WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical psychology

  1. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  2. Clinical psychology of religion. A training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden, M.H.F. van; Pieper, J.Z.T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will show you a part of a course "Clinical Psychology of Religion" that has been developed in the Netherlands for introducing mental health professionals in the field of clinical psychology of religion. Clinical psychology of religion applies insights from general psychology of

  3. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology. ... paediatric and ethical aspects of the applied field of clinical and counselling psychology. The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical interest.

  4. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  5. Clinical Psychology Training: Accreditation and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Robert W

    2017-05-08

    Beginning with efforts in the late 1940s to ensure that clinical psychologists were adequately trained to meet the mental health needs of the veterans of World War II, the accreditation of clinical psychologists has largely been the province of the Commission on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association. However, in 2008 the Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System began accrediting doctoral programs that adhere to the clinical science training model. This review discusses the goals of accreditation and the history of the accreditation of graduate programs in clinical psychology, and provides an overview of the evaluation procedures used by these two systems. Accreditation is viewed against the backdrop of the slow rate of progress in reducing the burden of mental illness and the changes in clinical psychology training that might help improve this situation. The review concludes with a set of five recommendations for improving accreditation.

  6. Ethics in the practice of clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Rathna

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of ethical issues in clinical psychology. Specifically, it addresses the broad philosophical ideas and views on mental illness on which ethical principles are based, including Greek philosophy and Christianity. It goes on to describe the ethical code of the American Psychological Association as it pertains to general principles, psychological assessment or psychometry, education or training and psychological interventions. The principles of the code and research on the same are discussed with relevance to issues and challenges to ethical practice in India, and suggestions for ethical conduct are made. The paper emphasises the need to consider different viewpoints and take individual responsibility for difficult decisions.

  7. What predicts performance during clinical psychology training?

    OpenAIRE

    Scior, Katrina; Bradley, Caroline E; Potts, Henry W W; Woolf, Katherine; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives While the question of who is likely to be selected for clinical psychology training has been studied, evidence on performance during training is scant. This study explored data from seven consecutive intakes of the UK's largest clinical psychology training course, aiming to identify what factors predict better or poorer outcomes. Design Longitudinal cross-sectional study using prospective and retrospective data. Method Characteristics at application were analysed in relation to a r...

  8. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed method research with the Portuguese communi...

  9. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors....... OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. METHODS: Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types...... applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application...

  10. Psychology at Chinese universities and in Chinese society: with special reference to clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Guoan; Perrez, Meinrad; Han, Xiulan

    2011-01-01

    The following contribution gives a short introduction to Chinese psychology, history, psychological research and teaching institutions and student selection for universities. After a brief overview of the theoretical traditions and contemporary trends in general and experimental psychology it focuses in more detail on the recent developments in clinical and medical psychology. Research domains, academic training in clinical psychology and its applications in modern China are discussed with sp...

  11. Understanding Egorrhea from Cultural-Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eSasaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on his observations in Japanese clinical settings, Fujinawa (1972 conceptualized egorrhea syndrome, which includes symptoms such as olfactory reference syndrome, fear of eye-to-eye confrontation, delusions of sleep talking, delusions of soliloquy, and thought broadcasting. The key feature of this syndrome is self-leakage, a perceived sense that one’s personal internal information, such as feelings and thoughts, are leaking out. To reach a more comprehensive understanding of egorrhea, this paper aims to present general overview and reconsider the phenomenon of self-leakage using cultural-clinical psychology as a framework. First, the symptoms of egorrhea are reviewed in relation to other related psychopathologies such as social anxiety disorder (SAD and taijin kyofusho (TKS, as well as schizophrenia. Second, a series of empirical studies conducted using Japanese non-clinical samples are summarized. The results of these studies form the basis for subsequent discussions, which incorporates the cultural-clinical psychology perspective proposed by Ryder, Ban, Chentsova-Dutton (2011. This paper ends with a general discussion regarding implications for research and clinical practice.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology is concerned with the psychological, social, behavioural, medical, paediatric and ethical aspects of the applied field of clinical and counselling psychology. The journal publishes contributions of research, clinical, counselling and theoretical ...

  13. Current status of psychology and clinical psychology in India - an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudhagirinathan, Baboo Sankar; Karunanidhi, Subbiah

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the social and cultural context for the emergence and development of psychology in India and also more specifically of the development of clinical psychology. It details the range of universities offering psychology programmes and the various bodies involved in supporting the development of the psychology. The paper also describes the development of clinical psychology in India and the variety of roles undertaken by clinical psychologists. Finally, it raises a number of issues facing the development of Indian psychology into the future.

  14. Clinical Psychology and Research: epistemological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Coppola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a reflection on the relationship between clinical psychology and research, highlighting the constant epistemological crossing the two practices, empirical and professional. The paper warns against the pitfalls of reductionism that, in both cases, may impact the effectiveness of therapeutic results. In fact, both in clinical practice and is in psychological research, the mere application of techniques contradicts the specificity of the object of study (the mind which, rather, requires the constant attention to a complexity of variables and contextual elements essential for the understanding the psychic. Qualitative research has been a prolific space for dialogue and joint trials between research and clinical practice that has rehabilitated scientific dignity of affective and subjective for a long time confined to the ephemeral world of poetry and literature. It must therefore be a further extension of the convergence not only of qualitative and quantitative methods but also of training modules for researchers and practitioners are able to stimulate, in daily practice, confidence in the utility of scientific monitoring and detection of inter-subjective variables in research devices.

  15. Psychotherapeutics and the problematic origins of clinical psychology in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, E

    2000-09-01

    The problematic place of psychotherapy within the larger history of scientific psychology is reviewed, especially in the absence of any definitive history of clinical psychology yet written. Although standard histories of psychology imply that psychotherapy was somehow derived from the tradition of German laboratory science, modern historiography reveals a dramatically different story. Personality, abnormal, social, and clinical psychology have their roots in an international psychotherapeutic alliance related more to French neurophysiology, and this alliance flourished for several decades before psychoanalysis. Reconstruction of the American contribution to this alliance, the so-called Boston school of abnormal psychology, suggests an era of medical psychology in advance of today. Note is also made of the possible misattribution of Lightner Witmer as the father of clinical psychology.

  16. Women entering clinical psychology: Q-sort narratives of career attraction of female clinical psychology trainees in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen

    2011-01-01

    The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce is female, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women – a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined, before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, wai...

  17. Revisioning Clinical Psychology: Integrating Cultural Psychology into Clinical Research and Practice with Portuguese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Susan; Harris, Sara; Foster, Gary; Clarke, Juanne; Gadermann, Anne; Morrison, Marie; Bezanson, Birdie Jane

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines a model for conducting psychotherapy with people of diverse cultural backgrounds. The theoretical foundation for the model is based on clinical and cultural psychology. Cultural psychology integrates psychology and anthropology in order to provide a complex understanding of both culture and the individual within his or her cultural context. The model proposed in this article is also based on our clinical experience and mixed-method research with the Portuguese community. The model demonstrates its value with ethnic minority clients by situating the clients within the context of their multi-layered social reality. The individual, familial, socio-cultural, and religio-moral domains are explored in two research projects, revealing the interrelation of these levels/contexts. The article is structured according to these domains. Study 1 is a quantitative study that validates the Agonias Questionnaire in Ontario. The results of this study are used to illustrate the individual domain of our proposed model. Study 2 is an ethnography conducted in the Azorean Islands, and the results of this study are integrated to illustrate the other three levels of the model, namely family, socio-cultural, and the religio-moral levels. PMID:23720642

  18. Psychological woundedness and its evaluation in applications for clinical psychology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gavin; Partington, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating clinical psychology programme selectors' perceptions of psychological 'woundedness' in the autobiographical narratives of applicants for clinical psychology training. Woundedness was here defined in terms of the ongoing or residual psychological impact of adverse experiences and psychic conflicts. Ten selectors were presented with a sample of applicants' written autobiographical narratives, differentiated by the conspicuous presence or absence of psychological woundedness. The selectors, who were not informed of the specific aims of the study, ranked applicant protocols and were interviewed individually about their impressions of the protocols and the criteria that they used to rank them. Most selectors were positively biased toward 'wounded' narratives and suspicious of those in which woundedness was manifestly absent. Although generally disposed to favour wounded applicants, how woundedness was presented, rather than the mere presence of it, was a discriminating feature in selectors' appraisal of wounded narratives. Selectors were concerned that unresolved woundedness may compromise applicants' professional boundaries, impair self-reflective capacity and lead to damaging countertransference enactments. The relative extent to which applicant woundedness appeared to be resolved was significant in selectors' assessment of applicants' clinical training potential. A distinction is thus proposed between obstructive and facilitative woundedness in clinical psychology applicants. A sample of clinical psychology programme selectors identified psychological woundedness as a significant feature in applicant autobiographies. Selectors favoured applicant autobiographies showing evidence of woundedness. The distinction between obstructive and facilitative woundedness is important in how the selector sample evaluated woundedness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2002-08-01

    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks.

  20. Exploring the Intersection of Comparative and Clinical Psychology: An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Marston, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This article serves as the introduction to the special issues of the International Journal of Comparative Psychology on the intersection of comparative and clinical psychology.  These two fields have a shared history going back to the beginnings of each.  Prominent names throughout psychology have work that crosses over between these two fields.  Freud referenced Darwin’s work throughout his work and Skinner’s research was almost exclusively comparative psychology research.  For much of the f...

  1. [Psychological gender in clinical depression. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpitalak, Malwina; Prochwicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial and social theories of mood disorders indicate that factors connected with women's gender roles could create a higher risk of depression. The fact that social role is an important factor associated with depressive disorders suggests that not only a biological but also a psychological gender influences the vulnerability to depression. Gender schema theory was applied to investigate a role of femininity in depressive disorders. It was predicted that patients who identify themselves with the traditional feminine gender role will be more depressed than androgynous and undifferentiated patients or individuals with high level of masculinity. Sixty one patients suffering from affective disorder participated in this research. The Polish adaptation of Bem Sex - Role Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used to investigate the association between psychological gender and symptoms of depression. The results indicated that there is a significant connection between the type of psychological gender and the level of depression. The highest level of depression was shown by undifferentiated patients, femininity was also found to be associated with a great number of depressive symptoms. These findings also suggest that androgynous individuals and patients with a high level of masculinity tend to be less depressed. Psychological gender is an important factor which interacts to create a higher depression risk in men and women.

  2. [Clinical evaluation and psychological aspects of temporomandibular joint disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coessens, P; De Boever, J A

    1997-01-01

    Establishing the patient's clinical diagnosis depends on gathering as much information of the patient and his or her signs and symptoms as possible. This information can be gathered from history, physical and psychological examination, diagnostic analysis. It is also important to look upon pain as a disorder and to consider the relationship between pain and psychological factors. The differential diagnosis is constructed through a biopsychological model of illness rather than through a more traditional biomedical model of disease. To arrive at a consistently accurate clinical diagnosis in patients with TMJ and craniofacial pain, the technique of clinical diagnosis must be well defined, reliable and include examination of the head and the neck, cranial nerves and the stomatognathic system. The craniomandibular index provides a standardized examination of the stomatognathic system that has been tested on validity and reliability. This chapter focuses on the techniques of history taking clinical and psychological examination and diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular joint disorders and muscle pain.

  3. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  4. [Foundational questions in the beginning of clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Glauco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes an initial survey on the origins of American clinical psychology between the nineteenth and twentieth century, against a backdrop of historiographical interpretation that hypothesizes a "plurality of matrices" of clinical psychology, linked to different theoretical perspectives and different socio-cultural contexts. Particular attention is focused upon the main foundational issues of the discipline, drawing from some of the writings of Lightner Witmer, to whom we owe the founding of the first "clinical psychology" for subjects in childhood characterized by "retardation or physical defects interfering with school progress"; and of a lesser-known scholar, John E.W. Wallin. Both authors, indeed, worry themselves anxious to define clinical psychology, differentiating it from other medical and psychological branches; to establish which is the field of competence of the clinical psychologist; and to outline their training and specify the aims and contents of their intervention. Attention is then addressed to the relationship psychologists-psychiatrists at the time of its emergence, making specific reference to a document of the New York Psychiatrical Society--which represents one of the first attempts to exclude clinical psychologists from the field of mental health--and reporting also on the response to this position signed by Shepherd Franz. After an allusion to the Italian situation from the 1950s to today, the article concludes by emphasizing that at least some of the basic questions that clinical psychology had to deal with at its birth are still present, though filtered through the intense debate that has taken place over the years, and consequently supporting the importance of a historical component in the training of contemporary clinical psychologists.

  5. The marginalisation of dreams in clinical psychological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Linda; Dawson, Drew

    2018-04-22

    The longstanding human interest in dreams has led to a significant body of psychological and philosophical discourse, including research. Recently, however, dreams have been relegated to the periphery of clinical psychological practice. This is potentially problematic as clients continue to bring dreams to therapy and many psychologists lack the confidence or competence to respond effectively to dream material. Building on the structural, professional and research cultures surrounding psychology using a cultural-historical activity theory framework, we argue the marginalisation of dreams is due to cultural-historical factors. These factors include the political and economic context in which psychology developed; psychology's early attempts to differentiate from psychoanalysis by identifying with behaviourism and the natural sciences; and a discipline-specific definition of what constitutes evidence-based practice. These factors led to professional discourses within which dreams are seen as of little clinical or therapeutic value, or that dream work is only for long-term therapy and requires extensive therapist training. However, there are diverse models of dream work consistent with most theoretical orientations within contemporary psychological practice. We conclude with recommendations on how to rebuild clinical confidence and competence in the use of dream material within the current professional environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  7. Conducting research in clinical psychology practice: Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirsten V; Thew, Graham R

    2017-09-01

    The combination of clinical psychologists' therapeutic expertise and research training means that they are in an ideal position to be conducting high-quality research projects. However, despite these skills and the documented benefits of research to services and service users, research activity in practice remains low. This article aims to give an overview of the advantages of, and difficulties in conducting research in clinical practice. We reviewed the relevant literature on barriers to research and reflected on our clinical and research experiences in a range of contexts to offer practical recommendations. We considered factors involved in the planning, sourcing support, implementation, and dissemination phases of research, and outline suggestions to improve the feasibility of research projects in post-qualification roles. We suggest that research leadership is particularly important within clinical psychology to ensure the profession's continued visibility and influence within health settings. Clinical implications Emerging evidence suggests that clinical settings that foster research are associated with better patient outcomes. Suggestions to increase the feasibility of research projects in clinical settings are detailed. Limitations The present recommendations are drawn from the authors' practical experience and may need adaptation to individual practitioners' settings. This study does not attempt to assess the efficacy of the strategies suggested. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  8. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Trainees' Satisfaction with Clinical Methods Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Kristen Ann

    2015-01-01

    Counseling psychology doctoral trainees' satisfaction with their clinical methods training is an important predictor of their self-efficacy as counselors, persistence in graduate programs, and probability of practicing psychotherapy in their careers (Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005; Hadjipavlou & Ogrodniczuk, 2007; Morton & Worthley,…

  9. Family therapy training on a clinical psychology programme

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the intake interviewing exercise in a family therapy training unit developed for postgraduates in clinical psychology. The teaching method includes pre-class reading, video modelling, and simulated practice with live feedback. The academic material and other similar practice exercises are contained in the core textbook for this unit.

  10. A Computerized Clinical Support System and Psychological Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Advocating "holistic" medicine, this article details the benefits to be derived from using a computerized clinical support system in a psychological laboratory focusing on internal healing where the client/patient becomes a committed partner utilizing biofeedback equipment, gaming, and simulation to achieve self-understanding and…

  11. Implementation of psychological clinical trials in epilepsy: Review and guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C; Wagner, Janelle; Smith, Aimee W; Kellermann, Tanja S; Michaelis, Rosa

    2017-09-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Neuropsychiatry commission and United States Institute of Medicine report both identified cognitive and psychological comorbidities as a significant issue for individuals with epilepsy, with rates as high as 60%. However, there is a paucity of evidence-based treatments for many psychological conditions (e.g., learning disorders, cognitive disorders, behavioral disorders). Because of inherent challenges in the implementation of psychological therapy trials and specific considerations for the population with epilepsy, the focus of the current review was to provide guidance and recommendations to conduct psychological trials for individuals with epilepsy. Several key areas will be discussed, including selection of patients, trial design, psychological intervention considerations, outcomes and evaluation of results, publication of trial results, and special issues related to pediatric clinical trials. Rigorously designed psychological therapy trials will set the stage for evidence-based practice in the care of individuals with epilepsy, with the goal of improving seizures, side effects, and HRQOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Women entering clinical psychology: Q-sort narratives of career attraction of female clinical psychology trainees in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Martyn; Nash, Jen

    2013-01-01

    The great majority of the UK clinical psychology workforce are women, and this fact prompted an examination of the various ways clinical psychology might be seen as attractive to women--a neglected research topic. Female clinical psychology trainees from a variety of training programmes Q-sorted statements of potential job attractors. The process of analysis is outlined before most of the article is devoted to explicating the five narratives of attraction generated: making a difference, waiting for what I want, idealising challenge, identifying with distress and acknowledging power and privilege. Two super-ordinate 'stories' spanning the narratives are suggested--an over-riding attraction to the profession and a rebuttal of the suggestion that this attraction may be based on any overtly gendered grounds. In the absence of previous empirical data of women's attraction to clinical psychology, the small but significant contribution to understanding the profession made by the analysis is acknowledged--as is the need for further research to confirm and develop the findings. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Supervisee self-disclosure: a clinical psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Nicola; Fox, John R E; Golding, Laura; Daiches, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Clinical supervision is a multi-functional intervention within numerous psychotherapeutic professions, including clinical psychology. It often relies on supervisees' verbal disclosures of pertinent information. There is limited research on supervisee self-disclosure in the UK, and none using clinical psychology populations. This study aimed to address the limitations in the evidence base. It used a constructivist grounded theory methodology to investigate qualified UK clinical psychologists' use of self-disclosure in supervision in order to develop a theoretical understanding of their self-disclosure processes. Ten clinical psychologists from various time points across the career span were recruited to the study. Four core conceptual categories were identified in the analysis as being integral to participants' decision-making processes: 'Setting the Scene', 'Supervisory Relationship', 'Using Self-disclosure' and 'Reviewing Outcome of Self-disclosure'. These four categories are comprised of a number of subcategories. The study's findings are compared with the current literature base, and it is argued that there are tensions with the scientist-practitioner model as it could be interpreted to encourage an expert stance, which may limit the self-disclosure of qualified supervisees. The implications of this perspective are discussed. Supervision is a key process in supporting qualified clinical psychologists and the use of disclosure appears to be important in facilitating useful supervision. It appears that clinical psychologists go through a number of complex processes in deciding whether to self disclose. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Machine Learning Approaches for Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dominic B; Falkai, Peter; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos

    2018-05-07

    Machine learning approaches for clinical psychology and psychiatry explicitly focus on learning statistical functions from multidimensional data sets to make generalizable predictions about individuals. The goal of this review is to provide an accessible understanding of why this approach is important for future practice given its potential to augment decisions associated with the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of people suffering from mental illness using clinical and biological data. To this end, the limitations of current statistical paradigms in mental health research are critiqued, and an introduction is provided to critical machine learning methods used in clinical studies. A selective literature review is then presented aiming to reinforce the usefulness of machine learning methods and provide evidence of their potential. In the context of promising initial results, the current limitations of machine learning approaches are addressed, and considerations for future clinical translation are outlined.

  15. Clinical, psychological and maternal characteristics in early functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Abali, Osman; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoc; Bilici, Mustafa

    2014-08-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the clinical features of functional constipation (FC) at preschool age, as well as emotional and behavioral characteristics of the children, psychological symptom level and parental attitudes of the mothers, and compared these with that of non-referred typically developing controls with normal intestinal habits. Participants included 65 children with FC (mean age, 43.6 ± 15.4 months; range, 25-72 months), 59 healthy controls (mean age, 46.9 ± 14.5 months; range, 25-72 months) and the mothers of the children. The Childhood Behavior Checklist, Symptom Checklist 90 and Parental Attitude Research Instrument were filled in by the mothers. Participants with FC had higher problem scores than the comparison children in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. Approximately half exhibited internalizing and one-third had externalizing problems in the clinical range. The mothers of the patient group had higher levels of psychological distress, overprotective parenting and strict discipline. On multiple logistic regression analysis child psychopathology, maternal education level and maternal distress were independently associated with FC. Behavior problems are common in children with FC from an early age. Low level of education and high psychological distress of the mothers seem to be important risk factors for constipation and should be assessed carefully in the management of these cases. © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Collective memory: a perspective from (experimental) clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Ineke; Moulds, Michelle L

    2008-04-01

    This paper considers the concept of collective memory from an experimental clinical psychology perspective. Exploration of the term collective reveals a broad distinction between literatures that view collective memories as a property of groups (collectivistic memory) and those that regard these memories as a property of individuals who are, to a greater or lesser extent, an integral part of their social environment (social memory). First, we argue that the understanding of collectivistic memory phenomena may benefit from drawing parallels with current psychological models such as the self-memory system theory of individualistic autobiographical memory. Second, we suggest that the social memory literature may inform the study of trauma-related disorders. We argue that a factual focus induced by collaborative remembering may be beneficial to natural recovery in the immediate aftermath of trauma, and propose that shared remembering techniques may provide a useful addition to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.

  17. A Review of literature on the clinical psychological study on the hearing impaired in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fujitomo, Masakazu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review literatures about past clinical psychological studies on the hearing impaired in japan, in order to get suggestions about subjects on psychological supports and clinical psychological studies for the hearing impaired in Japan. First, in the topic of the history and subjects on the clinical psychological study and psycological supports for the hearing impaired, it was showed that the pathological viewpoint was taken place for the cultural viewpoint in th...

  18. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  19. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY – ACTUAL DIRECTION IN GROUNDING OF HEALTH MANPOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Kucherov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In 90-ies years of last century in our country happened the crash of the system of values with transition to the standards of capitalistic society, and it lead to the formation of chronicle psychosocial stress of high and medium levels. Medics of all directions started to face functional psychosomatic diseases. Raised the necessity in grounding of health manpower in discipline of clinical psychology, with the learning of psychophisiological bases of diseases and possibilities if their correction. This direction of development of soviet medical education and health service in general seems progressive and prospective.

  20. Resilient Systemics to Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Reliably expanding our clinical practice and lowering our overhead with telepsychiatry, telepsychology, distance counseling and online therapy, requires resilient and antifragile system and tools. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include more reliable treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The wise and proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding social results. We present, as an example, the main steps to achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support, devoted to psychiatry and psychology application. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  1. Compulsory Schooling, Child Study, Clinical Psychology, and Special Education: Origins of School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)

  2. Developments in clinical neuropsychology: implications for school psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michael J; Scott, Albert J

    2011-01-01

    According to the 2000 Report of the Surgeon General's Conference on Children's Mental Health, a significant percentage of children and adolescents have emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to merit a mental health diagnosis. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 reemphasized the schools' importance in supporting cognitive and behavioral development in students, particularly those identified with learning problems. In this article, we examine the growing specialty of clinical neuropsychology and provide suggestions for integrating this field into school-based psychological services. This article provides a review of the neuropsychological bases for many childhood learning disorders and addresses how school psychologists can work with clinical neuropsychologists to better address the needs of exceptional children through neuropsychological testing. There is substantial neurological evidence for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as disorders of reading, language, and mathematics. Close collaborative partnerships between clinical neuropsychologists and school psychologists will help develop assessment protocols that are likely to result in more effective intervention services for students with neuropsychological conditions. Schools are being asked to support the physical, cognitive, and emotional development in students, particularly those identified with chronic physical and mental health challenges. Dissatisfaction with minimal screenings, the growing awareness of the neurology of learning disorders, and the passage of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 obliges all school-based mental health providers to consider how to fully integrate the tools of clinical neuropsychology into school-based psychological services. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  3. Psychology of the scientist: LXXXI. Professional school and traditional program graduates: comparison on measures of achievement in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, D I; Tomeo, M E; Pointkowski, S R; Mitroff, D; Niederhauser, R N; Siscoe, K

    2000-06-01

    Clinical psychologists who graduated from traditional programs and those who graduated from professional schools were compared on both scientifically and professionally oriented criteria of achievement and recognition. Upon controlling for year of graduation from a doctoral program, the professional school graduates were less likely to be APA fellows, less likely to be on the editorial board of specified research oriented journals in clinical psychology, less likely to have diplomate status in the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), less likely to have been president of state psychological associations, and less likely to have been APPIC internship directors.

  4. Interreality in the management of psychological stress: a clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Pallavicini, Federica; Grassi, Alessandra; Algeri, Davide; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The term "psychological stress" describes a situation in which a subject perceives that environmental demands tax or exceed his or her adaptive capacity. According to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the best validated approach covering both stress management and stress treatment is the Cognitive Behavioral (CBT) approach. We aim to design, develop and test an advanced ICT based solution for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress that is able to improve the actual CBT approach. To reach this goal we will use the "interreality" paradigm integrating assessment and treatment within a hybrid environment, that creates a bridge between the physical and virtual worlds. Our claim is that bridging virtual experiences (fully controlled by the therapist, used to learn coping skills and emotional regulation) with real experiences (allowing both the identification of any critical stressors and the assessment of what has been learned) using advanced technologies (virtual worlds, advanced sensors and PDA/mobile phones) is the best way to address the above limitations. To illustrate the proposed concept, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Paola, a 45 years old nurse, with a mother affected by progressive senile dementia.

  5. Familicide from a clinical-community psychology perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Pretorius-Heuchert

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article familicide and homicide-suicide acts in South Africa and elsewhere are discussed. Issues that are considered include the following: the definition of familicide, the incidence of cases, population groups involved, the role of suicide, the role of psychopathology, familial versus nonfamilial murderers, the influence of stress, male proprietariness in combination with an exaggerated sense of responsibility, age and gender, and sociopolitical influences. A n attempt is made to integrate the personal and societal factors of familicide from a clinical-community psychology perspective, relying specifically on the theories of Frantz Fanon and Hussein Bulhan. It is proposed that an understanding of the oppressor-oppressed relationship, as well as threats to that relationship, may shed light on the current high rate of familicide that occurs mostly among white Afrikaner, South African males, and their families.

