 and 2 undergoing elective minor (grade 1) or intermediate (grade 2) surgical procedures; to compare NICE recommendations with current practice; to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mandating or withdrawing each of these tests in this patient group; and to identify the expected value of information and whether or not it has value to the NHS in commissioning further primary research into the use of these tests in this group of patients. The following electronic bibliographic databases were searched: (1) BIOSIS; (2) Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; (3) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; (4) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; (5) EMBASE; (6) MEDLINE; (7) MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; (8) NHS Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; (9) NBS Health Technology Assessment Database; and (10) Science Citation Index. To identify grey and unpublished literature, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, National Research Register Archive

  8. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hirohi; Itai, Yuji; Niitsu, Mamoru [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Teruo [Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Satomi, Hisae; Otsuka, Fujio [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  9. Mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Tae Min [Dept. of Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kee Dong; Jeong, Ho Gui; Park, Won Se [Advanced General Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Tumors metastasizing from distant regions to the oral and maxillofacial region are uncommon, comprising only 1%-2% of all malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from cholangiocytes, which are epithelial cells that line the bile ducts. These cancers are difficult to diagnose and have a poor prognosis. In this paper, we report a rare case of mandibular metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed at the primary site and discuss the radiographic findings observed in this case.

  10. Isolated penile metastasis from bladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuren, O.A. [Department of Radiology and Imaging, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Koriech, O. [Department of Oncology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1999-10-01

    Metastases of the penis are uncommon, with only approximately 300 cases reported since 1870. In up to 70 % of patients, the primary tumour is located in the urogenital tract. Furthermore, isolated metastases of the penis are exceptionally rare. We report a case of solitary squamous cell metastasis of the penis presenting with painful swelling initially thought to be inflammatory in origin. The CT and MR imaging findings are presented with a short review of the literature. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  11. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    transferred via ESVs to osteoblasts. These bone cells represent the most common tissue target for breast cancer metastasis, and we will mimic ESV...separation of beads will result in good separation of bead-complexed exosomes and microvesicles. Furthermore, we show that we can use the same device to...proteins for 3 common exosome tetraspanin markers (CD9, CD63, and CD81) [Andreu & Yanez-Mo 2014] in tandem (pLLNL-exo-GFP) in order to both increase

  12. Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    small but statistically significant difference in average F/B of treated US patients versus untreated Dutch patients. Fig. 1. Display of all...predictive ability of models incorporating F/B using a multivariate linear model, but this time applying the analysis to the entire ER+ and ER- cohort. As...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0040 TITLE: Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward Brown

  13. Apparent exchange rate for breast cancer characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasič, Samo; Oredsson, Stina; Partridge, Savannah C; Saal, Lao H; Topgaard, Daniel; Nilsson, Markus; Bryskhe, Karin

    2016-05-01

    Although diffusion MRI has shown promise for the characterization of breast cancer, it has low specificity to malignant subtypes. Higher specificity might be achieved if the effects of cell morphology and molecular exchange across cell membranes could be disentangled. The quantification of exchange might thus allow the differentiation of different types of breast cancer cells. Based on differences in diffusion rates between the intra- and extracellular compartments, filter exchange spectroscopy/imaging (FEXSY/FEXI) provides non-invasive quantification of the apparent exchange rate (AXR) of water between the two compartments. To test the feasibility of FEXSY for the differentiation of different breast cancer cells, we performed experiments on several breast epithelial cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, we performed the first in vivo FEXI measurement of water exchange in human breast. In cell suspensions, pulsed gradient spin-echo experiments with large b values and variable pulse duration allow the characterization of the intracellular compartment, whereas FEXSY provides a quantification of AXR. These experiments are very sensitive to the physiological state of cells and can be used to establish reliable protocols for the culture and harvesting of cells. Our results suggest that different breast cancer subtypes can be distinguished on the basis of their AXR values in cell suspensions. Time-resolved measurements allow the monitoring of the physiological state of cells in suspensions over the time-scale of hours, and reveal an abrupt disintegration of the intracellular compartment. In vivo, exchange can be detected in a tumor, whereas, in normal tissue, the exchange rate is outside the range experimentally accessible for FEXI. At present, low signal-to-noise ratio and limited scan time allows the quantification of AXR only in a region of interest of relatively large tumors. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effective Treatment of an Apparent Meniscal Injury Using the Mulligan Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Rhinehart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present a clinic case demonstrating the effectiveness of the Mulligan Concept (MC in treating an apparent meniscal injury. The utilization of the MC in the evaluation and treatment of a 20-year-old soccer player with an apparent acute meniscal injury is presented. Background: Meniscal injuries are common knee injuries. The MC is a therapeutic intervention strategy applied as both a treatment-based evaluation and therapeutic intervention. Treatment: The patient was successfully treated in four treatment sessions using the MC. The patient experienced minimal clinically-important differences on a variety of global and regional patient-rated outcomes. Uniqueness: To the author’s knowledge, there are currently no published case reports of using the MC in clinical practice to treat an apparent meniscal pathology. Conclusion: The MC can be utilized as an evaluation and treatment technique in patients suspected of having meniscal pathology in the knee.

  15. Ethanol inhibits B16-BL6 melanoma metastasis and cell phenotypes associated with metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiro, Kyoko; Núñez, Nomelí P

    2012-01-01

    Every year, approximately 68,000 new cases of malignant melanoma are diagnosed in the US. Ethanol consumption inhibits metastasis of melanoma in mice, but the mechanism is not well understood. C57BL/6J ob/+ mice, given either water or 20% ethanol, were injected intravenously with B16-BL6 melanoma cells to determine pulmonary metastasis. The effects of ethanol on cell phenotypes and markers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were determined in cell culture. In mice, ethanol consumption inhibited experimental pulmonary metastasis. This inhibition was associated with decreased body weight, and levels of systemic leptin, and insulin. In cell culture, ethanol inhibited B16-BL6 cell motility, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. Additionally, ethanol reduced Snai1 expression and increased E-cadherin expression. Lastly, ethanol increased the expression of Kiss1 metastasis-suppressor and the metastasis suppressor Nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase. In both animal and in cell culture conditions, ethanol inhibited the metastatic ability of B16-BL6 melanoma cells.

  16. Chemokines: novel targets for breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Simi; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the possible involvement of chemokines and their receptors in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Chemokines and their receptors constitute a superfamily of signalling factors whose prognosis value in breast cancer progression remains unclear. We will examine here the expression pattern of chemokines and their receptors in mammary gland physiology and carcinogenesis. The nature of the cells producing chemokines or harboring chemokine receptors appears to be crucial in certain conditions for example, the infiltration of the primary tumor by leukocytes and angiogenesis. In addition, chemokines, their receptors and the interaction with glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) are key players in the homing of cancer cells to distant metastasis sites. Several lines of evidence, including in vitro and in vivo models, suggest that the mechanism of action of chemokines in cancer development involves the modulation of proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, leukocyte recruitment or angiogenesis. Furthermore, we will discuss the regulation of chemokine network in tumor neovascularity by decoy receptors. The reasons accounting for the deregulation of chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in breast cancer are certainly crucial for the comprehension of chemokine role in breast cancer and are in several cases linked to estrogen receptor status. The targeting of chemokines and chemokine receptors by antibodies, small molecule antagonists, viral chemokine binding proteins and heparins appears as promising tracks to develop therapeutic strategies. Thus there is significant interest in developing strategies to antagonize the chemokine function, and an opportunity to interfere with metastasis, the leading cause of death in most patients. PMID:17717637

  17. Breast-cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    to the increased metastasis. Treatment with anti-IL17 + celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug completely abrogated the development of metastasis and significantly reduced the primary tumor burden. The data clearly has important clinical implications for patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, especially with regards to the prognosis and treatment options.

  18. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2009-01-01

    -alpha (TNF-alpha) may contribute to the increased metastasis. Treatment with anti-IL17 + celecoxib, an anti-inflammatory drug completely abrogated the development of metastasis and significantly reduced the primary tumor burden. Conclusions The data clearly has important clinical implications for patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, especially with regards to the prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19643025

  19. sup 8 sup 9 Sr and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm-EDTMP therapy of disseminated skeletal metastasis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Jun Ning; Zhu Shou Peng

    2001-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on 72 patients with disseminated skeletal metastasis to evaluate the effect of strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy. There existed 87.88% of clinical response, 12.12% of no response in the group treated with strontium-89 as compared with 90.24% of clinical response, 9.76% no response in one treated with samarium-153 EDTMP; and there were no correlation between the treatment results and the amounts of isotopes administrated. The results suggest that strontium-89 or samarium-153 EDTMP therapy is a method of first choice in the palliative treatment for disseminated skeletal metastasis

  20. Unusual uterine metastasis of invasive ductal carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfur Çift

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic carcinoma of the uterus usually originates from other genital sites. Extragenital metastases such as breast are rare. A woman aged 34 years with a history of breast cancer was referred to the gynecology outpatient clinic for routine follow-up. Diagnostic tests and gynecologic examination revealed a uterine mass, which was removed with laparotomy. The pathologic investigation revealed metastasis of invasive lobular breast cancer. Chemotherapy was given and the patient has been under follow-up for 3 years with normal imaging on comput-erized tomographic examination and positron-emission tomography-computerized tomographic. It should be kept in mind that patients with breast cancer who have received tamoxifen may develop primary endometrial cancers, and may also demonstrate uterine metastases. With successful treatment these patients can obtain dis-ease-free survival.

  1. Orbital metastasis: A rare manifestation of scapular bone osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taher Rajabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of orbital metastasis from scapular bone osteosarcoma. Case Report: A 55-year-old man who was a known case of scapular bone osteosarcoma, was referred to our clinic with ocular symptoms including acute painful decreased vision, proptosis, conjunctival injection, and chemosis. He had undergone surgical excision of the original tumor and received systemic chemotherapy 4 months before. Imaging studies and incisional biopsy were performed for the orbital lesion, the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic osteosarcoma. The patient was referred to the oncologist for palliative chemotherapy and further intervention; however, he deceased 2 months later due to sepsis in the context of immunosuppression. Conclusion: Metastatic involvement of the orbit due to osteosarcoma is a rare condition manifesting with orbital mass, pain, diplopia and ocular motility disturbance. Although there is no effective treatment, the combination of modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery may delay progression of the disease.

  2. RIG-I Helicase-Independent Pathway in Sendai Virus-Activated Dendritic Cells Is Critical for Preventing Lung Metastasis of AT6.3 Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Kato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated highly efficient antitumor immunity against dermal tumors of B16F10 murine melanoma with the use of dendritic cells (DCs activated by replication-competent, as well as nontransmissible-type, recombinant Sendai viruses (rSeV, and proposed a new concept, “immunostimulatory virotherapy,” for cancer immunotherapy. However, there has been little information on the efficacies of thismethod: 1 inmore clinically relevant situations including metastatic diseases, 2 on other tumor types and other animal species, and 3 on the related molecular/cellular mechanisms. In this study, therefore, we investigated the efficacy of vaccinating DCs activated by fusion gene-deleted nontransmissible rSeV on a rat model of lung metastasis using a highly malignant subline of Dunning R-3327 prostate cancer, AT6.3. rSeV/dF-green fluorescent protein (GFP-activated bone marrow-derived DCs (rSeV/dF-GFP-DC, consistent with results previously observed in murine DCs. Vaccination of rSeV/dF-GFP-DC was highly effective at preventing lung metastasis after intravenous loading of R-3327 tumor cells, compared with the effects observed with immature DCs or lipopolysaccharide-activated DCs. Interestingly, neither CTL activity nor DC trafficking showed any apparent difference among groups. Notably, rSeV/dF-DCs expressing a dominant-negative mutant of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I (rSeV/dF-RIGIC-DC, an RNA helicase that recognizes the rSeV genome for inducing type I interferons, largely lost the expression of proinflammatory cytokines without any impairment of antitumor activity. These results indicate the essential role of RIG-I-independent signaling on antimetastatic effect induced by rSeV-activated DCs and may provide important insights to DC-based immunotherapy for advanced malignancies.

  3. The value of "1"8F-FDG PET/CT imaging in diagnosis of postoperative recurrence of rectal carcinoma and metastasis of colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Xiaoli; Li Shiyun; Dai Ruqi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value "1"8F-FDG PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis of rectal cancer recurrence and metastasis after operation. Methods: 42 cases of colorectal cancer patients after surgery were involved, all patients were given general "1"8F-FDG PET/CT examination and strengthen CT examination. According to the PET/CT results, the postoperative anastomotic recurrence and metastasis were determined and patients were taken for reoperation or biopsy pathology diagnosis. Results: Among 42 colorectal cancer patients after resection, there were 2 cases recurrence without metastasis, 19 cases metastasis without recurrence, 11 cases with metastasis and recurrence, and 10 cases without recurrence and metastasis. The accuracy, specificity and positive predictive value of PET/CT examination were higher than that of strengthen CT(P < 0.05). Conclusion: The clinical application value of "1"8FFDG PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer recurrence and metastasis is higher than that of the traditional strengthening CT, and it can be wildly applied in clinical applications. (authors)

  4. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  5. A prognostic gene signature for metastasis-free survival of triple negative breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unjin Lee

    Full Text Available Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS, based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP. We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.

  6. Oligometastatic state predicts a favorable outcome for renal cell carcinoma patients with bone metastasis under the treatment of sunitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolin; Gu, Weijie; Zhang, Hailiang; Zhu, Yao; Shi, Guohai; Ye, Dingwei

    2016-05-03

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome. 22 patients were classified into oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with a median OS of 30.1 months (95%CI: 26.3 to 33.8 months). The 45 patients with non-oligometastatic state had a median OS of 12.7 months (95%CI: 9.43 to 16.0 months). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant difference between them (Log Rank test p<0.001). When we set patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases as a single group, there was still significant difference between oligometastatic state group and non-oligometastatic state groups. In multivariate Cox proportion hazard ratio analysis, metastatic states (p=0.012), MSKCC score (p=0.002), ECOG (p=0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (p=0.000) were significantly associated with prognosis. The integration of metastatic state into the MSKCC risk model improved the c-index from 0.651 to 0.752. 67 patients from Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center with bone metastatic RCC were divided into 2 metastatic states. One included those with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis with less than 5 sites of bone metastasis. The other involved those patients with multiple bone metastases (at least 5 sites) or together with other sites of metastasis. Then patients with only multiple bone (at least 5 sites) metastases were set into a single group. RCC patients with oligometastatic state of bone metastasis treated with sunitinib had a favorable clinical outcome.

  7. Mandibular metastasis of adenocarcinoma from prostate cancer: case report according to epidemiology and current therapeutical trends of the advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dreyer da Silva de Menezes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer represents the most frequent non-cutaneous neoplasia in males. This type of neoplasia can develop peculiar patterns of evolution, presenting, in many cases, precocious relapses and metastasis. Bone metastasis in the mouth is extremely rare, and represents 1% of all malignant mouth neoplasias. The aim of the present study is to report a clinical case of bone metastasis in the mandibular region associated with a tumoral prostate adenocarcinoma, as well as to discuss connected aspects about diagnosis, prognosis and integrated treatment of this condition.

  8. Fucoidan Suppresses Hypoxia-Induced Lymphangiogenesis and Lymphatic Metastasis in Mouse Hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongming Teng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the greatest clinical challenge associated with cancer, is closely connected to multiple biological processes, including invasion and adhesion. The hypoxic environment in tumors is an important factor that causes tumor metastasis by activating HIF-1α. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a sulfated polysaccharide and, as a novel marine biological material, has been used to treat various disorders in China, Korea, Japan and other countries. In the present study, we demonstrated that fucoidan derived from Undaria pinnatifida sporophylls significantly inhibits the hypoxia-induced expression, nuclear translocation and activity of HIF-1α, the synthesis and secretion of VEGF-C and HGF, cell invasion and lymphatic metastasis in a mouse hepatocarcinoma Hca-F cell line. Fucoidan also suppressed lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, accompanied by a reduction in the HIF-1α nuclear translocation and activity, fucoidan significantly reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-ERK, NF-κB, MMP-2 and MMP-9, but increased TIMP-1 levels. These results indicate strongly that the anti-metastasis and anti-lymphangiogenesis activities of fucoidan are mediated by suppressing HIF-1α/VEGF-C, which attenuates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways.

  9. Dominant Expression of DCLK1 in Human Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells Accelerates Tumor Invasion and Metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromitsu Ito

    Full Text Available Patients with pancreatic cancer typically develop tumor invasion and metastasis in the early stage. These malignant behaviors might be originated from cancer stem cells (CSCs, but the responsible target is less known about invisible CSCs especially for invasion and metastasis. We previously examined the proteasome activity of CSCs and constructed a real-time visualization system for human pancreatic CSCs. In the present study, we found that CSCs were highly metastatic and dominantly localized at the invading tumor margins in a liver metastasis model. Microarray and siRNA screening assays showed that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 was predominantly expressed with histone modification in pancreatic CSCs with invasive and metastatic potential. Overexpression of DCLK1 led to amoeboid morphology, which promotes the migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of DCLK1 profoundly suppressed in vivo liver metastasis of pancreatic CSCs. Clinically, DCLK1 was overexpressed in the metastatic tumors in patients with pancreatic cancer. Our studies revealed that DCLK1 is essential for the invasive and metastatic properties of CSCs and may be a promising epigenetic and therapeutic target in human pancreatic cancer.

  10. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  11. Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, M; Tsuruta, M; Hasegawa, H; Okabayashi, K; Toyoda, N; Iwama, N; Morita, S; Kitagawa, Y

    2017-09-01

    The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Between September 2005 and December 2010 we reviewed 567 patients with pathological Stage I, II or III colorectal cancer, whose clinicopathological background included a preoperative smoking history, pack-year history from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasis-free survival. Pulmonary metastases occurred in 39 (6.9%) patients. The smoking histories revealed 355 never smokers, 119 former smokers and 93 current smokers among the subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that being a current smoker (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI 1.18-6.25; P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for pulmonary metastases. Smoking may be a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Cessation of smoking should be recommended to prevent pulmonary metastasis, although further basic and clinical studies are required. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Pancreatic metastasis from invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangjie; Zuo, Ke; Huang, Dan; Yu, Baohua; Cheng, Yufan; Yang, Wentao

    2017-07-11

    Invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (PLC) is an aggressive subtype of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, which has its own histopathological and biological features. The metastatic patterns for PLC are distinct from those of invasive ductal carcinoma. In addition, pancreatic metastasis from PLC is extremely rare. We report a rare case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with clinical gastrointestinal symptoms and pancreatic metastasis of PLC. The pancreatic tumor was composed of pleomorphic tumor cells arranged in the form of solid sheets and nests and as single files, with frequent mitotic figures, nucleolar prominence, high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and loss of cohesion. The malignant cells were positive for p120 (cytoplasmic) and GATA3 and negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, E-cadherin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and mammaglobin, which indicated a lobular carcinoma phenotype of the breast. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the few reported cases in the literature of pancreatic metastasis of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, of which the definitive diagnosis was obtained only after surgery. Rare metastasis sites should be considered, particularly, when a patient has a medical history of PLC.

  13. Cholangiocarcinoma presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey David M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid tumor metastasis to the epididymis is a rare occurrence and is mostly discovered incidentally at autopsy or after therapeutic orchidectomy for prostate cancer. Other primary carcinomas that have been demonstrated to metastasize to the paratesticular region include those originating in the stomach, kidney, ileum, and colon. Case presentation A 72-year-old gentleman presented with a firm and tender mass involving the right epididymis. On examination, he was jaundiced. Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated an obstructive stricture of the extra-hepatic bile ducts, in keeping with a cholangiocarcinoma, through which a metal stent was endoscopically inserted for symptomatic relief. Subsequent right radical orchidectomy yielded a diffusely infiltrative adenocarcinoma obliterating the epididymis, extending into the rete testis, vas deferens and spermatic cord and showing widespread vascular and perineural invasion. Residual epididymal, rete, and testicular tubules showed no in situ neoplasia. Morphologically and immunohistochemically the features were in keeping with a metastasis from a primary cholangiocarcinoma. Conclusion Only two cases of bile duct carcinoma metastasising to the male genital tract have previously been reported in the literature, the testis being the main site of metastasis in both cases. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of cholangiocarcinoma metastasising primarily to the epididymis, and presenting as a solitary epididymal metastasis in the absence of disseminated disease. It serves to highlight the importance of performing a thorough examination of the male external genitalia both clinically, in the follow up of cancer patients, and at autopsy.

  14. Diagnosis and ultrasonographic appearance of hepatic metastasis in six cases of canine appendicular osteosarcoma (2005-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, L; Garrett, L D; Barger, A M; O'Brien, R T; Fan, T M

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this retrospective study were to identify clinical cases of dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) in which hepatic metastasis was confirmed, to highlight the use of cytology for its diagnosis and to describe the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearances of the lesion. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for dogs with appendicular OSA and hepatic metastases between January 2005 and January 2013. Reviews of radiographs, ultrasounds and cytology were performed. Six dogs with appendicular OSA and hepatic metastases were identified. The ultrasonographic appearance of metastatic lesions varied, including hyperechoic with shadowing, hyperechoic without shadowing, hypoechoic and mixed echogenicity. In two cases, the hepatic metastases were also evident on thoracic radiographs. The mean survival time from diagnosis of appendicular OSA was 188 days (range 69-363 days) and from diagnosis of hepatic metastases was 35 days (range 2-69 days). Death was tumour-related in all cases. Hepatic metastasis varies widely in its ultrasonographic appearance. In three of six cases, hepatic metastasis was identified without concurrent pulmonary metastasis; therefore, abdominal ultrasound may be useful at regular intervals for patient evaluation, especially in clinical trials where accurate identification of the disease-free interval is crucial. Once hepatic metastasis is confirmed, survival times appear limited. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Analysis of metastasis associated signal regulatory network in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu; Ding, Yanqing

    2018-06-18

    Metastasis is a key factor that affects the survival and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. To elucidate molecular mechanism associated with the metastasis of colorectal cancer, genes related to the metastasis time of colorectal cancer were screened. Then, a network was constructed with this genes. Data was obtained from colorectal cancer expression profile. Molecular mechanism elucidated the time of tumor metastasis and the expression of genes related to colorectal cancer. We found that metastasis-promoting and metastasis-inhibiting networks included protein hubs of high connectivity. These protein hubs were components of organelles. Some ribosomal proteins promoted the metastasis of colorectal cancer. In some components of organelles, such as proteasomes, mitochondrial ribosome, ATP synthase, and splicing factors, the metastasis of colorectal cancer was inhibited by some sections of these organelles. After performing survival analysis of proteins in organelles, joint survival curve of proteins was constructed in ribosomal network. This joint survival curve showed metastasis was promoted in patients with colorectal cancer (P = 0.0022939). Joint survival curve of proteins was plotted against proteasomes (P = 7 e-07), mitochondrial ribosome (P = 0.0001157), ATP synthase (P = 0.0001936), and splicing factors (P = 1.35e-05). These curves indicate that metastasis of colorectal cancer can be inhibited. After analyzing proteins that bind with organelle components, we also found that some proteins were associated with the time of colorectal cancer metastasis. Hence, different cellular components play different roles in the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 TITLE: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis PRINCIPAL...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/15/2011 - 08/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis 5a...4 Title of the Grant: Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy for Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis Award number: W81XWH-11-1-0593 Principal Investigator

  17. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-gao Man, Alexander Stojadinovic, Jeffrey Mason, Itzhak Avital, Anton Bilchik, Bjoern Bruecher, Mladjan Protic, Aviram Nissan, Mina Izadjoo, Xichen Zhang, Anahid Jewett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness.

  18. Abscess mimicking lung metastasis in a 10-year-old boy – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roik, Danuta; Mosior, Tomasz; Sopyło, Barbara; Małdyk, Jadwiga; Brzewski, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Malignant pulmonary tumours in children are very rare; the majority are metastases. Nonspecific radiographic findings of these abnormalities are challenging and may delay the final diagnosis and treatment. A 10-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of the clinical and radiographic symptoms and signs of pneumonia with abscess formation in the left lower lobe. After initial improvement on antibiotic therapy, a significant deterioration of the patient’s condition was observed, together with progression in radiographic examinations. The patient was treated surgically and transferred to the Haematology and Oncology Department with a final diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis of clear cell sarcoma. Radiographic findings of metastatic diseases may mimic non-neoplastic pulmonary conditions. A lack of specific clinical symptoms and a confusing radiographic pattern in our patient with clear cell sarcoma lung metastasis caused serious diagnostic difficulties

  19. Isolated splenic metastasis from a thymic carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongmei; Meng, Xiangying; Zhao, Yaowei; Wu, Shikai

    2016-09-01

    Thymic carcinomas are rare tumors that arise in the anterior mediastinum. Most of these malignancies develop local metastases limited in the thorax. Splenic metastases from thymic carcinomas are extremely rare. Here we report a case of isolated splenic metastasis from a 38-year-old female patient with Stage IV thymic carcinoma, who was treated with chemoradiotherapy. At twenty-2 months follow-up, the patient was found to have an isolated spleen metastasis, which was treated by Cyberknife with a reduced size of the metastasis, representing a partial response. Although splenic metastasis is a rare phenomenon, physicians need to be aware of the possibility of such metastases.

  20. Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... We found that: 1) expressing the metastasis suppressing gene BRMS1 in diverse cancer cell lines, including breast and melanoma, restores homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); 2...

  1. The role of GAGE cancer/testis antigen in metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Terp, Mikkel Green; Hansen, Malene Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    with migratory and invasive properties and were found to be upregulated in cancer cells with metastasizing potential in a gastric cancer model. METHODS: We have addressed the direct role of GAGE proteins in supporting metastasis using an isogenic metastasis model of human cancer, consisting of 4 isogenic cell......) and moderately metastatic clones (LM3), stable downregulation of GAGE expression did not affect the ability of CL16 cells to establish primary tumors and form metastasis in the lungs of immunodeficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that GAGE proteins per se do not support metastasis and that further...

  2. US and MRI Findings of Penile Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ha Yeun [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Metastatic tumors of the penis originating from the gastrointestinal tract are rare clinical conditions. We experienced a case of penile metastasis in a 59-year-old man who underwent an abdomino-peritoneal resection for a moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the rectum 4 years earlier. We report penile ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings on this uncommon metastatic penile tumor from a rectal adenocarcinoma and briefly review radiologic findings and relevant literature

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent oral cancer and metastasis of cervical lymph node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: ora018@poh.osaka-med.ac.jp; Ariyoshi, Y.; Shimahara, M. [Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Division of Medicine for Function and Morphology of Sensory Organs, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Miyatake, S.; Kawabata, S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Surgery, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigaku-machi Takatsuki City, Osaka (Japan); Ono, K.; Suzuki, M. [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan); Maruhashi, A. [Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Life Sciences, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We treated 6 patients with recurrent oral cancer and metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes after conventional treatments in 5 and non-conventional in 1 using BNCT, and herein report our results. The clinical response in our patients ranged from CR to PD. In 5 cases, spontaneous pain decreased immediately after BNCT. Three of the 6 are alive at the time of writing and we found that BNCT contributed to QOL improvement in all.

  4. Hormonal therapy in the treatment of mandibular metastasis of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlinger, P.; Peeters, L.C.; Fossion, E.; Servais, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present the clinical history of a 39-year-old woman, who has survived for over 10 years with metastatic breast cancer. After combined surgery and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes, all bone metastases gradually disappeared under chemotherapy and continuing hormonal treatment. This complete remission included a large mandibular metastasis, which had received additional radiotherapy of 21 Gy. Spontaneous reossification was observed in this location. (au) (7 refs.)

  5. "Hidden" bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a clinical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioka, C; Skarulis, M C; Tulloch-Reid, M K; Heiss, J D; Reynolds, J C

    2014-01-01

    The (131)I-iodide ((131)I) whole-body scan, for thyroid carcinoma is at times difficult to interpret. In a diagnostic whole body (131)I scan of a patient with follicular carcinoma, a posterior skull lesion was partially hidden by overlapping facial structures. On lateral head view, the abnormality was clearly evident. SPECT/CT and MRI showed the lesion originated in the occipital bone and had enlarged into the posterior fossa. The mass was surgically removed and the patient received (131)I therapy for residual tissue. The study demonstrates a pitfall in the reading of two dimensional radioiodine images which can be overcome by SPECT or lateral imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Seminal vesicle metastasis after partial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li; Zheng, Minwen; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Wendong; Bu, Wangjun; Shi, Lifang; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the seminal vesicle is extremely rare for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To our knowledge, it has been not reported in literature. The purpose of the present paper was to report a case of metastasis to the seminal vesicle after HCC resection, along with its histological features and immunohistochemical characteristics. A 46-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal distension. He had a history of HCC related to hepatitis B virus infection. Moreover, left partial hepatectomy was performed in another hospital 28 months ago, and right partial hepatectomy for HCC recurrence in our hospital 4 months ago. After resection, radiofrequency ablation therapy had been performed. About 27 months after the initial operation, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvic cavity revealed a mass with homogeneous enhancement in the seminal vesicle. Transrectal needle biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Therefore, seminal vesiculectomy was resected. The histological diagnosis of the removed tumor was compatible with the original HCC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that the tumor cells were positive for glypican-3 (GPC3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocyte paraffin-1 (Hep Par 1), cytokeratin 18 (CK 18), and hepatocyte antigen, which confirmed that the seminal vesicle tumor was a metastatic tumor of HCC. However, CT subsequently revealed multiple metastatic foci in the abdominal and pelvic cavities in May 2009 and August 2009, respectively. The seminal vesicle is an extremely rare metastatic site for HCC, and the prognosis is very poor. A combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis, and primary tumor should be excluded before diagnosing metastatic foci

  7. Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma: the role of surgery as a prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon-Soo; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lim, Sa-Hoe; Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, In-Young; Jung, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is expected to increase as a result of prolonged survival due to the recent advances in HCC treatment. However, there is no definite treatment strategy for brain metastasis from HCC mainly due to its rarity and dismal prognosis. To provide helpful recommendations in treatment of brain metastasis from HCC, the authors aimed to identify prognostic factors that influence survival rates with a review of the recently published data. Thirty-three cases of brain metastasis, whose incidence was 0.65%, were selected from a total of 5015 HCC patients and reviewed retrospectively in terms of clinical and radiological features. Median overall survival time after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 10.4 weeks (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1-15.7 weeks) with 1-, 6- and 12-month survival rates, of 79%, 24% and 6%, respectively. Median survival of the patients treated with surgical resection or surgical resection followed by whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) (25.3 weeks; range, 15.8-34.8 weeks) was longer than that of the patients treated with gamma knife surgery (GKS), WBRT, or GKS followed by WBRT (10.4 weeks; range, 7.5-13.3 weeks) as well as that of patients treated with only steroids (1 week; range, 0.0-3.3 weeks) (p < 0.001). Child-Pugh’s classification A group had a longer median survival time than Child-Pugh’s classification B or C group (14.4 weeks vs 8.4 weeks, p = 0.038). RPA class I & II group had also a longer median survival time than RPA class III group did (13.4 weeks vs 2.4 weeks, p = 0.001). Surgical resection (hazard ratio [HR] 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.66, p = 0.006) and good liver function at the time of brain metastasis (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09-0.69, p = 0.007) were found to be the powerful prognostic factors for favorable survival in the multivariate analysis. In addition, presence of intratumoral hemorrhage was a statistically significant prognostic factor for survival. Although HCC

  8. Prognostic factors for lymph node metastasis from advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the trunk and extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Andre

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin of the trunk and extremities may present lymph node metastasis with difficult disease control and poor survival. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for lymph node metastasis and outcome. Patients/Methods Retrospective review of 57 patients with locally advanced SCC of the trunk and extremities was performed and several clinical variables including age, gender, ethnicity, previously injured skin (burns, scars, ulcers and others, patient origin (rural or urban, anatomic site and treatment were studied. Results Fifteen patients presented with previous skin lesions. Thirty-six were classified as T3 tumors and 21 as T4; 46 were N0, and 11, N1. Eleven N0 patients presented lymph node metastasis during follow up. Univariate analysis identified previous skin lesions (ulcers and scars as risk factor for lymph node metastasis (p = 0.047. Better survival was demonstrated for T3 (p = 0.018 classification. N0 patients who presented lymph node metastasis during follow up (submitted to lymphadenectomy had similar survival to patients without lymph node recurrence (p = 0.219. Conclusion Local advanced tumors are at risk of lymph node metastasis. Increased risk is associated to previous lesions at tumor site. T4 classification have worse prognosis. Lymph node recurrences in N0 patients, once treated, did not affect survival. For these patients, we propose close follow up and prompt treatment of lymph node metastasis. These results do not support indication for elective lymphadenectomy or sentinel node mapping. Further prospective studies must address this issue.

  9. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  10. A vulvar mass as the first presentation in colorectal carcinoma: An unusual site of metastasis masquerading a primary cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yin Tang

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Secondary tumor in female genital tract is unusual and vulvar metastasis is the rarest kind. The clinical manifestation may be perplexing especially if a patient is presented with a nonspecific gynecological symptom such as abnormal vaginal discharge without any past history.

  11. Apparent molar volumes and compressibilities of selected electrolytes in dimethylsulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warminska, Dorota; Grzybkowski, Waclaw

    2010-01-01

    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15) K and sound velocities at T = 298.15 K of tetraphenylphosphonium bromide, sodium tetraphenylborate, sodium bromide, and sodium perchlorate in dimethylsulfoxide have been measured over the composition range from (0 to 0.3) mol . kg -1 . From these data, apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities at infinite dilution as well as the expansibilities have been evaluated. The results have been discussed in terms of employing tetraphenylphosphonium tetraphenylborate as a reference electrolyte in splitting the limiting apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities into ionic contributions.

  12. CT findings of solitary intracranial metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1987-01-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed and analyzed CT scans of fifty patients with solitary intracranial lesion selected from 118 patients who had been confirmed to have intracranial metastasis from 1979 to 1985. The results were as follows: 1. The most common primary tumors with solitary metastasis, in order of frequency, were lung cancer, breast cancer, choriocarcinoma, colon cancer, lymphoma and others. 2. Precontrast scans obtained in 35 cases showed cystic very low density in 20%, slightly low density in 9%, isodensity in 20%, high density in 51% when he densities of the lesions were compared with that of the normal brain tissue. 3. After contrast enhancement 43 out of 50 showed one of 4 patterns of enhancement. Homogeneous enhancement without necrosis were found in 26%, homogeneous enhancement with necrosis in 18%, ring-enhancement in 26% and irregular enhancement in 16%. No enhancement was found in 14%. 4. The locations of the metastatic lesions were intra axial in 45 and extra axial in 5. Among the intra axial lesions, the parietal lobe was the most common location. Extra axial metastases were epidural, calvarial and leptomeningeal. 5. Degrees of surrounding edema were mild in 32%, moderate in 19% and severe in 49%

  13. Solitary Spinal Epidural Metastasis from Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisei Sako

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary epidural space metastasis of a malignant tumor is rare. We encountered a 79-year-old male patient with solitary metastatic epidural tumor who developed paraplegia and dysuria. The patient had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer followed by chemotherapy 8 months priorly. The whole body was examined for suspected metastatic spinal tumor, but no metastases of the spine or important organs were observed, and a solitary mass was present in the thoracic spinal epidural space. The mass was excised for diagnosis and treatment and was histopathologically diagnosed as metastasis from gastric cancer. No solitary metastatic epidural tumor from gastric cancer has been reported in English. Among the Japanese, 3 cases have been reported, in which the outcome was poor in all cases and no definite diagnosis could be made before surgery in any case. Our patient developed concomitant pneumonia after surgery and died shortly after the surgery. When a patient has a past medical history of malignant tumor, the possibility of a solitary metastatic tumor in the epidural space should be considered.

  14. Metastasis: objections to the same-gene model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Weinberg, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sir— The model of cancer metastasis suggested by René Bernards and Robert A. Weinberg in their Concepts essay (Nature 418, 823; 2002) is, in my view, a tautology. The suggestion that the same genes are exclusively responsible both for cancer-cell metastasis and for the emergence

  15. Oral melanoma with pulmonary metastasis in a Nigerian local dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanomas are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm of the canine oral cavity accounting for about 7% of all malignant tumours in the dog. Less frequently, metastasis via regional lymph nodes and to the lungs and other organs may occur. A case report of oral melanoma with pulmonary metastasis in a Nigerian local ...

  16. Vaginal metastasis of pancreatic cancer | Benhayoune | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal metastasis from pancreatic cancer is an extreme case and often indicates a poor prognosis. We present a case of pancreatic carcinoma with metastasis to the vagina that was discovered by vaginal bleeding. To our knowledge, this is the third case in the world of a primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma discovered of ...

  17. Humeral Metastasis in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma with metastasis to distal acral skeleton – humerus within two months of diagnosis of the primary is being reported. The metastasis to the bones from carcinoma cervix is uncommon especially in the distal appendicular skeleton. A 47 years female came with spontaneous fracture of ...

  18. Orbital Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the commonest malignancies in Nigeria, however metastasis to the orbit is a rare presentation. Objective: To present a rare case of orbital metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Case Report: A 25-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of pain, progressive swelling ...

  19. Evaluate the Mechanism of Enhanced Metastasis Induced by Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Genes that mediate breast ca ncer metastasis to lung . Nature 2005, 436(7050):518-524. 6. Das Roy L, Pathangey L, Tinder T, Schettini J, Gruber H...7. Das Roy L, Ghosh S, Pathangey LB, Tinder TL, Gruber HE, Mukherjee P: Collagen induced arthritis increases s econdary metastasis in MMTV-PyV

  20. Inhibitory effect of magnolol on tumour metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koji; Sakai, Yoshimichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2003-09-01

    It has previously been reported that magnolol, a phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata, inhibited tumour cell invasion in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimetastatic effect of magnolol on tumour metastasis in vivo with experimental and spontaneous metastasis models and to clarify the mechanism. The antimetastatic effects of magnolol were evaluated by an experimental liver and spleen metastasis model using L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma, or an experimental and spontaneous lung metastasis model using B16-BL6 melanoma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 2 or 10 mg/kg of magnolol significantly suppressed liver and spleen metastasis or lung metastasis. As for the spontaneous lung metastasis model using B16-BL6 melanoma, multiple i.p. administrations of 10 mg/kg of magnolol after and before tumour inoculation significantly suppressed lung metastasis and primary tumour growth. In addition, magnolol significantly inhibited B16-BL6 cell invasion of the reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel, MG) without affecting cell growth. These data from the in vivo experiments suggest that magnolol possesses strong antimetastatic ability and that it may be a lead compound for drug development. The antimetastatic action of magnolol is considered to be due to its ability to inhibit tumour cell invasion. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Iris metastasis in small-cell lung carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenhorst, Anke W. J.; van den Bergh, Alphons C. M.; van Putten, John W. G.; Smit, Egbert F.

    2007-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. Despite its sensitivity to cytotoxic treatment, until now treatments have failed to control or cure this disease in most patients. Here, we describe a patient with SCLC in which symptoms caused by iris metastasis

  2. Radiotherapy for Adrenal Metastasis from Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study (KROG 13-05.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Jung

    Full Text Available Although the adrenal glands are not common sites of metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, this metastasis can be met in patients with advanced HCC in some clinical settings. However, the effectiveness of radiotherapy against such metastases is unclear. Therefore, we performed the present multi-institutional study to investigate tumor response, overall survival (OS, treatment-related toxicity, and prognostic factors after radiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed 134 patients who completed a planned radiotherapy for their adrenal metastases. Complete response was noted in 6 (4.3%, partial response in 48 (34.0%, and stable disease in 78 patients (55.3%. The median OS was 12.8 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 53.1%, 23.9%, and 9.3%, respectively. Grade 3 anorexia occurred in 2 patients, grade 3 diarrhea in 1, and grade 3 fatigue in 1. Multivariate analyses revealed that the following factors had significant effects on OS: controlled intrahepatic tumor; controlled extrahepatic metastasis; and Child-Pugh class A. Although patients with adrenal metastasis from HCC had poor OS, radiotherapy provided an objective response rate of 38.3% and disease stability of 93.6%, with minimal adverse events. Therefore, radiotherapy for these patients could represent a good treatment modality, especially for patients with controlled intrahepatic tumors, controlled extrahepatic metastasis, and good hepatic function.

  3. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  4. Post site metastasis of breast cancer after video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mee Hyun; Hwang, Ji Young; Hyun, Su Jeong; Lee, Yul; Woo, Ji Young; Yang, Ik; Hong, Hye Sook; Kim, Han Myun [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We reported a case of port site metastasis in a 57-year-old patient who underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) resection of pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer. Port site metastasis after VATS is very rare in patients with breast cancer. However, when suspicious lesions are detected near the port site in patients who have undergone VATS for pulmonary metastasis, port site metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Oligo- and Polymetastatic Progression in Lung Metastasis(es) Patients Is Associated with Specific MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A.; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A.; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E.; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B.; Posner, Mitchell C.; Chmura, Steven J.; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. Methods We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Results Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Conclusion Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level. PMID:23251360

  6. Tokuhashi Scoring System has limited applicability in the majority of patients with spinal cord compression secondary to vertebral metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spine is the primary bone site affected by systemic metastasis. Although there are scales that attempt to manage these patients, their real applicability is unknown. The Tokuhashi Scoring System (TSS is a widely used prognostic tool. At the time of treatment, the data necessary to complete TSS may be incomplete, making its application impossible. Objective To evaluate the number of TSS scores completed by the time the clinical therapeutic decision was made. Methods From July 2010 to January 2012, we selected patients who were diagnosed with spinal metastases. Results Sixty spinal metastasis patients (21 female, 39 male were evaluated between July 2010 and January 2012. At the time of the treatment decision, only 25% of the patients had completed the TSS items. Conclusion In the majority of patients with vertebral metastasis, TSS variables cannot be applied.

  7. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Lussier

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. METHODS: We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. RESULTS: Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP and low rate of progression (LRP; the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. CONCLUSION: Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  8. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es) patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Regan, Kelly; Corbin, Kimberly; Li, Haiquan; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A; Gnerlich, Jennifer L; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  9. An unusual metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: Biceps brachii muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Sariaydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metastasis of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is a rare occurrence, and the most effective treatment modality is currently unknown. In this case presentation, we report a patient with NSCLC who underwent palliative radiotherapy for biceps muscle metastasis of NSLCS. Our case was a 49-year-old woman who had lung adenocarcinoma with biceps muscle metastasis. She had been followed up for 2 years due to Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma from whom a biopsy was taken from a painful mass in right arm that was found to be compatible with metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. She had palliative radiotherapy for her painful mass and systemic chemotherapy was planned. After palliative radiotherapy, the pain originating from the metastatic mass in right biceps muscle alleviated. Palliative radiotherapy can be a valuable treatment option for cases with skeletal muscle metastasis.

  10. Gastric Metastasis of Triple Negative Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geredeli, Caglayan; Dogru, Osman; Omeroglu, Ethem; Yilmaz, Farise; Cicekci, Faruk

    2015-05-05

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis of an invasive lobular carcinoma. In this report, we present a case of gastric metastasis from triple-negative invasive lobular breast cancer. It is important to make an accurate diagnosis by distinguishing gastric metastasis from breast cancer in order to select the best initial treatment for systemic diseases of breast cancer. Considering our case, healthcare professionals should take into account that cases with invasive lobular breast cancer may experience unusual metastases.

  11. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  12. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A.; Saunders, Dawn E.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  13. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilagyi, Bela; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Afshari, Nousha; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The spin S of a Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area A of its apparent horizon: 8 πS A and e0 > 1 , but these surfaces are always surrounded by apparent horizons with 8 πS < A and e0 < 1 .