  6. Review of Positive Psychology Applications in Clinical Medical Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Macaskill

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the application of positive psychology concepts in physical health care contexts. Positive psychology aims to promote well-being in the general population. Studies identifying character strengths associated with well-being in healthy populations are numerous. Such strengths have been classified and Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) created to develop these strengths further in individuals. Positive psychology research is increasingly being undertaken in health care...

  7. Staff Perspectives of Service User Involvement on Two Clinical Psychology Training Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon P.; Holttum, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated both negative and positive staff perspectives of service user involvement on two clinical psychology training courses as part of an ongoing process of service evaluation. Ten clinical psychology staff from two training courses were interviewed over the telephone by a current trainee clinical psychologist using a…

  8. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  9. Of Course: Prerequisite Courses for Admission into APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…

  10. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  11. Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Compliance and Clinical Significance in the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…

  12. Psychological functioning in adolescents referred to specialist gender identity clinics across Europe: a clinical comparison study between four clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Nastasja M; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Carmichael, Polly; de Vries, Annelou L C; Dhondt, Karlien; Laridaen, Jolien; Pauli, Dagmar; Ball, Juliane; Steensma, Thomas D

    2018-07-01

    Adolescents seeking professional help with their gender identity development often present with psychological difficulties. Existing literature on psychological functioning of gender diverse young people is limited and mostly bound to national chart reviews. This study examined the prevalence of psychological functioning and peer relationship problems in adolescents across four European specialist gender services (The Netherlands, Belgium, the UK, and Switzerland), using the Child Behavioural Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Differences in psychological functioning and peer relationships were found in gender diverse adolescents across Europe. Overall, emotional and behavioural problems and peer relationship problems were most prevalent in adolescents from the UK, followed by Switzerland and Belgium. The least behavioural and emotional problems and peer relationship problems were reported by adolescents from The Netherlands. Across the four clinics, a similar pattern of gender differences was found. Birth-assigned girls showed more behavioural problems and externalising problems in the clinical range, as reported by their parents. According to self-report, internalising problems in the clinical range were more prevalent in adolescent birth-assigned boys. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the difference in clinical presentations in gender diverse adolescents and to investigate what contextual factors that may contribute to this.

  13. Children's Views Matter Too! A Pilot Project Assessing Children's and Adolescents' Experiences of Clinical Psychology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Russo, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study explored the experiences and understanding of clinical psychology practices and services of children and adolescents attending clinical psychology outpatient appointments. Fifteen young participants took part in the study. A content analysis indicated that young children and adolescents have an appropriate understanding of the…

  14. The First Experience of Clinical Practice on Psychology Students’ Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Regina Gallo-Belluzzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the academic development of the psychologist as a complex process which articulates the transmission of scientific knowledge and changes in imaginative activity, we psychoanalytically investigate the collective imaginary of Psychology students regarding the first clinical consultation. We conducted a group interview with 52 undergraduate students, using the Thematic Story-Drawing Procedure as a way to open a dialogical field. The material obtained, through the psychoanalytical method, resulted in the creation/gathering of four affective-emotional meaning fields: “I came, I saw and I conquered”, “I know that I (do not know”, “I survived and I will save” and “I am and I do”, from which we see an emotionally immature imaginary about the meeting with the patient, since students are more self-centered than concerned with the patient. The overall situation indicates the need for care regarding student academic development, in order to encourage a more mature approach toward the suffering of the other.

  15. Evaluation of psychology practitioner competence in clinical supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalvez, Craig J; Crowe, Trevor P

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing consensus favouring the development, advancement, and implementation of a competency-based approach for psychology training and supervision. There is wide recognition that skills, attitude-values, and relationship competencies are as critical to a psychologist's competence as are knowledge capabilities, and that these key competencies are best measured during placements, leaving the clinical supervisor in an unparalleled position of advantage to provide formative and summative evaluations on the supervisee's progression towards competence. Paradoxically, a compelling body of literature from across disciplines indicates that supervisor ratings of broad domains of competence are systematically compromised by biases, including leniency error and halo effect. The current paper highlights key issues affecting summative competency evaluations by supervisors: what competencies should be evaluated, who should conduct the evaluation, how (tools) and when evaluations should be conducted, and process variables that affect evaluation. The article concludes by providing research recommendations to underpin and promote future progress and by offering practice recommendations to facilitate a more credible and meaningful evaluation of competence and competencies.

  16. Psychology of plastic and reconstructive surgery: a systematic clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Manson, Paul N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2010-12-01

    The authors sought to review the various types of patients with psychological abnormalities who may present to the plastic surgeon and the psychological impact of various plastic surgery procedures on these patients. After systematically searching the Embase and PubMed databases and following further refinement (based on the authors' inclusion and exclusion criteria), the authors identified 65 studies. In addition, the authors felt that important information was contained in four textbooks, two press releases, and one Internet database. The inclusion criteria were studies that investigated the psychological outcomes, background, and personality types of patients seeking specific plastic surgery procedures. In addition, studies that addressed the impact of plastic surgery on patients' psychological status and quality of life were also included. The authors excluded studies with fewer than 30 patients, studies that did not pertain to the particular plastic surgery procedures, and studies that addressed psychological sequelae of revision operations. Narcissistic and histrionic personality disorders and body dysmorphic disorder are the three most common psychiatric conditions encountered in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Overall, plastic surgery not only restores the appearance and function of the disfigured body unit but also alleviates psychological distress. Identifying the psychologically challenging patient before surgical intervention will allow the patient to obtain the appropriate psychological assistance and may result in a healthier individual with or without associated plastic surgery procedures.

  17. The structure of mental health research: networks of influence among psychiatry and clinical psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, N; Lusher, D

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry and clinical psychology are the two dominant disciplines in mental health research, but the structure of scientific influence and information flow within and between them has never been mapped. Citations among 96 of the highest impact psychiatry and clinical psychology journals were examined, based on 10 052 articles published in 2008. Network analysis explored patterns of influence between journal clusters. Psychiatry journals tended to have greater influence than clinical psychology journals, and their influence was asymmetrical: clinical psychology journals cited psychiatry journals at a much higher rate than the reverse. Eight journal clusters were found, most dominated by a single discipline. Their citation network revealed an influential central cluster of 'core psychiatry' journals that had close affinities with a 'psychopharmacology' cluster. A group of 'core clinical psychology' journals was linked to a 'behavior therapy' cluster but both were subordinate to psychiatry journals. Clinical psychology journals were less integrated than psychiatry journals, and 'health psychology/behavioral medicine' and 'neuropsychology' clusters were relatively peripheral to the network. Scientific publication in the mental health field is largely organized along disciplinary lines, and is to some degree hierarchical, with clinical psychology journals tending to be structurally subordinate to psychiatry journals.

  18. Video Taping and Abnormal Psychology: Dramatized Clinical Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)

  19. Clinical Reasoning in School Psychology: From Assessment to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jac J. W.; Syeda, Maisha M.

    2017-01-01

    School psychologists typically conduct psychological and psychoeducational assessments, provide prevention and intervention services, and consult and collaborate with allied professionals (e.g., teachers, physicians, psychiatrists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, and nurses) and parents toward better understanding and…

  20. Clinical Validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62): Further Evaluation and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Nordberg, Samuel S.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.; Lockard, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Self-report instruments of psychological symptoms are increasingly used in counseling centers but rely on rigorous evaluation of their clinical validity. Three studies reported here (total N = 26,886) investigated the validity of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62 (CCAPS-62; Locke et al., 2011) as an assessment and…

  1. The decade 1989-1998 in Spanish psychology: an analysis of research in personality, assessment, and psychological treatment (clinical and health psychology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze Spanish research published between 1989 and 1998 in clinical psychology and its most directly related psychological disciplines: personality psychology, psychopathology, differential psychology, health psychology, and psychological assessment. A search was performed in the various databases of the works published in that decade by Spanish university professors who investigate in these areas. Their localization was verified by direct correspondence with the professors, to whom was also sent a questionnaire to evaluate their research field and preferred theoretical approach. The 2,079 works located allowed me to identify 85 different research trends. These research trends are characterized by the predominance of applied studies over basic studies, of empirical research over theoretical research, and of the cognitive-behavioral approach over the rest of the theoretical orientations. In addition, various bibliometrical indicators of production, dissemination, and impact were calculated. They revealed that productivity and dissemination of Spanish research in these areas grew considerably during this 1989-98 period.

  2. The Paradox of Pelvic Exenteration: The Interaction of Clinical and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Paola; Santoro, Luigi; Mazzocco, Ketti; Oliveri, Serena; Maggioni, Angelo; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    To text the feasibility of a psychological intervention package administered to 49 pelvic exenteration candidates, aimed at evaluating the preoperative prevalence of psychological distress and assessing the presence of any correlation between preoperative psychological distress and clinical variables such as pain and hospitalization length. Patients were referred to the psychology unit from the very beginning of their clinical pathway and were administered the Psychological Distress Inventory (PDI) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) questionnaire at prehospital admission. Patients presenting with a significant level of distress received nonstandardized psychological support. Statistical analyses were performed to detect the presence of any correlation between psychological variables at prehospital admission and clinical outcomes. The 40% of patients had significant levels of distress at prehospital admission (PDI ≥ 30). As regards Mini-MAC, the mean value of fighting spirit attitude and fatalism was higher in our sample than in the normative sample of the Mini-MAC validation study in the Italian cancer population. Their anxious preoccupation attitude was lower. There were no correlations between clinical and psychological variables: level of postsurgery pain was higher (3.7) in the subgroup of patients with presurgery PDI < 30 compared with those with PDI ≥ 30 (3.5). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 1.00). Considering hospitalization length, the above described trend was similar. Although highly distressed, pelvic exenteration candidates show an adaptive range of coping mechanisms. This calls for a greater effort in studying the complexity of their psychoemotional status to provide them with the best multidisciplinary care. Extensive study of the real effectiveness of psychological intervention is warranted: randomized clinical trials could help in detecting the presence of any correlation between clinical and

  3. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  4. Lack of political diversity and the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-01-01

    I extend the arguments of Duarte et al. by examining the implications of political uniformity for the framing of findings in personality and clinical psychology. I argue that the one-sided framing of psychological research on political ideology has limited our understanding of the personality correlates of liberalism and conservatism.

  5. Clinical leadership, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment of registered nurses working in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Megan; Jacobs, Stephen; Scott, Karyn

    2018-04-19

    To examine clinical leadership of registered nurses in an emergency department, based on evidence that it is important for nurses to feel psychologically and structurally empowered in order to act as clinical leaders. Every registered nurse has the ability to act as a clinical leader. Clinical leadership is the registered nurse's behaviours that provide direction and support to patients and the team in the delivery of patient care. This study explores the connection between the need for structural and psychological empowerment and clinical leadership behaviours. A mixed method, non-experimental survey design was used to examine the psychological empowerment, structural empowerment and clinical leadership of registered nurses working in an emergency department. Emergency department nurses believe they show clinical leadership behaviours most of the time, even though their sense of being psychologically empowered is only moderate. While registered nurses believe they perform clinical leadership behaviours, it is also clear that improvements in structural and psychological empowerment would improve their ability to act as clinical leaders. The results show that for nurses to be able to provide clinical leadership to their patients and colleagues, management must create empowering environments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  7. Modeling the relations of ethical leadership and clinical governance with psychological empowerment in nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goona Fathi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethical leadership appeared as a new approach in the leadership perspective and provided the ground for promoting individual and organizational efficiency by giving priorities to ethics in organizations. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of modeling the relations of ethical leadership and clinical governance with psychological empowerment among nurses of public hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: the research method was descriptive survey. The study sample consisted of all nurses (n=550 working in public hospitals of Kermanshah University of Medical Science for whom 163 nurses were selected using simple random sampling. The tools for data collection were ethical leadership, clinical governance and psychology empowerment questionnaires whose validity and reliability were confirmed. The structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed a significant relationship between ethical leadership and clinical governance (P<0.01 and psychological empowerment (P<0.01. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between clinical governance and psychological empowerment (P<0.05. Based on the results of the research, ethical leadership directly and through clinical governance affected the nurses’ psychological empowerment (P<0.05. Conclusion: reliance on ethics and ethical leadership in hospitals, in addition to providing the space and ground for improving the effectiveness of clinical governance approach, can promote the feeling of psychological empowerment in nurses. Accordingly, the ethical issues are required to be taken into consideration in hospitals.

  8. Characteristics of American Psychological Association Division 40 (clinical neuropsychology) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C

    2011-11-01

    Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.

  9. Emotional health: on the applicability of affective science to the integration of clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzebińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to outline the concept of emotional health and its integrative potential in the field of clinical psychology. It is a well-known fact that the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration – the two most influential integrative movements in clinical psychology – search for a sound conceptual foundation of the efforts to organize a plethora of theories and data relating to the psychological aspects of physical and mental health. Following a short presentation of general discrepancies afflicting clinical psychology and the main ideas of both the transdiagnostic approach and psychotherapy integration, the notion of emotional health is introduced and its unifying convenience, as well as limitations, is discussed.

  10. ["Psychological employees" in psychiatry. The establishment of clinical psychology at the example of Lilo Süllwolds diagnostic efforts to incipient schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Lilo Süllwold (*1930) was the first psychologist in the German Federal Republic to acquire habilitation for Clinical Psychology at a Medical Faculty. However, she had already been appointed professor for Clinical Psychology following to a new University Act implementing the recommendations of the National Council of Science and Humanities. Her habilitation treatise to justify the initial professorship appointment centered on a self-made questionnaire as a diagnostic tool for beginning schizophrenia. The manner how the questionnaire together with the politico-scientific structural changes at the German Federal universities endowed the young psychologist with a carrier in psychiatry, is an illuminating example of psychology's way into psychiatry: the institutionalization and professionalization of Clinical Psychology in psychiatry since the end of the 1950s up to the end of the 1970s. In a comparative perspective on the developments of Clinical Psychology in the German Democratic Republic, the example demonstrates not only the role of new psychological theories und methods in research and clinic in enabling the entry of the new profession into psychiatry, but also the importance of initial socio-economic and socio-politic frame conditions and decisions. The negotiation of the scope or limits of competences between doctors and psychologists created more than a professional niche inside the clinic; it changed psychiatry and psychology as academic branches in their structures due to the establishment of new Clinical Psychology departments. The role of the psychologist turned from a doctor's "assistant" into a colleague at "eye level".

  11. Training oncology and palliative care clinical nurse specialists in psychological skills: evaluation of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jane E; Aitken, Susan; Watson, Nina; McVey, Joanne; Helbert, Jan; Wraith, Anita; Taylor, Vanessa; Catesby, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    National guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend training Clinical Nurse Specialists in psychological skills to improve the assessment and intervention with psychological problems experienced by people with a cancer diagnosis (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2004). This pilot study evaluated a three-day training program combined with supervision sessions from Clinical Psychologists that focused on developing skills in psychological assessment and intervention for common problems experienced by people with cancer. Questionnaires were developed to measure participants' levels of confidence in 15 competencies of psychological skills. Participants completed these prior to the program and on completion of the program. Summative evaluation was undertaken and results were compared. In addition, a focus group interview provided qualitative data of participants' experiences of the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Following the program, participants rated their confidence in psychological assessment and skills associated with providing psychological support as having increased in all areas. This included improved knowledge of psychological theories, skills in assessment and intervention and accessing and using supervision appropriately. The largest increase was in providing psycho-education to support the coping strategies of patients and carers. Thematic analysis of interview data identified two main themes including learning experiences and program enhancements. The significance of the clinical supervision sessions as key learning opportunities, achieved through the development of a community of practice, emerged. Although this pilot study has limitations, the results suggest that a combined teaching and supervision program is effective in improving Clinical Nurse Specialists' confidence level in specific psychological skills. Participants' experiences highlighted suggestions for refinement and development of the program

  12. Scientific communication in clinical psychology: examining patterns of citations and references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Andrew M; Ruscio, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of scientific communication used citation mapping, establishing psychology as a 'hub science' from which many other fields draw information. Within psychology, the clinical and counselling discipline is a major 'knowledge broker'. This study analyzed scientific communication among three major subdisciplines of clinical psychology-the cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic schools of thought-by examining patterns of references within and citations to 305 target articles published in leading journals of these subdisciplines. The results suggest that clinical researchers of each theoretical orientation engage in more insular scientific communication than an integrationist would find desirable and that cognitive-behavioural articles are more closely connected to mainstream psychology and related fields. Eclectic practitioners draw on several different theoretical orientations to inform their practice; as such, they should be interested in understanding the patterns of scientific communication within and across theoretical orientations. Practitioners work in a variety of different mental health settings, with a variety of other professionals in psychology-related fields, and should be interested in how much influence their particular theoretical orientation has on the work of colleagues. Many practitioners rely on new, evidence-based research to inform their work. The results of this study provide these individuals with an objective measure of the influence of empirical work in different areas of clinical psychology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.

  14. It's time to Rework the Blueprints: Building a Science for Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    The aims in this article are to connect the conceptual structure of clinical psychological science to what the author believes to be the omnipresent principles of evolution, use the evolutionary model to create a deductively derived clinical theory and taxonomy, link the theory and taxonomy to comprehensive and integrated approaches to assessment,…

  15. A decade of the International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Zych

    2011-01-01

    and that the journal has published works of authors from 29 different countries. The highest percentages were found for ex post facto studies, works on test validation and adaptation and adult clinical samples. These results are in agreement with the journal's mission of promoting advancement in clinical and health psychology and show that it is a truly international journal.

  16. Revisioning the Clinical Relationship: Heinz Kohut and the Viewpoint of Self-Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Robert J.

    Psychoanalysis is undergoing rapid and remarkable changes in its basic metapsychology, theoretical reflections, and concrete, clinical interventions. Through self-psychology, Heinz Kohut's alternative views on the clinical relationship have contributed to this restructuring of psychoanalysis. Traditionally, mainstream psychoanalysis has viewed the…

  17. Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Montanari, Sophie

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, screen time has become a more complicated concept, with an ever-expanding variety of electronic media devices available throughout the world. Television remains the predominant type of screen-based activity among children. However, computer use, video games and ownership of devices, such as tablets and smart phones, are occurring from an increasingly young age. Screen time, in particular, television viewing, has been negatively associated with the development of physical and cognitive abilities, and positively associated with obesity, sleep problems, depression and anxiety. The physiological mechanisms that underlie the adverse health outcomes related to screen time and the relative contributions of different types of screen and media content to specific health outcomes are unclear. This review discusses the positive and negative effects of screen time on the physiological and psychological development of children. Furthermore, recommendations are offered to parents and clinicians. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Clinical and scientific progress related to the interface between cardiology and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman, R A M; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    in need of repair, combined with the understanding that the heart and mind interact to affect health. The present selective review addresses the broad range of contributions of 35 years of psychology to clinical cardiology and cardiovascular research with a focus on research, teaching, psychological...... screening and patient care. The review ends with lessons to be learned and challenges for the future with respect to improving the care and management of patients with heart disease in order to enhance secondary prevention and the role of behavioural and psychological factors in this endeavour....

  19. Apartheid and post-apartheid intern clinical psychology training in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Anthony L

    2009-12-01

    An analysis of race and sex of clinical psychology interns was undertaken at a major training hospital complex during the Apartheid and Post-apartheid periods. 7 of 87 (8.1%) interns trained in the apartheid period were Black African. Significantly more Black Africans and women were trained during the Post-apartheid period. The results were discussed within the context of South Africa's social and political transition, as well as international trends relating to sex and professional psychology.

  20. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological corr...

  1. The comparative importance of books: clinical psychology in the health sciences library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, J M; Wehmeyer, S

    1999-01-01

    Clinical psychology has received little attention as a subject in health sciences library collections. This study seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of the monographic literature to clinical psychology through the examination of citations in graduate student theses and dissertations at the Fordham Health Sciences Library, Wright State University. Dissertations and theses were sampled randomly; citations were classified by format, counted, and subjected to statistical analysis. Books and book chapters together account for 35% of the citations in clinical psychology dissertations, 25% in nursing theses, and 8% in biomedical sciences theses and dissertations. Analysis of variance indicates that the citations in dissertations and theses in the three areas differ significantly (F = 162.2 with 2 and 253 degrees of freedom, P = 0.0001). Dissertations and theses in biomedical sciences and nursing theses both cite significantly more journals per book than the dissertations in clinical psychology. These results support the hypothesis that users of clinical psychology literature rely more heavily on books than many other users of a health sciences library. Problems with using citation analyses in a single subject to determine a serials to monographs ratio for a health sciences library are pointed out. PMID:10219478

  2. Borders and Modal Articulations. Semiotic Constructs of Sensemaking Processes Enabling a Fecund Dialogue Between Cultural Psychology and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca Picione, Raffaele; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-03-01

    The notion of the border is an interesting advancement in research on the processes of meaning making within the cultural psychology. The development of this notion in semiotic key allows to handle with adequate complexity construction, transformation, stability and the breakup of the relationship between person/world/otherness. These semiotic implications have already been widely discussed and exposed by authors such Valsiner (2007, 2014), Neuman (2003, 2008), Simão (Culture & Psychology, 9, 449-459, 2003, Theory & Psychology, 15, 549-574, 2005, 2015), with respect to issues of identity/relatedness, inside/outside, stability/change in the irreversible flow of the time. In this work, after showing some of the basics of such semiotic notion of border, we discuss the processes of construction and transformation of borders through the modal articulation, defined as the contextual positioning that the person assumes with respect to the establishment of a boundary in terms of necessity, obligation, willingness, possibility, permission, ability. This modal subjective positioning acquires considerable interest from the clinical point of view since its degree of plasticity vs that of rigidity is the basis of processes of development or stiffening of relations between person/world/otherness.

  3. The clinical differential approach of Sante De Sanctis in Italian "scientific" psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Sante De Sanctis, a psychiatrist and psychologist, is one of the most representative figures of Italian "scientific" psychology. He is considered one of the founders of the discipline as well as one of its main protagonists in the years between the two World Wars. Both with his extensive scientific productions (which include more than three hundred works) and with his uninterrupted institutional activity, he has left his significant mark on the history of Italian psychology. He was the first professor of Experimental Psychology and was internationally known: some of his works have been published in French, Swiss, American, German, Scandinavian, and English journals, and some of his volumes have been translated into English and German. Together with the other psychologists of the second generation (Binet, Külpe, Münsterberg, Stern, Claparède, Ebbinghaus), he was the Italian psychologist who decided to enrich the classical paradigm of Wundt's physiological psychology, by developing during the twentieth century the program of methodological and epistemological enlargement of the discipline. In his fundamental treatise Psicologia Sperimentale, written in 1929-30, a clear modern conception of psychology emerged: it jointly included both the generalist aspect (with some studies on psychophysical proportionality, thought mimicry, dreams, attention, emotions, etc.) and the applicative one, which included psychopathology, labor psychology, educational psychology, and criminal psychology, all seen in a general experimental framework. The present paper aims precisely to highlight the originality of De Sanctis' experimentalism that applied the differential clinical approach to the discipline of psychology, causing it for the first time in Italy to be seen in a unitary way as both general and applied psychology.

  4. Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David G.; Deeprose, Catherine; Wallace-Hadrill, Sophie M.A.; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Holmes, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Mental imagery is an under-explored field in clinical psychology research but presents a topic of potential interest and relevance across many clinical disorders, including social phobia, schizophrenia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is currently a lack of a guiding framework from which clinicians may select the domains or associated measures most likely to be of appropriate use in mental imagery research. We adopt an interdisciplinary approach and present a review of studies across experimental psychology and clinical psychology in order to highlight the key domains and measures most likely to be of relevance. This includes a consideration of methods for experimentally assessing the generation, maintenance, inspection and transformation of mental images; as well as subjective measures of characteristics such as image vividness and clarity. We present a guiding framework in which we propose that cognitive, subjective and clinical aspects of imagery should be explored in future research. The guiding framework aims to assist researchers in the selection of measures for assessing those aspects of mental imagery that are of most relevance to clinical psychology. We propose that a greater understanding of the role of mental imagery in clinical disorders will help drive forward advances in both theory and treatment. PMID:23123567

  5. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  6. The psychology of neurofeedback: Clinical intervention even if applied placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Robert T; Raz, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Advocates of neurofeedback make bold claims concerning brain regulation, treatment of disorders, and mental health. Decades of research and thousands of peer-reviewed publications support neurofeedback using electroencephalography (EEG-nf); yet, few experiments isolate the act of receiving feedback from a specific brain signal as a necessary precursor to obtain the purported benefits. Moreover, while psychosocial parameters including participant motivation and expectation, rather than neurobiological substrates, seem to fuel clinical improvement across a wide range of disorders, for-profit clinics continue to sprout across North America and Europe. Here, we highlight the tenuous evidence supporting EEG-nf and sketch out the weaknesses of this approach. We challenge classic arguments often articulated by proponents of EEG-nf and underscore how psychologists and mental health professionals stand to benefit from studying the ubiquitous placebo influences that likely drive these treatment outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Postgraduate Clinical Psychology Students' Perceptions of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Stress Management Intervention and Clinical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakenham, Kenneth I.; Stafford-Brown, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into stress management interventions for clinical psychology trainees (CPTs) is limited, despite evidence indicating that these individuals are at risk for elevated stress, which can negatively impact personal and professional functioning. This study explored: (1) CPTs' perceptions of a previously evaluated Acceptance and…

  8. [The evaluation of psychological development in the dispensarios de lactantes (infant and toddler clinics) in Buenos Aires: medicine and psychology in Argentina, 1935-1942].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briolotti, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the medical use of techniques for psychological evaluation in the dispensarios de lactantes (infant and toddler clinics) in Buenos Aires within the framework of historical studies of psychology in Argentina. It analyzes the institutional environment in order to shed light on the framework of discourses within which the interest in controlling psychological development may be situated. It studies the tests used, the characteristics of application and the most significant results. It explores the vicissitudes of the professional field, in the light of which psychology was useful for consolidating the legitimacy of medical knowledge. It points out a divergence between this medical use of psychology and the production and circulation of psychological knowledge in academic and educational environments.