  14. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia amongst apparently healthy staff of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the serum lipid profile of apparently healthy staff of University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City. Consenting staff of UBTH who were apparently healthy were recruited for the study. Data extracted included the patient's age, sex, body mass index, weight, height, waist ...

  15. RYBP Inhibits Progression and Metastasis of Lung Cancer by Suppressing EGFR Signaling and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

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    Xiaoxiao Dinglin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC is a common lethal malignancy with rapid progression and metastasis, and Ring1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP has been shown to suppress cell growth in human cancers. This study aimed to investigate the role of RYBP in LC progression and metastasis. In this study, a total of 149 LC patients were recruited, and the clinical stage of their tumors, metastasis status, survival time, presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation, and RYBP expression levels were measured. RYBP silencing and overexpression were experimentally performed in LC cell lines and in nude mice, and the expressions of genes in EGFR-related signaling pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT were detected. The results showed that RYBP was downregulated in LC compared with adjacent normal tissues, and low RYBP expression was associated with a more severe clinical stage, high mortality, high metastasis risk, and poor survival. Cell proliferation and xenograft growth were inhibited by RYBP overexpression, whereas proliferation and xenograft growth were accelerated by RYBP silencing. EGFR and phosphorylated-EGFR levels were upregulated when RYBP was silenced, whereas EGFR, p-EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK were downregulated when RYBP was overexpressed. Low RYBP expression was related to a high metastasis risk, and metastasized tumors showed low RYBP levels. Cell migration and invasion were promoted by silencing RYBP but were inhibited by overexpressed RYBP. In addition, the EMT marker vimentin showed diminished expression, and E-cadherin was promoted by the overexpression of RYBP. In conclusion, our data suggest that RYBP suppresses cell proliferation and LC progression by impeding the EGFR-ERK and EGFR-AKT signaling pathways and thereby inhibiting cell migration and invasion and LC metastasis through the suppression of EMT.

  16. Atypical mandibular metastasis as the first presentation of a colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, João Cunha; Rosa, Duarte; Rito, Miguel; Borges, Alexandra

    2018-06-04

    We describe a case of a 70-year-old man presenting with a mandibular metastasis as the first sign of a mucinous adenocarcinoma of the rectum. After 6 months of a protracted toothache, the patient presented with a palpable mandibular mass and trismus, precluding adequate clinical evaluation. A CT scan was performed, and imaging findings suggested an aggressive primary jawbone tumour, most likely an osteosarcoma. However, biopsy and further patient's management proved to be a metastasis. Metastasis to the oral cavity account for only 1%-3% of all malignant oral tumours, and the mandible is the most frequent site. Clinical presentation can be quite variable, and most often a primary malignancy is already known. Jawbone metastases are a sign of disseminated malignant neoplasms, with poor prognosis and usually an indication for palliative therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lingjing; Liang Changhua; Li Xinhui; Deng Haoyu; Hu Shuo; Duan Huaxin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer to instruct the follow-up of breast cancer patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen breast cancer patients proved by histological examination after surgery were involved. To detect nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progestogen receptor (PR) expression of their excised breast cancer tissue, immunohistochemical procedures were used. The relationship between biological marker factors and the bone metastasis in breast cancer was analyzed. All patients were examined by radioisotope whole body bone imaging during the follow-up. Results: The results were that the clinical staging, the status of axillary lymph nodes, the expression of nm23 protein, C-erbB-2 protein, ER were related to the bone metastasis in breast cancer, while the age, the mode of operation and the expression of PR were not. Conclusion: Colligating analysis of clinical, pathological status and biological marker factors is very important for the prediction of the prognosis and the direction of the follow-up in breast cancer patients after surgery

  18. Solitary thyroid metastasis from colon cancer: fine-needle aspiration cytology and molecular biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorati, M; Uboldi, P; Bianchi, C L; Nicola, M; Corradini, G M; Veronese, S; Fascì, A I; Di Nuovo, F

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid gland is one of the most vascularized organs of the body, nevertheless clinical and surgical series report an incidence of secondary malignancies in this gland of only 3%. Colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland is not as uncommon as previously believed, infact the number of cases seems to be increased in recent years due to the more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) guided by ultrasonography. Although kidney, breast and lung metastases to the thyroid are frequent, metastasis from colon cancer is clinically rare with 52 cases reported in the literature in the last 5 decades and three cases described as solitary thyroid metastasis from the colon cancer without any other visceral metastases. To the best of our knowledge, we report the fourth case of solitary, asymptomatic thyroid metastasis from colon cancer without involvement of other organs. We discuss the importance of FNAC to detect metastatazing process as a compulsory step of the diagnostic and therapeutic management algorithm, combined with a molecular biology approach. A review of the last 5 decades literature, to update the number of cases described to date, is also included.

  19. Bone metastasis target redox-responsive micell for the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis and anti-bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei-Liang; Zhao, Yi-Pu; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Dao-Zhou; Cui, Han; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Bang-Le; Mei, Qi-Bing; Zhou, Si-Yuan

    2018-01-16

    In order to inhibit the growth of lung cancer bone metastasis and reduce the bone resorption at bone metastasis sites, a bone metastasis target micelle DOX@DBMs-ALN was prepared. The size and the zeta potential of DOX@DBNs-ALN were about 60 nm and -15 mV, respectively. DOX@DBMs-ALN exhibited high binding affinity with hydroxyapatite and released DOX in redox-responsive manner. DOX@DBMs-ALN was effectively up taken by A549 cells and delivered DOX to the nucleus of A549 cells, which resulted in strong cytotoxicity on A549 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicated that DOX@DBMs-ALN specifically delivered DOX to bone metastasis site and obviously prolonged the retention time of DOX in bone metastasis site. Moreover, DOX@DBMs-ALN not only significantly inhibited the growth of bone metastasis tumour but also obviously reduced the bone resorption at bone metastasis sites without causing marked systemic toxicity. Thus, DOX@DBMs-ALN has great potential in the treatment of lung cancer bone metastasis.

  20. Infantile Apparent Life-Threatening Events, an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physicians have received a frantic call from anxious parents stating that their child had stopped breathing, become limp, or turned blue but then had recovered quickly. An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE is defined as “an episode that is frightening to the observer, and is characterized by some combination of apnea, color change, marked change in muscle tone, choking, gagging, or coughing”. The incidence of ALTE is reported to be 0.05% to 6%. The knowledge about the most common causes and factors associated with higher risk of ALTE could be resulted in a more purposeful approach, improving the decision making process, and benefiting both children and parents. The aim of this review article was to report the epidemiology, etiology, evaluation, management, and disposition of ALTE. Infants with an ALTE might present no signs of acute illness and are commonly managed in the emergency settings that often require significant medical attention; hence, the emergency medicine personnel should be aware of the its clinical importance. There is no specific treatment for ALTE; therefore, the clinical evaluations should be focused on the detection of the underlying causes, which will define the outcomes and prognosis. ALTE is a confusing entity, representing a constellation of descriptive symptoms and signs; in other words, it is not a diagnosis. There are multiple possible etiologies and difficulties in evaluating and managing infants with these events, which are challenges to primary care physicians, emergency medicine specialists, and subspecialty pediatricians. The evaluation of these events in infants includes a detailed history, appropriate physical examination, diagnostic tests guided by obtained clues from the history and physical examination, and observation in the emergency department.

  1. [A Case of an Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Metastasis in the Medulla Oblongata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Ayaka; Takano, Yoshinao; Honda, Michitaka; Todate, Yukitoshi; Tada, Takeshi; Waragai, Mitsuru; Fukushima, Daizo; Suzuki, Nobuyasu; Sato, Atai; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Teranishi, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hideo

    2016-11-01

    A desmoplastic small round cell tumor(DSRCT)is a very rare malignant tumor that mainly occurs in the intra-abdominal cavity in young adults.This neoplasm has an extremely poor prognosis, with a clinical course characterized by rapid progression and metastasis.We present a 31-year-old man who presented with chief complaints of dysphagia, ataxic gait, and hoarseness.He first underwent surgical resection of a tumor in the medulla oblongata; however, the lesion was suspected to be a metastatic neoplasm.Following a thorough medical examination, the patient was diagnosed with retroperitoneal DSRCT with multiple metastatic lesions.He received multidisciplinary treatment including debulking surgery for the primary lesion; radiotherapy for metastatic lesions in the brain, abdomen, and cervical lymph nodes; hepatic artery embolization for liver metastasis; and systemic chemotherapy.The patient died of progressive disease 17 months after the initial diagnosis.

  2. Exceptional bone metastasis of basal cell carcinoma in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Tatiana; Gerard, Stephane; Meyer, Nicolas; Losfeld, Benjamin; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Balardy, Laurent; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide, is a malignant skin neoplasm. It is locally invasive, with an exceptional incidence of reported metastasis. It can also be part of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity, which is principally characterized by cutaneous BCC, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. We report the exceptional clinical observation of a 54-year-old man presenting bone metastasis from BCC in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Less than 300 cases of metastatic BCC have been reported in the literature. The present case is the second associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Solitary pancreatic metastasis from breast cancer: case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Apodaca-Rueda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Pancreatic metastases from primary malignant tumors at other sites are rare, constituting about 2% of the neoplasms that affect the pancreas. Pancreatic metastasis from breast cancer is extremely rare and difficult to diagnose, because its clinical and radiological presentation is similar to that of a primary pancreatic tumor. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old female developed a lesion in the pancreatic tail 24 months after neoadjuvant therapy, surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy for right-side breast cancer (ductal carcinoma. She underwent distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy, and presented an uneventful outcome. The immunohistochemical analysis on the surgical specimen suggested that the lesion originated from the breast. CONCLUSION: In cases of pancreatic lesions detected in patients with a previous history of breast neoplasm, the possibility of pancreatic metastasis should be carefully considered.

  4. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate cancer metastasis-driving genes: hurdles and potential approaches in their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting Chiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Metastasis is thought to result from changes in the expression of specific metastasis-driving genes in nonmetastatic prostate cancer tissue, leading to a cascade of activated downstream genes that set the metastatic process in motion. Such genes could potentially serve as effective therapeutic targets for improved management of the disease. They could be identified by comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of patient-derived metastatic and nonmetastatic prostate cancer tissues to pinpoint genes showing altered expression, followed by determining whether silencing of such genes can lead to inhibition of metastatic properties. Various hurdles encountered in this approach are discussed, including (i the need for clinically relevant, nonmetastatic and metastatic prostate cancer tissues such as xenografts of patients' prostate cancers developed via subrenal capsule grafting technology and (ii limitations in the currently available methodology for identification of master regulatory genes.

  6. Esophageal Cancer with Bone Marrow Hyperplasia Mimicking Bone Metastasis: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yasuda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old man visited the clinic with numbness in the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple low-intensity lesions in the cervical vertebrae and sacrum, which was suspicious of cervical bone metastasis. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed areas of increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the thoracic esophagus, sternum and sacrum. A flat, elevated esophageal cancer was identified by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the macroscopic appearance indicated early-stage disease. From the cervical, thoracic and abdominal computed tomography images, there were no metastatic lesions except for the bone lesions. To confirm whether the bone lesions were metastatic, we performed bone biopsy. The histopathological diagnosis was bone marrow hyperplasia. It was crucial for treatment planning to establish whether the lesions were distant metastases. Here, we report a case of esophageal cancer with bone marrow hyperplasia mimicking bone metastasis.

  7. Development of a Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX of Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis in a Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mercatali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a complex process that needs to be better understood in order to help clinicians prevent and treat it. Xenografts using patient-derived material (PDX rather than cancer cell lines are a novel approach that guarantees more clinically realistic results. A primary culture of bone metastasis derived from a 67-year-old patient with breast cancer was cultured and then injected into zebrafish (ZF embryos to study its metastatic potential. In vivo behavior and results of gene expression analyses of the primary culture were compared with those of cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231. The MCF7 cell line, which has the same hormonal receptor status as the bone metastasis primary culture, did not survive in the in vivo model. Conversely, MDA-MB-231 disseminated and colonized different parts of the ZF, including caudal hematopoietic tissues (CHT, revealing a migratory phenotype. Primary culture cells disseminated and in later stages extravasated from the vessels, engrafting into ZF tissues and reaching the CHT. Primary cell behavior reflected the clinical course of the patient’s medical history. Our results underline the potential for using PDX models in bone metastasis research and outline new methods for the clinical application of this in vivo model.

  8. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  9. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  10. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  11. A link between inflammation and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. T.; Forst, B.; Cremers, N.

    2015-01-01

    S100A4 is implicated in metastasis and chronic inflammation, but its function remains uncertain. Here we establish an S100A4-dependent link between inflammation and metastatic tumor progression. We found that the acute-phase response proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and SAA3 are transcriptional...... targets of S100A4 via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB signaling. SAA proteins stimulated the transcription of RANTES (regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted), G-CSF (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor) and MMP2 (matrix metalloproteinase 2), MMP3, MMP9...... and MMP13. We have also shown for the first time that SAA stimulate their own transcription as well as that of proinflammatory S100A8 and S100A9 proteins. Moreover, they strongly enhanced tumor cell adhesion to fibronectin, and stimulated migration and invasion of human and mouse tumor cells...

  12. Pinworm infection masquerading as colorectal liver metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K J; Hubscher, S; Mangat, K; Sutcliffe, R; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is responsible for a variety of diseases but rarely affects the liver. Accurate characterisation of suspected liver metastases is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. In the presented case, following a diagnosis of rectal cancer, a solitary liver nodule was diagnosed as a liver metastasis due to typical radiological features and subsequently resected. At pathological assessment, however, a necrotic nodule containing E. vermicularis was identified. Solitary necrotic nodules of the liver are usually benign but misdiagnosed frequently as malignant due to radiological features. It is standard practice to diagnose colorectal liver metastases solely on radiological evidence. Without obtaining tissue prior to liver resection, misdiagnosis of solitary necrotic nodules of the liver will continue to occur.

  13. Oncoprotein metastasis and its suppression revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulescu Razvan T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past two decades have witnessed an increasing appreciation of the role of the tumor microenvironment, of genetic and epigenetic alterations in normal cells adjacent to tumors and of the migration of normal cells with aberrant intrinsic properties in cancer pathophysiology. Aside from these insights, a novel concept termed "oncoprotein metastasis" (OPM has recently been advanced and proposed to reflect protein-based neoplastic phenomena that might occur even before any modifications relating to the morphology, location or (epigenetic outfit of cells during the malignant process. Here, evidence is presented that supports the OPM perception and thus should contribute not only to further rethink the definition of a normal cell, but also the treatment of cancer disease in the years to come.

  14. A nomogram for predicting survival in patients with breast cancer brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhou; Sun, Bing; Wu, Shikai; Meng, Xiangying; Cong, Yang; Shen, Ge; Song, Santai

    2018-05-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) is common in patients with breast cancer. Predicting patient survival is critical for the clinical management of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM). The present study was designed to develop and evaluate a prognostic model for patients with newly diagnosed BCBM. Based on the clinical data of patients with BCBM treated in the Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences (Beijing, China) between 2002 and 2014, a nomogram was developed to predict survival using proportional hazards regression analysis. The model was validated internally by bootstrapping, and the concordance index (c-index) was calculated. A calibration curve and c-index were used to evaluate discriminatory and predictive ability, in order to compare the nomogram with widely used models, including recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), graded prognostic assessment (GPA) and breast-graded prognostic assessment (Breast-GPA). A total of 411 patients with BCBM were included in the development of this predictive model. The median overall survival time was 14.1 months. Statistically significant predictors for patient survival included biological subtype, Karnofsky performance score, leptomeningeal metastasis, extracranial metastasis, the number of brain metastases and disease-free survival. A nomogram for predicting 1- and 2-year overall survival rates was constructed, which exhibited good accuracy in predicting overall survival with a concordance index of 0.735. This model outperformed RPA, GPA and Breast-GPA, based on the comparisons of the c-indexes. The nomogram constructed based on a multiple factor analysis was able to more accurately predict the individual survival probability of patients with BCBM, compared with existing models.

  15. Evaluation of solitary rib lesions in CA. breast patients for development of skeletal metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of nature of single or double rib lesion on a bone scan is important but very difficult. In case of breast carcinoma rib lesion have particular importance, as they are one of the most common sites of metastasis. On the contrary surgical trauma and radiotherapy can induce metabolic changes, which can lead to rib lesions of benign etiology. As it is known that breast carcinoma patients having skeletal metastasis have worse prognosis so it is particularly important to differentiate between malignant and benign rib lesions. In this study etiology of rib lesions detected on bone scan was analyzed retrospectively patients. Study population consisted of breast cancer patients having solitary rib lesions on baseline or follow-up bone scan were included in the study. The etiology of solitary rib involvement was established using all the clinical, radiological and biochemical data available. The clinical and serial scintigraphic data were collected and analyzed for correlation in forty-two patients. Patients were followed up for at least two subsequent bone scans. Out of total study population nine patients (21.42%) developed skeletal metastasis on follow-up. Rest of the study population is disease free till last follow-up. All these patients developed metastasis within two years of appearance of the rib lesions. Correlation between sites of initial rib lesion, uptake pattern, size of tumor, mode of primary therapy, age of involvement, interval from initial therapy, biochemical and radiological findings was done. Correlation was seen between sites of uptake, uptake pattern, mode of primary therapy and biochemical findings with subsequent outcome of the patient. It is concluded from our study that solitary rib lesion have low incidence of malignancy if other risk factors are absent. (authors)

  16. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Martin, Sarah E. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen [Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Lin, Julian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Tsung, Andrew J. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Illinois Neurological Institute, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Velpula, Kiran K., E-mail: velpula@uic.edu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  17. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R.; Martin, Sarah E.; Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen; Lin, Julian; Tsung, Andrew J.; Velpula, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  18. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Menon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO in "apparently asymptomatic" patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher′s exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT and significant tracheal narrowing (CT was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT did not correlate with UAO (PFT. Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG.

  19. Prevalence of upper airway obstruction in patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid multi nodular goitre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sunil K.; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar R.; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini S.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To study the prevalence of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in “apparently asymptomatic” patients with euthyroid multinodular goitre (MNG) and find correlation between clinical features, UAO on pulmonary function test (PFT) and tracheal narrowing on computerised tomography (CT). Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with apparently asymptomatic euthyroid MNG attending thyroid clinic in a tertiary centre underwent clinical examination to elicit features of UAO, PFT, and CT of neck and chest. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 11.5 using paired t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Fifty-six patients (52 females and four males) were studied. The prevalence of UAO (PFT) and significant tracheal narrowing (CT) was 14.3%. and 9.3%, respectively. Clinical features failed to predict UAO or significant tracheal narrowing. Tracheal narrowing (CT) did not correlate with UAO (PFT). Volume of goitre significantly correlated with degree of tracheal narrowing. Conclusions: Clinical features do not predict UAO on PFT or tracheal narrowing on CT in apparently asymptomatic patients with euthyroid MNG. PMID:21966649

  20. Brain Tuberculomas Mimicking Intracranial Metastasis in a Patient Presenting with Fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondal, M.; Hussain, T.; Mushtaq, S.

    2013-01-01

    Brain tuberculosis is still prevalent in many developing countries, especially Asian countries. Tuberculomas should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of enhancing intra-axial lesions of the brain. Brain tuberculomas can present in many different clinical and radiological patterns clinically like headache, fits, cranial nerve palsies and very rarely as brain tuberculomas. We describe the case of a 48 years old male patient presenting with persistent headache and fits, referred for workup of brain metastasis or primary brain neoplasm. On further imaging, it turned out to be multiple tuberculomas of brain which resolved on anti-tuberculous treatment along with symptoms relief. (author)

  1. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  2. Dissecting Tumor-Stromal Interactions in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastasis is a frequent occurrence in breast cancer, affecting more than 70% of late stage cancer patients with severe complications such as fracture, bone pain, and hypercalcemia. The pathogenesis of osteolytic bone metastasis depends on cross-communications between tumor cells and various stromal cells residing in the bone microenvironment. Several growth factor signaling pathways, secreted micro RNAs (miRNAs and exosomes are functional mediators of tumor-stromal interactions in bone metastasis. We developed a functional genomic approach to systemically identified molecular pathways utilized by breast cancer cells to engage the bone stroma in order to generate osteolytic bone metastasis. We showed that elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1 in disseminated breast tumor cells mediates the recruitment of pre-osteoclasts and promotes their differentiation to mature osteoclasts during the bone metastasis formation. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β is released from bone matrix upon bone destruction, and signals to breast cancer to further enhance their malignancy in developing bone metastasis. We furthered identified Jagged1 as a TGF-β target genes in tumor cells that engaged bone stromal cells through the activation of Notch signaling to provide a positive feedback to promote tumor growth and to activate osteoclast differentiation. Substantially change in miRNA expression was observed in osteoclasts during their differentiation and maturation, which can be exploited as circulating biomarkers of emerging bone metastasis and therapeutic targets for the treatment of bone metastasis. Further research in this direction may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment strategies for bone metastasis.

  3. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P [The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nieva, J [Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Newton, P [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  4. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P; Nieva, J; Newton, P; Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  5. Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus of Liver Metastasis from Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Ogawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of liver metastasis of lung carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT. Although the primary lesion of lung tumor remained unchanged, the patient rapidly developed wide-spread metastases and formed PVTT of liver metastasis. The primary lesion showed features of mixed Clara and bronchial surface epithelial cell component type adenocarcinoma with small foci of micropapillary pattern. Micropapillary pattern was observed in the metastatic lesions in the liver and PVTT. Micropapillary pattern lung adenocarcinoma may develop rapid metastases and cause PVTT associated with liver metastasis. We should perform a detailed examination to establish correct diagnosis.

  6. Gastric metastasis of triple negative invasive lobular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Caglayan Geredeli; Osman Dogru; Ethem Omeroglu; Farise Yilmaz; Faruk Cicekci

    2015-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinomas are the second most common type (5% to 15%) of invasive breast carcinomas. The most frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis are the local and distant lymph nodes, brain, lung, liver, and bones; metastasis to the gastrointestinal system, especially to the stomach, is rare. When a mass is detected in an unusual place in a patient with invasive lobular carcinoma, it should be kept in mind that such a mass may be either a second primary carcinoma or the metastasis o...

  7. Predicting the nodal status in gastric cancers: The role of apparent diffusion coefficient histogram characteristic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Zhang, Yujuan; Xia, Jie; Chen, Ling; Guan, Wenxian; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-10-01

    To explore the application of histogram analysis in preoperative T and N staging of gastric cancers, with a focus on characteristic parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Eighty-seven patients with gastric cancers underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (b=0, 1000s/mm 2 ), which generated ADC maps. Whole-volume histogram analysis was performed on ADC maps and 7 characteristic parameters were obtained. All those patients underwent surgery and postoperative pathologic T and N stages were determined. Four parameters, including skew, kurtosis, s-sD av and sample number, showed significant differences among gastric cancers at different T and N stages. Most parameters correlated with T and N stages significantly and worked in differentiating gastric cancers at different T or N stages. Especially skew yielded a sensitivity of 0.758, a specificity of 0.810, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.802 for differentiating gastric cancers with and without lymph node metastasis (Phistogram analysis could help assessing preoperative T and N stages of gastric cancers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Study on {sup 41}Ca-AMS for diagnosis and assessment of cancer bone metastasis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Hongtao; Pang, Fangfang [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan; He, Ming; Dong, Kejun; Dou, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pang, Yijun [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Yang, Xianlin [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Ruan, Xiangdong [College of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Manjun; Xia, Chunbo [Guiin Medical University, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The annual incidence of new cancer patients in China is about 2 million, 30–40% of which will end up with bone metastasis. Profound study on the preclinical model and early diagnosis of cancer bone metastasis in rats are very significant for the drug development, better understanding and treatment of bone metastases. In order to monitor the process of bone metabolism and early detection of bone metastasis of cancer cells, a technique of {sup 41}Ca isotope tracer combined with AMS has been developed and applied in the study on the bone metastasis of cancer cells by rat model. In this work, 3-month-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into different groups, and tumor cells injected respectively into the tail vein, femoral artery, femoral cavity and the thigh muscle to establish the rat models for bone metastases. The most appropriate model, i.e., the thigh muscle group, was finally adopted in our real metastases experiment. Each rat in this group was intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 250 μl CaCl{sub 2} solution (containing 1.4 mg Ca and 5nCi {sup 41}Ca). About 40 days later, the rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker 256) were injected into these rats following the established protocol. After bone metastasis, medicine interventions were performed. The sequential urine and blood samples were collected and analyzed for {sup 41}Ca (by AMS) and N-terminal telopeptide (Ntx), respectively. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values in the femur and the tibia were measured by CT scan. The results of {sup 41}Ca/Ca in longitudinal urinary samples can sensitively reveal the skeletal perturbations caused by bone metastasis of rats, suggests that {sup 41}Ca might be similarly developed for human use and improve clinical management through the assessment of the curative effect and non-invasive detection of the earliest stages of cancer growth in bone.

  9. Deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression and lymph node metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiqiang; Crowe, David L; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Anxun; Muzio, Lorenzo Lo; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sheng, Shihu; Rubini, Corrado; Ye, Hui; Shi, Fei; Yu, Tianwei

    2010-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a critical event in the progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making. Previous studies showed that deregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) expression is a frequent event in TSCC and may be associated with enhanced cell invasion. The purpose of this study is to further evaluate whether the expression level of SOD2 is correlated with the metastatic status in TSCC patients. We first examined the SOD2 expression at mRNA level on 53 TSCC and 22 normal control samples based on pooled-analysis of existing microarray datasets. To confirm our observations, we examined the expression of SOD2 at protein level on an additional TSCC patient cohort (n = 100), as well as 31 premalignant dysplasias, 15 normal tongue mucosa, and 32 lymph node metastatic diseases by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The SOD2 mRNA level in primary TSCC tissue is reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the first TSCC patient cohort. The SOD2 protein level in primary TSCC tissue is also reversely correlated with lymph node metastasis in the second TSCC patient cohort. Deregulation of SOD2 expression is a common event in TSCC and appears to be associated with disease progression. Statistical analysis revealed that the reduced SOD2 expression in primary tumor tissue is associated with lymph node metastasis in both TSCC patient cohorts examined. Our study suggested that the deregulation of SOD2 in TSCC has potential predictive values for lymph node metastasis, and may serve as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of metastasis

  10. Correlation of NF-κB signal pathway with tumor metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ming; Xu, Qin; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Xiao-jian; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Chen, Wan-tao

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling constitutes a key event in the multistep process of carcinogenesis, progression and treatment in many cancer types. However, the significance of NF-κB pathway for complex and tissue-specific aspects of head and neck cancer progression, such as invasion and metastasis, is less understood. The expression of NF-κB p65 in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. The role of NF-κB activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was determined by western blot, reporter assay and EMSA analysis in vitro and metastasis assays in vivo in different metastatic potential tumor cells. Furthermore, the apoptosis rate and expression of metastasis-related protein such as MMP9 and VEGF were examined by Annexin V/PI staining and Western blot, respectively. A higher level of active nuclear-localized NF-κB was observed in the metastatic SCCHN specimens group (p < 0.01). The NF-κB activities of SCCHN cell lines with different metastatic potentials were then determined and in excellent agreement with results found in SCCHN specimens, highly metastatic SCCHN cell lines expressed high level of NF-κB activity. The treatment of highly metastatic SCCHN cells with NF-κB inhibitors reduced the in vitro cell invasion capacity of the cells without affecting the apoptotic rate. Additionally, the NF-κB inhibitors significantly inhibited the experimental lung metastasis of Tb cells and lymph node metastasis of TL cells in nude mice. Furthermore, the expression of metastasis-related proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor, was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbonate. This study suggests that NF-κB activity significantly contributes to tumor hematologic and lymphatic metastases and may aid in the development of early detection methods or therapies targeting non-conventional molecular targets

  11. Risk factors of distant metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with postoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Beppu, Michiko; Kawakami, Yousuke; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Take; Hiura, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of risk factors for recurrence in non-irradiated sites in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who received postoperative irradiation. It also discusses clinical experience with such patients, particularly those with a poor prognosis, based on a review of the literature. The study was conducted at the National Shikoku Cancer Center in 62 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (mean age=50.5, range=30-66) who received 10 MeV postoperative irradiation with a Linac between 1981 and 1990. An analysis was performed in terms of sites and times of recurrence, risk factors for distant metastasis, and groups at high risk for distant metastasis. Based on the results of the study as well as the review of the literature, it was concluded that squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is sensitive to radiation therapy and that the clinical outcome of local treatment is satisfactory. However, systemic chemotherapy should be considered for patients who are suspected of having minute distant metastasis at the time of surgical operation, i.e., those with moderate to severe vascular space invasion, multiple lymph node metastasis, parametrium infiltration, and/or endometrial infiltration. (K.H.)

  12. Fermions tunneling from apparent horizon of FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ran; Ren Jirong; Shi Dunfu

    2009-01-01

    In the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)], the scalar particles' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe was investigated by using the tunneling formalism. They obtained the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon, which was extensively applied in investigating the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations. In this Letter, we calculate fermions' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of FRW universe via tunneling formalism. Applying WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation in FRW spacetime background, the radiation spectrum and Hawking temperature of apparent horizon are correctly recovered, which supports the arguments presented in the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, (arXiv: 0809.1554)

  13. Hawking radiation of an apparent horizon in a FRW universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Hu Yapeng

    2009-01-01

    Hawking radiation is an important quantum phenomenon of a black hole, which is closely related to the existence of an event horizon of a black hole. The cosmological event horizon of de Sitter space is also of Hawking radiation with a thermal spectrum. By use of the tunneling approach, we show that there is indeed a Hawking radiation with temperature, T=1/(2πr-tilde A , for a locally defined apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with any spatial curvature, where r-tilde A is the apparent horizon radius. Thus we fill in the gap existing in the literature investigating the relation between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations; there the apparent horizon is assumed to have such a temperature without any proof. In addition, we stress the implication of the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon.

  14. Cutaneous Metastasis of Medullary Carcinoma Thyroid Masquerading as Subcutaneous Nodules Anterior Chest and Mandibular Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis of underlying primary malignancies can present to dermatologist with chief complaints of cutaneous lesions. The underlying malignancy is generally diagnosed much later after a complete assessment of the concerned case. Medullary carcinoma thyroid (MCT is a relatively uncommon primary neoplasia of the thyroid. Very few cases presenting as cutaneous metastases of MCT have been reported in the literature. Most of the cases which have been reported are of the papillary and the follicular types. We here report a case of a patient who presented in the dermatology clinic with the primary complaint of multiple subcutaneous nodules in anterior chest wall and left side of body of mandible. By systematic application of clinical and diagnostic skills these nodules were diagnosed as cutaneous metastasis of MCT bringing to the forefront a history of previously operated thyroid neoplasm. So clinically, the investigation of a flesh coloured subcutaneous nodule, presenting with a short duration, particularly in scalp, jaw, or anterior chest wall should include possibility of metastastic deposits. A dermatologist should keep a possibility of an internal organ malignancy in patients while investigating a case of flesh coloured subcutaneous nodules, presenting with short duration. A systematic application of clinical and diagnostic skills will eventually lead to such a diagnosis even when not suspected clinically at its primary presentation. A prompt and an emphatic diagnosis and treatment will have its bearing on the eventual outcome in all these patients.

  15. Lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Q.-T.; Fu, Karen K.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Terris, David J.; Fee, Willard E.; Goffinet, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and prognostic significance of lymph node metastasis in maxillary sinus carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 97 patients treated for maxillary sinus carcinoma with radiotherapy at Stanford University and at the University of California, San Francisco between 1959 and 1996. Fifty-eight patients had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 4 had adenocarcinoma (ADE), 16 had undifferentiated carcinoma (UC), and 19 had adenoid cystic carcinoma (AC). Eight patients had T2, 36 had T3, and 53 had T4 tumors according to the 1997 AJCC staging system. Eleven patients had nodal involvement at diagnosis: 9 with SCC, 1 with UC, and 1 with AC. The most common sites of nodal involvement were ipsilateral level 1 and 2 lymph nodes. Thirty-six patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy alone, and 61 received a combination of surgical and radiation treatment. Thirty-six patients had neck irradiation, 25 of whom received elective neck irradiation (ENI) for N0 necks. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months. Results: The median survival for all patients was 22 months (range: 2.4-356 months). The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals were 34% and 31%, respectively. Ten patients relapsed in the neck, with a 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse of 12%. The 5-year risk of neck relapse was 14% for SCC, 25% for ADE, and 7% for both UC and ACC. The overall risk of nodal involvement at either diagnosis or on follow-up was 28% for SCC, 25% for ADE, 12% for UC, and 10% for AC. All patients with nodal involvement had T3-4, and none had T2 tumors. ENI effectively prevented nodal relapse in patients with SCC and N0 neck; the 5-year actuarial risk of nodal relapse was 20% for patients without ENI and 0% for those with elective neck therapy. There was no correlation between neck relapse and primary tumor control or tumor extension into areas containing a rich lymphatic network. The most common sites of nodal relapse were in the

  16. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Locasale, Jason W.; Weihua, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain-metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the non-oxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPs) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis, and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:25511375

  17. Metachronous adrenal metastasis from operated contralateral renal cell carcinoma with adrenalectomy and iatrogenic Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Hakan; Karaaslan, Serap

    2014-09-01

    Metachronous adrenal metastasis from contralateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgery is an extremely rare condition. Iatrogenic Addison's disease occurring after metastasectomy (adrenalectomy) is an even rarer clinical entity. We present a case of a 68-year-old male with hematuria and left flank pain 9 years prior. The patient underwent left transperitoneal radical nephrectomy involving the ipsilateral adrenal glands due to a centrally-located, 75-mm in diameter solid mass lesion in the upper pole of the left kidney. The tumour lesion was confined within the renal capsule, and the histo-pathological examination revealed a Fuhrman nuclear grade II clear cell carcinoma. The patient underwent transperitoneal right adrenalectomy. The histopathological examination revealed metastasis of clear cell carcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with iatrogenic Addison's disease based on the measurement of serum cortisol levels and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, after which glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement was initiated. The patient did not have local recurrence or new metastasis in the first year of the follow-up. The decision to perform ipsilateral adrenalectomy during radical nephrectomy constitutes a challenge, and the operating surgeon must consider all these rare factors.

  18. Cancer Cell Adhesion and Metastasis: Selectins, Integrins, and the Inhibitory Potential of Heparins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Bendas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules play a significant role in cancer progression and metastasis. Cell-cell interactions of cancer cells with endothelium determine the metastatic spread. In addition, direct tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and soluble components significantly contribute to cancer cell adhesion, extravasation, and the establishment of metastatic lesions. Clinical evidence indicates that heparin, commonly used for treatment of thromboembolic events in cancer patients, is beneficial for their survival. Preclinical studies confirm that heparin possesses antimetastatic activities that lead to attenuation of metastasis in various animal models. Heparin contains several biological activities that may affect several steps in metastatic cascade. Here we focus on the role of cellular adhesion receptors in the metastatic cascade and discuss evidence for heparin as an inhibitor of cell adhesion. While P- and L-selectin facilitation of cellular contacts during hematogenous metastasis is being accepted as a potential target of heparin, here we propose that heparin may also interfere with integrin activity and thereby affect cancer progression. This review summarizes recent findings about potential mechanisms of tumor cell interactions in the vasculature and antimetastatic activities of heparin.

  19. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil, E-mail: hyunil74@hotmail.com; Lee, Zang Hee, E-mail: zang1959@snu.ac.kr

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  20. Lymph Nodes and Cancer Metastasis: New Perspectives on the Role of Intranodal Lymphatic Sinuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Cheng Ji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic system is essential for transporting interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs. Functional integrity of LNs is dependent on intact lymphatics and effective lymph drainage. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate interactions between tumor cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs during tumor progression still remain to be identified. The cellular and molecular structures of LNs are optimized to trigger a rapid and efficient immune response, and to participate in the process of tumor metastasis by stimulating lymphangiogenesis and establishing a premetastatic niche in LNs. Several molecules, e.g., S1P, CCR7-CCL19/CCL21, CXCL12/CXCR4, IL-7, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and integrin α4β1 play an important role in controlling the activity of LN stromal cells including LECs, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs and follicular dendritic cells (DCs. The functional stromal cells are critical for reconstruction and remodeling of the LN that creates a unique microenvironment of tumor cells and LECs for cancer metastasis. LN metastasis is a major determinant for the prognosis of most human cancers and clinical management. Ongoing work to elucidate the function and molecular regulation of LN lymphatic sinuses will provide insight into cancer development mechanisms and improve therapeutic approaches for human malignancy.

  1. A co-delivery nanosystem of chemotherapeutics and DNAzyme overcomes cancer drug resistance and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Pin; Liu, Ching-Ping; Huang, I.-Ping; Chu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Ming-Fang; Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Lin, Shu-Yi; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2017-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) constitutes a major problem in the management of cancer and cancer metastasized from primary-source tumor causes cancer-related deaths. Our new approach is the co-delivery of chemotherapy drugs with a transcription-factor-targeting genetic agent to simultaneously inhibit the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. C-Jun is a transcription factor that regulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) pump efflux transcription and tumor metastasis. In this work, we reported that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) can be functionalized to co-deliver doxorubicin (Dox) and DNAzyme (Dz) to increase cancer cell killing in an additive fashion. The MSNs were sequentially conjugated with Dox into the MSNs’ nanochannels and Dz onto the MSNs’ outermost surface to target c-Jun as the Dox@MSN-Dz co-delivery system. The Dox-resistant PC-3 cells treated with Dox@MSN-Dz efficiently enhanced the intracellular Dox concentration due to the abrogation of Dox-induced MRP1 expression through the downregulation of c-Jun expression by Dz. Additionally, significant reductions in invasion and migration related to metastasis were also observed in cells treated with Dox@MSN-Dz. Therefore, our results contribute new insight to the treatment of MDR combined metastatic cancer cells, worthwhile for studying its potential for development in clinical translation.

  2. Micelle System Based on Molecular Economy Principle for Overcoming Multidrug Resistance and Inhibiting Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan; Qin, Xianya; Yang, Conglian; Wu, Tingting; Qiao, Qi; Song, Qingle; Zhang, Zhiping

    2018-03-05

    The high mortality of cancer is mainly attributed to multidrug resistance (MDR) and metastasis. A simple micelle system was constructed here to codeliver doxorubicin (DOX), adjudin (ADD), and nitric oxide (NO) for overcoming MDR and inhibiting metastasis. It was devised based on the "molecular economy" principle as the micelle system was easy to fabricate and exhibited high drug loading efficiency, and importantly, each component of the micelles would exert one or more active functions. DOX acted as the main cell killing agent supplemented with ADD, NO, and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). MDR was overcome by synergistic effects of mitochondria inhibition agents, TPGS and ADD. A TPGS-based NO donor can be used as a drug carrier, and it can release NO to enhance drug accumulation and penetration in tumor, resulting in a positive cycle of drug delivery. This DOX-ADD conjugate self-assembly system demonstrated controlled drug release, increased cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, enhanced accumulation at tumor site, and improved in vivo metastasis inhibition of breast cancer. The micelles can fully take advantage of the functions of each component, and they provide a potential strategy for nanomedicine design and clinical cancer treatment.

  3. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment

  4. Brain Metastasis as Initial Manifestation of Melanoma (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is a malignancy derived from the neural crest, constituted of melanocytes found in the basal layer of epidermis, with the main function of melanin production. Case: A 64-year-old woman was admitted with headache and dyslalia and reported some episodes of vertigo and falls in the last six months. A superficial red and dark skin discoloration in the scalp and a node in the right parotid gland were observed. Computed tomography of the brain showed nodular lesions in the left parietal and right temporal and occipital lobes with hemorrhagic features, in addition to mass effect. Furthermore, PET-CT images were suggestive of brain, lung, and adrenal metastasis. The patient evolved with intracranial hypertension and a neurosurgery was performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry studies revealed metastatic melanoma. Conclusions: She underwent schedules of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but developed uncontrolled sepsis and died in spite of clinical management and intensive care support. Cutaneous primary site of this malignancy in the scalp was previously neglected; therefore, neurological disturbances were the initial manifestations of melanoma. Immunohistochemistry findings allowed ruling out the main differential hypotheses.

  5. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E.; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-01

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  6. Dynamics of tissue topology during cancer invasion and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, Lance L

    2013-01-01

    During tumor progression, cancer cells mix with other cell populations including epithelial and endothelial cells. Although potentially important clinically as well as for our understanding of basic tumor biology, the process of mixing is largely a mystery. Furthermore, there is no rigorous, analytical measure available for quantifying the mixing of compartments within a tumor. I present here a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of observed tumor behaviors with correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. The resulting dynamics are analyzed in light of the Euler characteristic number (χ), which describes key topological features such as fragmentation, looping and cavities. The analysis predicts a number of regimes in which the cancer cells can encapsulate normal tissue, form a co-interdigitating mass, or become fragmented and encapsulated by endothelial or epithelial structures. Key processes that affect the topological changes are the production of provisional matrix in the tumor, and the migration of endothelial or epithelial cells on this matrix. Furthermore, the simulations predict that topological changes during tumor invasion into blood vessels may contribute to metastasis. The topological analysis outlined here could be useful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring response to therapy and would only require high resolution, 3D image data to resolve and track the various cell compartments. (paper)

  7. Dynamics of tissue topology during cancer invasion and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance L.

    2013-12-01

    During tumor progression, cancer cells mix with other cell populations including epithelial and endothelial cells. Although potentially important clinically as well as for our understanding of basic tumor biology, the process of mixing is largely a mystery. Furthermore, there is no rigorous, analytical measure available for quantifying the mixing of compartments within a tumor. I present here a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of observed tumor behaviors with correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. The resulting dynamics are analyzed in light of the Euler characteristic number (χ), which describes key topological features such as fragmentation, looping and cavities. The analysis predicts a number of regimes in which the cancer cells can encapsulate normal tissue, form a co-interdigitating mass, or become fragmented and encapsulated by endothelial or epithelial structures. Key processes that affect the topological changes are the production of provisional matrix in the tumor, and the migration of endothelial or epithelial cells on this matrix. Furthermore, the simulations predict that topological changes during tumor invasion into blood vessels may contribute to metastasis. The topological analysis outlined here could be useful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring response to therapy and would only require high resolution, 3D image data to resolve and track the various cell compartments.