  9. Effects of Bullying Experience on Psychological Well-Being Mediated by Conflict Management Styles and Psychological Empowerment among Nursing Students in Clinical Placement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liping; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural equation model in which bullying experience, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment predict psychological well-being among Chinese nursing students in clinical placement. Three hundred and sixty-six nursing students recruited from five hospitals in J city and Y city were assessed with self-report questionnaires on bullying experience, conflict management styles, psychological empowerment and psychological well-being including depression, self-esteem, and academic major satisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 22.0. The evaluation parameters included the comparative fit index at .90, the goodness of fit index at .93, the root mean square error of approximation at .07, and χ²/df ratio at 2.66, indicating that the proposed structural equation model provided a good fit to the data. Experience of being bullied during clinical placement, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment explained 93.0% of the variance and had significant effects on psychological well-being, with conflict management styles and psychological empowerment mediating the association between bullying and psychological well-being. The findings indicated that mediation by conflict management styles and psychological empowerment alleviated the negative influence of bullying on psychological well-being. To limit bullying and its negative effects, development of effective guidelines to deal with bullying will be a critical tool for both Chinese nursing students and their instructors. Further research should incorporate conflict management styles and psychological empowerment into the specific intervention strategies for handling bullying behaviors among nursing students and staff nurses and promoting nursing students' psychological well-being. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  10. The Relationship of Clinical Nurses' Perceptions of Structural and Psychological Empowerment and Engagement on Their Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Jean Marie; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Musil, Carol; Clavelle, Joanne T; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe relationships between structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and engagement among clinical nurses. Empowerment and engagement are key drivers of retention and quality in healthcare. Creating an empowering culture and an engaged staff supports initiatives that are essential for positive work environments. A survey of 280 nurses in a national conference was conducted using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness, Psychological Empowerment Instrument, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were used to determine relationships between demographic data and study variables. Overall, nurses had high perceptions of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment and were moderately engaged. Also, significant positive relationships were found between the key study variables. Results show positive correlations between empowerment and perceived engagement among clinical nurses.

  11. Clinical psychology students' perceptions of diversity training: a study of exposure and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Debbie; Callands, Tamora A; Radcliffe, Alison M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2009-10-01

    This study examined clinical psychology graduate students' definitions of diversity and their perceptions of their exposure to and satisfaction regarding their level of diversity training. Four hundred and ninety-one students from Counsel of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) member programs completed an online survey. Overall, students perceived that their programs considered diversity narrowly, concentrating primarily on ethnicity, race, and culture to the neglect of sexual orientation, religion, language, and physical disability. Likewise, students expressed greater satisfaction with training regarding ethnicity/race and gender than broader areas of diversity, but rated the importance of addressing all areas of diversity as high. Although this study underscores the limited experience that students perceive they have had with various underrepresented groups, programs appear to have incorporated a variety of diversity training modalities that could be expanded upon to meet the interests of psychology students.

  12. Use of Portable Digital Devices to Analyze Autonomic Stress Response in Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Velasco, Ana Isabel; Bellido-Esteban, Alberto; Ruisoto-Palomera, Pablo; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the present study was to explore changes in the autonomic stress response of Psychology students in a Psychology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and their relationship with OSCE performance. Variables of autonomic modulation by the analysis of heart rate variability in temporal, frequency and non-linear domains, subjective perception of distress strait and academic performance were measured before and after the two different evaluations that composed the OSCE. A psychology objective structured clinical examination composed by two different evaluation scenarios produced a large anxiety anticipatory response, a habituation response in the first of the evaluation scenarios and a in the entire evaluation, and a no habituation response in the second evaluation scenario. Autonomic modulation parameters do not correlate with academic performance of students.

  13. Social construction: vistas in clinical child and adolescent psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J; Lightfoot, Cynthia; Sydow, Lisa

    2004-06-01

    We explore here the potentials of a social constructionist orientation to knowledge for research and clinical practice. Dialogues on social construction emphasize the communal origins of knowledge. They stress the cultural basis of knowledge claims, the significance of language, the value saturation of all knowledge, and the significance of relationships as opposed to individuals. An initial illustration of constructionism in action centers on adolescent risk behavior. Such behavior is often constructed negatively within popular writings and the social science and thus ignores the meaning of such actions to the adolescents themselves. Discourse analysis indicates that for adolescents risky behavior serves important functions of enhancing group solidarity and establishing positive identity. A second illustration, exploring the implications of constructionism for therapy, places a strong emphasis on the therapist as a collaborator in the building of meaning. Traditional investments in diagnosis and treatment are replaced with the collaborative creation of new possibilities for action.

  14. The Korsakoff syndrome: clinical aspects, psychology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Michael D; Thomson, Allan D; Guerrini, Irene; Marshall, E Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Korsakoff syndrome is a preventable memory disorder that usually emerges (although not always) in the aftermath of an episode of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The present paper reviews the clinical and scientific literature on this disorder. A systematic review of the clinical and scientific literature on Wernicke's encephalopathy and the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. The Korsakoff syndrome is most commonly associated with chronic alcohol misuse, and some heavy drinkers may have a genetic predisposition to developing the syndrome. The characteristic neuropathology includes neuronal loss, micro-haemorrhages and gliosis in the paraventricular and peri-aqueductal grey matter. Lesions in the mammillary bodies, the mammillo-thalamic tract and the anterior thalamus may be more important to memory dysfunction than lesions in the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. Episodic memory is severely affected in the Korsakoff syndrome, and the learning of new semantic memories is variably affected. 'Implicit' aspects of memory are preserved. These patients are often first encountered in general hospital settings where they can occupy acute medical beds for lengthy periods. Abstinence is the cornerstone of any rehabilitation programme. Korsakoff patients are capable of new learning, particularly if they live in a calm and well-structured environment and if new information is cued. There are few long-term follow-up studies, but these patients are reported to have a normal life expectancy if they remain abstinent from alcohol. Although we now have substantial knowledge about the nature of this disorder, scientific questions (e.g. regarding the underlying genetics) remain. More particularly, there is a dearth of appropriate long-term care facilities for these patients, given that empirical research has shown that good practice has beneficial effects.

  15. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Castellini, PhD, MD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on quality of life in interpersonal relationships.

  16. Use of Social Desirability Scales in Clinical Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinelli, Enrico; Gremigni, Paola

    2016-06-01

    There is still an open debate about the utility of social desirability indicators. This report systematically reviewed the use of social desirability scales in studies addressing social desirability in clinical psychology. A systematic review (January 2010-March 2015) was conducted, including 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria of being published in peer-reviewed journals and describing quantitative findings about an association of social desirability with clinical psychology variables using a cross-sectional or longitudinal design. Social desirability was associated with self-reports of various clinical-psychological dimensions. Most of the included studies treated social desirability as a 1-dimensional variable and only 10 of 35 disentangled the impression management and self-deception components. Although theoretical literature does not consider social desirability a mere response bias, only 4 of the reviewed articles controlled for the possible suppressor effect of personality variables on social desirability, while the majority focused upon the stylistic (response bias) rather than the substantive (personality) nature of this construct. The present review highlighted some limitations in the use of social desirability scales in recent clinical psychology research and tried to offer a few suggestions for handling this issue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  18. [Clinical Psychology in Primary Care: A Descriptive Study of One Year of Operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reales, S; Tornero-Gómez, M J; Martín-Oviedo, P; Redondo-Jiménez, M; del-Arco-Jódar, R

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to present the first year of operation of a Clinical Psychology service in a Primary Care setting. A descriptive study was performed by analysing the requests and the care intervention of the Psychology Service, in collaboration with 36 general practitioners (33% of the staff), belonging to 6 health centres. Within the one year period, 171 outpatients from 15 years and older were referred with mild psychological disorders (> 61 in the global assessment functioning scale, APA, 2002). A total of 111 outpatients received psychological care. The main diagnoses were adaptation disorder, affective disorder, and anxiety. More than half (54.82%) of them achieved a full recovery. After a year follow up, a drop of 25.19% was observed in medicines use. The Primary Care Psychology team is a halfway unit between Primary Care practitioners and specialised units in order to deal with mild mental symptomatology which otherwise could be undertreated. It represents an important support for practitioners. Secondly, the early intervention can prevent mental problems becoming chronic, as shown by the drop in medication use. In spite of the not very high agreement between the practitioner's diagnoses and those made by the Psychology unit, it has set up an important means of communication and with direct and immediate interdisciplinary action. This should eventually lead to savings in economic resources and human suffering. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Ethical dilemmas experienced by clinical psychology trainee therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Sinha, Ananya; Sonkar, Suruchi; Raguram, Ahalya

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inevitable during psychotherapeutic interactions, and these complexities and challenges may be magnified during the training phase. The experience of ethical dilemmas in the arena of therapy and the methods of resolving these dilemmas were examined among 35 clinical psychologists in training, through an anonymous and confidential online survey. The trainees' responses to four open-ended questions on any one ethical dilemma encountered during therapy were analysed, using thematic content analysis. The results highlighted that the salient ethical dilemmas related to confidentiality and boundary issues. The trainees also raised ethical questions regarding therapist competence, the beneficence and non-maleficence of therapeutic actions, and client autonomy. Fifty-seven per cent of the trainees reported that the dilemmas were resolved adequately, the prominent methods of resolution being supervision or consultation and guidance from professional ethical guidelines. The trainees felt that the professional codes had certain limitations as far as the effective resolution of ethical dilemmas was concerned. The findings indicate the need to strengthen training and supervision methodologies and professional ethics codes for psychotherapists and counsellors in India.

  20. Clinical Features of Psychogenic Voice Disorder and the Efficiency of Voice Therapy and Psychological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Gökmen, Muhammed Fatih; Yıldırım, Sibel; Dursun, Gürsel

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this study was to define the clinical features of psychogenic voice disorder (PVD) and explore the treatment efficiency of voice therapy and psychological evaluation. Fifty-eight patients who received treatment following the PVD diagnosis and had no organic or other functional voice disorders were assessed retrospectively based on laryngoscopic examinations and subjective and objective assessments. Epidemiological characteristics, accompanying organic and psychological disorders, preferred methods of treatment, and previous treatment outcomes were examined for each patient. A comparison was made based on voice disorders and responses to treatment between patients who received psychotherapy and patients who did not. Participants in this study comprised 58 patients, 10 male and 48 female. Voice therapy was applied in all patients, 54 (93.1%) of whom had improvement in their voice. Although all patients were advised to undergo psychological assessment, only 60.3% (35/58) of them underwent psychological assessment. No statistically significant difference was found between patients who did receive psychological support concerning their treatment responses and patients who did not. Relapse occurred in 14.7% (5/34) of the patients who applied for psychological assessment and in 50% (10/20) of those who did not. There was a statistically significant difference in relapse rates, which was higher among patients who did not receive psychological support (P therapy is an efficient treatment method for PVD. However, in the long-term follow-up, relapse of the disease is observed to be higher among patients who failed to follow up on the recommendation for psychological assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The birth of clinical psychology in the scientific work of Lightner Witmer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Carmela

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the beginning of Clinical Psychology in the first years of XX century, when a central role was played by the theoretical and practical approach on mental retardation and behavioural disorders of L. Witmer. The author describes the cultural formation of Witmer, between Structural Psychology and Functionalism, and the special attention he devoted to the management and education of children affected by mental retardation and behavioural problems. ... Any child, the functions of whose brain are not developed up to the normal limit for his age, is suffering from retardation ... Retardation must be defined in terms of individual capacity for physical and mental development....

  2. Improving transparency and reproducibility through registration: The status of intervention trials published in clinical psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Lukasz; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean

    2016-09-01

    Prospective registration increases the validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In the United States, registration is a legal requirement for drugs and devices regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and many biomedical journals refuse to publish trials that are not registered. Trials in clinical psychology have not been subject to these requirements; it is unknown to what extent they are registered. We searched the 25 highest-impact clinical psychology journals that published at least 1 RCT of a health-related psychological intervention in 2013. For included trials, we evaluated their registration status (prospective, retrospective, not registered) and the completeness of their outcome definitions. We identified 163 articles that reported 165 RCTs; 73 (44%) RCTs were registered, of which only 25 (15%) were registered prospectively. Of registered RCTs, only 42 (58%) indicated their registration status in the publication. Only 2 (1% of all trials) were registered prospectively and defined their primary outcomes completely. For the primary outcome(s), 72 (99%) of all registrations defined the domain, 67 (92%) the time frame, and 48 (66%) the specific measurements. Only 19 (26%) and 5 (7%) defined the specific metric and method of aggregation, respectively, for all primary outcomes. Very few reports of RCTs published in clinical psychology journals were registered prospectively and completely. Clinical psychology journals could improve transparency and reproducibility, as well as reduce bias, by requiring complete prospective trial registration for publication and by including trial registration numbers in all reports of RCTs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evaluation of the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute Clinical Psychology Internship: a replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, Sandra R; Myers, DeRosset; Forand, Angela Q; Holmes, George R; McNulty, George F; Frey, Linda; Bolton, Staci S

    2010-12-01

    This study extends three earlier investigations involving participants who completed their predoctoral clinical psychology internship at the William S. Hall Psychiatric Institute. Intern graduates (N = 37) evaluated how effectively their internship training prepared them for seven aspects of their current work as practicing psychologists. Participants also rated the relevancy of 24 different internship training experiences to their current work and how much these experiences contributed to their development as clinical psychologists. The present study, in conjunction with the three previous studies, covers most of the 40-year period since the inception of the internship program. Analysis of the current data indicates the internship has improved over time and was deemed an exceptional training experience by its graduates. Findings may be of particular interest to internship directors and faculty interested in improving their training program and those who plan to conduct a self-study to maintain their accreditation for clinical psychology internship.

  4. FORENSIC-CLINICAL INTERVIEW: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY FOR THE EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fariña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic evaluation of psychological injury involves the use of a multimethod approximation i.e., a psychometric instrument, normally the MMPI-2, and a clinical interview. In terms of the clinical interview, the traditional clinical interview (e.g., SCID is not valid for forensic settings as it does not fulfil the triple objective of forensic evaluation: diagnosis of psychological injury in terms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, a differential diagnosis of feigning, and establishing a causal relationship between allegations of intimate partner violence (IPV and psychological injury. To meet this requirement, Arce and Fariña (2001 created the forensic-clinical interview based on two techniques that do not contaminate the contents i.e., reinstating the contexts and free recall, and a methodic categorical system of contents analysis for the diagnosis of psychological injury and a differential diagnosis of feigning. The reliability and validity of the forensic-clinical interview designed for the forensic evaluation of psychological injury was assessed in 51 genuine cases of (IPV and 54 mock victims of IPV who were evaluated using a forensic-clinical interview and the MMPI-2. The result revealed that the forensic-clinical interview was a reliable instrument (α = .85 for diagnostic criteria of psychological injury, and α = .744 for feigning strategies. Moreover, the results corroborated the predictive validity (the diagnosis of PTSD was similar to the expected rate; the convergence validity (the diagnosis of PTSD in the interview strongly correlated with the Pk Scale of the MMPI-2, and discriminant validity (the diagnosis of PTSD in the interview did not correlate with the Pk Scale in feigners. The feigning strategies (differential diagnosis also showed convergent validity (high correlation with the Scales and indices of the MMPI2 for the measure of feigning and discriminant validity (no genuine victim was classified as a feigner

  5. [Clinical and psychopathological profile of women victims of psychological partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, C; Dubois, F; Jaafari, N; Carl, T; Gaillard, P; Camus, V; El Hage, W

    2009-08-01

    Partner violence is a serious public health problem, due to their potential short-, medium- or long-term physical and psychological consequences. Violence is unbearable when it occurs between family members, and often remains unrevealed, invisible, hidden and repeated. The woman possibly feels trapped in a relationship of imprisonment. International studies have well-explored the psychopathological aspects of physical and sexual abuse within couples, but few explored the clinical profile of women victims of psychological violence or moral harassment. This study aims to define the clinical and psychopathological profile of women who are victims of psychological intimate partner violence. We contacted 628 women who consulted consecutively at the emergency ward of a university hospital covering a 300,000 catchment area. The telephone screening of psychological violence was therefore carried out using the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) questionnaire (N=226). An optional clinical interview was given to the women declaring themselves as victims of psychological intimate partner violence (N=56) to evaluate the life events and the psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-IV. Finally, 43 participants (77%) gave their opinion on the qualitative aspects of the WEB questionnaire and their level of ease with this report. In 63% (N=35) of the cases, the victims and their partners had a rather high socioprofessional level. Women refer to emergency ward mostly for complaint of vague idiopathic pain (49%) or for psychiatric disorders (52%) with predominance of anxiety (28%) or addictive disorders (19%). The prevalence of potentially traumatic life events was found to be high in this group (83%). The traumatic psychological intimate partner violence was associated with a heightened prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, like anxiety (72%), depression (100%), posttraumatic stress disorder (100%), and addiction to alcohol (100%) or another psychoactive substance (50

  6. Confidence intervals for effect sizes: compliance and clinical significance in the Journal of Consulting and clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgaard, Eric C; Fowler, Robert L

    2010-06-01

    In 2005, the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest editorial effort to improve statistical reporting practices in any APA journal in at least a decade, in this article we investigate the efficacy of that change. All intervention studies published in JCCP in 2003, 2004, 2007, and 2008 were reviewed. Each article was coded for method of clinical significance, type of ES, and type of associated CI, broken down by statistical test (F, t, chi-square, r/R(2), and multivariate modeling). By 2008, clinical significance compliance was 75% (up from 31%), with 94% of studies reporting some measure of ES (reporting improved for individual statistical tests ranging from eta(2) = .05 to .17, with reasonable CIs). Reporting of CIs for ESs also improved, although only to 40%. Also, the vast majority of reported CIs used approximations, which become progressively less accurate for smaller sample sizes and larger ESs (cf. Algina & Kessleman, 2003). Changes are near asymptote for ESs and clinical significance, but CIs lag behind. As CIs for ESs are required for primary outcomes, we show how to compute CIs for the vast majority of ESs reported in JCCP, with an example of how to use CIs for ESs as a method to assess clinical significance.

  7. The Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS): Merging clinical practice, training, and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Soo Jeong; Castonguay, Louis G; Xiao, Henry; Janis, Rebecca; McAleavey, Andrew A; Lockard, Allison J; Locke, Benjamin D; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' mental health. We provide (a) a brief review and summary of the psychometric and research support for the CCAPS; (b) examples of the use of the CCAPS for various purposes, including clinical, training, policy, and counseling center advocacy; and (c) implications of the integration of routine outcome monitoring and feedback for the future of training, research, and clinical practice. In particular, the article emphasizes how the assimilation of and symbiotic relationship between research and practice can address the scientist-practitioner gap. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and ...

  9. [The effect of potable mineral waters on the hormonal and psychological status (experimental and clinical research)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushina, N D; Babina, L M; Shvedunova, L N

    1994-01-01

    Experiments on 80 Wistar rats revealed the ability of Essentuki mineral waters to stimulate the reserves and sensitivity of the intestinal serotonin-producing system. A clinical trial on two groups of children (exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation or with posttraumatic astheno-neurotic syndrome) found out pronounced positive changes in the psychological status of the children which progressed in correlation with an increase of the blood serotonin levels.

  10. Attitudes toward Substance Abuse Clients: An Empirical Study of Clinical Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.

  11. THE PRESENT AND FUTURE OF CLINICAL AND HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carrobles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are currently two types of psychologist qualified to practise psychology in the health field: the Specialist Psychologist in Clinical Psychology (PEPC and the General Health Psychologist (PGS. These qualifications are legally regulated and their accreditation is obtained through two different programs of postgraduate training: the Residential Internship Program (PIR in the case of the PEPC; and the Master of General Health Psychology (MPGS in the case of the PGS. These programs are of different lengths (4 years for the PIR and 2 years for the MPGS and they are accessed after completion of the corresponding degree in Psychology. However, the objectives and the skills to be attained, as well as the content of the training programs, are actually very similar, in spite of the different linguistic denominations used to describe them. On the basis of the existing differences in the terminology and the duration of the programs, some Spanish associations (ANPIR, COP, AEPCP and AEN defend the position that there should be established between the two qualifications, in addition to a hierarchical structure, a clear boundary with respect to the functions that the two types of psychologist can perform (clinical and specialised versus health and general functions and of the sectors or contexts in which they can practise (public versus private. In our article, we refute these positions and the reasons on which they are based and we argue extensively in favour of an alternative proposal more in tune with the reality of the facts and with the European context professional accreditation in clinical psychology, in the sense of accepting the existence of the two independent qualifications of clinical psychologists (the PEPC and the PGS, with direct access to both from the degree in Psychology, and with equivalent competencies and professional functions, although with some limitations in the case of the PGS, mainly with respect to the

  12. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2016-01-01

    Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether preoperative symptoms of distress, depression, anxiety and somatisation were associated with a change in function after shoulder surgery and postoperative patient perceived improvement of pain and function. In addition, the change of psychological symptoms after shoulder surgery was analyzed and the influence of postoperative symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery on the change in function after shoulder surgery and perceived postoperative improvement of pain and function. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed in a general teaching hospital. 315 consecutive patients planned for elective shoulder surgery were included. Outcome measures included change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score and anchor questions about improvement in pain and function after surgery. Psychological symptoms were identified before and 12 months after surgery with the validated Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ). Psychological symptoms were encountered in all the various shoulder diagnoses. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders persisted after surgery in 56% of patients, 10% of patients with no symptoms of psychological disorders before surgery developed new psychological symptoms. Preoperative symptoms of psychological disorders were not associated with the change of DASH score and perceived improvement of pain and function after shoulder surgery. Patients with symptoms of psychological disorders after surgery were less likely to improve on the DASH score. Postoperative symptoms of distress and depression were associated with worse perceived improvement of pain. Postoperative symptoms of distress, depression and somatisation were

  13. Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Clinical Health Psychology Practice: Case Studies of Comorbid Psychological Distress and Life-Limiting Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacel, Elizabeth L; Ennis, Nicole; Pereira, Deidre B

    2017-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. Individuals with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research suggests core features of the disorder are associated with poor prognosis in therapy, including slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance. The current manuscript will explore challenges of working with NPD within the context of life-limiting illness for two psychotherapy patients seen in a behavioral health clinic at a large academic health science center. The ways in which their personality disorder affected their illness-experience shared significant overlap characterized by resistance to psychotherapeutic change, inconsistent adherence to medical recommendations, and volatile relationships with providers. In this manuscript we will (1) explore the ways in which aspects of narcissistic personality disorder impacted the patients' physical health, emotional well-being, and healthcare utilization; (2) describe psychotherapeutic methods that may be useful for optimizing psychosocial, behavioral, and physical well-being in individuals with co-morbid NPD and life-limiting disease; and (3) review conceptualizations of NPD from the DSM-5 alternative model for assessing personality function via trait domains.

  14. A Return to "The Clinic" for Community Psychology: Lessons from a Clinical Ethnography in Urban American Indian Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E; St Arnault, Denise M; Gone, Joseph P

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) abandoned the clinic and disengaged from movements for community mental health (CMH) to escape clinical convention and pursue growing aspirations as an independent field of context-oriented, community-engaged, and values-driven research and action. In doing so, however, CP positioned itself on the sidelines of influential contemporary movements that promote potentially harmful, reductionist biomedical narratives in mental health. We advocate for a return to the clinic-the seat of institutional power in mental health-using critical clinic-based inquiry to open sites for clinical-community dialogue that can instigate transformative change locally and nationally. To inform such works within the collaborative and emancipatory traditions of CP, we detail a recently completed clinical ethnography and offer "lessons learned" regarding challenges likely to re-emerge in similar efforts. Conducted with an urban American Indian community behavioral health clinic, this ethnography examined how culture and culture concepts (e.g., cultural competence) shaped clinical practice with socio-political implications for American Indian peoples and the pursuit of transformative change in CMH. Lessons learned identify exceptional clinicians versed in ecological thinking and contextualist discourses of human suffering as ideal partners for this work; encourage intense contextualization and constraining critique to areas of mutual interest; and support relational approaches to clinic collaborations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  15. Assessment of presurgical psychological screening in patients undergoing spine surgery: use and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Arthur K; Young, Benjamin K; Riley, Lee H; Skolasky, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Prospective survey. To determine the prevalence of use of presurgical psychological screening (PPS) among spine surgeons in the United States, identify factors associated with PPS use, evaluate surgeons' opinions of PPS, and investigate how PPS is applied in clinical practice. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends PPS for patients undergoing back surgery. The prevalence of PPS is unknown. Thus, it may be difficult to improve preoperative care for such patients with psychological conditions. An online survey invitation was emailed to 340 spine surgeons. Questions addressed surgeon characteristics (eg, number of years in practice), practice characteristics (eg, practice type), inclusion of integrated rehabilitation and psychological services, and use of PPS. The impact of psychological factors on rehabilitation and recovery was assessed using an 11-point Likert scale (0, no impact; 10, highest impact). We analyzed the 110 (32%) responses with a χ(2) test (significance, Ppsychological factors on pain relief, adherence to therapy, and return to work (mean impact rating, >7.0); however, impact on return for follow-up was only moderate (mean rating, 5.8). A minority of surgeons reported using PPS. Surgeons were less likely to use PPS if they had completed residency or begun practice within 14 years, had fewer than 200 cases annually, or were university affiliated. This study highlights the need to advocate for the use of North American Spine Society guidelines regarding the use of PPS.

  16. Expanding the Aperture of Psychological Assessment: Introduction to the Special Section on Innovative Clinical Assessment Technologies and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trull, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary psychological assessment is dominated by tried-and-true methods like clinical interviewing, self-report questionnaires, intellectual assessment, and behavioral observation. These approaches have served as the mainstays of psychological assessment for decades. To be sure, these methods have survived over the years because clinicians…

  17. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery : A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van 't Riet, Esther; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; Madden, Kim; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether

  18. The Influence of Preoperative and Postoperative Psychological Symptoms on Clinical Outcome after Shoulder Surgery: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, R.C.; Riet, E. van 't; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Madden, K.; Bulstra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with shoulder complaints. Psychological symptoms in patients with shoulder complaints might play a role in the aetiology, perceived disability and pain and clinical outcome of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess whether

  19. Integrating research into clinical internship training bridging the science/practice gap in pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.