  8. The predictability for the prognosis of breast cancer using the apparent diffusion coefficient value of diffusion weighted 3T MRI and the standardized uptake value of positron emission tomography/CT: Assessment of prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong Joo; Kim, Keum Won; Jang, Hye Young; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Dae Ho; Sohn, Jang Sihn; Kim, Jin Suk; Lee, Jin Yong

    2012-01-01

    To correlate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and peak standardized uptake value (pSUV) with histologic grade and clinical prognostic factors of breast ductal carcinoma. Fifty breast cancers of 49 patients (age range: 37-83 years, mean: 53 years) were studied retrospectively. The breast cancers included 4 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 46 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC). The relationships for both pSUV and ADC values with clinicopathological prognostic factors (age, tumor size, histologic grade, nodal metastasis, hormone receptor and HER-2 neu status) were statistically evaluated. The histologic type of ductal carcinoma include DCIS (n = 4) and IDC (n = 46, grade 1 = 10, grade 2 = 13, and grade 3 = 23). pSUV was associated with histologic grade and tumor size and the ADC value was associated with histologic grade (p < 0.05). As the histologic grade becomes higher, the ADC values decrease, while pSUV and pSUV/ADC increase (p < 0.05). The characterization accuracy of pSUV/ADC (90.2%) was higher than pSUV (86.7%) and ADC values (25.4%) alone for the diagnosis of breast cancer (p < 0.05). pSUV and ADC values correlated with histologic grade, and tumor size. The pSUV/ADC value had a high accuracy for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, pSUV and ADC values provided additional information for predicting histologic grade and prognosis of breast cancer

  9. Seven cases of brain metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikekubo, Katsuji; Hino, Megumu; Ito, Hidetomi; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Ueshima, Miho; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hiromasa; Ishihara, Takashi; Kurahachi, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    Brain metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma are extremely rare and carry a poor prognosis. We describe here clinical details of 7 cases of brain metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma. Of 153 patients with metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (papillary in 123, follicular in 30) treated at our institution between 1981 and 1999, 7 patients (4.6%) had brain metastases. Histologically, the primary tumor was papillary carcinoma in all 7 cases. Four were males and 3 were females. The median age at first diagnosis of distant metastases was 63 yr (range, 47-76 yr). Of these patients, one had brain metastases only and six and metastases to the lungs as well. Five of these patients were treated with 131 I. Three of these 5 patients had marked uptake in the metastases ( 131 I positive) on post-therapy 131 I scans and another 2 patients had no significant activity ( 131 I negative) in both pulmonary and brain metastatic lesions. One of 3 patients with 131 I positive lesions had intense activity in the brain tumor, but no uptake in multiple pulmonary metastatic tumors. In a patient with 131 I positive brain metastases, the tumors progressed rapidly after 131 I therapy. In another one patient, acute hemorrhage of the tumor occurred four days after 131 I therapy, requiring surgical removal. Loner case of 131 I negative 2 patients was treated with radiosurgery (γ-knife) and complete reduction in tumor volume was observed. On the other hand, one of 2 patients receiving no 131 I therapy had radiosurgery (x-knife) and remaining one received conventional external radiation and chemotherapy for small solitary brain and pulmonary metastatic tumors. These therapeutic interventions were useful in both cases. The mean length of survival after the development of brain metastases in the five patients who died of the disease was 30 months. One patient treated with x-knife has been alive at 21 months and another one who has 131 I uptake in the brain tumor without

  10. C/EBPα Short-Activating RNA Suppresses Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Inhibiting EGFR/β-Catenin Signaling Mediated EMT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Huan

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with high mortality, and tumor metastasis is an important reason for poor prognosis. However, metastasis has not been effectively prevented in clinical therapy and the mechanisms underlying metastasis have not been fully characterized. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα is a transcriptional regulator with an essential role in tumor metastasis. We used short-activating RNAs (saRNA to enhance expression of C/EBPα. Intravenous injection of C/EBPα-saRNA in a nude mouse liver orthotopic xenograft tumor model inhibited intrahepatic and distant metastasis. C/EBPα-saRNA-treated mice showed increased serum levels of albumin and decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST, indicating a role of C/EBPα in improving liver function. Migration and invasion were inhibited in hepatoma cell lines transfected with C/EBPα-saRNA. We also observed an inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, EGFR phosphorylation, and β-catenin in C/EBPa-saRNA-transfected cells. Our results suggested that C/EBPα-saRNA successfully inhibited HCC metastasis by inhibiting EGFR/β-catenin signaling pathway mediated EMT in vitro and in vivo.

  11. The role of surgery in renal cell carcinoma with pancreatic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsu Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon and, in most cases, presents as a single pancreatic mass that shows a more favorable prognosis than primary pancreatic tumors. We examined patients with renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas, and discuss the clinical findings, treatment administered, and final outcomes. The present study is a retrospective analysis of renal cell carcinoma patients with pancreatic metastasis. Pancreatic tumor specimens were obtained by surgical excision, surgical biopsy, fine-needle biopsy, or endoscopic ultrasound biopsy. The surgical approaches included distal splenopancreatectomy, total pancreatectomy, or distal pancreatectomy. The physician determined the postoperative treatment regimen with interferon-α or targeted therapy on the basis of patient's performance. A total of six patients with median age of 50 years were included in the study. The median time from the primary nephrectomy to the development of pancreatic metastasis was 16 years. In the biopsy-only group, the mean stable disease period was 16.5 months. In the patients treated with surgery combined with interferon-α or targeted therapy, the mean stable disease period was 29.5 months. The patients treated with repeat mastectomy showed a mean stable disease period of 33.3 months. Aggressive surgical management is more effective than observation or immunotherapy. Recent advances in the design of targeted therapies may provide alternative treatment strategies. Combination therapy may play an important role in the future. Considering patient compliance and cost-effectiveness, resection of pancreatic metastasis is currently the first choice of treatment.

  12. MYCN and HDAC5 transcriptionally repress CD9 to trigger invasion and metastasis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Johannes; Opitz, Desirée; Althoff, Kristina; Lodrini, Marco; Hero, Barbara; Volland, Ruth; Beckers, Anneleen; de Preter, Katleen; Decock, Anneleen; Patil, Nitin; Abba, Mohammed; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Astrahantseff, Kathy; Wünschel, Jasmin; Pfeil, Sebastian; Ercu, Maria; Künkele, Annette; Hu, Jamie; Thole, Theresa; Schweizer, Leonille; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Carter, Daniel; Cheung, Belamy B; Popanda, Odilia; von Deimling, Andreas; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Schwab, Manfred; Marshall, Glenn M; Speleman, Frank; Erb, Ulrike; Zoeller, Margot; Allgayer, Heike; Simon, Thorsten; Fischer, Matthias; Kulozik, Andreas E; Eggert, Angelika; Witt, Olaf; Schulte, Johannes H; Deubzer, Hedwig E

    2016-10-11

    The systemic and resistant nature of metastatic neuroblastoma renders it largely incurable with current multimodal treatment. Clinical progression stems mainly from the increasing burden of metastatic colonization. Therapeutically inhibiting the migration-invasion-metastasis cascade would be of great benefit, but the mechanisms driving this cycle are as yet poorly understood. In-depth transcriptome analyses and ChIP-qPCR identified the cell surface glycoprotein, CD9, as a major downstream player and direct target of the recently described GRHL1 tumor suppressor. CD9 is known to block or facilitate cancer cell motility and metastasis dependent upon entity. High-level CD9 expression in primary neuroblastomas correlated with patient survival and established markers for favorable disease. Low-level CD9 expression was an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. MYCN and HDAC5 colocalized to the CD9 promoter and repressed transcription. CD9 expression diminished with progressive tumor development in the TH-MYCN transgenic mouse model for neuroblastoma, and CD9 expression in neuroblastic tumors was far below that in ganglia from wildtype mice. Primary neuroblastomas lacking MYCN amplifications displayed differential CD9 promoter methylation in methyl-CpG-binding domain sequencing analyses, and high-level methylation was associated with advanced stage disease, supporting epigenetic regulation. Inducing CD9 expression in a SH-EP cell model inhibited migration and invasion in Boyden chamber assays. Enforced CD9 expression in neuroblastoma cells transplanted onto chicken chorioallantoic membranes strongly reduced metastasis to embryonic bone marrow. Combined treatment of neuroblastoma cells with HDAC/DNA methyltransferase inhibitors synergistically induced CD9 expression despite hypoxic, metabolic or cytotoxic stress. Our results show CD9 is a critical and indirectly druggable suppressor of the invasion-metastasis cycle in neuroblastoma.

  13. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  14. Are Breast Tumor Stem Cells Responsible for Metastasis and Angiogenesis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Quintin

    2005-01-01

    .... The current dogma of metastasis is that most primary tumor cells have low metastatic potential, but rare cells, less than one in ten million, within large primary tumors acquire metastatic capacity...

  15. Experience of treating late cerebral lungcancer metastasis using photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ryabova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment outcomes for a patient with solitary brain metastasis after long-term relapse-free follow-up of invasive lung carcinoma were presented. Brain metastasis without other signs of disease progression was diagnosed 10 years after combined modality treatment for stage II lung cancer. Removal of intracerebral metastasis with intraoperative photodynamic therapy was performed. Histology microspecimens of the primary tumor and metastasis were similar. No signs of disease progression in the brain 9 months after surgery were found. This case demonstrates that it is important to increase cancer suspicion for patients with long-term relapse-free follow-up. The use of intraoperative photodynamic therapy with photoditazine as a sensitizer in the treatment of cerebral metastases results in a favorable anti-tumor effect, thus improving life quality of patients

  16. Unusual case of cavitary lung metastasis from squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a rare case of cavitary lung metastasis of a uterine cervix cancer, ... A month later, the patient presented with gynecological bleeding and a pneumothorax. ... Pelvic examination and MRI showed a subsequent local cervix recurrence.

  17. EHMT2 is a metastasis regulator in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Son, Mi-Young; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-02-05

    Various modes of epigenetic regulation of breast cancer proliferation and metastasis have been investigated, but epigenetic mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Thus, in this study, EHMT2 (a histone methyltransferase) was determined to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and in Oncomine data. In addition, knockdown of EHMT2 reduced cell migration/invasion and regulated the expression of EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, Claudin 1, and Vimentin). Furthermore, treatment with BIX-01294, a specific inhibitor of EHMT2, affected migration/invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, our findings demonstrate functions of EHMT2 in breast cancer metastasis and suggest that targeting EHMT2 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing breast cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosomal instability drives metastasis through a cytosolic DNA response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Samuel F; Ngo, Bryan; Laughney, Ashley M; Cavallo, Julie-Ann; Murphy, Charles J; Ly, Peter; Shah, Pragya; Sriram, Roshan K; Watkins, Thomas B K; Taunk, Neil K; Duran, Mercedes; Pauli, Chantal; Shaw, Christine; Chadalavada, Kalyani; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Genovese, Giulio; Venkatesan, Subramanian; Birkbak, Nicolai J; McGranahan, Nicholas; Lundquist, Mark; LaPlant, Quincey; Healey, John H; Elemento, Olivier; Chung, Christine H; Lee, Nancy Y; Imielenski, Marcin; Nanjangud, Gouri; Pe'er, Dana; Cleveland, Don W; Powell, Simon N; Lammerding, Jan; Swanton, Charles; Cantley, Lewis C

    2018-01-25

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is a major driver of tumour evolution, its role in metastasis has not been established. Here we show that chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by sustaining a tumour cell-autonomous response to cytosolic DNA. Errors in chromosome segregation create a preponderance of micronuclei whose rupture spills genomic DNA into the cytosol. This leads to the activation of the cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream noncanonical NF-κB signalling. Genetic suppression of chromosomal instability markedly delays metastasis even in highly aneuploid tumour models, whereas continuous chromosome segregation errors promote cellular invasion and metastasis in a STING-dependent manner. By subverting lethal epithelial responses to cytosolic DNA, chromosomally unstable tumour cells co-opt chronic activation of innate immune pathways to spread to distant organs.

  19. Molecular Markers of Metastasis in Ductal Mammary Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achary, Patnala

    2002-01-01

    ...% of those patients, however, the disease spreads, and they are at risk of death. Our goal is to develop DNA markers that could be reliably used to identify the ductal mammary carcinomas that are prone to develop metastasis...

  20. SOLITARY SPLENIC METASTASIS OF COLON CANCER: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Hashemzadeh M. Safari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although splenic metastasis is fairly common in disseminated cancer, solitary splenic metastasis in the absence of diffuse dissemination is rare. We report a case of 44 year-old man who developed isolated splenic metastasis of colon cancer. The patient had undergone right sided hemicolectomy for colon cancer in 1988. In 2001, he underwent reoperation because of local recurrence of tumor in the anastomotic site. The patient was admitted to our hospital on Sep 2003 with abdominal pain. Chest X-ray was normal. Abdominal CT scan showed a large cystic lesion in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed for the patient. The spleen was enlarged, firm and irregular. Histological examination showed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma. Based on this case, we recommend that clinicians consider possibility of metastasis in cystic lesions of spleen, especially in patients with a history of a malignant disease.

  1. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  2. Skeletal metastasis in primary carcinoma of the liver | Schweitzer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Two cases of hepatoma metastasizing to bone are reported. A ttention is drawn to the fact that although skeletal metastasis in hepatoma is uncommon, it may be the initial ;presentafion of the tumour.

  3. Hypoxia-induced metastasis model in embryonic zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouhi, Pegah; Jensen, Lasse D.; Cao, Ziquan

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by promoting neovascularization and co-option of tumor cells in the peritumoral vasculature, leading to dissemination of tumor cells into the circulation. However, until recently, animal models and imaging technology did not enable monitoring...... of the early events of tumor cell invasion and dissemination in living animals. We recently developed a zebrafish metastasis model to dissect the detailed events of hypoxia-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis in association with angiogenesis at the single-cell level. In this model, fluorescent Di......I-labeled human or mouse tumor cells are implanted into the perivitelline cavity of 48-h-old zebrafish embryos, which are subsequently placed in hypoxic water for 3 d. Tumor cell invasion, metastasis and pathological angiogenesis are detected under fluorescent microscopy in the living fish. The average...

  4. Development of Individualized Anti-Metastasis Strategies by Engineering Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianjun; Guo, Shengrong; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is deadly and also tough to treat as it is much more complicated than the primary tumour. Anti-metastasis approaches available so far are far from being optimal. A variety of nanomedicine formulas provide a plethora of opportunities for developing new strategies and means for tackling metastasis. It should be noted that individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines are different from common anti-cancer nanomedicines as they specifically target different populations of malignant cells. This review briefly introduces the features of the metastatic cascade, and proposes a series of nanomedicine-based anti-metastasis strategies aiming to block each metastatic step. Moreover, we also concisely introduce the advantages of several promising nanoparticle platforms and their potential for constructing state-of-the-art individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines. PMID:26056688

  5. Function of Maximal Microvessel Density in Breast Tumor Metastasis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLeskey, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    .... These data are gained by quantitating the number of microvessels in "hot spots" of high-density tumor vasculature, implying that such hot spots have functional significance in the process of metastasis...

  6. Role of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.S.; Vadlamudi, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a life-threatening stage of cancer and is the leading cause of death in advanced breast cancer patients. Estrogen signaling and the estrogen receptor (ER) are implicated in breast cancer progression, and the majority of the human breast cancers start out as estrogen dependent. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER signaling is complex, involving coregulatory proteins and extranuclear actions. ER-coregualtory proteins are tightly regulated under normal conditions with miss expression primarily reported in cancer. Deregulation of ER coregualtors or ER extranuclear signaling has potential to promote metastasis in ER-positive breast cancer cells. This review summarizes the emerging role of ER signaling in promoting metastasis of breast cancer cells, discusses the molecular mechanisms by which ER signaling contributes to metastasis, and explores possible therapeutic targets to block ER-driven metastasis

  7. Intracranial Dural Metastasis of Ewing's Sarcoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jin Na; Lee, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Kim, Dong Ik

    2008-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that can occur anywhere in the body, but it is most commonly observed in the long bones of the arms and legs, the pelvis and in the chest. The predominant sites of metastasis include the lung (38%), bone (including the spine; 31%), and the bone marrow (11%). Metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to the central nervous system (CNS) is relatively rare, and most of the previous reports have demonstrated involvement of the bony calvarium or brain parenchyma. We describe here the imaging findings of dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma, and these imaging findings have not been previously reported on in the medical literature. In conclusion, dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is very rare and its imaging characteristics are similar to those of a primary tumor, which mimic the findings of a schwannoma or meningioma. Despite its rarity, secondary Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses

  8. Preventing Prostate Cancer Metastasis by Targeting Exosome Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    extensive and painful metastasis of the bone. We proposed compare the impact of exosomes derived from advanced stage prostate cancer on bone stromal cells...The revised report including additional figures, tables, and text, is attached below. 1. INTRODUCTION Bone metastasis is a painful and often lethal...protein interacting protein 2 X*** BG PABPC1 poly (A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 1 X X Inf X PABPC3 poly (A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 3 X

  9. Parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    The parotid gland is an uncommon site of metastasis from carcinomas arising outside the head and neck region. Involvement of the parotid gland as an initial site of metastasis or presentation is rare. The present case report is the first, to our knowledge, to describe the management and outcome of an elderly man whose first presentation of an asymptomatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung was that of a rapidly growing fungating left parotid mass Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  10. Dangerous Liaisons: Deviant Endothelium NOTCHes toward Tumor Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peipei; Rafii, Shahin

    2017-03-13

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Wieland et al. uncover a feedback loop in which tumor cells, by augmenting Notch signaling, provoke a senescent and pro-inflammatory state in endothelial cells, promoting neutrophil infiltration, tumor cell adhesion, and metastasis. Interfering with this Notch-dependent crosstalk may be a therapeutic approach to block metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scrotum with Lymph Node Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Inês Simões; Isabel Marcão; Mário Toscano; Luís Borges

    2018-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the eccrine cells of the sweat glands, usually asymptomatic with slow growing and higher incidence between 50 and 80 years, occurring in both sexes and preferentially located in the palmar, plantar, frontal, axillary and nuchal regions. It has an aggressive behavior, with high rate of local recurrence and distance metastasis, associated with a poor prognosis. We present a case of hidradenocarcinoma of the scrotum manifested by lymph node metastasis thr...

  12. Micro-pleural Metastasis Without Effusion: CT and US Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyoung Il; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup; Shim, Hyung Jin; Kwak, Byung Kook; Shin, Jong Wook

    2004-01-01

    Pleural metastasis from malignancy is commonly combined with effusion. We report the ultrasonographic and CT findings in a rare case of micro-pleural metastasis without effusion. A 34-year-old male patient with lung cancer underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), prior to open thoracotomy. VATS revealed multiple metastatic micronodules on the pleura, which were overlooked on the preoperative CT scan. The HRCT images and chest ultrasonograms showed clear evidence of pleural micro-nodules

  13. Micro-pleural Metastasis Without Effusion: CT and US Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hyoung Il; Yoo, Seung Min; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup; Shim, Hyung Jin; Kwak, Byung Kook; Shin, Jong Wook [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    Pleural metastasis from malignancy is commonly combined with effusion. We report the ultrasonographic and CT findings in a rare case of micro-pleural metastasis without effusion. A 34-year-old male patient with lung cancer underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), prior to open thoracotomy. VATS revealed multiple metastatic micronodules on the pleura, which were overlooked on the preoperative CT scan. The HRCT images and chest ultrasonograms showed clear evidence of pleural micro-nodules

  14. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for determining water absorption, bulk density, apparent porosity, and apparent specific gravity of fired unglazed whiteware products. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. Patterns of Intraosseous Recurrence After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Coxal Bone Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kei; Shimizuguchi, Takuya; Nihei, Keiji; Furuya, Tomohisa; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sasai, Keisuke; Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the detailed pattern of intraosseous failure after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for coxal bone metastasis. Patients treated with SBRT to coxal bone metastasis were identified by retrospective chart review. The SBRT doses were 30 Gy or 35 Gy in 5 fractions. A margin of 5 to 10 mm was added to the gross tumor volume to create the clinical target volume. We evaluated the presence or absence of intraosseous recurrence using magnetic resonance imaging. Intraosseous recurrences were assessed as "in-field" or "marginal/out-of-field." In addition, we measured the distance between the center of the recurrent tumor and the nearest edge of the initial bone metastasis in cases of marginal/out-of-field recurrence. Seventeen patients treated for 17 coxal bone metastases were included. Median age was 64 years (range, 48-79 years). Coxal lesions involved the ilium in 14 cases, pubis in 3, and ischium in 4 (3 lesions crossed over multiple regions). Patients most commonly had renal cell carcinoma (29.4%), followed by lung, hepatic cell, and colorectal cancers (23.5%, 11.8%, and 11.8%, respectively). Median follow-up after SBRT was 13 months (range, 2-44 months). Among all 17 cases, 7 cases developed 8 intraosseous recurrences, including in-field recurrence in 1 case and marginal/out-of-field recurrences in 7 cases. Median time to intraosseous recurrence was 10 months (range, 2-35 months). Among 7 cases with marginal/out-of-field recurrence, mean distance to the center of the recurrent tumor from the nearest edge of the initial bone metastasis was 34 mm (range, 15-55 mm). Most recurrences were observed out-of-field in the same coxal bone. These results suggest that defining the optimal clinical target volume in SBRT for coxal bone metastasis to obtain sufficient local tumor control is difficult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Skeletal metastasis: The effect on immature skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.A.; Ogden, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The unique opportunity to study the entire appendicular skeleton of a child who died from metastatic angiosarcoma allowed detailed assessment of radiographically evident involvement. Virtually every portion of the appendicular skeleton had evidence of metastatic disease. However, the extent of involvement was extremely variable, especially when contralateral regions were assessed. The most likely region of metastasis, the metaphysis, is normally a fenestrated cortex of woven bone in the young child, rather than a well demarcated cortex formed by osteon (lamellar) bone, as it is in the adult. The pattern of destruction is such that less extensive areas may be involved before becoming radiographically evident, and trabecular bone involvement may be evident even without cortical damage. The metaphyseal metastatic spread supports the concept of arterial hematogeneous dissemination, comparable to osteomyelitis in the child. Pathologic metaphyseal fractures involved both proximal humeri; the fracture also extended along a portion of the methaphyseal-physeal interface in one humerus. In one distal femur the physis readily separated from the metaphysis; this was a nondisplaced type 1 growth mechanism injury. (orig.)

  17. Infective endocarditis involving an apparently structurally normal valve: new epidemiological trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Kwan

    2015-07-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) has been increasingly diagnosed in patients without previously detected predisposing heart disease, but its clinical features have yet to be fully determined. A recent single-center study including echocardiographic images and surgical findings investigated the incidence of undiagnosed, clinically silent valvular or congenital heart diseases and healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE). The study confirmed that a large proportion of patients with IE have no previous history of heart disease. Analysis of underlying disease in these patients showed that undetected mitral valve prolapse was the most common disease, followed by an apparently structurally normal valve. The patients who developed IE of apparently structurally normal valves had different clinical characteristics and worse outcomes. IE involving a structurally normal valve was associated with both nosocomial and non-nosocomial HAIE, whereas community-acquired IE was more frequent than HAIE. The pathophysiologic mechanism involving the development of non-HAIE or community-acquired IE due to predominantly staphylococcal infection in an apparently structurally normal valve is not yet clearly understood. Structurally normal valves are not necessarily free of regurgitation or abnormal turbulence and, given the dynamic nature and fluctuating hemodynamic effects of conditions such as poorly controlled hypertension, end-stage renal disease, and sleep apnea, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the potential role of these diseases in the development of IE. An apparently normal-looking valve is associated with IE development in patients without previously recognized predisposing heart disease, warranting repartition of at-risk groups to achieve better clinical outcomes.

  18. Remodeling of the methylation landscape in breast cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Reyngold

    Full Text Available The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process.

  19. Severe pulmonary metastasis in obese and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akinori; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Choo, Min-Kyung; Obi, Ryosuke; Koizumi, Keiichi; Yoshida, Chiho; Shimada, Yutaka; Saiki, Ikuo

    2006-12-15

    Although obesity is known as a risk factor for several human cancers, the association of obesity with cancer recurrence and metastasis remains to be characterized. Here, B16-BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma cells were intravenously injected into diabetic (db/db) and obese (ob/ob) mice. The number of experimental lung colonies was markedly promoted in these mice when compared with C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, tumor growth at the implanted site was comparable when cells were inoculated orthotopically. The use of B16-BL6 cells stably transfected with the luciferase gene revealed that the increased metastasis reflected a difference mainly within 6 hr after the intravenous inoculation of tumor cells. Administration of recombinant leptin in ob/ob mice abolished the increase in metastasis early on as well as the decrease in the splenic NK cell number. In addition, depletion of NK cells by an anti-asialo-GM1 antibody abrogated the enhanced metastasis in db/db mice. These results demonstrate that metastasis is markedly promoted in diabetic and obese mice mainly because of decreased NK cell function during the early phase of metastasis. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Observations of apparent superslow wave propagation in solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raes, J. O.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Baes, M.; Wright, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Phase mixing of standing continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in atmospheric magnetic structures such as coronal arcades can create the apparent effect of a wave propagating across the magnetic field. Aims: We observe a prominence with SDO/AIA on 2015 March 15 and find the presence of oscillatory motion. We aim to demonstrate that interpreting this motion as a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) wave is faulty. We also connect the decrease of the apparent velocity over time with the phase mixing process, which depends on the curvature of the magnetic field lines. Methods: By measuring the displacement of the prominence at different heights to calculate the apparent velocity, we show that the propagation slows down over time, in accordance with the theoretical work of Kaneko et al. We also show that this propagation speed drops below what is to be expected for even slow MHD waves for those circumstances. We use a modified Kippenhahn-Schlüter prominence model to calculate the curvature of the magnetic field and fit our observations accordingly. Results: Measuring three of the apparent waves, we get apparent velocities of 14, 8, and 4 km s-1. Fitting a simple model for the magnetic field configuration, we obtain that the filament is located 103 Mm below the magnetic centre. We also obtain that the scale of the magnetic field strength in the vertical direction plays no role in the concept of apparent superslow waves and that the moment of excitation of the waves happened roughly one oscillation period before the end of the eruption that excited the oscillation. Conclusions: Some of the observed phase velocities are lower than expected for slow modes for the circumstances, showing that they rather fit with the concept of apparent superslow propagation. A fit with our magnetic field model allows for inferring the magnetic geometry of the prominence. The movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  1. High NUCB2 expression level is associated with metastasis and may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Lina; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-06-01

    Nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) is mainly expressed in the hypothalamic nuclei and has a proven role in energy homeostasis. It has also been recently reported to have a key role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of NUCB2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. In the present study, the level of NUCB2 mRNA was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 34 paired fresh tissues from patients with CRC. RT-qPCR was followed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of NUCB2 protein in tissue microarrays of 251 samples to evaluate the clinical significance of NUCB2 in CRC. The RT-qPCR indicated an upregulation of NUCB2 mRNA in CRC tissues compared with normal tissues (P=0.027). IHC staining indicated a positive association between elevated NUCB2 expression and lymph node metastasis or tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Patients with CRC and lymph node metastasis demonstrated a higher expression of NUCB2 (49.5%, 50/101) compared with those without lymph node metastasis (36.7%, 55/150; P=0.043). Furthermore, NUCB2 expression was also higher in patients with CRC and TNM stage III-IV compared with those with TNM stage I-II (50.9% vs. 35.0%; P=0.011). However, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated no significant association between NUCB2 expression and disease-free survival of patients. Additionally, multivariate analysis did not identify the upregulation of NUCB2 as an independent prognostic predictor in patients with CRC (P=0.755). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that upregulation of NUCB2 is significantly associated with CRC metastasis, indicating that NUCB2 may be a cancer-associated oncogene associated with the aggressive progression of CRC.

  2. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Yu; Qi, Jin; Deng, Shixiong; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Junxia

    2013-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell–matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer. Highlights: • ILK siRNA influences cell morphology, cell cycle, migration and invasion. • ILK siRNA affects the expression of proteins associated with EMT. • ILK expression is related to EMT in clinical human tongue tumors. • ILK siRNA inhibits metastasis of the tongue cancer cells through suppressing EMT

  3. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  4. [Establishment of risk evaluation model of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer and its predictive value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junjie; Zhou, Rongjian; Zhang, Qi; Shu, Ping; Li, Haojie; Wang, Xuefei; Shen, Zhenbin; Liu, Fenglin; Chen, Weidong; Qin, Jing; Sun, Yihong

    2017-01-25

    To establish an evaluation model of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer, and to assess its clinical significance. Clinical and pathologic data of the consecutive cases of gastric cancer admitted between April 2015 and December 2015 in Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 710 patients were enrolled in the study after 18 patients with other distant metastasis were excluded. The correlations between peritoneal metastasis and different factors were studied through univariate (Pearson's test or Fisher's exact test) and multivariate analyses (Binary Logistic regression). Independent predictable factors for peritoneal metastasis were combined to establish a risk evaluation model (nomogram). The nomogram was created with R software using the 'rms' package. In the nomogram, each factor had different scores, and every patient could have a total score by adding all the scores of each factor. A higher total score represented higher risk of peritoneal metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the established nomogram. Delong. Delong. Clarke-Pearson test was used to compare the difference of the area under the curve (AUC). The cut-off value was determined by the AUC, when the ROC curve had the biggest AUC, the model had the best sensitivity and specificity. Among 710 patients, 47 patients had peritoneal metastasis (6.6%), including 30 male (30/506, 5.9%) and 17 female (17/204, 8.3%); 31 were ≥ 60 years old (31/429, 7.2%); 38 had tumor ≥ 3 cm(38/461, 8.2%). Lauren classification indicated that 2 patients were intestinal type(2/245, 0.8%), 8 patients were mixed type(8/208, 3.8%), 11 patients were diffuse type(11/142, 7.7%), and others had no associated data. CA19-9 of 13 patients was ≥ 37 kU/L(13/61, 21.3%); CA125 of 11 patients was ≥ 35 kU/L(11/36, 30.6%); CA72-4 of 11 patients was ≥ 10 kU/L(11/39, 28

  5. Shape reconstruction from apparent contours theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bellettini, Giovanni; Paolini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a variational model concerning the depth of the objects in a picture and the problem of hidden and illusory contours, this book investigates one of the central problems of computer vision: the topological and algorithmic reconstruction of a smooth three dimensional scene starting from the visible part of an apparent contour. The authors focus their attention on the manipulation of apparent contours using a finite set of elementary moves, which correspond to diffeomorphic deformations of three dimensional scenes. A large part of the book is devoted to the algorithmic part, with implementations, experiments, and computed examples. The book is intended also as a user's guide to the software code appcontour, written for the manipulation of apparent contours and their invariants. This book is addressed to theoretical and applied scientists working in the field of mathematical models of image segmentation.

  6. Modeling apparent color for visual evaluation of camouflage fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, S.; Mayo, T.; Shabaev, A.; Lambrakos, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    As the U.S. Navy, Army, and Special Operations Forces progress towards fielding more advanced uniforms with multi-colored and highly detailed camouflage patterning, additional test methodologies are necessary in evaluating color in these types of camouflage textiles. The apparent color is the combination of all visible wavelengths (380-760 nm) of light reflected from large (>=1m2 ) fabric sample sizes for a given standoff distance (10-25ft). Camouflage patterns lose resolution with increasing standoff distance, and eventually all colors within the pattern appear monotone (the "apparent color" of the pattern). This paper presents an apparent color prediction model that can be used for evaluation of camouflage fabrics.

  7. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3,* Ting Dai,1,2,* Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Xing-Hua Li,1,2 Tao Qin,1–3 Li-Bing Song,1,2 Xi Wang1,2,41State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC present a higher probability of distant metastasis and lack of effective targeted therapy. ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4 is an ETS (E-26 transcription factor and has been associated with tumor metastasis. However, the clinical and functional significance of ETV4 in TNBC still remains unclear. Methods: A human tumor metastasis polymerase chain reaction array was used to profile differential expression of tumor metastasis-related genes in TNBC tissue. Real-time reverse transcription and Western blot analyses were performed to verify ETV4 expression in TNBC cells and tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of ETV4 protein in 135 TNBC tissue samples for association between ETV4 protein expression and clinical outcomes. Results: A total total of eight upregulated (CCL7, KISS1, MET, MMP7, NR4A3, ETV4, TIMP3, and TSHR and three downregulated (ITGA7, SSTR, and MMP2 genes were identified between TNBC tissue and the luminal subtype of breast cancer tissue. ETV4 messenger ribonucleic acid was more than five-fold upregulated in TNBC tissue compared with the control tissue. ETV4 overexpression was found in 57.0% of 135 TNBC cases. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was associated with an advanced stage and a higher proportion of positive lymph node and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with an ETV4

  8. Reduced expression of ZDHHC2 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Mei Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 2 (ZDHHC2, originally named as reduced expression associated with metastasis protein (REAM, has been proposed as a putative tumor/metastasis suppressor gene and is often aberrantly decreased in human cancers. However ZDHHC2 expression pattern and its clinical significance have not yet been investigated in gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR and immunostaining were performed to detect ZDHHC2 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma, and then the correlation between ZDHHC2 expression and clinicpathologic parameters, and patient survival was analyzed. Compared to the adjacent normal tissues, ZDHHC2 expression was significantly reduced in gastric tumor tissues as shown by qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Low expression of ZDHHC2 was observed in 44.7% (211/472 of gastric adenocarcinoma patients, and was associated significantly with lymph node metastasis (p<0.001 and histological grade (p<0.001. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that ZDHHC2 expression had a significant, independent predictive value for survival of gastric cancer patients (HR = 0.627, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that reduced ZDHHC2 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and independently predicts an unfavorable prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  9. Antibody Therapy Targeting CD47 and CD271 Effectively Suppresses Melanoma Metastasis in Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ngo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271+ melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts. This therapeutic effect is mediated by drastic changes in the tumor and metastatic site immune microenvironments, both of whichwhich exhibit greatly increased density of differentiated macrophages and significantly fewer inflammatory monocytes, pro-metastatic macrophages (CCR2+/VEGFR1+, and neutrophils, all of which are associated with disease progression. Thus, antibody therapy that activates the innate immune response in combination with selective targeting of CD271+ melanoma cells represents a powerful therapeutic approach against metastatic melanoma.

  10. Urinary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma: A rare cause of hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Wai Man Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient′s past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1 of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.

  11. Balint′s Syndrome As a Manifestation of Solitary Right Occipital Lobe Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Balint′s syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by a triad of occulomotor apraxia (psychic paralysis of gaze, optic ataxia and visual inattention and usually follows bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. We report this syndrome occurring in a patient with a solitary metastasis in right occipital lobe. To the best of our knowledge it has not been previously described in English literature. Pressure over the opposite occipital lobe due to mass effect, diaschisis and extension of edema along the corpus callosum involvement may contribute to this exceptional phenomenon.

  12. Recurrent Isolated Oculomotor Nerve Palsy after Radiation of a Mesencephalic Metastasis. Case Report and Mini Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Olga; Leonhardi, Jochen; Reimers, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recurrent oculomotor nerve palsies are extremely rare clinical conditions. Case report: Here, we report on a unique case of a short-lasting recurrent unilateral incomplete external and complete internal oculomotor nerve palsy. The episodic palsies were probably caused by an ipsilateral mesencephalic metastasis of a breast carcinoma and occurred after successful brain radiation therapy. Discussion: While the pathogenic mechanism remains unclear, the recurrent sudden onset and disappearance of the palsies and their decreasing frequency after antiepileptic treatment suggest the occurrence of epilepsy-like brainstem seizures. A review of case reports of spontaneous reversible oculomotor nerve palsies is presented. PMID:25104947

  13. COMBINED TREATMENT OF RENAL CELL CARCINOMA METASTASIS LOCATED IN THE HUMERUS WITH RECONSTRUCTIVE PLASTIC SURGERY STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the effectiveness of the treatment of even advanced cases of metastatic renal cell carcinoma is relatively high due to the possibility of targeted therapy, removal of metastatic lesions. Therefore, the issue of the quality of life of such patients often comes to the fore. This paper presents a clinical case of radical surgical treatment of metastasis located in the humerus, resulting in partial recovery of the limb function which eventually led to the improvement of the patient’s quality of life.

  14. Chemotherapy-enhanced inflammation may lead to the failure of therapy and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinesh Vyas, Gieric Laput, Arpitak K Vyas College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA Abstract: The lack of therapy and the failure of existing therapy has been a challenge for clinicians in treating various cancers. Doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and paclitaxel are the first-line therapy in various cancers; however, toxicity, resistance, and treatment failure limit their clinical use. Their status leads us to discover and investigate more targeted therapy with more efficacy. In this article, we dissect literature from the patient perspective, the tumor biology perspective, therapy-induced metastasis, and cell data generated in the laboratory. Keywords: chemotherapy, cancer, inflammation

  15. Non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis screening in the era of positron emission tomography-CT staging: Current practice and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Mauricio E; Debowski, Maciej; Hukins, Craig; Fielding, David; Fong, Kwun M; Bettington, Catherine S

    2018-05-10

    Several clinical guidelines indicate that brain metastasis screening (BMS) should be guided by disease stage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We estimate that screening is performed more broadly in practice, and patients undergo brain imaging at considerable cost with questionable benefit. Our aim was to quantify the use and detection rate of BMS in a contemporary cohort staged with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT). We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from three major lung cancer referral centres in Brisbane between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients included had a new diagnosis of NSCLC and had undergone a PET-CT to stage extra-cranial disease. BMS was defined as dedicated brain imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) or magnetic resonance (MR), in the absence of clinically apparent neurological deficits. A total of 1751 eligible cases were identified and of these 718 (41%) underwent BMS. The majority had CE-CT imaging (n = 703). Asymptomatic brain metastases (BM) were detected in 18 patients (2.5%). Of these patients, 12 had concurrent non-brain metastases. Only six patients (0.8%) had BM alone. The rate of detection increased with N-stage (P = 0.02) and overall stage (P < 0.001). It was 0.5%, 1%, 1.6% and 7.3% for stage I, II, III and IV respectively. The overall screening rate increased with T-stage (P = 0.001), N-Stage (P < 0.001) and overall stage (P < 0.001). Non-small cell lung cancer BMS practices remain at odds with published guidelines. The low number of occult BMs detected supports the existing international recommendations. Rationalising BMS would minimise the burden on patients and the health care system. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Clinical, Epidemiological and Therapeutic Evaluation in 14 Cases of Inflammatory Breast Cancer in Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Gomes da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of evaluating clinical aspects, age, breed, presence of metastasis, chemotherapeutical protocol, use of COX-2 inhibitors and survival rate in female dogs diagnosed with inflammatory carcinoma at the Hospital Veterinario de Uberaba (HVU, a retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 14 female dogs seen at HVU between July, 2011 and July, 2012 and diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer. The breeds included were crossbred, poodle, Brazilian terrier, teckel and Belgian shepherd. Average age: 11.1 years. Outbreaks of distant metastasis were detected in 7 animals, out of which 5 patients received COX-2 inhibitors as sole treatment and only 4 received chemotherapeutical treatment. The protocol, constituted by piroxicam, cyclophosphamide, carboplatin and doxorubicin showed the highest survival time (210 days. In conclusion, inflammatory carcinoma is a disease of bad prognosis, short survival time and produces systemic alterations that reduce therapeutic response. Apparently, the most accurate therapeutic form is the association of COX-2 inhibitors and chemotherapeutics; however, controlled clinical studies are needed in order to evaluate these suggestions.

  17. Imaging malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.Y.; Poder, L.; Qayyum, A.; Wang, Z.J.; Yeh, B.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Coakley, F.V., E-mail: Fergus.Coakley@radiology.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Common benign gynaecological diseases, such as leiomyoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and mature teratoma, rarely undergo malignant transformation. Benign transformations that may mimic malignancy include benign metastasizing leiomyoma, massive ovarian oedema, decidualization of endometrioma, and rupture of mature teratoma. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of imaging findings in malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease.

  18. Hjertestop associeret med syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard-Nielsen, Anne; Laugesen, Esben; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is an unknown complication to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME). This case report describes a young woman admitted with hypo-kalaemia and hypertension. Concentrations of both P-renin and P-aldosterone were low and urinary steroid metabolites revealed...

  19. Apparently Ipsilateral Parkinsonism in a Patient with Chronic Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Roh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic parkinsonism secondary to ipsilateral lesion is rarely reported. Although the contribution of the contralateral lesions was assumed in some cases, the pathomechanism remains undetermined. Herein we report a patient with a subdural hematoma, who developed parkinsonism in the ipsilateral hemibody. Structural and functional imaging suggests the contralateral dopaminergic dysfunction as the major culprit of apparently ipsilateral parkinsonism.

  20. Effect of autoclave processing and gamma irradiation on apparent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of autoclaving and different doses of gamma irradiation on the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids of cottonseed meal in male broiler breeders. Samples were irradiated in a gamma cell at total doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy. One package (control) was left at room ...

  1. Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.

  2. Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Mantoux test positivity among apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Nigeria. MG Mustapha, AM Garba, AI Rabasa, MS Gimba. Abstract. Background. The impact of tuberculosis (TB) is highest in the developing countries of Asia and Africa, especially among children, in whom the diagnosis is challenging.

  3. Genetic overlap between apparently sporadic motor neuron diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; van Es, Michael A.; van der Pol, W.-Ludo; Hennekam, Eric A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and

  4. A Non-Mainstream Viewpoint on Apparent Superluminal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The group velocity of light in material around the AGN jet is acquiescently one (c as a unit), but this is only a hypothesis. Here, we re-derive apparent superluminal and Doppler formulas for the general case (it is assumed that the group velocity of light in the uniform and isotropic medium around a jet (a beaming ...

  5. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing working hours of 8:00 am till 4:00 pm and caters ... Consecutive apparently healthy children whose parents ... Children on long-term transfusion therapy b. ... Social class was determined from occupation and ed- .... gression model was used to assess the effects of the .... iron stores in 6–24-month-old New Zealanders.

  6. The influence of sex on the haematological values of apparently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were collected from fifty apparently healthy adult Sahel goats, twenty five each of male and female in Maiduguri to assess the influence of sex on their haematology. The red blood cell (RBC) counts, white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), platelet counts, ...

  7. Flipping about the Sun and Its Pattern of Apparent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Crystal M.; Pattee, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Arts integration has shown to enhance student comprehension, retention, and engagement, while connecting to rich science content. The integration of the Next Generation Science Standards and the National Arts Standards into a first grade lesson illustrated how the arts enhanced the students' understandings of the sun's apparent motion during the…

  8. CCD photometry of apparent dwarf galaxies in Fornax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillipps, S.; Grimley, P.L.; Disney, M.J.; Cawson, M.G.M.; Kibblewhite, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    Blue and red CCD surface photometry of two apparent dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster region is presented. Luminosity profiles are derived and their form discussed. The fainter galaxy resembles an archetypal diffuse dwarf elliptical but the brighter of the pair is either an unusual red dwarf or a background galaxy in chance juxtaposition. (author)

  9. Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

  10. Value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in evaluating response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value obtained by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) can be used as a reliable detector of response of carcinoma of the cervix treated with chemoradiotherapy, compared with conventional. T2-weighted MRI. Design.

  11. Clinical utility of apparent diffusion coefficient values obtained using high b-value when diagnosing prostate cancer using 3 tesla MRI: comparison between ultra-high b-value (2000 s/mm²) and standard high b-value (1000 s/mm²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Obara, Makoto; Miyake, Hideaki; Fujisawa, Masato; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained using b = 2000 s/mm(2) upon 3 Tesla (T) diffusion-weighted MRI is superior to b = 1000 s/mm(2) for discriminating malignant from normal prostate tissue and predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer, using histopathological findings of radical prostatectomy as a reference. Eighty prostate cancer patients underwent preoperative 3T MRI including diffusion weighted imaging with b-values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm(2) . ADCs were measured for malignant lesions and normal sites on three sets of ADC maps calculated with monoexponential fitting between b = 0 and 1000, 0 and 2000, and 1000 and 2000, respectively. The relationship between the ADC and Gleason score was evaluated. The areas under the ROC curves for b = 0,1000, b = 0,2000, and b = 1000,2000 were 0.896, 0.937, and 0.857, respectively, in the peripheral zone (PZ) and 0.877, 0.889, and 0.731, respectively, in the transition zone (TZ). The difference between b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 was significant in PZ (P = 0.033), but not in TZ (P = 0.84). Weak but significant negative correlations were identified between ADCs and Gleason score in both PZ and TZ cancer at b = 0,1000 and b = 0,2000 (r = -0.323 to -0.341). For 3T MRI, ADCs using b = 0,2000 are more accurate than b = 0,1000 for diagnosing PZ cancer, and as accurate for TZ cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hypoxia and loss of PHD2 inactivate stromal fibroblasts to decrease tumour stiffness and metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Chris D; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge; Venning, Freja A

    2015-01-01

    , which can be prevented by simultaneous depletion of HIF-1α. Treatment with the PHD inhibitor DMOG in an orthotopic breast cancer model significantly decreases spontaneous metastases to the lungs and liver, associated with decreased tumour stiffness and fibroblast activation. PHD2 depletion in CAFs co......-injected with tumour cells similarly prevents CAF-induced metastasis to lungs and liver. Our data argue that reversion of CAFs towards a less active state is possible and could have important clinical implications....