  20. Integrating Research Into Clinical Internship Training Bridging the Science/Practice Gap in Pediatric Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345

  1. Clinical and psychological aspects of adolescent involvement in extremist and terrorist activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevsky D.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the clinical and psychological aspects of including minors in terrorist and extremist activities. In the historical perspective, it was traced how the views on the role of mental disorders in the genesis of such crimes changed. It is shown that terrorist and extremist activity must be viewed as a complex multi-factor phenomenon, in which socio-psychological components play a leading role. It is noted that the psychopathological process can act as a prerequisite for inclusion in such radical groups. Psychoanalytic, sociological, cognitive approaches, theories of social learning and the concept of diffuse ego-identity making attempts to explain the mechanisms of terrorist and extremist activity in minors are analyzed. The problem of insufficient study of the influence of the Internet and social networks on the formation of readiness for admission to adolescents in radical organizations is posed.

  2. Self-regulation method: psychological, physiological and clinical considerations. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemi, A; Tomita, S; Kuroda, M; Hayashida, Y; Ikemi, Y

    1986-01-01

    Body-oriented therapies as relaxation training and certain forms of meditation are gaining popularity in the treatment and prevention of psychosomatic disorders. In this paper, a new method of self-control called self-regulation method (SRM), derived from autogenic training and Zen meditation, is presented. The technique of SRM is introduced. Secondly, physiological studies on SRM using skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and cortical evoked potentials are presented. Thirdly, the results of psychological tests conducted on SRM are presented. These psycho-physiological studies suggest that SRM may elicit a state of 'relaxed alertness'. Fourthly, clinical applications of SRM are discussed, and 3 cases are presented. Finally, SRM is discussed in relation to the psychology and physiology of 'relaxed alertness'.

  3. Theoretical concepts of personal self and the reconstructive psychotherapy problematics in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Serhiyvna Maximenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a survey on the problem of theoretical conceptions of the “Self” and specific features applying a reconstructive therapy to Clinical Psychology. A dynamics of self-understanding of a patient and self-destructing influence of different diseases are being traced beginning from the works by W.James and up to the modern researches. The aims and targets of therapeutical and psychocorrectional work depending on the primary, secondary etc. personality features are defined more precisely concerning their dependence on the primary, secondary etc. personality features of a patient or on the nozological and etiological roots of the sufferance. Several groups of factors essential for a psychological therapy are being analyzed.

  4. Clinical psychology service users' experiences of confidentiality and informed consent: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, S J; Chambers, E; Thompson, A R

    2009-12-01

    To explore and describe the experience of clinical psychology service users in relation to the processes associated with confidentiality and the generation of informed consent in individual therapy. A qualitative interview-based study employing interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted with service users. User researchers were active collaborators in the study. A focus group of four users was convened to explore issues related to confidentiality and consent, which then informed the development of the semi-structured interview schedule. Twelve users of community mental health clinical psychology services were interviewed by user researchers. A user researcher and a clinical psychologist undertook joint analysis of the data. A second clinical psychologist facilitated reflexivity and wider consideration of validity issues. Four main themes were identified from the data: being referred; the participant's feelings, mental health difficulties, and their impact; relationships with workers and carers; and autonomy. The meaningfulness of processes of discussing confidentiality, and generating informed consent, can be improved by psychologists placing a greater emphasis on choice, control, autonomy, individual preferences, and actively involving the user in dialogue on repeated occasions.

  5. Medical and psychology students' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness as a clinical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Stephen P; Hassed, Craig S; Gear, Jacqui L

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness is a technique for training people to pay full attention and to fully accept the reality of what they are paying attention to. The clinical efficacy of mindfulness has been increasingly demonstrated during the last two decades. Very little research, however, has been undertaken on health professionals' and students of health professions' knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness. These may affect the current and future level of use of a technique that offers important clinical advantages. We aimed to compare knowledge of and attitudes towards mindfulness of medical students without exposure to it in their training with psychology students without exposure and with medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their training. A total of 91 medical students from Monash University, 49 medical students from Deakin University, and 31 psychology students from Deakin University were given a questionnaire that elicited quantitative and qualitative responses about level of knowledge of mindfulness and willingness to administer or recommend it to their future patients. Psychology students without exposure to mindfulness in their training have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure to it in their training. Medical students with exposure to mindfulness in their course have a greater knowledge of it and are more likely to administer it or recommend it than are medical students without exposure. Knowledge of mindfulness is positively correlated with students' willingness to use or recommend it. Possible implications of the findings of this study are that if future doctors are routinely instructed in mindfulness as a clinical intervention they may be more likely to form a more positive attitude towards it, that is more consistent with that of nonmedical health professions such as psychologists, and that they therefore may be more likely to administer it or refer its use. The

  6. Clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation: observational, single cohort, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Spadoto Dias

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Tubal ligation is one of the most commonly used contraceptive methods worldwide. Since the controversy over the potential effects of tubal sterilization still continues, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical and psychological repercussions of videolaparoscopic tubal ligation.DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational, single cohort, retrospective study, conducted in a tertiary public hospital.METHODS: A questionnaire was applied to 130 women aged 21-46 years who underwent videolaparoscopic tubal ligation by means of tubal ring insertion or bipolar electrocoagulation and sectioning, between January 1999 and December 2007. Menstrual cycle interval, intensity and duration of bleeding, premenstrual symptoms, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, noncyclic pelvic pain and degree of sexual satisfaction were assessed in this questionnaire. Each woman served as her own control, and comparisons were made between before and after the surgical procedure and between the two techniques used.RESULTS: The clinical and psychological repercussions were significant, with increases in bleeding (P = 0.001, premenstrual symptoms (P < 0.001, dysmenorrhea (P = 0.019 and noncyclic pelvic pain (P = 0.001; and reductions in the number of sexual intercourse occurrences per week (P = 0.001 and in libido (P = 0.001. Women aged ≤ 35 years at the time of sterilization were more likely to develop menstrual abnormalities. The bipolar electrocoagulation method showed greater clinical and psychological repercussions.CONCLUSION: Regardless of the technique used, videolaparoscopic tubal ligation had repercussions consisting of increased menstrual flow and premenstrual symptoms, especially in women aged ≤ 35 years, and also had a negative influence on sexual activity.

  7. Comparing the acceptability of a positive psychology intervention versus a cognitive behavioural therapy for clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gomez, Irene; Chaves, Covadonga; Hervas, Gonzalo; Vazquez, Carmelo

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence on the efficacy of positive psychology interventions (PPI) to treat clinical disorders. However, very few studies have addressed their acceptability. The present study aimed to analyse 2 key components of acceptability (i.e., client satisfaction and adherence to treatment) of a new PPI programme, the Integrative Positive Psychological Intervention for Depression (IPPI-D), in comparison to a standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme in the treatment of clinical depression. One hundred twenty-eight women with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia were allocated to a 10-session IPPI-D or CBT group intervention condition. Results showed that both interventions were highly acceptable for participants. Attendance rates were high, and there were no significant differences between conditions. However, the IPPI-D condition showed significantly higher client satisfaction than the CBT condition. Moreover, acceptability did not differ based on participants' severity of symptoms, regardless of condition. These findings encourage further investigations of the applicability of PPI in clinical settings in order to broaden the range of acceptable and suitable therapies for depressed patients. Key Practitioner Message This study sheds light on the client satisfaction and adherence to a positive intervention. For participants, positive psychology interventions (PPI) may be more satisfactory than CBT as PPI are framed within a positive mental health model and, consequently, may reduce the risk of stigmatization Because acceptability of treatments and preferences may affect the efficacy of treatments, this study provides an excellent opportunity to offer professionals more therapeutic options to tailor treatments to clients' needs and expectations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mindfulness and Emotion Regulation: Insights from Neurobiological, Psychological, and Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Simón; Medeiros, Sebastián; Rampes, Hagen

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the beneficial clinical effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Research has demonstrated their efficacy in a wide range of psychological conditions characterized by emotion dysregulation. Neuroimaging studies have evidenced functional and structural changes in a myriad of brain regions mainly involved in attention systems, emotion regulation, and self-referential processing. In this article we review studies on psychological and neurobiological correlates across different empirically derived models of research, including dispositional mindfulness, mindfulness induction, MBIs, and expert meditators in relation to emotion regulation. From the perspective of recent findings in the neuroscience of emotion regulation, we discuss the interplay of top-down and bottom-up emotion regulation mechanisms associated with different mindfulness models. From a phenomenological and cognitive perspective, authors have argued that mindfulness elicits a “mindful emotion regulation” strategy; however, from a clinical perspective, this construct has not been properly differentiated from other strategies and interventions within MBIs. In this context we propose the distinction between top-down and bottom-up mindfulness based emotion regulation strategies. Furthermore, we propose an embodied emotion regulation framework as a multilevel approach for understanding psychobiological changes due to mindfulness meditation regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Finally, based on clinical neuroscientific evidence on mindfulness, we open perspectives and dialogues regarding commonalities and differences between MBIs and other psychotherapeutic strategies for emotion regulation. PMID:28321194

  9. Children's and parent's psychological profiles in selective mutism and generalized anxiety disorder: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Flavia; Manti, Filippo; Di Trani, Michela; Romani, Maria; Vigliante, Miriam; Sogos, Carla

    2017-10-28

    Selective mutism (SM) is classified in DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the psychological features of children with SM and their parental psychological profiles, compared to generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) children and their parents. The parents of 26 preschool children with SM and 32 with children with GAD filled out the child behavior check list for 1½-5 years (CBCL1½-5) and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R). Information about the children and their parents' histories was collected through clinical interviews. Children with SM scored higher than children with GAD on the CBCL1½-5 withdrawn scale and lower on the attention problems, aggressive behavior, and externalizing problems scales. Mothers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R obsessive-compulsive subscale and Global Severity Index than mothers of children with GAD, while fathers of children with SM scored higher on the SCL-90-R Phobic Anxiety subscale and on the Global Severity Index than fathers of children with GAD. Parents of children with SM displayed a greater presence of stressful life events than parents of children with GAD. Data appeared to confirm that SM and GAD share a common anxious core, though some differences in the children's psychological profiles and the parents' history and personality emerged. Future research should focus on the role of external factors, such as parent-child relationship, in the development of SM.

  10. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37-38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses.

  11. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  12. Clinical, psychological and demographic parameters of body pain in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body pain in multiple sclerosis (MS is a common phenomenon that can create or exacerbate by different parameters of clinical, psychological and demographic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parameters of clinical (fatigue, clinical course, body mass index and duration, psychological (depression, anxiety and stress and demographic (age, gender, marital status and education characters with multiple sclerosis patient’s body pain. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed in the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Guilan Province and Imam Reza Specialized and Sub-specialized Clinic, Rasht City, Iran during June to February 2010. In this study 162 patients with MS were selected by consecutive sampling. We used the clinical and demographic variables inventory, body pain subscale of the health survey questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and fatigue severity scale along with identical analog-spring balance. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and point bi-serial, one-way analysis of variance, Gabriel test and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The findings showed that patients who scored 3 or higher in relapses experienced significantly more body pain than patients who scored 1-2 times of relapses (P= 0.031. In the meantime, significant differences were not found between the two groups of patients with a score of 3 or higher in relapses and non-relapse and between non-relapse patients and with a score 1-2 times of relapses in terms of body pain. Also, significant differences were not found in different groups of hospitalization in terms of body pain. However, anxiety and fatigue together could explain significantly 25% of the shared variance of body pain (F= 26.29, P≤ 0.0009. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of psychological and clinical factors on body pain exacerbation in MS patients. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to consider

  13. Clinical use of the Kessler psychological distress scales with culturally diverse groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Yvonne; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2014-06-01

    The Kessler 10 (K10) and embedded Kessler 6 (K6) was developed to screen for non-specific psychological distress and serious mental illness in mental health surveys of English-speaking populations, but has been adopted in Western and non-Western countries as a screening and outcome measure in primary care and mental health settings. This review examines whether the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations was established, and whether the cultural equivalence, and sensitivity to change of translated or culturally adapted K6/K10s, has been demonstrated with culturally diverse client groups. Evidence for the original K6/K10's validity for culturally diverse populations is limited. Questions about the conceptual and linguistic equivalence of translated/adapted K6/K10s arise from reports of changes in item connotation and differential item functioning. Evidence for structural equivalence is inconsistent, as is support for criterion equivalence, with the majority of studies compromising on accuracy in case prediction. Research demonstrating sensitivity to change with culturally diverse groups is lacking. Inconsistent evidence for the K6/K10's cultural appropriateness in clinical settings, and a lack of clinical norms for either majority or culturally diverse groups, indicate the importance of further research into the psychological distress construct with culturally diverse clients, and the need for caution in interpreting K6/K10 scores. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Mentoring ethnic minority counseling and clinical psychology students: A multicultural, ecological, and relational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne W; Yeh, Christine J; Krumboltz, John D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to understand the role of race and culture in successful mentoring relationships in graduate school. We examined the practices of 9 faculty mentors working with 15 ethnic minority doctoral students in counseling and clinical psychology. Grounded theory was used to discern unifying patterns and to formulate a theory of multicultural mentoring. Five overall themes significant to multicultural mentoring emerged: (a) career support and guidance tailored for ethnic minorities, (b) relationality between mentors and protégés, (c) significance of contexts, (d) interconnections across contexts, and (e) multidirectionality of interactions between contexts. The 5 themes combined to form a multicultural, ecological, and relational model of mentoring. Our findings suggest that mentoring ethnic minority students can be successful, productive, and satisfying for both mentors and protégés when mentors possess the necessary skills, time, commitment, and multicultural competencies. Implications for doctoral programs in counseling and clinical psychology are discussed, along with recommendations for future research directions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Clinical identification of compensatory structures on projective tests: a self psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, M L

    2001-06-01

    In this article I discuss compensatory structure, a concept from Kohut's (1971, 1977) psychology of the self that is not as familiar as Kohut's other views about the self. Compensatory structures are attempts to repair selfobject failure, usually by strengthening idealization or twinship in the face of mirroring deficits. Compensatory structures, particularly their early indications, can be detected on projective tests for identifying adaptive resources and treatment potential. The clinical identification of compensatory structures on test findings is described using Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) content. Particular attention is devoted to the 2-part process of demonstrating first, an injury to the self, and second, how attempts to recover from such injuries can be detected on projective tests. Clinical examples are provided, and the differentiation between compensatory structures and defenses and sublimation is discussed.

  16. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  17. Psychological, Relational, and Biological Correlates of Ego-Dystonic Masturbation in a Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Fanni, Egidia; Corona, Giovanni; Maseroli, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    Attitudes toward masturbation are extremely varied, and this practice is often perceived with a sense of guilt. To evaluate the prevalence of ego-dystonic masturbation (EM), defined as masturbation activity followed by a sense of guilt, in a clinical setting of sexual medicine and the impact of EM on psychological and relational well-being. A series of 4,211 men attending an andrology and sexual medicine outpatient clinic was studied retrospectively. The presence and severity of EM were defined according to ANDROTEST items related to masturbation, determined by the mathematical product of the frequency of masturbation and the sense of guilt after masturbation. Clinical, biochemical, and psychological parameters were studied using the Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction, ANDROTEST, and modified Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Three hundred fifty-two subjects (8.4%) reported any sense of guilt after masturbation. Subjects with EM were younger than the remaining sample (mean age ± SD = 51.27 ± 13.43 vs 48.31 ± 12.04 years, P < .0001) and had more psychiatric comorbidities. EM severity was positively associated with higher free-floating (Wald = 35.94, P < .001) and depressive (Wald = 16.85, P < .001) symptoms, and subjects with a higher EM score reported less phobic anxiety (Wald = 4.02, P < .05) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (Wald = 7.6, P < .01). A higher EM score was associated with a higher alcohol intake. Subjects with EM more often reported the partner's lower frequency of climax and more problems achieving an erection during sexual intercourse. EM severity was positively associated with worse relational and intrapsychic domain scores. Clinicians should consider that some subjects seeking treatment in a sexual medicine setting might report compulsive sexual behaviors. EM represents a clinically relevant cause of disability, given the high level of psychological distress reported by subjects with this condition, and the severe impact on

  18. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-06-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects.

  19. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  20. Integrating Positive and Clinical Psychology: Viewing Human Functioning as Continua from Positive to Negative Can Benefit Clinical Assessment, Interventions and Understandings of Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J; Wood, AM

    2017-01-01

    In this review we argue in favour of further integration between the disciplines of positive and clinical psychology. We argue that most of the constructs studied by both positive and clinical psychology exist on continua ranging from positive to negative (e.g., gratitude to ingratitude, anxiety to calmness) and so it is meaningless to speak of one or other field studying the “positive” or the “negative”. However, we highlight historical and cultural factors which have led positive and clinic...

  1. Managing chronic pathologies with a stepped mHealth-based approach in clinical psychology and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eCastelnuovo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases and conditions typically require long-term monitoring and treatment protocols both in traditional settings and in out-patient frameworks. The economic burden of chronic conditions is a key challenge and new and mobile technologies could offer good solutions. mHealth could be considered an evolution of ehealth and could be defined as the practice of medicine and public health supported by mobile communication devices. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies. Possible applications include stepped mHealth approach, where patients can be monitored and treated in their everyday contexts. Unfortunately, many barriers for the spread of mHealth are still present. Due the significant impact of psychosocial factors on disease evolution, psychotherapies have to be included into the chronic disease protocols. Existing psychological theories of health behavior change have to be adapted to the new technological contexts and requirements. In conclusion, clinical psychology and medicine have to face the chronic care management challenge in both traditional and mHealth settings.

  2. Psychological variables potentially implicated in opioid-related mortality as observed in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passik, Steven D; Lowery, Amy

    2011-06-01

    Opioid-related deaths in the United States have become a public health problem, with accidental and unintended overdoses being especially troubling. Screening for psychological risk factors is an important first step in safeguarding against nonadherence practices and identifying patients who may be vulnerable to the risks associated with opioid therapy. Validated screening instruments can aid in this attempt as a complementary tool to clinicians' assessments. A structured screening is imperative as part of an assessment, as clinician judgment is not the most reliable method of identifying nonadherence. As a complement to formal screening, we present for discussion and possible future study certain psychological variables observed during years of clinical practice that may be linked to medication nonadherence and accidental overdose. These variables include catastrophizing, fear, impulsivity, attention deficit disorders, existential distress, and certain personality disorders. In our experience, chronic pain patients with dual diagnoses may become "chemical copers" as a way of coping with their negative emotion. For these patients, times of stress could lead to accidental overdose. Behavioral, cognitive-behavioral (acceptance and commitment, dialectical behavior), existential (meaning-centered, dignity), and psychotropic therapies have been effective in treating these high-risk comorbidities, while managing expectations of pain relief appears key to preventing accidental overdose. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Approach to the notice of insanity. Symptom - mental health and clinical structures. Psychology and psychoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Chacón-Afanador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work of reflection proposes the approach of the concepts of clinical structures and mental health, starting from the position of psychoanalysis and the question is asked if it is possible to think the madness within them. To do this, it starts from an approach to training and symptom in psychoanalysis and psychology, pointing out the importance of differentiating the psychic from the organic, as well as the psychic from the mental. In this sense, the concept of mental health proposed by WHO is addressed and the place of psychology and psychoanalysis in this concept is questioned. In the same way a reflection is made around the questions: Is it possible to speak of madness in the XXI century, when psychiatry has tried to eradicate this term? To talk about crazy again is to return to a debate that has somehow been left out of the scientific debate? Is it possible to think nowadays the importance of elaborating a nosography that includes Insanity?

  4. Attitudes of psychology students to depression and its treatment: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, M; Peppou, L E; Geroulanou, K; Kontoangelos, K; Prokopi, A; Pantazi, A; Zervakaki, A; Stefanis, C N

    2017-01-01

    . The core misconception espoused pertains to the view that major depression is not a medical illness; a finding which can also be interpreted in light of the lingering controversy on the medicalization of normal sadness and human predicament. The clinical implications of these findings are substantial. Mental health professionals-educators should reflect on their own beliefs and attitudes towards depression, as they may convey stigmatizing messages to their students and thus perpetuate the stigmatization of the illness. Concomitantly, psychology students' attitudes to depression and its treatment might render them incapable of understanding their patients, responding to their needs and providing them with appropriate help, while they may hinder their effective collaboration with psychiatrists.

  5. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking. PMID:28533971

  6. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja F. Ernst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  7. The clinical psychology of Lightner Witmer: a case study of institutional innovation and intellectual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J M

    1979-01-01

    The name Lightner Witmer is rarely invoked in the historian's litany of psychological saints. Neither a grand systematizer nor an ardent experimentalist, the "world's first clinical psychologist" is even dismissed by contemporary clinicians because of his purported failure to achieve for psychologists professional hegemony over the "problem child." Yet disciplinary ventures which in Joseph Ben-David's phrase fail to "take off" represent extremely illuminating indicators of a discipline's shifting ideas, roles, and aspirations. Explicitly urging that historians pay more attention to subgroups of larger disciplines, this paper constitutes an attempt to assess the impact of changing social roles upon psychologists' intellectual stances through an examination of Witmer's novel activities at the University of Pennsylvania.

  8. Quagmires for clinical psychology and executive coaching? Ethical considerations and practice challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Judith Ann

    2016-04-01

    As the coaching field burgeons, both the mental health and coaching professionals, and their respective professions, face a myriad of potential quagmires, especially if the unique challenges encountered are ignored. After a short introduction and presentation on ethics and morals related to executive coaching and clinical therapy, a discussion follows on the lengthy and intimate relationship between executive coaching and psychology. Next are definitions and comparisons and 6 areas that are potential quagmires. This includes roles, skill sets/core competencies, education/training, licensing/credentialing-certification, governing bodies and confidentiality, and fees/reimbursement. Each section includes a discussion and several questions to highlight potentially problematic areas, practice challenges, and/or ethical issues, followed with brief responses. This paper concludes with the inquiry, "Where do we go from here?" (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. NeuroVR: an open source virtual reality platform for clinical psychology and behavioral neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Preziosa, Alessandra; Morganti, Francesca; Corsi, Riccardo; Faletti, Gianluca; Vezzadini, Luca

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of virtual reality for clinical and research applications has become more widespread. However, the diffusion of this approach is still limited by three main issues: poor usability, lack of technical expertise among clinical professionals, and high costs. To address these challenges, we introduce NeuroVR (http://www.neurovr.org--http://www.neurotiv.org), a cost-free virtual reality platform based on open-source software, that allows non-expert users to adapt the content of a pre-designed virtual environment to meet the specific needs of the clinical or experimental setting. Using the NeuroVR Editor, the user can choose the appropriate psychological stimuli/stressors from a database of objects (both 2D and 3D) and videos, and easily place them into the virtual environment. The edited scene can then be visualized in the NeuroVR Player using either immersive or non-immersive displays. Currently, the NeuroVR library includes different virtual scenes (apartment, office, square, supermarket, park, classroom, etc.), covering two of the most studied clinical applications of VR: specific phobias and eating disorders. The NeuroVR Editor is based on Blender (http://www.blender.org), the open source, cross-platform suite of tools for 3D creation, and is available as a completely free resource. An interesting feature of the NeuroVR Editor is the possibility to add new objects to the database. This feature allows the therapist to enhance the patient's feeling of familiarity and intimacy with the virtual scene, i.e., by using photos or movies of objects/people that are part of the patient's daily life, thereby improving the efficacy of the exposure. The NeuroVR platform runs on standard personal computers with Microsoft Windows; the only requirement for the hardware is related to the graphics card, which must support OpenGL.

  10. The Methodology of Syndrome Analysis within the Paradigm of “Qualitat ive Research” in Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Pervichko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the potential for applying contemporary philosophical theories(which distinguish classical, nonclassical, and postnonclassical types of scientificrationality to the specification of theoretical methodological principles inthe study of clinical psychology. We prove that psychological syndrome analysis(developed by the Vygotsky–Luria–Zeigarnik school, taken as a system of principlesfor organizing research as well as for interpreting its results, conforms to theepistemological complexity of the object of study in clinical psychology, which isunderstood in the postnonclassical scientific view as a self-developing system.We present an example of the formation of a psychosomatic syndrome in 290patients with mitral-valve prolapse, applying methods of qualitative and statisticaldata analysis in a longitudinal clinical-psychological study. We prove that thesyndrome is system-defined and has a multilevel character, and that its structureis determined by several factors: the motivational factor (with the domination ofthe failure-avoidance motive and the unsatisfied self-approval need; the factor ofthe emotional-regulation disorders, represented by both excessive emotional repressionand lack of emotional control; and a psychophysiological factor. We arguethat a psychosomatic syndrome can be used as a means for approaching not onlydiagnostic but also prognostic tasks both in clinical psychology and in medicine.We conclude that the results of our empirical study, conducted within the frameworkof postnonclassical philosophy and using the methods of psychologicalsyndrome analysis, not only expand the scientific background on the nature of aparticular disease (mitral-valve prolapse but also pose further questions whoseinvestigation will broaden our view of the psychological mechanisms of psychosomatic-syndrome genesis.