  13. A Case of Conjunctival Melanoma Presenting with Breast Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most breast masses arise from the breast. Metastasis to the breast is fairly uncommon, but can occur in breast skin and parenchyma. In particular, leukemia and lung cancers, and MM may metastasize to the breast. Breast metastasis might be the first symptom or may occur during the course of other malignancies. Our case presented with a fixed mass in the upper-medial quadrant of her left breast during regular follow-up visits. The mean time to breast metastasis in patients with MM is 62 months (13-178. In our case this time was 48 months. In a case series with 7 patients hematological malignancies (Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and leukemia were the leading cause of breast metastasis, whereas in only 1 case the cause was MM. In another case series of 15 MM patients with metastasis to the breast, the primary tumor was frequently localized to the upper extremities and trunk. In a report of 250 conjunctival MM cases the mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with tumors >4 mm in vertical thickness. In another 45-case MM series tumors with a diameter >10 mm were associated with higher mortality rates. In our case the thickness of the tumor was 5 mm. In conclusion, histopathological evaluation should be mandatory in patients with known primary malignancies in order to differentiate new primary tumors, metastases, and benign tumors.

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M; Subhan, A.; Aslam, A.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit-I, Ward-3 of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from March 2005 to March 2010. Methodology: All patients above 12 years of age of either gender diagnosed on investigations as papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were included in the study. Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), neck of solitary thyroid nodules (STN) and cervical lymph nodes were done. Total thyroidectomy and excision biopsy of cervical lymph nodes was performed, histopathological results were recorded and patients were managed accordingly. Results: A total of 55 patients had PTC and 25 had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eighteen patients of PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy were diagnosed after investigations as cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy (TCL) initially considered as metastasis from PTC; 5 patients had metastasis from PTC. Two patients proved to be of reactive hyperplasia which initially showed tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy on FNAC. So 80% patients of cervical lymphadenopathy with PTC were due to benign disease and 20% had metastasis in lymph node due to PTC. Conclusion: PTC with cervical lymphadenopathy due to co-existent tuberculosis is common. Metastasis from PTC in lymph nodes were less common than tuberculous lymphodenitis in this study. Tuberculosis should be considered before deciding for neck dissection in cases of PTC. (author)

  15. Serological Diagnosis of Liver Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rui; Wang, Li-ping

    2012-01-01

    To diagnose and explore the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer before symptoms occur. A total of 430 female in-patients with breast cancer of stages 0 to IIIC who came to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were studied and followed up until May 2011. Serum levels of biochemical markers for tumor and liver were measured at the time of diagnosis. Liver metastasis was more likely to occur in patients with stage III cancer or c-erbB-2-positive expression. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) levels were significantly higher in patients with liver metastasis than those without liver metastasis. Diagnostic indices of LDH, GGT, and CA153 were 174 U/L, 32 U/L, and 26.48 µg/L, respectively. The areas under the curves of LDH, GGT, and CEA were 0.795, 0.784, and 0.661, respectively, and sensitivities of parallel tests for LDH and CA153 and for GGT and CA153 were 88.6% and 85.7%, respectively. The specificity of serial tests for both pairs of enzymes was 97.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined tumor and biochemical markers could be used as indicators during screening for breast-liver metastasis

  16. A new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volarevic, A; Ljujic, B; Volarevic, V; Milovanovic, M; Kanjevac, T; Lukic, A; Arsenijevic, N

    2012-01-01

    Although recent technical advancements are directed toward developing novel assays and methods for detection of micro and macro metastasis, there are still no reports of reliable, simple to use imaging software that could be used for the detection and quantification of metastasis in tissue sections. We herein report a new semiquantitative method for evaluation of metastasis progression in a well established 4T1 orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer metastasis. The new semiquantitative method presented here was implemented by using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 program, a computer-aided design program used primarily for preparing technical drawings in 2 dimensions. By using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2012 software- aided graphical evaluation we managed to detect each metastatic lesion and we precisely calculated the average percentage of lung and liver tissue parenchyma with metastasis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The data were highly specific and relevant to descriptive histological analysis, confirming reliability and accuracy of the AutoCAD 2012 software as new method for quantification of metastatic lesions. The new semiquantitative method using AutoCAD 2012 software provides a novel approach for the estimation of metastatic progression in histological tissue sections.

  17. Fertility and apparent genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupart, Douglas; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark; Winship, Ingrid M; Goldberg, Paul; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-09-01

    Genetic anticipation is the phenomenon in which age of onset of an inherited disorder decreases in successive generations. Inconsistent evidence suggests that this occurs in Lynch syndrome. A possible cause for apparent anticipation is fecundity bias, which occurs if the disease adversely affects fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) on lifetime fertility in Lynch syndrome, and whether this can falsely create the appearance of genetic anticipation. A computer model simulated age of diagnosis of CRC in hypothetical Lynch syndrome carriers and their offspring. The model assumed similar age distribution of CRC across generations (i.e. that there was no true anticipation). Age distribution of CRC diagnosis, and lifetime fertility rates (grouped by age of diagnosis of CRC) were determined from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR). Apparent anticipation was calculated by comparing ages of diagnosis of CRC in affected parent-child pairs. A total of 1,088 patients with CRC were identified from the ACCFR. Total lifetime (cohort) fertility was related to age of diagnosis of CRC (correlation coefficient 0.13, P = 0.0001). In the simulation, apparent anticipation was 1.8 ± 0.54 years (P = 0.0044). Observed apparent anticipation in the ACCFR cohort was 4.8 ± 1.73 years (P = 0.0064). There was no difference in apparent anticipation between the simulate d and observed parent-child pairs (P = 0.89). The appearance of genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome can be falsely created due to changes in fertility.

  18. miR-503 suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis by directly targeting RNF31 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jia; Liu, Xiuheng; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Microarray data analyses were performed to search for metastasis-associated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa). RNF31 mRNA expressions in tumor tissues and benign prostate tissues were evaluated. The RNF31 protein expression levels were also analyzed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Luciferase reporter assays were used to identify miRNAs that can regulate RNF31. The effect of RNF31 on PCa progression was studied in vitro and in vivo. We found that RNF31 was significantly increased in PCa and its expression level was highly correlated with seminal vesicle invasion, clinical stage, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and BCR. Silence of RNF31 suppressed PCa cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. miR-503 can directly regulate RNF31. Enforced expression of miR-503 inhibited the expression of RNF31 significantly and the restoration of RNF31 expression reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-503 on PCa cell proliferation and metastasis. These findings collectively indicated an oncogene role of RNF31 in PCa progression which can be regulated by miR-503, suggesting that RNF31 could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PCa. - Highlights: • RNF31 is a potential metastasis associated gene and is associated with prostate cancer progression. • Silence of RNF31 inhibits PCa cell colony formation, migration and invasion. • RNF31 as a direct target of miR-503. • miR-503 can regulate cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting RNF31. • RNF31 plays an important role in PCa growth and metastasis in vivo

  19. Size of cervical lymph node and metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarungroongruangchai, Weerawut; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkol; Silpeeyodom, Tawatchai; Pruksapong, Chatchai; Burusapat, Chairat

    2014-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue and floor of mouth are the most common head and neck cancers. Regional metastasis of SCC is most likely found at the cervical lymph node. Size and characteristics of pathologically suspicious lymph nodes are related to the aggressiveness of the primary tumor: The objective of this study is to analyze the conrrelation between sizes of cervical node and metastasis in SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth. Retrospective review was conducted firom the patient's charts between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinical, histopathology and surgical records were reviewed. Cervical lymph nodes ofSCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth were reviewed and divided into four groups depending on their size (1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, 10-30 mm and more than 30 am,). A p-value oral cavity were recorded. Sixteen patients ofSCC of the oral tongue and 15patients of SCC of the floor of mouth underwent neck dissection (641 cervical nodes). Most ofthe patients were diagnosed with stage 3 (41.94%). Extracapsular extension was found in 72.15% of SCC of oral tongue and 73.33 % of SCC ofthe floor of mouth. Size of cervical lymph nodes less than 10 mm was found to be metastasis at 9.27% and 10.82% of SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth, respectively. Cervical node metastasis can be found in SCC of the oral tongue and floor ofmouth with clinlically negative node andsize of cervical node less than 10 mm. Here in, size of cervical node less than 10 mm was still important due to the chance for metastasis especially high grade tumors, advanced stage cancer and lymphovascular invasion.

  20. miR-503 suppresses tumor cell proliferation and metastasis by directly targeting RNF31 in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia; Liu, Xiuheng, E-mail: l_xiuheng@163.com; Wang, Min

    2015-09-04

    Microarray data analyses were performed to search for metastasis-associated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa). RNF31 mRNA expressions in tumor tissues and benign prostate tissues were evaluated. The RNF31 protein expression levels were also analyzed by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Luciferase reporter assays were used to identify miRNAs that can regulate RNF31. The effect of RNF31 on PCa progression was studied in vitro and in vivo. We found that RNF31 was significantly increased in PCa and its expression level was highly correlated with seminal vesicle invasion, clinical stage, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, and BCR. Silence of RNF31 suppressed PCa cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. miR-503 can directly regulate RNF31. Enforced expression of miR-503 inhibited the expression of RNF31 significantly and the restoration of RNF31 expression reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-503 on PCa cell proliferation and metastasis. These findings collectively indicated an oncogene role of RNF31 in PCa progression which can be regulated by miR-503, suggesting that RNF31 could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PCa. - Highlights: • RNF31 is a potential metastasis associated gene and is associated with prostate cancer progression. • Silence of RNF31 inhibits PCa cell colony formation, migration and invasion. • RNF31 as a direct target of miR-503. • miR-503 can regulate cell proliferation, invasion and migration by targeting RNF31. • RNF31 plays an important role in PCa growth and metastasis in vivo.

  1. Anal metastasis originating from colorectal cancer: Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Min; Lim, Joon Seok; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Myeong Jin [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek; Kim, Ho Guen [Dept. of Pathology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Anal metastasis from colorectal cancer rarely occurs, but it severely impairs the patient's quality of life, often requiring wide resection including the anal sphincter with permanent colostomy. This lesion can be misdiagnosed as a perianal fistula or an abscess, and it can be overlooked at the time of surgery because it is not included in the routine surgical extent of low anterior resection. We report two rare cases of anal metastasis from colorectal cancer. In both cases, perianal nodules with an internal solid portion were detected on preoperative rectal magnetic resonance imaging and additional local excisions of the anal lesions were performed during the process of treatment. Anal metastasis was pathologically confirmed by histology and immunohistochemical staining.

  2. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it was reported as a metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma, therefore some radiological  investigations and endoscopic procedures were performed to determine the primary focus of cancer. A pulmonary mass was revealed in PET/CT, and was considered as primary tumor. Both primary and metastatic perianal tumors can be rarely presented as an abscess formation. In this situation, a biopsy should be performed from the lesion to avoid misdiagnosis.

  3. Unusual metastasis of left colon cancer: considerations on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Adelmo; Moccia, Giancarlo; Malinconico, Francesca Antonella; Gilio, Francesco; Iside, Giovanni; Califano, Umberto G A; Foroni, Fabrizio; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Agresti, Massimo

    2009-04-01

    Usually, left colon cancer metastasis concerns liver, abdominal lymph nodes and lungs. Other localizations are quite rare occurrences. In spite of this, some uncommon metastasis sites are reported in literature, such as: peritoneum, ovaries, uterus, kidney testis, bones, thyroid, oral cavity and central nervous system. We report two cases of unusual localizations of left colon cancer metastasis localization, one into the retroperitoneal space and the other at the left axillary lynphnodes and between liver and pancreas. In the first reported case the diffusion pathway may have been the lymphatic mesocolic vessels, partially left in place from the previous surgery. In the second case the alleged metastatic lane may have been through the periumbilical lymph nodes to the parasternal lymph nodes and then to the internal mammary ones, finally reaching the axillary limph nodes.

  4. The Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Bone Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple types of cancer have the specific ability to home to the bone microenvironment and cause metastatic lesions. Despite being the focus of intense investigation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the metastasis of disseminated tumor cells still remain largely unknown. Bone metastases severely impact quality of life since they are associated with pain, fractures, and bone marrow aplasia. In this review, we will summarize the recent discoveries on the role of extracellular vesicles (EV in the regulation of bone remodeling activity and bone metastasis occurrence. Indeed, it was shown that extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, released from tumor cells can modify the bone microenvironment, allowing the formation of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, and mixed mestastases. In turn, bone-derived EV can stimulate the proliferation of tumor cells. The inhibition of EV-mediated crosstalk between cancer and bone cells could represent a new therapeutic target for bone metastasis.

  5. Metastasis of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Bilateral Thigh Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarah Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Laryngeal cancer infrequently results in distant metastases, but metastasis to skeletal muscle is extremely uncommon. Observations. A 55-year-old male presenting with progressive dyspnea and hoarseness was found to have Stage IVA T4aN2cM0 laryngeal cancer and eventually underwent total laryngectomy. Before the patient could be started on adjuvant chemoradiation, the patient developed masses on both thighs. Biopsy revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma consistent with the primary laryngeal cancer. He was offered palliative chemotherapy; however, he developed new soft tissue masses to the left of his stoma and in the prevertebral area one week later. He also had new cervical and supraclavicular nodes and a pathological compression fracture of L3. Patient died within 4 months of diagnosis. Conclusions. Distant metastasis such as skeletal metastasis portends a poor prognosis. Further studies are required to determine the best course of treatment in these patients.

  6. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, Z.I.; Sang, Q.A.; Sahab, Z.J.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome

  7. Active Roles of Tumor Stroma in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of death for breast cancer patients. Tumors are heterogenous cellular entities composed of cancer cells and cells of the microenvironment in which they reside. A reciprocal dynamic interaction occurs between the tumor cells and their surrounding stroma under physiological and pathological conditions. This tumor-host communication interface mediates the escape of tumor cells at the primary site, survival of circulating cancer cells in the vasculature, and growth of metastatic cancer at secondary site. Each step of the metastatic process is accompanied by recruitment of stromal cells from the microenvironment and production of unique array of growth factors and chemokines. Stromal microenvironment may play active roles in breast cancer metastasis. Elucidating the types of cells recruited and signal pathways involved in the crosstalk between tumor cells and stromal cells will help identify novel strategies for cotargeting cancer cells and tumor stromal cells to suppress metastasis and improve patient outcome.

  8. Metastasis of the gastrointestinal tract. FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Nihashi, Takashi; Matsuura, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    We assess the usefulness of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the evaluation of gastrointestinal metastases. Four cases (five lesions) in which metastases from three lung cancers and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of the femur were found in the gastrointestinal tract were reviewed (men/women 3:1, age 63-78 years, mean 72 years). The five lesions were duodenal, jejunal metastasis, and two stomach metastases from lung carcinoma, and rectal metastasis from MFH of the femur. FDG-PET was unable to detect small masses, but it was able to detect unforeseen lesions such as gastrointestinal metastases because FDG-PET is a whole-body scan in a single-operation examination. FDG-PET imaging provided valuable information for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal metastasis. (author)

  9. Ostomy metastasis after pull endoscopic gastrostomy: a unique favorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jorge; Adriana, Carla; Fróis-Borges, Miguel; Meira, Tânia; Oliveira, Gabriel; Santos, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients tend to develop dysphagia. In order to preserve the nutritional support, many undergo endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). In HNC patients, ostomy metastasis is considered a rare complication of PEG, but there are no reports of successful treatment of these metastatic cancers. We report the case of a 65 years old pharyngeal/laryngeal cancer patient who underwent a PEG before the neck surgery. He was considered to be cured, resumed oral intake and the PEG tube was removed. Ten months after, he returned with a metastasis at the ostomy site. A block resection of the stomach and abdominal wall was performed. Two years after the abdominal surgery, he is free of disease. Although usually considered a rare complication of the endoscopic gastrostomy, ostomy metastasis may be more frequent than usually considered and the present case report demonstrates that these patients may have a favourable outcome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Event and Apparent Horizon Finders for 3 + 1 Numerical Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Event and apparent horizons are key diagnostics for the presence and properties of black holes. In this article I review numerical algorithms and codes for finding event and apparent horizons in numerically-computed spacetimes, focusing on calculations done using the 3 + 1 ADM formalism. The event horizon of an asymptotically-flat spacetime is the boundary between those events from which a future-pointing null geodesic can reach future null infinity and those events from which no such geodesic exists. The event horizon is a (continuous) null surface in spacetime. The event horizon is defined nonlocally in time : it is a global property of the entire spacetime and must be found in a separate post-processing phase after all (or at least the nonstationary part) of spacetime has been numerically computed. There are three basic algorithms for finding event horizons, based on integrating null geodesics forwards in time, integrating null geodesics backwards in time, and integrating null surfaces backwards in time. The last of these is generally the most efficient and accurate. In contrast to an event horizon, an apparent horizon is defined locally in time in a spacelike slice and depends only on data in that slice, so it can be (and usually is) found during the numerical computation of a spacetime. A marginally outer trapped surface (MOTS) in a slice is a smooth closed 2-surface whose future-pointing outgoing null geodesics have zero expansion Θ. An apparent horizon is then defined as a MOTS not contained in any other MOTS. The MOTS condition is a nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) for the surface shape, containing the ADM 3-metric, its spatial derivatives, and the extrinsic curvature as coefficients. Most "apparent horizon" finders actually find MOTSs. There are a large number of apparent horizon finding algorithms, with differing trade-offs between speed, robustness, accuracy, and ease of programming. In axisymmetry, shooting algorithms work well

  11. PROSTATE CANCER TOPOGRAPHY AND PATTERNS OF LYMPH NODE METASTASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Yuji; Carlino, Lauren J.; Gopalan, Anuradha; Tickoo, Satish K.; Kaag, Matthew G.; Guillonneau, Bertrand; Eastham, James A.; Scher, Howard I.; Scardino, Peter T.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic lymph node (LN) metastasis is a well-recognized route of prostate cancer spread. However, the relationship between topography and pathologic features of primary prostatic cancers and patterns of pelvic LN metastasis has not been well studied. We reviewed original slides of radical prostatectomies and pelvic LN dissections from 125 patients with LN metastasis and recorded total # of LN excised / laterality of positive LN, as well as localization, staging parameters, lymphovascular invasion and tumor volume of primary tumors. LN Quantity and Distribution 14.6 (mean) and 13 (median) LN were resected. 76 (61%), 33 (26%) and 16 (13%) cases had 1, 2 and > 2 positive LN, while 58, 44 and 20 cases had LN metastasis on the right (R), left (L), and bilaterally. Pathologic Features 86% (108/125) and 37% (46/125) demonstrated extraprostatic extension and seminal vesicle invasion, while 64% showed lymphovascular invasion. Mean and median total tumor volume was 6.39 and 3.92 cc, with ≥ 50% and ≥ 90% Gleason patterns 4/5 in 105 (84%) and 73 (58%) cases, respectively. Correlation with Dominant Tumor Location Dominant lesions on RP: 50 R lobe, 44 L lobe, 31 bilateral. 15/50 (30%) R lobe and 18/44 (41%) L lobe dominant tumors had LN metastasis on the contralateral side. Only 4% (5/125) of cases were associated with anterior dominant tumors. 30–40% of LN metastases occur contralateral to the dominant tumor. LN metastasis is overwhelmingly associated with high grade, high stage and large volume disease. LN positivity is rarely associated with anterior dominant tumors. PMID:21107093

  12. A Rare Cause of Testicular Metastasis: Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Nesip Manav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic testicular cancers are rare. Primary tumor sources are prostate, lung, and gastrointestinal tract for metastatic testicular cancers. Metastasis of urothelial carcinoma (UC to the testis is extremely rare. Two-thirds of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC is of invasive stage at diagnosis and metastatic sites are the pelvic lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone. We report a rare case of metastatic UTUC to the testis which has not been reported before, except one case in the literature. Testicular metastasis of UC should be considered in patients with hematuria and testicular swelling.

  13. An Unusual Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis: Perianal Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Kilic

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in both men and women. Although the most frequent sites of distant metastasis of lung cancers are the pleura, liver, adrenal glands, skeletal system and brain, perianal region has been rarely reported as a metastasis site. A male patient was admitted to our emergency room with a long standing perianal abscess. During abscess drainage, a mass was noticed at the base of the abscess pouch, and thus a biopsy was taken. Pathologically, it w...

  14. Lymphoscintigraphic diagnosis of the lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, Shoji; Kawai, Hideo; Hirashima, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kato, Hoichi; Iizuka, Norifumi

    1985-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled rhenium sulfur colloid was performed preoperatively in 30 patients with esopohageal cancer. It showed hot nodes in a total of 267 lymph nodes, 176 mediastinal nodes and 91 celiac artery nodes. Of these 267 nodes, 47 (18 %) were found to have metastasis, including 34 (19 %) mediastinal nodes and 13 (14 %) celiac artery nodes. On the other hand, the number of non-visualized lymph nodes (cold nodes) was 542. Of them, 78 (14 %) had metastasis; 46 (15 %) were mediastinal nodes and 32 (14 %) were celiac artery nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. [Vaginal metastasis revealing an adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, D; Delotte, J; Bongain, A; François, E; Bereder, J-M; Bernard, J-L

    2014-09-01

    Secondary localization to vagina had a severe prognosis, suggesting a disseminated metatastic disease. We report the case of prevalent vaginal metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. A 65 years old patient has consulted for vaginal mass. After delayed diagnosis, she presented with disseminated metastatic disease with peritoneal carcinomatosis. After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the following treatment consisted of complete cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and vaginal adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence occurred after one year. Vaginal metastasis of colon cancer are rare. The dark prognosis might justify a systematic gynecological examination of women presenting colorectal neoplasy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ureteral Metastasis Secondary to Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morales

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is very frequent, but secondary ureteral metastasis are extremely rare. We present a 55 year old man with a 2 month history of right flank pain and lower urinary tract symptoms. Prostatic specific antigen of 11.3 ng/mL. Computed tomography showed right hydroureteronephrosis, a developing urinoma and right iliac adenopathies. He underwent right ureteronephrectomy, iliac lymphadenectomy and prostate biopsy. Pathology revealed prostatic carcinoma infiltrating the ureteral muscularis propria, without mucosal involvement. There are 46 reported cases of prostate cancer with ureteral metastases. Ureteral metastasis are a rare cause of renal colic and need of a high index of suspicion.

  17. Malar Bone Metastasis Revealing a Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsen Slim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common form of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. It is generally confined to the neck with or without spread to regional lymph nodes. Metastatic thyroid carcinomas are uncommon and mainly include lung and bone. Metastases involving oral and maxillofacial region are extremely rare. We described a case of malar metastasis revealing a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, presenting with pain and swelling of the left cheek in a 67-years-old female patient with an unspecified histological left lobo-isthmectomy medical history. To our knowledge, this is the first recorded instance of a malar metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  18. CGI-99 promotes breast cancer metastasis via autocrine interleukin-6 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C; Liao, W; Jian, Y; Peng, Y; Zhang, X; Ye, L; Cui, Y; Wang, B; Wu, X; Xiong, Z; Wu, S; Li, J; Wang, X; Song, L

    2017-06-29

    Metastatic relapse remains largely incurable and a major challenge of clinical management in breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we report that CGI-99 is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues from patients with metastatic recurrence within 5 years. High CGI-99 significantly predicts poorer 5-year metastasis-free patient survival. We find that CGI-99 increases breast cancer stem cell properties, and potentiates efficient tumor lung colonization and outgrowth in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CGI-99 activates the autocrine interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling by increasing the accumulation and activity of RNA polymerase II and p300 cofactor at the proximal promoter of IL-6. Importantly, delivery of the IL-6-receptor humanized monoclonal antibody tocilizumab robustly abrogates CGI-99-induced metastasis in vivo. Finally, we find that high levels of CGI-99 are significantly correlated with STAT3 hyperactivation in breast cancer patients. These findings reveal a potential mechanism for constitutive activation of autocrine IL-6/STAT3 signaling and may suggest a novel target for clinical intervention in breast cancer.

  19. Subcutaneous tissue metastasis from glioblastoma multiforme: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade Porto, Natalia; Delgado Fernández, Juan; García Pallero, María de Los Ángeles; Penanes Cuesta, Juan Ramón; Pulido Rivas, Paloma; Gil Simoes, Ricardo

    2018-05-16

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary brain tumor, despite an aggressive clinical course, less than 2% of patients develop extraneural metastasis. We present a 72-year-old male diagnosed with a right temporal glioblastoma due to headache. He underwent total gross resection surgery and after that the patient was treated with adyuvant therapy. Five months after the patient returned with trigeminal neuralgia, and MRI showed an infratemporal cranial mass which infiltrates masticator space, the surrounding bone, the temporal muscle and superior cervical and parotid lymph nodes. The patient underwent a new surgery reaching partial resection of the temporal lesion. After that the patient continued suffering from disabling trigeminal neuralgia, that's why because of the bad clinical situation and the treatment failure we decided to restrict therapeutic efforts. The patient died 3 weeks after the diagnosis of extracranial metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of intracranial hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accidents in non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Geetika; Rana, Vishal; Wallace, Suzy; Taylor, Sarah; Debnam, Matthew; Feng, Lei; Suki, Dima; Karp, Daniel; Stewart, David; Oh, Yun

    2009-03-01

    Brain metastases confer significant morbidity and a poorer survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted antiangiogenic therapies (AAT) have demonstrated benefit for patients with metastatic NSCLC and are expected to directly inhibit the pathophysiology and morbidity of brain metastases, yet patients with brain metastases have been excluded from most clinical trials of AAT for fear of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The underlying risk of ICH from NSCLC brain metastases is low, but needs to be quantitated to plan clinical trials of AAT for NSCLC brain metastases. Data from MD Anderson Cancer Center Tumor Registry and electronic medical records from January 1998 to March 2006 was interrogated. Two thousand one hundred forty-three patients with metastatic NSCLC registering from January 1998 to September 2005 were followed till March 2006. Seven hundred seventy-six patients with and 1,367 patients without brain metastases were followed till death, date of ICH, or last date of study, whichever occurred first. The incidence of ICH seemed to be higher in those with brain metastasis compared with those without brain metastases, in whom they occurred as result of cerebrovascular accidents. However, the rates of symptomatic ICH were not significantly different. All ICH patients with brain metastasis had received radiation therapy for them and had been free of anticoagulation. Most of the brain metastasis-associated ICH's were asymptomatic, detected during increased radiologic surveillance. The rates of symptomatic ICH, or other cerebrovascular accidents in general were similar and not significantly different between the two groups. In metastatic NSCLC patients, the incidence of spontaneous ICH appeared to be higher in those with brain metastases compared with those without, but was very low in both groups without a statistically significant difference. These data suggest a minimal risk of clinically significant ICH for NSCLC

  1. Advances in the biology of bone metastasis: how the skeleton affects tumor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Julie A; Edwards, James R; Martin, T John; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the microenvironment of bone can influence the cancer phenotype in many ways that favor growth in bone. The ability of cancer cells to adhere to bone matrix and to promote osteoclast formation are key requirements for the establishment and growth of bone metastases. Several cytokine products of breast cancers (e.g. PTHrP, IL-11, IL-8) have been shown to act upon host cells of the bone microenvironment to promote osteoclast formation, allowing for excessive bone resorption. The increased release of matrix-derived growth factors, especially TGF-β, acts back upon the tumor to facilitate further tumor expansion and enhance cytokine production, and also upon osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. This provides a self-perpetuating cycle of bone loss and tumor growth within the skeleton. Other contributing factors favoring tumor metastasis and colonization in bone include the unique structure and stiffness of skeletal tissue, along with the diverse cellular composition of the marrow environment (e.g. bone cells, stromal fibroblasts, immune cells), any of which can contribute to the phenotypic changes that can take place in metastatic deposits that favor their survival. Additionally, it is also apparent that breast cancer cells begin to express different bone specific proteins as well as proteins important for normal breast development and lactation that allow them to grow in bone and stimulate bone destruction. Taken together, these continually emerging areas of study suggest new potential pathways important in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis and potential areas for targeting therapeutics. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer: analysis on 63 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jing; Sun Yihong; Qin Xinyu; Zeng Mengsu; Wang Minhua; Zeng Zhaochong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of postoperative radiotherapy for celiac lymph node (LN) metastasis from gastric cancer in the past 6 years. Methods: Sixty-three patients with abdominal LN metastasis after curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics was colleeted including age, gender, status of primary tumor of stomach (size, location and grade), and the number of LN dissected and involved. Of the 63 patients, 36 received local external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as salvage therapy and were classified as the EBRT group. The irradiation target was local-regional LN. The radiation dose ranged from 40 to 60 Gy in daily 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions, 5 times weekly. The other 27 patients who received chemotherapy were classified as the non-EBRT group. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival rates, and the Cox regression model was used to identify the predictors of prognosis. Results: After EBRT, complete response and partial response were observed in 31% and 58% of patients, respectively. The clinical obstruction symptoms induced by LN pressure in 18 patients were completely relieved after EBRT. The median survival was 339 clays for the EBRT group and 136 days for the non- EBRT group, the survival rate at 1 and 2 years for patients treated with EBRT vs. without EBRT was 40% vs. 17% and 20% vs. 6%, respectively (P=0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that the level of relative risk (RR) in the EBRT group was reduced to 0.299 (P=0.002). The incidence of death resulting from LN-related complications was lower in the EBRT group. The main cause of death in both groups was distant metastasis. The gastro-intestinal toxicities were the most common side effects during and after EBRT. The RTOG grade 0,1,2 and 3 toxicities were found in 7,17,11 and 1 patients, respectively. No hematologic and hepatic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Postoperative lymph node metastasis from gastric cancer is sensitive to external beam

  3. Ovarian metastasis in colorectal cancer: retrospective review of 180 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omranipour R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Routine oophorectomy in women with colorectal cancer is under debate, the aim of this study is to determine incidence, clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors of ovarian involvement in primary colorectal cancer (CRC and to clear the role of prophylactic oophorectomy."n"nMethods: Data from primary CRC women treated between years 1990 and 2004 were retrieved and clinical and pathologic features of those who had undergone oophorectomy during CRC surgery were reviewed."n"nResults: One hundred eighty cases (mean age 47.5 years were included. In 120(66.6%, ovaries were preserved and 60(33.3% cases underwent bilateral oophorectomy in addition to primary CRC resection. Reasons for oophorectomy were prophylactic in 22(36.6%, abnormal morphology in 35(58.3%, and undetermined in 3(5% cases. There were five metastatic carcinomas, eight primary ovarian tumors and 47 normal ovaries in pathologic evaluation. No complication directly related to oophorectomy was noted. Patients with ovarian metastases had higher stages of tumor. Ovarian metastases were not related to menstrual status, CRC location, size, differentiation, and mucin production, as well as abnormal morphology of ovary. The global prevalence of

  4. Definition of apparent activation energy on DTG curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Serikbayeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of sulphidation oxidized copper ores and tailings with sulfur. Defined by the apparent activation energy in the conditions of heating the mixture of substances interacting with a constant speed by differential thermogravimetry (DTG. It was established that the sulfiding may occur in a kinetic mode , since the interaction is charged, in the presence of liquid and gaseous sulfur , i.e. transport of sulfur to the surface of the mineral is not a limiting process.

  5. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    So this method brings certain difficulty for judgement. Hence the author further explores how one can use a great deal of the observational data such as a1,2 sin i, m1,2 sin3 i, K1,2 and f (m) in tables of binary stars to judge synchronization of rotation of binary stars by using apparent phenomenal descriptive methods. These.

  6. Can oscillating physics explain an apparently periodic universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.T.; Steinhardt, P.J.; Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Broadhurst et al. have reported an apparent periodicity in a north-south pencil-beam red-shift survey of galaxies. We consider whether the periodicity may be an illusion caused by the oscillations of physical constants. Should the periodicity be disproven by subsequent observations, the same analysis can be used to derive new, stringent limits on the variations of physical constants. (orig.)

  7. Erratum An Apparent Phenomenal Descriptive Method for Judging ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Lin-sen. (J. Astrophys. Astr., (2004) Vol. 25, Nos. 3 & 4, pp. 203–211). Table 1. The calculated results for synchronous parameters of twenty components in ten eclipsing binary systems by using the apparent descriptive method of formula (4). Sp. (V1,2 sin i)M. Name type. P(d) i(deg) R1,2(R⊙). (km/s). Qe,e. PR ≷ P Synch.

  8. Anti-metastasis activity of black rice anthocyanins against breast cancer: analyses using an ErbB2 positive breast cancer cell line and tumoral xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Li; Zou, Qiang; Li, Sui-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence from animal, epidemiological and clinical investigations suggest that dietary anthocyanins have potential to prevent chronic diseases, including cancers. It is also noteworthy that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2) protein overexpression or ErbB2 gene amplification has been included as an indicator for metastasis and higher risk of recurrence for breast cancer. The present experiments investigated the anti-metastasis effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) on ErbB2 positive breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of BRACs (150 mg/kg/day) reduced transplanted tumor growth, inhibited pulmonary metastasis, and decreased lung tumor nodules in BALB/c nude mice bearing ErbB2 positive breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 xenografts. The capacity for migration, adhesion, motility and invasion was also inhibited by BRACs in MDA-MB-453 cells in a concentration dependent manner, accompanied by decreased activity of a transfer promoting factor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Together, our results indicated that BRACs possess anti-metastasis potential against ErbB2 positive human breast cancer cells in vivo and in vitro through inhibition of metastasis promoting molecules.

  9. Apparent Coefficient of Friction of Wheat on Denim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Charles V

    2017-07-31

    Calculation of the extraction force for a grain entrapment victim requires a coefficient of friction between the grain and the surface of the victim. Because denim is a common fabric for the work clothes that cover entrapment victims, the coefficient of friction between grain and denim becomes necessary. The purpose of this research was to calculate the apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric using a proven procedure. The expectation is to improve the current understanding of conditions that influence extraction forces for victims buried in wheat. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim fabric was calculated to be 0.167 with a standard deviation of ±0.013. The wheat had a moisture content of 10.7% (w.b.) and bulk density of 778.5 kg m-3. The apparent coefficient of friction of wheat on denim was not significantly affected by pull speeds of 0.004, 0.008, and 0.021 mm s-1 nor normal grain pressures of 3.2, 4.8, 6.3, 7.9, and 11.1 kPa. This is a beginning of understanding the conditions that influence the extraction forces for grain entrapment victims. Copyright© by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers.

  10. Tertiary work-up of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimark, Sondre; Eskås, Per Anders; Mariampillai, Julian Eek; Larstorp, Anne Cecilie K; Høieggen, Aud; Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M

    2016-10-01

    Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) has regained attention with development of new methods for treatment. However, the prevalence of TRH varies considerably from primary to secondary and tertiary care. We aimed to assess the prevalence of true TRH in a population of patients with apparent TRH in a university hospital setting of tertiary work-up and also investigate reasons for poor BP control and evaluate how work-up can be performed in general practice and secondary care. In this cohort study, we characterize a study population from Oslo Renal Denervation (RDN) Study. Patients (n = 83) were referred for RDN from secondary care. All patients underwent thorough medical investigation and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements (24ABPM) after directly observed therapy (DOT). We then assessed reasons for lack of BP control. Fifty-three of 83 patients did not have true TRH. Main reasons for non-TRH were poor drug adherence (32%), secondary hypertension (30%) and white coat hypertension (15%). Forty-seven percent achieved blood pressure control after DOT with subsequent 24ABPM. There were otherwise no statistically significant differences in patient characteristics between the true TRH and the non-TRH group. Despite being a highly selected cohort referred for tertiary work-up of apparent TRH, BP control was achieved or secondary causes were identified in almost two thirds of the patients. Thorough investigation according to guidelines and DOT with subsequent 24ABPM is needed in work-up of apparent TRH.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activity in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waas, E.T.; Wobbes, Th.; Lomme, R.M.L.M.; Groot, J.H. de; Ruers, T.J.M.; Hendriks, T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been reported to play an important role in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. The bioactivity of MMPs in liver metastasis from colorectal cancer was investigated and correlated with clinicopathological variables. METHOD: Thirty-two patients

  12. Isolated port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Oppedisano, Rosamaria; Russo, Tiziana; Zullo, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    ► Isolated port-site metastasis is a rare event after laparoscopy in the surgical staging of endometrial cancer. ► More aggressive strategies in case of potentially increased risk for port-site metastasis are needed.

  13. Current status of research on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Dongxu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metastasis is a complicated process with multiple steps, and liver metastasis is the most common metastatic mode of colorectal cancer. Deep understanding and study of metastatic mechanism helps to find solutions for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. Recent studies have shown that microRNA are involved in tumor metastasis and recurrence, and studies on microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis can provide new thoughts for the development and progression, diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis of the disease. This article summarizes the research advances in microRNA associated with colorectal cancer liver metastasis and reviews the biological function and molecular mechanism of microRNA, which suggests that microRNA have a vital significance in the field of tumor metastasis, especially colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

  14. Choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyoshi Tei

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first report of choroidal metastasis from early rectal cancer. We consider it important to enforce systemic chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy for choroidal metastasis from colorectal cancer.

  15. Esophageal Metastasis to the Iris Effectively Palliated Using Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Adjuvant Intravitreal Chemotherapy: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughosh Dhakal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated iris metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma that was successfully managed with local application of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT and adjunctive intravitreal therapy. A 53-year-old man with locally advanced esophageal adenocarcinoma achieved a complete clinical and radiographic response after surgery and chemotherapy. Four months later, he developed headache and decreased vision and was diagnosed with metastasis to the iris by slit-lamp examination. The decrease in vision was secondary to cystoid macular edema. The metastatic tumor and the patient’s symptoms resolved after treatment with SBRT and intravitreal injections of bevacizumab and triamcinolone. We conclude that SBRT combined with intravitreal chemotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated palliative treatment for metastasis of esophageal adenocarcinoma to the iris.

  16. Metachronous Bilateral Isolated Adrenal Metastasis from Rectal Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jabir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of adrenal metastasis from colorectal cancer in a 54-year-old woman. Nine months after resection for advanced rectal carcinoma, a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral adrenal metastasis. The level of serum carcinoembryonic antigen was normal. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed after chemotherapy. Histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma, compatible with metastasis from the rectal cancer. Adrenal metastasis should be considered in the patients’ follow-up for colorectal cancer.

  17. The imunocytochemical advances in prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyins'ka, G.V.

    2015-01-01

    The topical issues is the problem of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant metastasis. We offered the methods of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with the help of immunocytochemical detection of the cytokeratin 17 and thyroid peroxidase. With the purpose of prognosis of metastasis radioiodine resistibility the cytokeratin 17 is taped in punctates of primary papillary carcinomas. This approach allows predict response of metastases on radioiodine therapy to choose proper therapeutic approach

  18. Isolated metastasis of colon cancer to the scapula: is surgical resection warranted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesti Jill K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant metastases from colon cancer spread most frequently to the liver and the lung. Risk factors include positive lymph nodes and high grade tumors. Isolated metastases to the appendicular skeleton are very rare, particularly in the absence of identifiable risk factors. Case report The patient was a 55 year old male with no previous personal or family history of colon cancer. Routine screening revealed a sigmoid adenocarcinoma. He underwent resection with primary anastomosis and was found to have Stage IIA colon cancer. He declined chemotherapy as part of a clinical trial, and eight months later was found to have an isolated metastasis in his right scapula. This was treated medically, but grew to 12 × 15 cm. The patient underwent a curative forequarter amputation and is now more than four years from his original colon surgery. Discussion Stage IIA colon cancers are associated with a high five year survival rate, and chemotherapy is not automatically given. If metastases occur, they are likely to arise from local recurrence or follow lymphatic dissemination to the liver or lungs. Isolated skeletal metastases are quite rare and are usually confined to the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated scapular metastasis in a patient with node negative disease. The decision to treat the recurrence with radiation and chemotherapy did not reduce the tumor, and a forequarter amputation was eventually required. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of adequately analyzing the stage of colon cancer and offering appropriate treatment. Equally important is the early involvement of a surgeon in discussing the timing of the treatment for recurrence. Perhaps if the patient had received chemotherapy or earlier resection, he could have been spared the forequarter amputation. The physician must also be aware of the remote possibility of an unusual presentation of metastasis in order to pursue

  19. Regulation of Membrane-Type 4 Matrix Metalloproteinase by SLUG Contributes to Hypoxia-Mediated Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hung Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hypoxic tumor environment has been shown to be critical to cancer metastasis through the promotion of angiogenesis, induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and acquisition of invasive potential. However, the impact of hypoxia on the expression profile of the proteolytic enzymes involved in invasiveness is relatively unknown. Membrane-type 4 matrix metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP is a glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol-anchored protease that has been shown to be overexpressed in human cancers. However, detailed mechanisms regarding the regulation and function of MT4-MMP expression in tumor cells remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia or overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α induced MT4-MMP expression in human cancer cells. Activation of SLUG, a transcriptional factor regulating the EMT process of human cancers, by HIF-1α was critical for the induction of MT4-MMP under hypoxia. SLUG regulated the transcription of MT4-MMP through direct binding to the E-box located in its proximal promoter. Short-interference RNA-mediated knockdown of MT4-MMP attenuated in vitro invasiveness and in vivo pulmonary colonization of tumor cells without affecting cell migratory ability. MT4-MMP promoted invasiveness and pulmonary colonization through modulation of the expression profile of MMPs and angiogenic factors. Finally, coexpression of HIF-1α and MT4-MMP in human head and neck cancer was predictive of a worse clinical outcome. These findings establish a novel signaling pathway for hypoxia-mediated metastasis and elucidate the underlying regulatory mechanism and functional significance of MT4-MMP in cancer metastasis.

  20. CT and MRI of germ-cell tumors with metastasis or multi-located tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagami, Mitsusuke; Tazoe, Makoto; Tsubokawa, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of germ-cell tumors were examined with a CT scan in our clinic. In the 11 cases of metastasis or multi-localized tumors, the CT findings were studied in connection with the MRI findings. There were 6 cases of germ-cell tumors which had broad infiltrating tumors with multiple lesions on first admission. Their tumor sites were different from that in cases of malignant glioma, being frequently localized in the pineal and/or the suprasellar region, on the wall of the third and/or lateral ventricle, and in the region of the basal ganglia. Five of the cases of germ-cell tumors had metastasis with various patterns connected to a remote area - that is, to spinal cords, to the ventricular wall and basal cistern of the brain stem by CSF dissemination, to a lung by hematogeneous metastasis, and to the peritoneal wall or organs by a V-P shunt. The CT findings of germ-cell tumors were correlated mainly with the results of the histological diagnosis; they were found not to differ with the tumor site. The germinoma in the suprasellar region had less calcification than in the pineal region. Cysts, calcification, and an enlargement of the lateral ventricle on the tumor side were frequently seen in the germinoma of the basal ganglia. On the MRI of 5 cases of germinoma, the T 1 -weighted image revealed a slightly low or iso signal intensity, while the T 2 -weighted image showed a high signal intensity. In the case of multiple tumor lesions, some cases demonstrated different CT findings and radiosensitivities for each tumor. The possibility of a multicentric origin for the tumors is thus suggested in some cases of germ-cell tumors. (author)