  11. Bringing explicit insight into cognitive psychology features during clinical reasoning seminars: a prospective, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendaz, Mathieu R; Gut, Anne M; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Perrier, Arnaud; Vu, Nu V

    2011-04-01

    Facets of reasoning competence influenced by an explicit insight into cognitive psychology features during clinical reasoning seminars have not been specifically explored. This prospective, controlled study, conducted at the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, Switzerland, assessed the impact on sixth-year medical students' patient work-up of case-based reasoning seminars, bringing them explicit insight into cognitive aspects of their reasoning. Volunteer students registered for our three-month Internal Medicine elective were assigned to one of two training conditions: standard (control) or modified (intervention) case-based reasoning seminars. These seminars start with the patient's presenting complaint and the students must ask the tutor for additional clinical information to progress through case resolution. For this intervention, the tutors made each step explicit to students and encouraged self-reflection on their reasoning processes. At the end of their elective, students' performances were assessed through encounters with two standardized patients and chart write-ups. Twenty-nine students participated, providing a total of 58 encounters. The overall differences in accuracy of the final diagnosis given to the patient at the end of the encounter (control 63% vs intervention 74%, p = 0.53) and of the final diagnosis mentioned in the patient chart (61% vs 70%, p = 0.58) were not statistically significant. The students in the intervention group significantly more often listed the correct diagnosis among the differential diagnoses in their charts (75% vs 97%, p = 0.02). This case-based clinical reasoning seminar intervention, designed to bring students insight into cognitive features of their reasoning, improved aspects of diagnostic competence.

  12. Twenty years of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings: we hope you will enjoy the show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozensky, Ronald H; Tovian, Steven M; Sweet, Jerry J

    2014-03-01

    The 20th anniversary of the Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings is celebrated by highlighting the scientist-practitioner philosophy on which it was founded. The goal of the Journal-to provide an outlet for evidence-based approaches to healthcare that underscore the important scientific and clinical contributions of psychology in medical settings-is discussed. The contemporary relevance of this approach is related to the current implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care and its focus on accountability and the development of an interprofessional healthcare workforce; both of which have been foci of the Journal throughout its history and will continue to be so into the future. Several recommendations of future topic areas for the Journal to highlight regarding scientific, practice, policy, and education and training in professional health service psychology are offered. Successfully addressing these topics will support the growth of the field of psychology in the ever evolving healthcare system of the future and continue ensure that the Journal is a key source of professional information in health service psychology.

  13. Clinical characteristics of patients assessed within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service: results from a naturalistic cohort study (Predicting Outcome Following Psychological Therapy; PROMPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepgul, Nilay; King, Sinead; Amarasinghe, Myanthi; Breen, Gerome; Grant, Nina; Grey, Nick; Hotopf, Matthew; Moran, Paul; Pariante, Carmine M; Tylee, André; Wingrove, Janet; Young, Allan H; Cleare, Anthony J

    2016-02-27

    A substantial number of patients do not benefit from first line psychological therapies for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Currently, there are no clear predictors of treatment outcomes for these patients. The PROMPT project aims to establish an infrastructure platform for the identification of factors that predict outcomes following psychological treatment for depression and anxiety. Here we report on the first year of recruitment and describe the characteristics of our sample to date. One hundred and forty-seven patients awaiting treatment within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service were recruited between February 2014 and February 2015 (representing 48 % of those eligible). Baseline assessments were conducted to collect information on a variety of clinical, psychological and social variables including a diagnostic interview using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Our initial findings showed that over a third of our sample were not presenting to IAPT services for the first time, and 63 % had been allocated to receive higher intensity IAPT treatments. Approximately half (46 %) were taking prescribed psychotropic medication (most frequently antidepressants). Co-morbidity was common: 72 % of the sample met criteria for 2 or more current MINI diagnoses. Our initial data also indicated that 16 % met criteria for borderline personality disorder and 69 % were at high risk of personality disorder. Sixty-one percent scored above the screening threshold for bipolarity. Over half of participants (55 %) reported experiencing at least one stressful life event in the previous 12 months, whilst 67 % reported experiencing at least one form of childhood trauma. Our results to date highlight the complex nature of patients seen within an urban IAPT service, with high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, personality disorder, bipolarity and childhood trauma. Whilst there are significant challenges associated with researching

  14. Preparing for Graduate-Level Training in Professional Psychology: Comparisons across Clinical PhD, Counseling PhD, and Clinical PsyD Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Smith, Lena

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, faculty who teach in clinical and counseling doctor of philosophy (PhD) or doctor of psychology (PsyD) programs completed surveys regarding preferences for prospective student preparations to graduate programs. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for scientific methods, though…

  15. Electroencephalogram, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, and oxidative stress in horticulture farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrami, Mansour; Hashemi, Touraj; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Faraji, Fardin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the toxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in exposed farmers for electroencephalography, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, and DNA damage. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 40 horticulture farmers who were exposed to OPs in comparison to a control group containing 40 healthy subjects with the same age and sex and education level. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the blood of subjects. Clinical examination and complete blood test were undertaken in order to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Cognitive function, psychological symptoms, and psychological distress were examined and recorded. Comparing with controls, the farmers showed higher blood levels of SOD and LPO while their TAC decreased. Farmers showed clinical symptoms such as eczema, breathing muscle weakness, nausea, and saliva secretion. Regarding cognitive function, the orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language were not significantly different in farmers and controls. Among examinations for psychological distress, only labeled somatization was significantly higher in farmers. The present findings indicate that oxidative stress and inhibition of AChE can be seen in chronically OP-exposed people but incidence of neuropsychological disorders seems a complex multivariate phenomenon that might be seen in long-term high-dose exposure situations. Use of supplementary antioxidants would be useful in the treatment of farmers.

  16. [Emotional consequences of sterilization. Clinical comments on the methodology of psychological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, P

    1983-04-01

    72 detailed psychiatric and psychological retrospective and prospective investigations (from 1928-1975) on the emotional consequences of male and female sterilization were reviewed and the international literature is summarized. Favorable conditions for sterilization are clear and decisive motivation, freedom of decision making, throrough understanding of the decision of the sexual partner, a harmonious relationship with that partner, a stable and sensitive personality, and thorough preoperative individual counseling. Integration of the procedure may take from 1-4 years and occurs in both partners. This is a dynamic process which brings with it a crisis during which the disturbance may be integrated. Consequently, surgical contraception is a challenge to the relationship of the partners. Investigations to date point to coveted motivation. Personal ambition of the investigator, justification for the operation, political motives in favor of widespread surgical sterilization, and pragmatic clinical motives are often found. Rarely is the motive in the investigation the mere search for scientific truth. Frequently, perfectionistic objectivisim and positivism are found and the subjectivity of the investigator and client is eliminated. In future investigations, the transparency in the relationship of the investigator and client and anthropological concepts should be considered. Part of the investigation must consider transcultural comparisons in the significance of liberty, love, and loyality in reproduction and family planning. (author's)

  17. Clinical and psychological features of addict people with an incomplete suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuravlyova T.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of social, psychological and clinical aspects of suicidal behaviour of alcohol addicts and drug addicts with incomplete suicide attempts, admitted to the Department of crisis states and psychosomatic disorders, Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Ambulance Service from November 2014 to June 2015. The majority of addicts (70% showed an affective kind of suicidal actions. During an acute post-suicidal period all examined patients revealed value-oriented approach to life. Conflict becomes irrelevant as a result of expressed fear of death and fear of social and transcendental consequences of an suicide act. Alcohol addicts feel guilty towards relatives and others, and need of their support. They have significantly increased fear to loss of social identity. Drug addicts have maintained negative view of near and distant future events, they consider the act of suicide as an effective and radical way of solving life problems. Based on our findings we concluded that the risk of repeat suicide attempts in patients with alcohol dependence can be caused by the weakness of self-management skills and lack of microsocial environmental support, while a similar risk in persons with drug addiction can be due to negative view of their own future and the degree of social maladjustment.

  18. Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezzich J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

  19. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  20. Socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with psychological distress 1 and 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A large group of women (20–30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological di...... of anxiety or depression. Participants with poor financial status, previous psychological problems, or high levels of fatigue may be at increased risk of psychological distress. Such individuals may benefit most from psychosocial interventions....... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non......-significant differences in mean scores over time, 91 (15 %) participants reported increased anxiety symptoms and 47 (7 %) reported increased depressive symptoms. Poor financial situation, lack of social support, previous psychiatric treatment, and high levels of fatigue were associated with both anxiety and depressive...

  1. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ybarra Sagarduy JL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy,1 Dacia Yurima Camacho Mata,1 José Moral de la Rubia,2 Julio Alfonso Piña López,3 José Luis Masud Yunes Zárraga4 1Unit of Social Work and Human Development, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas, Ciudad Victoria, 2School of Psychology, Autonomous University of Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, 3Independent Researcher, Hermosillo, 4Institute of Health and Safety Services for State Workers, Clinic for the Study and Prevention of the Chilhood Obesity, Ciudad Victoria, Mexico Background: It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension.Purpose: This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior.Results: Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data (pBS =0.235, χ2/gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom’s Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053.Conclusion: The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so

  2. A systematic review of team formulation in clinical psychology practice: Definition, implementation, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, Nicole; Moghaddam, Nima G; De Boos, Danielle

    2017-10-03

    Team formulation is promoted by professional practice guidelines for clinical psychologists. However, it is unclear whether team formulation is understood/implemented in consistent ways - or whether there is outcome evidence to support the promotion of this practice. This systematic review aimed to (1) synthesize how team formulation practice is defined and implemented by practitioner psychologists and (2) analyse the range of team formulation outcomes in the peer-reviewed literature. Seven electronic bibliographic databases were searched in June 2016. Eleven articles met inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Extracted data were synthesized using content analysis. Descriptions of team formulation revealed three main forms of instantiation: (1) a structured, consultation approach; (2) semi-structured, reflective practice meetings; and (3) unstructured/informal sharing of ideas through routine interactions. Outcome evidence linked team formulation to a range of outcomes for staff teams and service users, including some negative outcomes. Quality appraisal identified significant issues with evaluation methods; such that, overall, outcomes were not well-supported. There is weak evidence to support the claimed beneficial outcomes of team formulation in practice. There is a need for greater specification and standardization of 'team formulation' practices, to enable a clearer understanding of any relationships with outcomes and implications for best-practice implementations. Under the umbrella term of 'team formulation', three types of practice are reported: (1) highly structured consultation; (2) reflective practice meetings; and (3) informal sharing of ideas. Outcomes linked to team formulation, including some negative outcomes, were not well evidenced. Research using robust study designs is required to investigate the process and outcomes of team formulation practice. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Deeb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  4. Common Issues Seen in Paediatric Diabetes Clinics, Psychological Formulations, and Related Approaches to Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Asma; Akle, Mariette; Al Ozairi, Abdulla; Cameron, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease and its management is associated with multiple challenges. This is particularly the case in children and adolescents. Factors that contribute to difficulties in managing diabetes in youth include psychological characteristics, family dynamics, and social behavior. The purpose of this article is to highlight some psychological issues in children and adolescents with diabetes. We aim to present selected case scenarios encountered by health professionals and to provide tips on strategies for managing psychological aspect of diabetes. We tackle the psychological issues related to diabetes under four main categories: maladaptive disorders, eating disorders, family psychopathology, and family dysfunction. Psychotherapy and psychoanalysis are useful modalities in diabetes management. The psychological intervention is aimed at supporting patients and families to reach a balance between a normal family routine and a good glycemic control. We demonstrate unique requirements in coordinating care for children and adolescents with diabetes and highlight the importance of encouraging a positive behavior. Managing diabetes in children and adolescents needs to be in the form of a collaborative work between health care professionals, children and adolescents, and their families. Caring, supportive family backed up by experienced multidisciplinary team is the best approach to prevent psychological difficulties.

  5. Does Work Stress Predict the Occurrence of Cold, Flu and Minor Illness Symptoms in Clinical Psychology Trainees?

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Anna C.; Sheffield, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined the three/four-day lagged relationship between daily work stress and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and other minor illness symptoms. Methods: Twenty-four postgraduate clinical psychology trainees completed work stress, cold/flu symptoms and somatic symptoms checklists daily for four weeks. Results: Increases in work stress were observed two days prior to a cold/flu episode but not three or four days preceding a cold/flu episode. Work stress wa...

  6. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  7. Well-being therapy in depression: New insights into the role of psychological well-being in the clinical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Giovanni A; Cosci, Fiammetta; Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena

    2017-09-01

    A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in a clinically relevant model of visceroception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderigo, Till; Benson, Sven; Schöls, Margarita; Hetkamp, Madeleine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Enck, Paul; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence to suggest a role of emotions in placebo and nocebo effects, but whether acute psychological stress changes the magnitude of placebo or nocebo responses has not been tested. In a clinically relevant model of visceroception, we assessed effects of acute psychological stress on changes in urgency and pain in response to positive or negative treatment suggestions. In 120 healthy volunteers, perceived urge-to-defecate and pain in response to individually calibrated rectal distensions were measured with visual analogue scales during a BASELINE. Participants then underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (N = 60) or a simple cognitive task (control, N = 60) and were randomized to positive (placebo), negative (nocebo), or neutral treatment information regarding intravenous administration of saline. The series of distensions was repeated, and changes in visual analogue scales from BASELINE to TEST were compared between groups using analysis of covariance and planned post hoc tests. Treatment information emerged as a main factor (P effects for both urgency and pain. Effects for urgency were modulated by stress (interaction effect: P stressed groups. For pain, effects of stress emerged for nocebo responses, which were only evident in stressed groups (P = 0.009). This is the first experimental study supporting effects of acute psychological stress on placebo and nocebo responses in visceroception. Results call for mechanistic as well as patient studies to assess how psychological stress shapes patients' treatment expectations and thereby affects health outcomes.

  9. Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Ivanovich, Jennifer; Lyons, Sarah; Biesecker, Barbara; Dresser, Rebecca; Elrick, Ashley; Matsen, Cindy; Goodman, Melody

    2018-01-29

    The growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  10. Psychological, behavioral, and clinical effects of intra-oral camera: a randomized control trial on adults with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário-Rui; Alvarez, Maria-João; Godinho, Cristina A; Pereira, Cícero

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Contrastive Analysis of the Links of Textuality in Abstracts Written by Persian and English Writers in Clinical Psychology Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that lexical cohesion is one of the fundamental elements of the text texture achieved through lexical semantic relations dominating the arrangement of propositional units in a text. Accordingly, this study sought to compare and contrast the textual links or lexical cohesive devices enlisted in the psychological abstracts written by Persian and English writers. To this end, 40 abstracts from Persian and English articles, 20 in each language, published in clinical psychology journals were randomly selected. The framework serving as tertium comprationis for analyzing lexical cohesion markers was derived from Halliday and Hasan’s (1976 model [Halliday, M. A. K., & Hasan, R. (1976. Cohesion in English. London: Longman]. A frequency count analysis was employed to gauge the number of occurrences of cohesive links in the selected corpus. The results revealed that lexical links of synonymy and repetition were more frequent than other cohesive devices in both English and Persian abstracts.

  12. The Social Psychology of Black-White Interracial Interactions: Implications for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Sweeton, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Social psychological research suggests that because of concerns about being perceived in stereotypical ways, people may experience negative affect and diminished attention and cognitive capacity during interracial interactions. The authors discuss this research in relation to therapy and assessment and also offer practical suggestions for ensuring…

  13. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  14. Clinical Psychology of Corporeality: Principles of Cultural-Historical Subject Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychology of corporeality is a new and intensively elaborated branch of science. The theoretical foundations of its subject differ significantly from those of medical psychosomatics. In a given article some new concepts of this approaching discipline are introduced and the role of symbolic mediation in genesis of different psychosomatic diseases is discussed.

  15. Clinical Psychology of Corporeality: Principles of Cultural-Historical Subject Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina V. Nikolaeva; Galina A. Arina

    2009-01-01

    The psychology of corporeality is a new and intensively elaborated branch of science. The theoretical foundations of its subject diff er signifi cantly from those of medical psychosomatics. In a given article some new concepts of this approaching discipline are introduced and the role of symbolic mediation in genesis of diff erent psychosomatic diseases is discussed.

  16. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge van Dijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called ‘positive mental health’. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Methods Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF, dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors. Results Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89% completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were ‘acting with awareness’ (negative and ‘worrying’ (positive. Strongest predictors of positive mental health were ‘problem avoidance’ (negative and ‘emotional irresponsibility’ (negative. Conclusions The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support

  17. A cross-sectional examination of psychological distress, positive mental health and their predictors in medical students in their clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-11-17

    Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students. Fourth-year medical students in their first year of clinical clerkships were invited to complete an online questionnaire assessing demographics, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum- SF), dysfunctional cognitions (Irrational Beliefs Inventory) and dispositional mindfulness skills (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore relationships between psychological distress, positive mental health (dependent variables) and demographics, dysfunctional cognitions and dispositional mindfulness skills (predictors). Of 454 eligible students, 406 (89%) completed the assessment of whom 21% scored in the clinical range of psychological distress and 41% reported a flourishing mental health. These proportions partially overlap each other. Female students reported a significantly higher mean level of psychological distress than males. In the regression analysis the strongest predictors of psychological distress were 'acting with awareness' (negative) and 'worrying' (positive). Strongest predictors of positive mental health were 'problem avoidance' (negative) and 'emotional irresponsibility' (negative). The prevalence of psychopathology in our sample of Dutch clinical clerkship students is slightly higher than in the general population. Our results support conclusions of previous research that psychological distress and positive mental

  18. Clinical and audiologic characteristics of patients with sensorineural tinnitus and its association with psychological aspects: an analytic retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Swiahb, Jamil Nasser; Hwang, Eul Seung; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to analyze clinical and audiologic characteristics of sensorineural tinnitus and to investigate the associating factors reflecting psychological aspects of stress and depression of the patients. This is a retrospective analytical study conducted in a tinnitus clinic of a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. The medical records of 216 patients suffering from sensorineural tinnitus were thoroughly evaluated to determine correlations between clinical and audiological characteristics, including age, sex, predisposing or etiologic factors, hearing levels up to extended high frequencies, and tinnitus severity. Psychological aspects of stress and depression were also evaluated and analyzed to seek the associations with tinnitus severity. All data were stored in our database bank and were statistically analyzed. Our study subjects showed a slight male predominance. The highest percentage of tinnitus was found in patients of 60-80 years old. Only 32.5 % of tinnitus patients were subjectively aware of their hearing loss, whereas 73 % of subjects had hearing deficits in some frequencies in their audiogram. Hearing impairments were of the low-frequency sensorineural type in 18.2 % of patients and were limited to the high frequencies in 77.9 % of patients. Tinnitus was unilateral in 51 % of patients and had a tonal nature in 45 % of patients. In total, 45.8 % of patients with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss had high-pitched tinnitus. There were significant correlations between tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance. Correlations with THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and Beck depression index scores were also found. Sensorineural tinnitus was related with hearing loss in some frequencies nevertheless of patients' own awareness of hearing loss. Loudness and annoyance of tinnitus seems to be two important factors reflecting psychological problems of patients' stress and depression.

  19. Divorce and Death: A Meta-Analysis and Research Agenda for Clinical, Social, and Health Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Law, Rita W; Portley, Robert M

    2011-09-01

    Divorce is a relatively common stressful life event that is purported to increase risk for all-cause mortality. One problem in the literature on divorce and health is that it is fragmented and spread across many disciplines; most prospective studies of mortality are based in epidemiology and sociology, whereas most mechanistic studies are based in psychology. This review integrates research on divorce and death via meta-analysis and outlines a research agenda for better understanding the potential mechanisms linking marital dissolution and risk for all-cause mortality. Random effects meta-analysis with a sample of 32 prospective studies (involving more than 6.5 million people, 160,000 deaths, and over 755,000 divorces in 11 different countries) revealed a significant increase in risk for early death among separated/divorced adults in comparison to their married counterparts. Men and younger adults evidenced significantly greater risk for early death following marital separation/divorce than did women and older adults. Quantification of the overall effect size linking marital separation/divorce to risk for early death reveals a number of important research questions, and this article discusses what remains to be learned about four plausible mechanisms of action: social selection, resource disruptions, changes in health behaviors, and chronic psychological distress. © Association for Psychological Science 2011.

  20. Making good theory practical: five lessons for an Applied Social Identity Approach to challenges of organizational, health, and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Social identity research was pioneered as a distinctive theoretical approach to the analysis of intergroup relations but over the last two decades it has increasingly been used to shed light on applied issues. One early application of insights from social identity and self-categorization theories was to the organizational domain (with a particular focus on leadership), but more recently there has been a surge of interest in applications to the realm of health and clinical topics. This article charts the development of this Applied Social Identity Approach, and abstracts five core lessons from the research that has taken this forward. (1) Groups and social identities matter because they have a critical role to play in organizational and health outcomes. (2) Self-categorizations matter because it is people's self-understandings in a given context that shape their psychology and behaviour. (3) The power of groups is unlocked by working with social identities not across or against them. (4) Social identities need to be made to matter in deed not just in word. (5) Psychological intervention is always political because it always involves some form of social identity management. Programmes that seek to incorporate these principles are reviewed and important challenges and opportunities for the future are identified. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Critical thinking about adverse drug effects: lessons from the psychology of risk and medical decision-making for clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; Smoller, Jordan W; Eidelman, Polina; Wu, Yelena P; Tilley, Claire A

    2008-01-01

    Systematic biases in decision-making have been well characterized in medical and nonmedical fields but mostly ignored in clinical psychopharmacology. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians who prescribe psychiatric drugs to the issues of the psychology of risk, especially as they pertain to the risk of side effects. Specifically, the present analysis focuses on heuristic organization and framing effects that create cognitive biases in medical practice. Our purpose is to increase the awareness of how pharmaceutical companies may influence physicians by framing the risk of medication side effects to favor their products. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Long-term variability of sleep bruxism and psychological stress in patients with jaw-muscle pain: Report of two longitudinal clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalev, K; Visscher, C M; Koutris, M; Lobbezoo, F

    2018-02-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) and psychological stress are commonly considered as contributing factors in the aetiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain. However, the lack of longitudinal studies and fluctuating nature of SB, psychological stress and TMD pain have led to contradictory results regarding the association between the possible aetiological factors and TMD pain. In the present study we investigated the contribution of SB and psychological stress to TMD pain in a longitudinal study of 2 clinical TMD pain cases during a 6-week study protocol. Two female volunteers with clinically diagnosed myalgia based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to record jaw-muscle pain and psychological stress experience, and an ambulatory polysomnography technique was used to record SB intensity. Visual analysis of the data revealed that the intensity of TMD pain was not hardwired, neither with psychological stress experience nor with increased SB activity. Within the limitations of single-patient clinical cases design, our study suggested that the presence of TMD pain cannot be explained by a simple linear model which takes psychological stress or SB into account. It also seems that psychological stress was a more important predictor factor for TMD pain than SB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effects of "The Work" meditation (Byron Katie) on psychological symptoms and quality of life--a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernoff, Eric; Mitnik, Inbal; Kolodner, Ken; Lev-Ari, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    "The Work" is a meditative technique that enables the identification and investigation of thoughts that cause an individual stress and suffering. Its core is comprised of four questions and turnarounds that enable the participant to experience a different interpretation of reality. We assessed the effect of "The Work" meditation on quality of life and psychological symptoms in a non-clinical sample. This study was designed as a single-group pilot clinical trial (open label). Participants (n = 197) enrolled in a nine-day training course ("The School for The Work") and completed a set of self-administered measures on three occasions: before the course (n = 197), after the course (n = 164), and six months after course completion (n = 102). Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR16), Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45.2), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A mixed models analysis revealed significant positive changes between baseline compared to the end of the intervention and six-month follow-up in all measures: BDI-II (t = 10.24, P Work" meditation technique as an effective intervention for improvement in psychological state and quality of life in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Training and education in religion/spirituality within APA-accredited clinical psychology programs: 8 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Rachel M; Handal, Paul J; Brawer, Peter A; Ubinger, Megan

    2011-06-01

    This study was a follow up investigation of Brawer et al.'s (Prof Psychol Res Pr 33(2):203-206, 2002) survey of education and training of clinical psychologists in religion/spirituality. Directors of clinical training were surveyed to determine whether changes had occurred in the coverage of religion and spirituality through course work, research, supervision, and in the systematic coverage of the content area. Results indicated an increased coverage in the areas of supervision, dedicated courses, inclusion as part of another course, and research. There was no increase in systematic coverage, but significantly more programs provided at least some coverage. The current study also assesses other areas of incorporation as well as directors' opinions regarding the importance of religion/spirituality in the field of psychology.

  5. Psychological and clinical problems in young adults with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicka, Mariola; Lewandowski, Michał; Smolis-Bak, Edyta; Szwed, Hanna

    2008-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) are the most effective treatment in patients with the risk of sudden cardiac death. ICD improves patients' safety but is also the source of numerous inconveniences. Especially young people consider such ICD-related inconveniences as most unwelcome. To assess the quality of life and main psychological problems encountered in young adults with an ICD. We studied 45 subjects aged 14-29 years (mean 21.2+/-4.3). ICDs were used in primary prevention in 22 patients, and in secondary prevention in 23 patients. Time elapsed from implantation ranged from 5 months to 11 years (4.3+/-2.7 years). Since the problems affecting this group were rather specific, the patients' quality of life was assessed with a special questionnaire addressing important issues and problems associated with living with an ICD. ICD discharges were observed in 67.4% of patients (primary prevention - 45.5%, secondary prevention - 82.6%), multiple shocks in 47.2%, and phantom shocks in 21.4%. Anxiety associated with an ICD discharge was reported by 84.4% of patients. In order to prevent ICD discharges, 53.3% of patients decreased their activity. Problems with memory were observed in 42.2% of patients, with concentration in 47.6%, and with sleep in 42.2%. Almost half of those over 18 years of age were active drivers. None of the subjects experienced an ICD discharge during sexual intercourse. None of the men reported any sexual problems, while seven (41.2%) women did. Almost a quarter of the patients claimed to have had complications after the implantation. Young adult patients generally were compliant to have their ICD checked and accepted their limitations and disease. Fewer people assessed their health status as bad. Some patients in the group studied found it extremely difficult to accept their disease and/or ICD and to adapt to the situation. As many as nine patients believed the ICD implantation had been unnecessary, seven did not accept the ICD, three

  6. Analysis of asthenic phenomens in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus in the clinical and psychological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tkachenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to analyze the peculiarities of asthenic manifestations in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus (DM in clinical and psychological perspective. Materials and methods. We examined in 543 patients with type 2nd DM. The first clinical group (CG-1 was 57 patients with type 2nd DM of mild severity; the average age in the group was (51,80±1,28 years. The second clinical group (CG-2 made up of 312 patients with type 2nd DM, moderate severity; mean age in the group was (55,10±1,12 years. The third clinical group (CG-3 included 174 patients with type 2nd DM, severe degree of severity; the average age in the group was (61.80±0,85 years. Research methods: clinical-anamnestic, clinical-psychopathological, statistical. Results. The marked prevalence of asthenic syndrome in patients wath type 2nd DM 52,30%, which is almost half among all surveyed type 2nd DM. Discovered the direct correlation of asthenic symptoms with the severity of the type 2nd DM (rs = 0.4033, p<0.01. The factors in the risk of asthenic syndrome in patients with type 2nd DM was installed, among them is dominated by a moderate and severe degree of type 2nd DM, combined with obesity 2 degrees, DEP II degree, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, degenerative dystrophic lesions of the spine. Established that there is a direct correlation asthenic syndrome to the severity of type 2nd DM, as well as the accompanying somatic pathology. Established dominance in CG-1 and CG-2 component fatigue "mental fatigue" and CG-3 component "physical fatigue". Conclusions. Features of asthenic manifestations in patients with type 2nd DM in clinical and psychological perspective were investigated. The detection rate of asthenic manifestations among patients with type 2nd DM and the factors for their amplification were established. The organic etiology of asthenic manifestations have been proven; presentation about the stages of development of asthenic symptoms in patients with type 2nd DM were

  7. Cultural, behavioral, social, and psychological perceptions of saliva: relevance to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sean; Wong, David T

    2006-04-01

    The search for a resource that can be used to detect a broad range of diseases easily and reliably is akin to a search for the diagnostic Holy Grail. Yet, each of us may have inside our mouths, a key to the pathological and disease biomarker library hidden inside our bodies. Saliva--the source of all this information--is the secretory product of glands located in or around the oral cavity. If one could read the stories of diagnostic information present within saliva, then the abundance of information waiting to be found could be comparable to a vast vault of information, such as the Internet. Upon dissection of this data, it would be seen that the source of this information is from saliva's origin as a filtrate of blood, and that the validity of both mediums should be equal. Although one day this may be the view, most people's hold of saliva, current and past cultures, have fared much more diverse meanings to the secretion. Ivan Pavlov's experiments has shown how closely tied salivation is with the thought of food, one of life's primary indulgences. The relationship between salivation and behaviors within our daily lives is undeniable. Yet most people never appreciate the uniqueness of saliva. Throughout the world, saliva carries definite positive and negative connotations, based upon its social, psychological, behavioral, and cultural settings. The thought of saliva may be viewed as grotesque in one population, yet may be the vehicle of blessing in other cultures. Saliva's double nature brings up some interesting cultural, social, behavioral, and psychological points about how saliva is perceived in the world, some of which are subsequently stated in order to present saliva as the spirited fluid it is.

  8. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-management and psychological-sexological interventions in patients with endometriosis: strategies, outcomes, and integration into clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buggio L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura Buggio,1,2 Giussy Barbara,3 Federica Facchin,4 Maria Pina Frattaruolo,1,2 Giorgio Aimi,2 Nicola Berlanda2 1Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2Departmental Operating Unit of Surgical Gynecology and Endometriosis, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Service for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 4Faculty of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Endometriosis has a multifactorial etiology. The onset and progression of the disease are believed to be related to different pathogenic mechanisms. Among them, the environment and lifestyle may play significant roles. Diet, dietary supplements, physical exercise, osteopathy, massage, acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and Chinese herbal medicine may represent a complementary and feasible approach in the treatment of symptoms related to the disease. In this narrative review, we aimed to examine the most updated evidence on these alternative approaches implicated in the self-management of the disease. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that endometriosis may negatively impact mental health and quality of life, suggesting that affected women may have an increased risk of developing psychological suffering as well as sexual problems due to the presence of pain. In light of these findings, we discuss the importance of integrating psychological interventions (including psychotherapy and sexual therapy in endometriosis treatment. Keywords: sexual therapy, diet, physical activity, alternative medicine, psychotherapy 

  10. Body Esteem Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis and its Relationship with Demographic, Clinical and Socio-Psychological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilski, M; Tasiemski, T; Dąbrowski, A

    2016-06-01

    The principal aim of this study was to verify if specific socio-demographic, clinical, and socio-psychological factors are correlates of body esteem in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study included 185 women with MS who completed the Body Esteem Scale (BES), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ), Actually Received Support Scale (a part of the Berlin Social Support Scale), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patients were recruited as a result of cooperation with the Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Centre in Borne Sulinowo and Polish Society of Multiple Sclerosis. The demographic characteristics of the participants and their illness-related problems were determined with a self-report survey. A hierarchical multiple regression revealed that four factors, psychological condition (R (2) = 0.23, p ≤ 0.001), received support (R (2) = 0.28, p ≤ 0.001), personal control (R (2) = 0.30, p ≤ 0.001), and physical condition (R (2) = 0.31, p ≤ 0.001), were significant correlates of the general body esteem in our study group of women with MS. The model explained 31 % of variance in body esteem. Positive body esteem, an important component of self-esteem in women with MS, is associated with better social support, overcoming negative illness-related appraisals and improvement of psychological well-being. Subjective perception of a negative impact of MS on one's physical condition may be helpful in the identification of women with MS being at increased risk of decreased body esteem.

  11. Physical and psychological sequelae to torture. A controlled clinical study of exiled asylum applicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P

    1988-01-01

    complaints were headaches, various cardiopulmonary symptoms, sleep disturbances with nightmares, impaired concentration and memory, and emotional lability. Suicide attempts were reported. Prior to the torture all the probands had been healthy except for several cases of gunshot wounds. The clinical...

  12. Clinical Holistic Medicine: A Psychological Theory of Dependency to Improve Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a psychological theory of dependency as an escape from feeling existential suffering and a poor quality of life. The ways in which human beings escape hidden existential pains are multiple. The wide range of dependency states seems to be the most common escape strategy used. If the patient can be guided into the hidden existential pain to feel, understand, and integrate it, we believe that dependency can be cured. The problem is that the patient must be highly motivated, sufficiently resourceful, and supported to want such a treatment that is inherently painful. Often, the family and surrounding world is suffering more than the dependent person himself, because the pattern of behavior the patient is dependent on makes him or her rather insensitive and unable to feel. If the patient is motivated, resourceful, and trusts his physician, recovery from even a severe state of dependency is not out of reach, if the holistic medical tools are applied wisely. The patient must find hidden resources to take action, then in therapy confront and feel old emotional pain, understand the source and inner logic of it, and finally learn to let go of negative attitudes and beliefs. In this way, the person can be healed and released of the emotional suffering and no longer be a slave to the dependency pattern.

  13. Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Marc E; Leclerc, Julie; O'Connor, Kieron P

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). This article presents broad outlines of the state of the current literature in the field of GTS. We present our clinical research model and methodology for the integration of cognitive neuroscience in the psychological evaluation and treatment of GTS to manage chronic tic symptoms.

  14. Promoting the development of children with disabilities through school inclusion: clinical psychology in supporting teachers in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Tomai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an intervention study developed within an international cooperation program, and aimed at promoting the school inclusion of children with disabilities in Mozambique. To avoid the risk of exporting models from a local context to another, and in order to favour a sustainable social change, a participatory and ecological framework was adopted. The main aim of the Participatory Action Research (PAR carried out was to explore teachers’ views and beliefs concerning disability and inclusion, and determine best practices to fully include students with disabilities. The paper illustrates the overall outcomes of a participatory research development process, and the results achieved in each phase. The final purpose is to increase the knowledge on school inclusion of children with disabilities in the Global South. Potentials and challenges of using clinical psychological, ecological and collaborative paradigms to address issues concerning health promotion and development of children with disabilities and local development are also discussed.

  15. Clinical osteoarthritis predicts physical and psychological QoL in acromegaly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Biermasz, N. R.; Kloppenburg, M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Tiemensma, J.; Smit, J. W. A.; Pereira, A. M.; Roelfsema, F.; Kroon, H. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life is decreased in patients with long-term control of acromegaly. In addition, these patients suffer from irreversible osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of joint-specific complaints, clinical and radiological signs of arthropathy on different aspects of

  16. Childhood Developmental Disorders: An Academic and Clinical Convergence Point for Psychiatry, Neurology, Psychology and Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Significant advances in understanding brain development and behavior have not been accompanied by revisions of traditional academic structure. Disciplinary isolation and a lack of meaningful interdisciplinary opportunities are persistent barriers in academic medicine. To enhance clinical practice, research, and training for the next…

  17. Original article New challenges for clinical health psychology in diagnosis and therapy of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Klepas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tinnitus is becoming a social issue as the number of individuals suffering from this condition is still increasing. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of tinnitus and related distress, as well as general psychiatric distress of affected individuals. Participants and procedure The study included 169 tinnitus patients aged between 22 and 88 years (mean 53.52. The duration of tinnitus ranged between 5 months and 30 years (mean 5.29 years. The participants presented either with normal hearing or with hearing loss. The study was based on a standardized interview and examination with two psychometric instruments: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI. Results Duration of tinnitus, its subjective severity, experiencing negative emotions and lack of social support turned out to be a composite measure determining the level of tinnitus-related distress. In turn, the level of psychiatric distress was determined by sex of the participants, presence of difficulties in life, subjective severity of tinnitus and lack of social support. Conclusions Characteristics of tinnitus and its psychological consequences affect various functional aspects and health of the affected patients. The diagnostic instruments used in the study (THI and GHQ-28 proved to be appropriate and identified a subset of tinnitus patients who required appropriate psychotherapeutic intervention. The complex situation of patients experiencing subjective signs of tinnitus points to a necessity of cooperation between specialists in laryngology and psychologists, as a vital component of multidisciplinary evaluation and the therapeutic process.

  18. Effectiveness of a structured training program in psychotherapeutic skills used in clinical interviews for psychiatry and clinical psychology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Rodriguez-Vega, Beatriz; Ortiz-Sanchez, Deborah; Baldor Tubet, Isabel; Gonzalez-Juarez, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated a training program based on a structured manual of psychotherapeutic skills, using a randomized controlled design. The experimental group consisted of 135 residents from 12 teaching units in Spain. To control the improvement in therapeutic skills that could be attributed to the training received during the residency, the authors compared the experimental group with a control group of 35 residents from three teaching units. Two types of assessment instruments were used: a paper-and-pencil questionnaire based on clinical cases and a videotape of a role-playing interview. Both were given before and after the experimental group attended the training program. The experimental group shows a statistically significant improvement compared with the control group in both measurements.

  19. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: Identifying factors predictive of managing upper respiratory tract infections without antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glidewell Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator, behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics. Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model (SM, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to

  20. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Lesther A; Litson, Kaylee; Lockhart, Ginger; Chassin, Laurie; Geiser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI) data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454) is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. The new approach allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models.

  1. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  2. AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course Held in Fort Gordon, Georgia on 13-17 February 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Figure 1 summarizes the organizational structure and personnel. PRODUCTIVITY MEASURES Patient Administration Systems and Biostatistics Activity, HSC...clinical medicine gr dentistry after serving in nonclinical capacity frr more than I , the period will not exceed 1 year. ... 23 (5) For practitioners...if the individual practices medicine or dentistry while attending school. For the active duty practitioner who joins the ARNG or USAR, the gaining

  3. Analyzing Statistical Mediation with Multiple Informants: A New Approach with an Application in Clinical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesther ePapa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing mediation models is critical for identifying potential variables that need to be targeted to effectively change one or more outcome variables. In addition, it is now common practice for clinicians to use multiple informant (MI data in studies of statistical mediation. By coupling the use of MI data with statistical mediation analysis, clinical researchers can combine the benefits of both techniques. Integrating the information from MIs into a statistical mediation model creates various methodological and practical challenges. The authors review prior methodological approaches to MI mediation analysis in clinical research and propose a new latent variable approach that overcomes some limitations of prior approaches. An application of the new approach to mother, father, and child reports of impulsivity, frustration tolerance, and externalizing problems (N = 454 is presented. The results showed that frustration tolerance mediated the relationship between impulsivity and externalizing problems. Advantages and limitations of the new approach are discussed. The new approach can help clinical researchers overcome limitations of prior techniques. It allows for a more comprehensive and effective use of MI data when testing mediation models.

  4. The relationships between father involvement and parental acceptance on the psychological adjustment of children and adolescents: The moderating effects of clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ruiz, Mercedes; Holgado-Tello, Francisco Pablo; Carrasco, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes how a child's clinical condition modifies the relationship of father involvement, parental (fathers and mothers) acceptance and the child´s psychological adjustment, including the internalizing and externalizing problems. The cohort studied was composed of 226 subjects (61.94% males) with a mean age of 14.08 years, of which 113 children were from an incidental clinical sample and 113 from the general population. Both groups were matched by sex, age and family status, and the data show that the same structure of parent-child relationships that predict the child´s psychological adjustment can be accepted for both the clinical and non-clinical groups of children. However, the intensity of the relationships between the variables father involvement, parental acceptance and the child´s outcomes differed in function of the child's clinical status. Specifically, in the clinically-referred sample compared to non-clinical sample father involvement had a stronger effect on the children´s internalizing (but not the externalizing) problems and on their global psychological adjustment via their perceived maternal acceptance. The role of father involvement in the family relationships of clinical children is discussed. This study provides important evidence to support the need for enhanced paternal participation in the intervention programs for families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes: clinical and psychological features, body mass index and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Kibune-Nagasako

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is classified into subtypes according to bowel habit. Objective: To investigate whether there are differences in clinical features, comorbidities, anxiety, depression and body mass index (BMI among IBS subtypes. Methods: The study group included 113 consecutive patients (mean age: 48 ± 11 years; females: 94 with the diagnosis of IBS. All of them answered a structured questionnaire for demographic and clinical data and underwent upper endoscopy. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD. Results: The distribution of subtypes was: IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D, 46%; IBS-constipation (IBS-C, 32%, and mixed IBS (IBS-M, 22%. IBS overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, functional dyspepsia, chronic headache and fibromyalgia occurred in 65.5%, 48.7%, 40.7% and 22.1% of patients, respectively. Anxiety and/or depression were found in 81.5%. Comparisons among subgroups showed that bloating was significantly associated with IBS-M compared to IBS-D (odds ratio-OR-5.6. Straining was more likely to be reported by IBS-M (OR 15.3 and IBS-C (OR 12.0 compared to IBS-D patients, while urgency was associated with both IBS-M (OR 19.7 and IBS-D (OR 14.2 compared to IBS-C. In addition, IBS-M patients were more likely to present GERD than IBS-D (OR 6.7 and higher scores for anxiety than IBS-C patients (OR 1.2. BMI values did not differ between IBS-D and IBS-C. Conclusion: IBS-M is characterized by symptoms frequently reported by both IBS-C (straining and IBS-D (urgency, higher levels of anxiety, and high prevalence of comorbidities. These features should be considered in the clinical management of this subgroup.

  6. Irritable bowel syndrome subtypes: Clinical and psychological features, body mass index and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibune Nagasako, Cristiane; Garcia Montes, Ciro; Silva Lorena, Sônia Letícia; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2016-02-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is classified into subtypes according to bowel habit. To investigate whether there are differences in clinical features, comorbidities, anxiety, depression and body mass index (BMI) among IBS subtypes. The study group included 113 consecutive patients (mean age: 48 ± 11 years; females: 94) with the diagnosis of IBS. All of them answered a structured questionnaire for demographic and clinical data and underwent upper endoscopy. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). The distribution of subtypes was: IBS-diarrhea (IBS-D), 46%; IBS-constipation (IBS-C), 32%, and mixed IBS (IBS-M), 22%. IBS overlap with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia, chronic headache and fibromyalgia occurred in 65.5%, 48.7%, 40.7% and 22.1% of patients, respectively. Anxiety and/or depression were found in 81.5%. Comparisons among subgroups showed that bloating was significantly associated with IBS-M compared to IBS-D (odds ratio-OR-5.6). Straining was more likely to be reported by IBS-M (OR 15.3) and IBS-C (OR 12.0) compared to IBS-D patients, while urgency was associated with both IBS-M (OR 19.7) and IBS-D (OR 14.2) compared to IBS-C. In addition, IBS-M patients were more likely to present GERD than IBS-D (OR 6.7) and higher scores for anxiety than IBS-C patients (OR 1.2). BMI values did not differ between IBS-D and IBS-C. IBS-M is characterized by symptoms frequently reported by both IBS-C (straining) and IBS-D (urgency), higher levels of anxiety, and high prevalence of comorbidities. These features should be considered in the clinical management of this subgroup.

  7. Art, clinical moral perception, and the moral psychology of healthcare professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Severson, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This essay describes an example of how we-one professor of the elective course Art, Medicine, and Clinical Moral Perception at Creighton University School of Medicine, one Director of Adult Programs at the Joslyn Museum of Art in Omaha, Nebraska, and fourth year medical students-practice perception skills using art objects. This essay presents one example of the journal assignments to which students respond in written narratives about their own perception habits. We also share questions any health professions educator can use to guide students' study of their habits of perception using art objects.

  8. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  9. Positive results of clinical educational support in situations of psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Education is a complex process that involves the individual in the course of his entire life and leads to the maturation and the overall development of his personality. The educational process involves the complete growth of each and completes the infinite possibilities that every child has potential since birth. Education also is a necessity for the human being, as only adequate environmental stimulation causes the mental processes to begin. In fact, the higher intellectual functions, such as language, thought, memory, emerge only from social and educational experiences of the child. The educational surgery creates experiences and learning that allow the person to change by improving the efficiency of synaptic connections. Clinical pedagogy has developed in Italy in the last decades of the twentieth century with the aim of research and experimenting educational purposes suitable for different situations in order to provide each subject with appropriate development opportunities. Clinical pedagogical support is offered in the form of artistic or bodily activities and represents for the individual a positive environment that allows the development of different brain areas and the potential inherent in them. The various methods are suitable for any situation of existential discomfort, which are understood as moments of personal growth.

  10. The Depressive Experiences Questionnaire: validity and psychological correlates in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W T; McCranie, E W

    1990-01-01

    This study sought to compare the original and revised scoring systems of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) and to assess the construct validity of the Dependent and Self-Critical subscales of the DEQ in a clinically depressed sample. Subjects were 103 depressed inpatients who completed the DEQ, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Hopelessness Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The original and revised scoring systems of the DEQ evidenced good concurrent validity for each factor scale, but the revised system did not sufficiently discriminate dependent and self-critical dimensions. Using the original scoring system, self-criticism was significantly and positively related to severity of depression, whereas dependency was not, particularly for males. Factor analysis of the DEQ scales and the other scales used in this study supported the dependent and self-critical dimensions. For men, the correlation of the DEQ with the MMPI scales indicated that self-criticism was associated with psychotic symptoms, hostility/conflict, and a distress/exaggerated response set, whereas dependency did not correlate significantly with any MMPI scales. Females, however, did not exhibit a differential pattern of correlations between either the Dependency or the Self-Criticism scales and the MMPI. These findings suggest possible gender differences in the clinical characteristics of male and female dependent and self-critical depressive subtypes.

  11. Psychological, interpersonal, and clinical factors predicting time spent on physical activity among Mexican patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra Sagarduy, José Luis; Camacho Mata, Dacia Yurima; Moral de la Rubia, José; Piña López, Julio Alfonso; Yunes Zárraga, José Luis Masud

    2018-01-01

    It is widely known that physical activity is the key to the optimal management and clinical control of hypertension. This research was conducted to identify factors that can predict the time spent on physical activity among Mexican adults with hypertension. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 Mexican patients with hypertension, who completed a set of self-administered questionnaires related to personality, social support, and medical adherence and health care behaviors, body mass index, and time since the disease diagnosis. Several path analyses were performed in order to test the predictors of the study behavior. Lower tolerance to frustration, more tolerance to ambiguity, more effective social support, and less time since the disease diagnosis predicted more time spent on physical activity, accounting for 13.3% of the total variance. The final model shows a good fit to the sample data ( p BS =0.235, χ 2 / gl =1.519, Jöreskog and Sörbom's Goodness of Fit Index =0.987, adjusted modality =0.962, Bollen's Incremental Fit Index =0.981, Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index =0.946, standardized root mean square residual =0.053). The performance of physical activity in patients with hypertension depends on a complex set of interactions between personal, interpersonal, and clinical variables. Understanding how these factors interact might enhance the design of interdisciplinary intervention programs so that quality of life of patients with hypertension improves and they might be able to manage and control their disease well.

  12. Psychological, clinical and social characteristics of patients implementing different types of aggression in the hospital (gender aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the comparative analysis of clinical, social and psycho-pathological predictors of violations of the regime requirements, physical and verbal aggression among mentally ill women and men during the compulsory treatment are presented. It is revealed that the type of aggression in women sample significantly more frequently associated with clinical and social and pathopsychological characteristics: emotional unstable stew, learned in childhood and adolescence behavioral model of aggression and the severity of hostility and suspicion; the inertia of mental processes combined with low level of the cognitive functioning and a violation of insight in a broad sense. Among men – with the emotional and personal deformation, which were revealed before the beginning of illness, the decline in cognitive functioning and undeveloped links in the regulation of behavior, high level of aggressiveness in communication, internal conflict combined with the rigidity of self-concept. The authors concluded that assessment of risk factors from hospital-acquired aggression is an independent psycho-diagnostic work that needs to be provided with special tools, aimed whilst on the study of individual psychological characteristics of the regulation of behavior, strategies coping, communication installations and the treats of the aggression, as well as subjective ratings of social functioning in the hospital.

  13. Embodied and exbodied mind in clinical psychology. A proposal for a psycho-social interpretation of mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatti, Alberto; Zarbo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the “top-down” process, while exbodiment the “bottom-up” one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders. PMID:25784894

  14. EMBODIED AND EXBODIED MIND IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY. A PROPOSAL FOR A PSYCHO-SOCIAL INTERPRETATION OF MENTAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eZatti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A brief theoretical review of the current state of the art of embodiment research in clinical psychology has been expounded in order to highlight the key role that embodied conceptualization has on the understanding and explanation of several mental disorders, such as eating disorders, schizophrenia and depression. Evidence has suggested that mental disorders may be explained as disturbances of embodiment, from the disembodiment to the hyperembodiment. In order to understand how some clinical conditions are affected by cultural models, we propose and define a new framework called Exbodiment, complementary to the Embodiment approach to cognition. Mental disorder is strictly related to the subject-culture interaction that may be explained as a two way process in which embodiment and exbodiment are complementary points of view. In this perspective, embodiment may be seen as the top-down process, while exbodiment the bottom-up one. The introduction of exbodiment conceptualization highlights how subject is both receiver and interpreter of social influence. Subject is the target of a cultural pressure and, at the same time, enacts its own embodied culture in world. Exbodiment conceptualization may help clinicians to better understand and explain the role of culture in the onset and maintenance of mental disorders.

  15. Reputation strength as a determinant of faculty employment: a test of the step-down thesis among clinical psychology doctoral programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C; Ilardi, Stephen S; Johnson, Rebecca J

    2006-07-01

    This study tested the folkloristic belief that doctoral degree recipients who pursue academic careers typically wind up at institutions ranked lower in prestige than the institutions at which they trained (the step-down thesis). We used a database of faculty members in 150 clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the American Psychological Association, and compared each faculty member's training institution with the current employing institution on three distinct reputation ranking systems: The Center (University of Florida, Gainesville) for overall university reputation, the National Research Council (Washington, DC) for doctoral degree department reputation, and the news magazine, U.S. News and World Report ranking for clinical psychology training program reputation. Although support for the step-down thesis was found across all three ranking systems, a disproportionately large number of professors were also observed to move laterally in terms of their employing institution's reputation.

  16. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleine Azar

    Full Text Available Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1 adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2 registration status; and, (3 among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals.Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1 adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2 whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3 adequacy of outcome registration.Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1% adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3% had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7% registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029. The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7% was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709.The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  17. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; McKay, Dean; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT) results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA) journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1) adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2) registration status; and, (3) among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals. Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1) adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2) whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3) adequacy of outcome registration. Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1%) adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3%) had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7%) registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029). The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7%) was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709). The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  18. Supporting cancer patients and their carers: the contribution of art therapy and clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gudrun; Browning, Mary

    2009-11-01

    The value of various types of psychosocial support for people with cancer is now becoming well established. Typically the term 'psychosocial' includes: counselling and psychotherapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, education and information, and social support. The research literature sometimes fails to clarify the exact nature of the different approaches and their relative efficacy. Inevitably, even within a specific type of therapeutic approach, there is variation owing to the professional background and skills of different practitioners. This article describes the relative contributions made by an art psychotherapist and a clinical psychologist working together in a cancer and palliative care service in Wales. The referrals come from the same sources and tend to be for similar types of problem. The assessment and formulation processes are also broadly similar. Interventions, however, are markedly different. These are described in some detail through case study examples.

  19. Towards Resilient Telehealth Support for Clinical Psychiatry and Psychology: A Strategic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Human beings have increasingly shown a willingness to adopt Internet, mHealth and telehealth applications as a part of managing their health. Recent technological advances in the use of the Internet and video technologies has greatly impacted the provision of psychotherapy and other clinical services as well as how the training of psychotherapists may be conducted. When utilized appropriately these technologies may provide greater access to needed services to include treatment, consultation, supervision, and training. The major issue in such a development is whether online interventions will be structured or unstructured. The proper use of technology is fundamental to create and boost outstanding results. We present a strategic review and, as an example, the main steps to develop and achieve application resilience and antifragility at system level, for diagnostic and therapeutic telepractice and telehealth support. This article presents a number of innovations that can take psychotherapy treatment, supervision, training, and research forward, towards increased effectiveness application.

  20. Clinical and psychological impact of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in a community heart failure population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, S

    2012-02-01

    AIMS: ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <\\/= 35%) has increased since the publication of the SCD-HEFT and MADIT-II data. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ICD use in a community heart failure population and to assess the impact on patient\\'s quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-one ICDs were inserted between the years 2002 and 2006. The mean follow-up from time of insertion was 24 +\\/- 11 months. Eighteen patients (25%) had potentially life-saving therapy. Seven (10%) patients received inappropriate shocks. Complications were encountered in five patients (7%). CONCLUSION: In a community heart failure population, prophylactic ICD implantation is associated with a high incidence of life-saving therapy, a low complication rate and a high level of tolerability. These data indicate translation of clinical trial benefits to the general heart failure population.

  1. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  3. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclennan Graeme

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Methods Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making, and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM, Operant Learning Theory (OLT, Implementation Intention (II, Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value Results Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT, timeline acute (CS-SRM, and outcome expectancy (SCT entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT and attitude (TPB entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. Summary The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for

  4. Peculiarities of psychological, clinical and instrumental indicators in children with vegetative dysfunction and hypotension under the influence of innovative psychocorrective program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Mitjurjajeva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study the features of psychological state, clinical and instrumental parameters in children with vegetative dysfunction (VD and hypotension influenced by comprehensive treatment with the inclusion of the innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology. Materials and methods. The study included 57 patients with VD and hypotension aged 12 to 17 years, 37 of them received psychotherapy with innovative program “Our drugs — music, laughter, creativity” in comprehensive treatment, 20 children (control group received basic treatment without psychological assistance. General clinical, laboratory, instrumental and psychodiagnostic studies were performed both in main and control groups. Results. Using innovative psychocorrective program in children with VD and hypotension as a part of comprehensive treatment contributed to the improvement of clinical and instrumental data: number of cases with autonomic influences on the heart reduced (from 22.1 to 5.25 %, р < 0.05, orthostatic test autonomic provision was normalized in 40.5 % of children, psychological state improvement was observed in 74.1 % of cases. Conclusions. Innovative psychocorrective program with elements of music therapy, visual art therapy and gelotology can be recommended as a part of comprehensive treatment of children with VD and hypotension in hospital environment and in future psychological support of patients.

  5. Dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the psychological features and clinical symptoms in mitral valve prolapse (MVP patients receiving long-term integrative psychotherapy for anxiety disorders (AD and to investigate the psychological factors of their improvement in mental health as a result of psychotherapy. Thirty-two MVP patients with AD attended long-term integrative psychotherapy. Psychological and clinical examinations of the patients were made before and after the therapy courses and in a follow-up study after 2, 5, and 10 years. Data from the study show that 78.1% of the patients who attended psychotherapy sessions demonstrated valid improvements in self-rated psychological well-being and a reduction in their anxiety levels. Analysis of emotion-regulation strategies showed that psychotherapy encouraged the use of strategies effective for solving adaptive tasks. Positive dynamics in the development of personality reflection, the recognition of one’s emotional experiences, improved skills of self-regulation, and growing awareness of actual needs, individual purposes, and personality resources—all were associated with the reduction of MVP clinical symptoms. The psychiatrist who interviewed the patients reported that most of them were in sustained remission.

  6. Hypoalgesic effects of three different manual therapy techniques on cervical spine and psychological interaction: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Perez, Jose Luis; Lopez-Lopez, Almudena; La Touche, Roy; Lerma-Lara, Sergio; Suarez, Emilio; Rojas, Javier; Bishop, Mark D; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which psychological factors interact with a particular manual therapy (MT) technique to induce hypoalgesia in healthy subjects. Seventy-five healthy volunteers (36 female, 39 males), were recruited in this double-blind, controlled and parallel study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive: High velocity low amplitude technique (HVLA), joint mobilization, or Cervical Lateral glide mobilization (CLGM). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) over C7 unilaterally, trapezius muscle and lateral epicondyle bilaterally, were measured prior to single technique MT was applied and immediately after to applied MT. Pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety and kinesiophobia were evaluated before treatment. The results indicate that hypoalgesia was observed in all groups after treatment in the neck and elbow region (P < 0.05), but mobilization induces more hypoalgesic effects. Catastrophizing interacted with change over time in PPT, for changes in C7 and in manipulation group. All the MT techniques studied produced local and segmental hypoalgesic effects, supporting the results of previous studies studying the individual interventions. Interaction between catastrophizing and HVLA technique suggest that whether catastrophizing level is low or medium, the chance of success is high, but high levels of catastrophizing may result in poor outcome after HVLA intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02782585. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported comfort treating severe mental illnesses among pre-doctoral graduate students in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L

    2014-12-01

    One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.

  8. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  9. Virtual reality in Latin American clinical psychology and the VREPAR project. Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mauro Rubens

    2002-10-01

    Starting with the excellent collective work done by the European Community (EC)-funded Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) projects, I try to indicate some possible pathways that would allow a better integration of this advanced technology into the reality of Latin American psychology. I myself use analyses that I did in my master's degree in the PUCSP-Catholic University in São Paulo, Brazil. I also include a brief description of the CD-ROM Clinical Psychology Uses of Virtual Reality (CPUVR) that accompanies my thesis. I point out the importance of collaboration between psychology and other disciplines, including computer science. I explain the method that I used to work with digital information, important for the formation of a critical mass of people thinking in Portuguese and Spanish to accelerate a technological jump.

  10. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) 2016 Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Major Depressive Disorder: Section 2. Psychological Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sagar V; Quilty, Lena C; Ravitz, Paula; Rosenbluth, Michael; Pavlova, Barbara; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Velyvis, Vytas; Kennedy, Sidney H; Lam, Raymond W; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; Ravindran, Arun V; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) has revised its 2009 guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults by updating the evidence and recommendations. The target audiences for these 2016 guidelines are psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. Using the question-answer format, we conducted a systematic literature search focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Evidence was graded using CANMAT-defined criteria for level of evidence. Recommendations for lines of treatment were based on the quality of evidence and clinical expert consensus. "Psychological Treatments" is the second of six sections of the 2016 guidelines. Evidence-informed responses were developed for 25 questions under 5 broad categories: 1) patient characteristics relevant to using psychological interventions; 2) therapist and health system characteristics associated with optimizing outcomes; 3) descriptions of major psychotherapies and their efficacy; 4) additional psychological interventions, such as peer interventions and computer- and technology-delivered interventions; and 5) combining and/or sequencing psychological and pharmacological interventions. First-line psychological treatment recommendations for acute MDD include cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), and behavioural activation (BA). Second-line recommendations include computer-based and telephone-delivered psychotherapy. Where feasible, combining psychological treatment (CBT or IPT) with antidepressant treatment is recommended because combined treatment is superior to either treatment alone. First-line psychological treatments for maintenance include CBT and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Patient preference, in combination with evidence-based treatments and clinician/system capacity, will yield the optimal treatment strategies for improving individual outcomes in MDD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Culturally Competent Practice: A Mixed Methods Study Among Students, Academics and Alumni of Clinical Psychology Master’s Programs in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Lennie R. C.; Thompson, Claire L.; Kraaij, Vivian; Keijsers, Ger P. J.

    2018-01-01

    This is the first research into preparation for multicultural clinical psychology practice in Europe. It applies the theory of multicultural counselling competency (MCC) to a case study in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that cross-cultural practice experience, identification as a cultural minority, and satisfaction with cultural training was associated with MCC. The Multicultural Awareness Knowledge and Skills Survey was completed by 106 participants (22 students, 10 academics, 74 alumni) from clinical psychology masters’ programs. MANOVA detected a main effect of cross-cultural experience on MCC for all groups and universities. The data were enriched with exploratory qualitative data from 14 interviews (5 students, 5 academics, 4 alumni). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis revealed three themes: limitations of clinical psychology, strategies for culturally competent practice, and strategies for cultural competency development. These outcomes suggest that cultural competency continues to require attention in master’s programs. The paper makes recommendations for further research enquiry related to training clinical psychologists to practice in Europe’s multicultural societies. PMID:29899800

  12. Effectiveness of jyoti meditation for patients with chronic neck pain and psychological distress--a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Meier, Larissa; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Kessler, Christian; Michalsen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a common medical complaint partly mediated by psychosocial distress and having a high socioeconomic impact. There is preliminary evidence that stress reduction by meditation might be beneficial in chronic pain syndromes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) in patients with chronic neck pain by means of a randomized clinical trial. Eighty-nine patients (aged 49.7 ± 10.5 years, 73 female) with chronic neck pain who scored >40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale and had concomitant increased perceived stress were randomized to an 8-week meditation program (jyoti meditation) with weekly 90-minute classes (n = 45) or to a home-based exercise program (n = 44) with a wait list offer for meditation. Both groups were instructed to practice at home. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was change of mean pain at rest (visual analog scale score) from baseline to week 8. Secondary outcomes included pain at motion, functional disability, pain-related bothersomeness, perceived stress, quality of life, and psychological outcomes. Patients had neck pain for a mean of 11 years. Eighteen patients in the meditation group and 16 patients in the exercise group were lost to follow-up. Meditation training significantly reduced pain when compared to the exercise group after 8 weeks (reduction of 45.5 ± 23.3 mm to 21.6 ± 17.2 mm in the meditation group, and 43.8 ± 22.0 mm to 37.7 ± 21.5 mm in the exercise group; mean difference: 13.2 mm [95% confidence interval: 2.1, 24.4; P = .02]). Pain-related bothersomeness decreased more in the meditation group (group difference 11.0 mm [95% confidence interval: 1.0, 21.0; P = .03]). No significant treatment effects were found for pain at motion, psychological scores, and quality of life, although the meditation group showed nonsignificant greater improvements compared to the exercise group. In conclusion

  13. Distinct work-related, clinical and psychological factors predict return to work following treatment in four different cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alethea F; Hankins, Matthew; Rixon, Lorna; Eaton, Emma; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Many factors influence return to work (RTW) following cancer treatment. However specific factors affecting RTW across different cancer types are unclear. This study examined the role of clinical, sociodemographic, work and psychological factors in RTW following treatment for breast, gynaecological, head and neck, and urological cancer. A 12-month prospective questionnaire study was conducted with 290 patients. Cox regression analyses were conducted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for time to RTW. Between 89-94% of cancer survivors returned to work. Breast cancer survivors took the longest to return (median 30 weeks), and urology cancer survivors returned the soonest (median 5 weeks). Earlier return among breast cancer survivors was predicted by a greater sense of control over their cancer at work (HR 1.2; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37) and by full-time work (HR 2.1; CI: 1.24-3.4). Predictive of a longer return among gynaecological cancer survivors was a belief that cancer treatment may impair ability to work (HR 0.75; CI: 0.62-0.91). Among urological cancer survivors constipation was predictive of longer RTW (HR 0.99; CI: 0.97-1.00), whereas undertaking flexible working was predictive of returning sooner (HR 1.70; CI: 1.07-2.7). Head and neck cancer survivors who perceived greater negative consequences of their cancer took longer to return (HR 0.27; CI: 0.11-0.68). Those reporting better physical functioning returned sooner (HR1.04; CI: 1.01-1.08). A different profile of predictive factors emerged for the four cancer types. In addition to optimal symptom management and workplace adaptations, the findings suggest that eliciting and challenging specific cancer and treatment-related perceptions may facilitate RTW. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-01-01

    The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60) and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60). The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20). It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional in...

  15. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued tha...

  16. Qualitative analysis on the field training program for clinical school counselling―Interview survey on psychology department of the universities having post graduate field training program―

    OpenAIRE

    岡本, 淳子; 佐藤, 秀行; 金, 亜美; 水﨑, 光保

    2016-01-01

     In this study, we have interviewed 20 universities with psychology departments that have the postgraduate field training programs of clinical school counselling for more than a year to find out the currentsituation. The results of the study revealed that the field training programs are implementedthrough various channels, largely categorized into the following types: 1)counselling support to thelocal schools through the board of education; 2)counselling support to the individual students thr...

  17. Psychology and Optometry: Interaction and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Bittner, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Because a number of vision conditions have psychological components and some psychological conditions may be complicated by vision difficulties, interdisciplinary cooperation between clinical psychology and optometry should prove fruitful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of health problems. (EVL)

  18. The clinical obesity maintenance model: an integration of psychological constructs including mood, emotional regulation, disordered overeating, habitual cluster behaviours, health literacy and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  19. The Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model: An Integration of Psychological Constructs including Mood, Emotional Regulation, Disordered Overeating, Habitual Cluster Behaviours, Health Literacy and Cognitive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Raman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.

  20. From Dunce to Doctor: A Critical Autobiography of a Dyslexic Doctoral Student Pursuing a Doctorate of Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Much is known about the phenomenon of learning disabilities, especially dyslexia in children. Only recently, however, has psychological research focused on adult learning disabilities. The bulk of research on the phenomenon of adult learning disabilities has been quantitative research, which neglected the subjective experience of those it is…

  1. The Value of Screening Parents for Their Risk of Developing Psychological Symptoms After PICU: A Feasibility Study Evaluating a Pediatric Intensive Care Follow-Up Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Victoria M; Colville, Gillian A; Goodwin, Sarah; Ryninks, Kirsty; Dean, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether prospectively screening parents for psychological vulnerability would enable beneficial targeting of a subsequent follow-up clinic. Parents of children consecutively admitted to a PICU were assessed for risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder at discharge using the Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale. High-risk parents were then randomized to the intervention (follow-up clinic, 2 mo after discharge) or control condition. All parents completed Impact of Event Scale-Revised and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 6 months. Of the 209 parents of 145 children recruited to the study, 78 (37%) were identified, on the basis of their Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale score at baseline, as being at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder, and randomized to the control or intervention condition. Follow-up data were provided by 157 of 209 parents (75%). Logistic regression analyses controlling for parent gender and child length of stay showed that high-risk control parents (n = 32) were significantly more likely to score above the clinical cutoff for all three psychological outcomes than parents deemed low risk at baseline (n = 89) (posttraumatic stress: odds ratio = 3.39; 95% CI, 1.28-8.92; p = 0.014; anxiety: odds ratio = 6.34; 95% CI, 2.55-15.76; p parents attended the follow-up clinic appointment they were offered. At follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups, but there were small effect sizes in favor of the intervention for anxiety scores (Cohen d = 0.209) and depression scores (Cohen d = 0.254) CONCLUSIONS:: Screening parents for psychological vulnerability using measures such as the Posttraumatic Adjustment Scale may enable more efficient targeting of support. However, further research is needed on how best to provide effective follow-up intervention for families.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  3. Genetic risk of major depressive disorder: the moderating and mediating effects of neuroticism and psychological resilience on clinical and self-reported depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M

    2017-11-29

    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.

  4. "Imagine your neighbor mows the lawn": a pilot study of psychological sequelae due to awake craniotomy: clinical article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milian, Monika; Luerding, Ralf; Ploppa, Annette; Decker, Karlheinz; Psaras, Tsambika; Tatagiba, Marcos; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Feigl, Guenther C

    2013-06-01

    Although it has been reported that awake neurosurgical procedures are well tolerated, the long-term occurrence of general psychological sequelae has not yet been investigated. This study assessed the frequency and effects of psychological symptoms after an awake craniotomy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Sixteen patients undergoing an awake surgery were surveyed with a self-developed questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory For Awake Surgery Patients, which adopts the core components of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria. The mean time between surgery and data collection was 97.3 ± 93.2 weeks. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Forty-four percent of the patients stated that they had experienced either repetitive distressing recollections or dreams related to the awake surgery, 18.8% stated persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the awake surgery, and symptoms of increased arousal occurred in 62.5%. Two patients presented with postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Younger age at surgery and female sex were risk factors for symptoms of increased arousal. The experience of intense anxiety during awake surgery appears to favor the development of postsurgical PTSD symptoms, while recurrent distressing recollections particularly affect HRQOL negatively. In many cases awake craniotomy is necessary to preserve language and motor function. However, in some cases awake craniotomy can lead to postoperative psychological sequelae resembling PTSD symptoms. Therefore, possible long-term effects of an awake surgery should be considered and discussed with the patient when planning this type of surgery.

  5. Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology, 1972-2014: subjectivity, equality and diversity-inside and outside the consulting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing Jung's idea of theory as a 'personal confession', the author charts his own development as a theorist, establishing links between his personal history and his ideas. Such links include his relationship with both parents, his sexuality, his cultural heritage, and his fascination with Tricksters and with Hermes. There follows a substantial critical interrogation of what the author discerns as the two main lines of clinical theorizing in contemporary analytical psychotherapy: interpretation of transference-countertransference, and the relational approach. His conclusion is that neither is superior to the other and neither is in fact adequate as a basis for clinical work. The focus then shifts to explore a range of political and social aspects of the clinical project of analytical psychology: economic inequality, diversity within the professional field, and Jung's controversial ideas about Jews and Africans. The author calls for an apology from the 'Jungian community' for remarks about Africans analogous to the apology already issued for remarks about Jews. The paper is dedicated to the author's friend Fred Plaut (1913-2009). © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. The Effect of Yoga Nidra on Psychological Problems of Woman with Menstrual Disorders: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushbu Rani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menstrual disorders are common problems among women in the reproductive age group. Yuga interventions may decrease the physical and psychological problems related to menstrual disorders. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of Yoga Nidra on psychological problems in patients with menstrual disorders. Methods: A total number of 100 women recruited from the department of obstetrics and gynecology and were then randomly allocated into two groups: a intervention received yogic intervention and medication for 6 month, and b control group received no yogic intervention and they only received prescribed medication. Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI and hormonal profile were assessed at the time of before and after six months on both groups. Results: The mean score of anxiety, depression, positive well-being, general health, and vitality scores, as well as hormonal levels, in posttest were significantly different in intervention group as compared with pretest. But there was no significant difference in control group. Conclusion: Yoga Nidra can be a successful therapy to overcome the psychiatric morbidity associated with menstrual irregularities. Therefore, Yogic relaxation training (Yoga Nidra could be prescribed as an adjunct to conventional drug therapy for menstrual dysfunction.

  7. Psychological and interactional characteristics of patients with somatoform disorders: Validation of the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ) in a clinical psychosomatic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Annabel; Voigt, Katharina; Meyer, Björn; Wollburg, Eileen; Weinmann, Nina; Langs, Gernot; Löwe, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    The new DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) emphasizes the importance of psychological processes related to somatic symptoms in patients with somatoform disorders. To address this, the Somatic Symptoms Experiences Questionnaire (SSEQ), the first self-report scale that assesses a broad range of psychological and interactional characteristics relevant to patients with a somatoform disorder or SSD, was developed. This prospective study was conducted to validate the SSEQ. The 15-item SSEQ was administered along with a battery of self-report questionnaires to psychosomatic inpatients. Patients were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to confirm a somatoform, depressive, or anxiety disorder. Confirmatory factor analyses, tests of internal consistency and tests of validity were performed. Patients (n=262) with a mean age of 43.4 years, 60.3% women, were included in the analyses. The previously observed four-factor model was replicated and internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α=.90). Patients with a somatoform disorder had significantly higher scores on the SSEQ (t=4.24, pquality of life. Sensitivity to change was shown by significantly higher effect sizes of the SSEQ change scores for improved patients than for patients without improvement. The SSEQ appears to be a reliable, valid, and efficient instrument to assess a broad range of psychological and interactional features related to the experience of somatic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oedipal Issues in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes current status of counseling psychology from perspective of Freudian, drive-structure theory. Argues that counseling psychology has committed classical response to oedipal conflict in its treatment of counselor education by identifying with aggressor (psychiatry and clinical psychology). Recommends more unified relationship between…

  9. Diet and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders.

  10. Psychological factors associated with the intention to choose for risk-reducing mastectomy in family cancer clinic attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H

    2016-12-01

    Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the decision for RRM. This study investigated which psychological factors are related to the intention to choose for RRM. A cohort of 486 cancer-unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer completed the following questionnaires prior to genetic counseling: the Cancer Worry Scale, Positive And Negative Affect Scale, Perceived Personal Control Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and State Anxiety Scale and questions regarding socio-demographic characteristics, family history, risk perception and RRM intention. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the relation between psychological factors and women's intention to choose for RRM. Factors associated with RRM intention were high positive affect (OR = 1.86, 95%CI = 1.12-3.08), high negative affect (OR = 2.52, 95%CI = 1.44-4.43), high cancer worry (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.00-2.72), high perceived personal control (OR = 3.58, 95%CI = 2.18-5.89), high risk-perception (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.15-2.95) and having children (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.21-3.50). Negative and positive affects play an important role in the intention for RRM. Furthermore, perceived personal control over the situation is associated with an intention for RRM. In addition to focusing on accurate risk communication, counseling should pay attention to the influence of perceived control and emotions to facilitate decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects in the adherence treatment and psychological adjustment after the disclosure of HIV/AIDS diagnosis with the "DIRE" clinical model in Colombian children under 17].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Ana María; Reyes, Lizeth; Bahamon, Marly Johana; Alarcón, Yolima; Gaviria, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    A study in five Colombian cities in 2006, confirms the findings of other international studies: the majority of HIV-positive children not know their diagnosis, caregivers are reluctant to give this information because they believe that the news will cause emotional distress to the child becoming primary purpose of this study to validate a model of revelation. We implemented a clinical model, referred to as: "DIRE" that hypothetically had normalizing effects on psychological adjustment and adherence to antiretroviral treatment of HIV seropositive children, using a quasi-experimental design. Test were administered (questionnaire to assess patterns of disclosure and non-disclosure of the diagnosis of VIH/SIDA on children in health professionals and participants caregivers, Family Apgar, EuroQol EQ- 5D, MOS Social Support Survey Questionnaire Information treatment for VIH/SIDA and child Symptom Checklist CBCL/6-18 adapted to Latinos) before and after implementation of the model to 31 children (n: 31), 30 caregivers (n: 30) and 41 health professionals. Data processing was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 21 by applying parametric tests (Friedman) and nonparametric (t Student). No significant differences in adherence to treatment (p=0.392), in the psychological adjustment were found positive significant differences at follow-ups compared to baseline 2 weeks (p: 0.001), 3 months (p: 0.000) and 6 months (p: 0.000). The clinical model demonstrated effectiveness in normalizing of psychological adjustment and maintaining treatment compliance. The process also generated confidence in caregivers and health professionals in this difficult task.

  12. Considerações sobre as significações da psicologia clínica na contemporaneidade Considerations on the meanings of clinical psychology in our times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dutra

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo considera a evolução de significados e conceitos da Psicologia Clínica e suas implicações para as ações do psicólogo dessa área. Para isso baseia-se no pensamento fenomenológico e nas idéias de alguns estudiosos da psicologia, na tentativa de melhor compreender as mudanças ocorridas nos saberes e fazeres do psicólogo clínico. A análise empreendida confirma a importância do compromisso social do psicólogo na sua prática e sugere que a postura clínica repousa não só na formação teórico-técnica, mas, sobretudo, na ética da escuta do não-dito e do interditado.The aim of this article is to discuss the evolution of the meanings and concepts of Clinical Psychology and its implication for the psychologists in this area. The discussion is based on the concepts of the phenomenological approach and the ideas of authors in Psychology and leads to a better understanding of the changes that have taken place on psychological knowledge and practices. Such analysis points to the relevance of social commitment from the clinical psychologist and suggests that the accomplishment of his work lies not only on a proper theoretical and technical knowledge, but above all on an ethical attitude regarding the listening of what is unsaid and censored.

  13. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  14. Clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in minors with delinquent behavior , have not reached the age of criminal responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynova I.R.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of empirical studies of clinical and psychological risk factors for aggressive behavior in adolescents. The main sample and comparison group - juveniles with delinquent behavior, not reached (n = 60 and age of criminal responsibility (n = 60. The control group of adolescents with conventionally normative behavior (n = 20. It is shown that the main group examinees have a number of serious problems that increase the risk of aggressive behavior. Reduced mood, anxiety, emotional instability, feeling of physical distress, sensitivity to external impacts, vulnerability in social interaction, communication difficulties, leading to increased mental stress. It acts predispozitciej an aggressive response. Hostility, susceptibility to reactions of irritation and anger at the lack of formation of mechanisms of deterrence immediate motivation, increase the likelihood of aggression. It is possible that the described problems are clinical conditionality. Therefore, a timely multidisciplinary evaluation of risk factors for aggressive behavior. Its elements can be screening for mental health.

  15. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  16. Using plain English and behaviourally specific language to increase the implementation of clinical guidelines for psychological treatments in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Paul; Tai, Sara; Haddock, Gillian

    2015-06-01

    Inequalities in the implementation of recommended psychological interventions for schizophrenia persist. Writing guidance in a particular style has been shown to improve service user intention to implement the recommendations. This current study explored this further in healthcare staff members. Can behaviourally specific and plain English language improve healthcare intentions to perform actions in line with guidance for schizophrenia. An independent measure, single blind, randomised control trial. Guidance was written and disseminated in two formats, the "original" and "alternative". Self-report measures were administered to assess the cognitive determents of behaviour as described by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, actual behaviour consistent with the guidance, comprehension and satisfaction with the guidance. No significant results were found when comparing the original guidance to the alternative for the cognitive determinants of behaviour, actual behaviour, comprehension or satisfaction. Behaviourally specific and plain English language does not affect healthcare professionals' intentions or behaviour to implement recommended guidance for the provision of psychological interventions for schizophrenia. A more multi-factorial approach including organisational culture may be required.

  17. Attitudes towards anorexia nervosa: volitional stigma differences in a sample of pre-clinical medicine and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannatyne, Amy Jean; Stapleton, Peta Berenice

    2017-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a highly stigmatised condition, with treatment often involving multidisciplinary care. As such, understanding and comparing the attitudes of emerging mental health and medical professionals towards AN, within the content of sex-based differences, is pertinent to facilitate the development of targeted stigma interventions. Examine the volitional stigmatisation of AN in emerging medical and mental health professionals. Participants (N = 126) were medical (n = 41) and psychology students (n = 85) who completed a range of attitudinal outcome measures (e.g. Causal Attributions Scale, Eating Disorder Stigma Scale, Opinions Scale, Characteristics Scale and Affective Reaction Scale). Across both disciplines, men were found to exhibit significantly higher eating disorder (ED) stigma, considered AN to be a more trivial and weak illness, and attributed greater levels of blame and responsibility to AN sufferers. Men also had significantly lower biogenetic causal attributions. Compared with psychology students, medicine students exhibited slightly greater anticipation of negative reactions in response to AN, obtained higher selfish/vain scores and considered sociocultural factors to contribute "a lot" in the development and maintenance of AN. Overall, results indicate interventions aimed at improving ED mental health literacy are needed, specifically targeting males and potentially medical students.

  18. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  19. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  20. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  1. Differences in psychological health and family dysfunction by sexual victimization type in a clinical sample of African American adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2005-08-01

    We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced.

  2. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  3. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  5. Using psychological theory to understand the clinical management of type 2 diabetes in Primary Care: a comparison across two European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrisos, Susan; Eccles, Martin P; Francis, Jill J; Bosch, Marije; Dijkstra, Rob; Johnston, Marie; Grol, Richard; Kaner, Eileen F S; Steen, Ian N

    2009-08-05

    Long term management of patients with Type 2 diabetes is well established within Primary Care. However, despite extensive efforts to implement high quality care both service provision and patient health outcomes remain sub-optimal. Several recent studies suggest that psychological theories about individuals' behaviour can provide a valuable framework for understanding generalisable factors underlying health professionals' clinical behaviour. In the context of the team management of chronic disease such as diabetes, however, the application of such models is less well established. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors underlying health professional teams' clinical management of diabetes using a psychological model of human behaviour. A predictive questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) investigated health professionals' (HPs') cognitions (e.g., beliefs, attitudes and intentions) about the provision of two aspects of care for patients with diabetes: prescribing statins and inspecting feet.General practitioners and practice nurses in England and the Netherlands completed parallel questionnaires, cross-validated for equivalence in English and Dutch. Behavioural data were practice-level patient-reported rates of foot examination and use of statin medication. Relationships between the cognitive antecedents of behaviour proposed by the TPB and healthcare teams' clinical behaviour were explored using multiple regression. In both countries, attitude and subjective norm were important predictors of health professionals' intention to inspect feet (Attitude: beta = .40; Subjective Norm: beta = .28; Adjusted R2 = .34, p < 0.01), and their intention to prescribe statins (Attitude: beta = .44; Adjusted R2 = .40, p < 0.01). Individuals' self-reported intention did not predict practice-level performance of either clinical behaviour. Using the TPB, we identified modifiable factors underlying health professionals' intentions to perform two

  6. Hipnose e psicologia clínica: retomando a história não contada Hypnosis and clinical psychology: bringing back the untold history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício da Silva Neubern

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aponta várias relações entre a psicologia clínica e a hipnose, destacando que boa parte destas permaneceram e ainda se encontram pouco conhecidas da grande maioria dos psicólogos clínicos. Por um lado, visa destacar acontecimentos históricos dessa relação que, apesar da pertinência, foram marginalizados e esquecidos, o que remete, sobretudo, às práticas institucionais vigentes neste ramo da psicologia. Ao mesmo tempo, o artigo busca destacar brevemente que a reflexão sobre a hipnose pode levar a psicologia clínica a reformulações epistemológicas, institucionais e práticas da mais alta relevância, principalmente em termos de colocá-la em sintonia com importantes discussões atuais do panorama científico. Por fim, ressalta que, pelas próprias características da hipnose enquanto tema de reflexão e estudo, ela incita radicalmente a uma tomada de rumo na direção da construção de um conhecimento onde seja possível o auto-conhecimento, rompendo com as tradições modernas do pensamento científico.The present article points out various relations between clinic psychology and hypnosis, highlighting that a great part of both has remained well unknown by the great majority of clinic psychologists. On one hand, this article aims at historical outcomes of this relation, which despite having been put aside and forgotten, takes us back to the institutional practices taking place in this field of psychology. On the other hand, it intends to briefly bring about that the reflection over hypnosis might present clinic psychology with epistemological, institutional and practical reforms of the highest relevance, especially in terms of making hypnosis function in sync with important present discussions on the scientific scenery. Finally, this article states that for its own characteristics as a subject of study and reflection, hypnosis radically incites the building up of some knowledge where self-actualization is made

  7. Clinical and psychological features of normal-weight women with subthreshold anorexia nervosa: a pilot case-control observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Anna; Ferraris, Cinzia; Martinelli, Valentina; Pinelli, Giovanna; Repossi, Ilaria; Trentani, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Weight preoccupations have been frequently reported in normal-weight subjects. Subthreshold anorexia nervosa (s-AN, all DSM IV TR criteria except amenorrhea or underweight) is a form of eating disorder not otherwise specified that has received scarce scientific attention. Under a case-control design we compared the general characteristics, body composition, and psychopathological features of normal-weight patients with s-AN with those of BMI- and sex-matched controls. Participants in this pilot study included 9 normal-weight women who met the DSM IV TR criteria for s-AN and 18 BMI-matched normal-weight controls. The general characteristics of the study participants were collected by questionnaire. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Behavioral and psychological measures included the standardized symptom checklist (SCL-90-R) and the eating disorder inventory (EDI-2). There were no differences in age, education, employment status, marital status, and history of previous slimming treatment in the two study groups. In addition, anthropometric measures and body composition of s-AN patients and BMI-matched normal weight controls were not significantly different. In the s-AN subgroup, we found a significant relationship between waist circumference and the SCL-90-R obsessivity-compulsivity scale (n=9, r=-0.69, pstudy cohort. These pilot results suggest that psychopathological criteria (particularly related to the obsessivity-compulsivity dimension) may be more useful than anthropometric measures for screening of s-AN in normal-weight women.

  8. Comparing the psychological profiles of Iranian population based on clinical and validity measures of Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Habibi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the necessity of screening and identifying the people exposed to mental disorders to determine the prevalence of these disorders in order to taking preventive actions and developing a treatment plan, this study was aimed to compare psychological profiles of people based on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2 according to gender and marital status in a sample of Iranian general population. Statistical population included all of Iranian people between 18 to 80 years old that had passed at least 8 years of education and had no history of mental illness and brain injury. 1418 participants were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method and were assessed by MMPI-2. Results showed that there was significant difference between males and females in the subscales of F, K, Hs, D, Hy, MF, Pt, Ma, and Si and also between single people and married people in the subscales of L, F, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc and Ma. In general, findings of present study suggest that males have different patterns of mental disorders than females and married people have a different pattern of mental disorders in comparison of single people and they have different types of mental health problems. But, regarding males' higher scores in F and K validity scales and higher scores of married people in L validity scale in acceptance the findings of this study should be more cautious.

  9. Effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention on psychological distress among women with a history of gender-based violence in urban Kenya: A randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    2017-08-01

    analysis was intention to treat and included 53 women in PM+ (25% and 49 women in EUC (23% lost to follow-up. The difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3 months on the GHQ-12 was 3.33 (95% CI 1.86-4.79, P = 0.001 in favour of PM+. In terms of secondary outcomes, for WHODAS the difference between PM+ and EUC in the change from baseline to 3-month follow-up was 1.96 (95% CI 0.21-3.71, P = 0.03, for PCL it was 3.95 (95% CI 0.06-7.83, P = 0.05, and for PSYCHLOPS it was 2.15 (95% CI 0.98-3.32, P = 0.001, all in favour of PM+. These estimated differences correspond to moderate effect sizes in favour of PM+ for GHQ-12 score (0.57, 95% CI 0.32-0.83 and PSYCHLOPS (0.67, 95% CI 0.31-1.03, and small effect sizes for WHODAS (0.26, 95% CI 0.02-0.50 and PCL (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.41. Twelve adverse events were reported, all of which were suicidal risks detected during screening. No adverse events were attributable to the interventions or the trial. Limitations of the study include no long-term follow-up, reliance on self-report rather than structured interview data, and lack of an attention control condition.Among a community sample of women in urban Kenya with a history of GBV, a brief, lay-administered behavioural intervention, compared with EUC, resulted in moderate reductions in psychological distress at 3-month follow-up.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614001291673.

  10. The association of gynecological symptoms with psychological distress in women of reproductive age: a survey from gynecology clinics in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Chaaya, M. M.; Bogner, H. R.; Gallo, J. J.; Leaf, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    To date there has been no previous research into a possible association between psychological distress and gynecologic symptoms in the Arab world. We hypothesized that psychological distress would be associated with specific gynecologic complaints as well as with psychosocial factors.

  11. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  12. Proceedings of the AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course Held at San Francisco, California on 4-8 March 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    and more clinically sophisticated alternative measure of psychopathology. The 12 constructs measured by the BPI are the following: Hypochondriasis ...probably you will be asked to evaluate or treat aviators due e to somatization issues, mild depression, alcohol abuse, family dysfunction...external Lj to internal locus of control was noted. Her self-image became more favorable, and her somatic complaints decreased in number. Althougzh * her

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  14. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  15. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  16. Effect of a Multicomponent Behavioral Intervention in Adults Impaired by Psychological Distress in a Conflict-Affected Area of Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atif; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Awan, Naila Riaz; Bryant, Richard A; Dawson, Katie S; Khan, Muhammad Firaz; Azeemi, Mian Mukhtar-Ul-Haq; Akhtar, Parveen; Nazir, Huma; Chiumento, Anna; Sijbrandij, Marit; Wang, Duolao; Farooq, Saeed; van Ommeren, Mark

    2016-12-27

    The mental health consequences of conflict and violence are wide-ranging and pervasive. Scalable interventions to address a range of mental health problems are needed. To test the effectiveness of a multicomponent behavioral intervention delivered by lay health workers to adults with psychological distress in primary care settings. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from November 1, 2014, through January 28, 2016, in 3 primary care centers in Peshawar, Pakistan, that included 346 adult primary care attendees with high levels of both psychological distress and functional impairment according to the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). Lay health workers administered 5 weekly 90-minute individual sessions that included empirically supported strategies of problem solving, behavioral activation, strengthening social support, and stress management. The control was enhanced usual care. Primary outcomes, anxiety and depression symptoms, were independently measured at 3 months with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Secondary outcomes were posttraumatic stress symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5), functional impairment (WHODAS 2.0), progress on problems for which the person sought help (Psychological Outcome Profiles), and symptoms of depressive disorder (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Among 346 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.0 [11.8] years; 78.9% women), 172 were randomly assigned to the intervention and 174 to enhanced usual care; among them, 146 and 160 completed the study, respectively. At baseline, the intervention and control groups had similar mean (SD) HADS scores on symptoms of anxiety (14.16 [3.17] vs 13.64 [3.20]; adjusted mean difference [AMD], 0.52; 95% CI, -0.22 to 1.27) and depression (12.67 [3.27] vs 12.49 [3.34]; AMD, 0.17, 95% CI, -0.54 to 0.89). After 3 months of treatment, the intervention group had significantly lower

  17. Psychological conditions analysis of clinical doctor and nurse of psychiatry department%精神科临床医护人员心理状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美花; 吕伟; 王保红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the psychological health level of clinical doctor and nurse of psychiatry department to provide related empirical basis for giving corresponding social support.Methods:80 cases of clinical doctor and nurse of psychiatry department were assessed with self-rating depression scale(SDS),self-rating anxiety scale(SAS) and 90 items of symptom check list(SCL-90) and performed comparison with domestic norm.Results:The SAS scores of doctor and nurse of psychiatry department were obviously higher than that of the domestic norm(P<0.01).The SDS score had no statistical difference compared with domestic norm.The total score of SCL-90,hostile factor,forcing factors score,interpersonal relationship factors score,anxiety factors score were significantly higher than the domestic norm(P<0.01).Conclusion:The clinical doctor and nurse of psychiatry department had psychological problems,such as hostile,anxiety,force,interpersonal relationship,and the relevant personnel and departments should attach importance to them.%目的:了解精神科临床医护人员的心理健康水平,为给予相应的社会支持提供相关实证依据。方法:采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)及90项症状清单(SCL-90)对80名精神科临床医护人员进行评定,并与国内常模比较。结果:精神科临床医护人员的 SAS 评分明显高于国内常模(P<0.01)。SDS 评分与国内常模相比无统计学差异。SCL-90总分、敌对因子、强迫因子、人际关系因子、焦虑因子分显著高于常模(P<0.01)。结论:精神科临床医护人员存在敌对、焦虑、强迫、人际关系等心理问题,相关人员及部门应予以重视。

  18. Superyó: el malestar en la clínica Superego: distress according to clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laznik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo enfatiza la importancia teórica y clínica del concepto freudiano de Superyó, en su articulación con la formulación del Otro en Lacan. En principio, se abordan dos aspectos estructurales del Superyó: el denominado"Superyó Paterno" (en relación con la función estructurante del Otro y el "Superyó Materno" (en relación con la noción freudiana de "ligazón madre preedípica". Se plantea luego una articulación entre Superyó, angustia y transferencia, recurriendo a diversos referentes clínicos (marginalidad, adicciones, impulsiones, entre otros, que señala la importancia de las nociones de"manejo de la transferencia" en Freud y "posición del analista" en Lacan.We intend to show the theoretical and clinical importance of the Freudian concept of Super-ego, by establishing its connection with Lacan formulation of the Big Other. We take into account two fundamental and structural Super-ego versions (the first one connected to the Big Other's structural function, the second one related to pre-edipic mother's linking in girl, as well as Superego in its relationship with anxiety and transference. Current clinical references (marginal situations, addictions, impulse disorders reveal the importance of this connection, that leads to "transference handling" notion in Freud and "analyst position" in Lacan.

  19. A second life for eHealth: prospects for the use of 3-D virtual worlds in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Alessandra; Gaggioli, Andrea; Vigna, Cinzia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2008-08-05

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed.

  20. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D’Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  1. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Steca

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men. Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  2. Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Costacurta, Micaela; Merra, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Paola; Cioccoloni, Giorgia; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Docimo, Raffaella; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-06-10

    Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). 60 women were enrolled. At baseline and after a 3-week probiotic oral suspension (POS) intake, all subjects underwent evaluation of body composition by anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry, and psychological profile assessment by self-report questionnaires (i.e. EDI-2, SCL90R and BUT). Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test or a non-parametric Wilcoxon test to evaluate differences between baseline and after POS intake, one-way ANOVA to compare all three groups and, where applicable, Chi square or t test were used to assess symptoms. Of the 48 women that concluded the study, 24% were NWO, 26% were NWL and 50% were PreOB/OB. Significant differences in body composition were highlighted among groups both at baseline and after a POS (p women. At baseline and after POS intake, all subjects tested were negative to SCL90R_GSI scale, but after treatment subjects positive to BUT_GSI scale were significantly reduced (8.33%) (p women. Further research is needed on a larger population and for a longer period of treatment before definitive conclusions can be made. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  3. German cross-cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1986-01-01

    The present study deals with German-language cross-cultural research in different fields of psychology which attempts to achieve one Or more goals of cross-cultural psychology. First, methodological problems are discussed, followed by a selective presentation of cross-cultural research in personality, clinical, ethological, developmental, and social psychology. The theoretical and methodological advancement of these studies is investigated with respect to four approaches - universals in cross...

  4. Is training effective? A study of counseling psychology doctoral trainees in a psychodynamic/interpersonal training clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Baumann, Ellen; Shafran, Naama; Gupta, Shudarshana; Morrison, Ashley; Rojas, Andrés E Pérez; Spangler, Patricia T; Griffin, Shauna; Pappa, Laura; Gelso, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated changes over 12 to 42 months in 23 predoctoral trainees during their externship training in a psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy clinic. Over time, trainees increased in client-rated working alliance and real relationship, therapist-rated working alliance, client-rated interpersonal functioning, ability to use helping skills (e.g., challenges, immediacy), higher-order functioning (e.g., conceptualization ability, countertransference management), feelings about themselves as therapists (e.g., more authentic, more self-aware), and understanding about being a therapist (e.g., theoretical orientation, curiosity about client dynamics). In contrast, trainees did not change in engaging clients (return after intake or for at least 8 sessions), judge-rated psychodynamic techniques in third and ninth sessions across clients (although trainees used more cognitive-behavioral techniques over time in third but not ninth sessions), or changes in client-rated symptomatology. Trainees primarily attributed changes to graduate training, individual and group supervision, research participation, and working with clients. Implications for training and research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Psychology in Spain: Its Historical and Cultural Roots, Instruction, Research and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational…

  6. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  7. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT «CLINICAL BASES OF INTERNSHIP» WHILE PREPARING STUDENTS WITH A SPECIALTY IN «PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena G. Gutsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to test new approaches to the students’practice organization in pedagogical universities on the basis of the competence approach.Methods. Diagnosis of formedness competences is carried out on the basis of the analysis of products of activity during the students’ school internship.Results. Teachers’ experience of Nizhny Novgorod State Pedagogical University of K. Minin on implementation of the innovative project «Clinical Bases of Internship » is presented. The authors have created and approved the program of school internship for the students with specialty in «Psychology and Pedagogics of Primary Education» based on the concept of the integrated clinical practice developed in higher education institution. The program involves organizational, reflexive-analytical, active-practical and project blocks. Features of clinical approach to pedagogical education are considered; requirements to school as the base of clinical practice are listed. The main content of student teaching and its role in professional formation of future elementary school teachers is disclosed. Importance of students’ project group and individual activity (the subject has to correspond to interests of employers and real needs of school are emphasized.Scientific novelty. Specifics of integrated clinical internship as a means of formation of professional metacompetences of undergraduate students are presented. The organization of pedagogical internship is reconsidered; theoretically it has to provide fast professionalizing of training, early immersion into a profession that will promote not only to successful formation of flexible pedagogical thinking, but also growth of professional motivation of students – development in them of the positive relation to work of the teacher, interest in communication with children of younger school age, and aspiration to pedagogical research creativity.Practical significance. The research

  9. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  10. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  11. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice. PMID:28465709

  12. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Bilia, Anna Rita; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Bagetta, Giacinto

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients' quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  13. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Validity-10 for detecting amplified symptom reporting for patients with mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Staver, Tara; Grammer, Geoffrey; Bleiberg, Joseph; DeGraba, Thomas; Lange, Rael T

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the Validity-10 scale with the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM) for detecting exaggerated symptom reporting in active-duty military service members (SMs) admitted with unremitting mild TBI symptoms and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH). Data were analyzed from 254 SMs who completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) as a part of a larger battery of self-report symptom scales upon admission to the intensive-outpatient TBI treatment program at a military medical center. Symptom exaggeration was operationalized using the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM). A PAI-NIM score of ≥73 was categorized as positive for symptom exaggeration (SVTpos), while a lower score was categorized as negative for symptom exaggeration (SVTneg). SMs in the SVTpos group (n = 34) had significantly higher scores (p ≤ .004) on the PAI clinical scales as well as on the NSI total score (range: d = 0.59-1.91) compared to those who were SVTneg (n = 220). The optimal cut-score for the NSI Val-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥26 (sensitivity = .29, specificity = .95, PPP = .74, NPP = .71). In patients suffering from mTBI/PH, the Validity-10 requires a higher cut-score than previously reported to be useful as a metric of exaggerated symptom reporting.

  14. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Scuteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL, relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limits: in the long term, they do not result in being equally effective as in the first weeks of treatment and they present important side effects. Therefore, there is growing interest, supported by clinical evidence, in aromatherapy for the control of agitation, aggression, and psychotic symptoms. Some molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain the behavioural effects of essential oils, as the whole phytocomplex or the single components, but important basic research effort is still needed. For this reason, rigorous preclinical studies are necessary in order to understand the pharmacological basis of aromatherapy in the treatment of BPSDs and to widen the cluster of effective essential oils in pharmacotherapeutic practice.

  15. Are autistic traits associated with suicidality? A test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide in a non-clinical young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, M K; Cassidy, S A

    2017-11-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non-clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self-reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18-30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self-reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1891-1904. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Recent research has shown that people with high autistic traits are more likely to attempt suicide. However, no studies have explored why. We found that people with high autistic traits were more likely to experience feelings that they do not belong in the world, are a burden on others, and depression, which may increase their likelihood of

  16. Are autistic traits associated with suicidality? A test of the interpersonal‐psychological theory of suicide in a non‐clinical young adult sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) has recently been associated with increased risk of suicidality. However, no studies have explored how autistic traits may interact with current models of suicidal behavior in a non‐clinical population. The current study therefore explored how self‐reported autistic traits interact with perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in predicting suicidal behavior, in the context of the Interpersonal‐Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). 163 young adults (aged 18–30 years) completed an online survey including measures of thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness (Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire), self‐reported autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient), current depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and lifetime suicidality (Suicide Behavior Questionnaire‐Revised). Results showed that burdensomeness and thwarted belonging significantly mediated the relationship between autistic traits and suicidal behavior. Both depression and autistic traits significantly predicted thwarted belonging and perceived burdensomeness. Autistic traits did not significantly moderate the relationship between suicidal behavior and thwarted belonging or perceived burdensomeness. Results suggest that the IPTS provides a useful framework for understanding the influence of autistic traits on suicidal behavior. However, the psychometric properties of these measures need be explored in those with clinically confirmed diagnosis of ASC. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1891–1904. © 2017 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Lay Summary Recent research has shown that people with high autistic traits are more likely to attempt suicide. However, no studies have explored why. We found that people with high autistic traits were more likely to experience feelings that they do not belong in the world, are a burden on others, and depression, which may

  17. Analysis of minnesota multiphasic personality inventory among college students in psychological counseling clinic%112名大学生人格测验结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高群; 江景华; 吴希庆; 张李娜; 王伏兰; 田海明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the psychological status of college students in psychological counseling clinic, and to find out the deviation degree from the general population. Methods A total of 112 college students who came to the clinic for psychological consultation were surveyed using MMPI and the test data were analyzed statistically. Results The analysis revealed that the raw scores of Hs. D, Hy, Pd. Pt among male college students and scores of Hs, D, Hy, Pd, Mf, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma among female students were all significantly higher than the norm raw scores in China. The top four high ratio of individuals whose T score was over 60 < Norm) in each clinical scale were Pd, Pt, D and Hy. The two types of coding were found mainly to be in the following types as 27/72 (9.0%), 23/32 (8. 1%), 49/94 (7.2%), 12/2 (6.3%) and 47/74 (5.4%) type. There were significant correlations between Hs, D, Hy, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma subscales and prediction of individual dangerous behaviors such as the Dutch act, self-mutilation, aggressive action, alcohol and drug abuse. The highest correlation coefficient was between Pt and self-harm or suicide, Pd and aggressive act or Pd and alcohol and drug abuse. Conclusions It is obvious that some college students have a lot of psychological deviances and disorders, thus a reasonable intervention needs to be applied to improve the mental health condition of college students.%目的 探讨医院心理咨询门诊中大学生群体的心理特征,并了解其偏离一般群体的程度.方法 采用明尼苏达多项人格测验量表(MMPI)对心理咨询门诊中112名大学生进行测查,然后对测查数据进行统计学分析.结果 医院心理咨询门诊中男大学生的Hs(疑病)、D(抑郁)、Hy((瘴)症)、Pd(精神病态)、Pt(精神衰弱)原始分显著高于中国常模原始分(P<0.05);医院心理咨询门诊中女大学生的Hs、D、Hy、Pd、Mf(男-女子气)、Pa(偏执)、Pt、Sc(精神分裂)、Ma(轻躁狂)、Si(社会内向)

  18. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Forensic psychology and correctional psychology: Distinct but related subfields of psychological science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2018-02-12

    This article delineates 2 separate but related subfields of psychological science and practice applicable across all major areas of the field (e.g., clinical, counseling, developmental, social, cognitive, community). Forensic and correctional psychology are related by their historical roots, involvement in the justice system, and the shared population of people they study and serve. The practical and ethical contexts of these subfields is distinct from other areas of psychology-and from one another-with important implications for ecologically valid research and ethically sound practice. Forensic psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the law to help resolve legal, contractual, or administrative matters. Correctional psychology is a subfield of psychology in which basic and applied psychological science or scientifically oriented professional practice is applied to the justice system to inform the classification, treatment, and management of offenders to reduce risk and improve public safety. There has been and continues to be great interest in both subfields-especially the potential for forensic and correctional psychological science to help resolve practical issues and questions in legal and justice settings. This article traces the shared and separate developmental histories of these subfields, outlines their important distinctions and implications, and provides a common understanding and shared language for psychologists interested in applying their knowledge in forensic or correctional contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Narrating psychological distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...

  1. Clinical and psychological moderators of the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on persistent pain in women treated for primary breast cancer - explorative analyses from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, M; O'Toole, M S; O'Connor, M; Jensen, A B; Zachariae, R

    2017-02-01

    Mindfulness-based intervention has been found efficacious in reducing persistent pain in women treated for breast cancer. Little, however, is known about possible moderators of the effect. We explored clinical and psychological moderators of the effect on pain intensity previously found in a randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with women treated for breast cancer with persistent pain. A total of 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting persistent pain were randomized to MBCT or a wait-list control. The primary outcome of pain intensity (11-point numeric rating scale) was measured at baseline, post-intervention, three, and six months follow-up. Proposed clinical moderators included age, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), radiotherapy, and endocrine treatment. Psychological moderators included psychological distress [the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], the adult attachment dimensions anxiety and avoidance [the Experiences in Close Relationships Short Form (the ECR-SF)], and alexithymia [the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20)]. Multi-level models were used to test moderation effects over time, i.e. time × group × moderator. Only attachment avoidance (p = 0.03, d = 0.36) emerged as a statistically significant moderator. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted a larger effect of MBCT in reducing pain intensity compared with lower levels attachment avoidance. None of the remaining psychological or clinical moderators reached statistical significance. However, based on the effect size, radiotherapy (p = 0.075, d = 0.49) was indicated as a possible clinical moderator of the effect, with radiotherapy being associated with a smaller effect of MBCT on pain intensity over time compared with no radiotherapy. Attachment avoidance, and potentially radiotherapy, may be clinically relevant factors for identifying the patients who may benefit most from MBCT as a pain intervention. Due to

  2. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  3. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  4. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  5. Criminal Psychological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-18

    went through on their way to establishing mental health . These stages are the oral, the anal, and the phallic. In each stage, the developing human will... health professionals. These professionals then provided psychological insights, based on the clinical or the academic point of view. The FBI was now...then ordered her to lie face down on the bed. He then pulled down her lower garments and then fondled and masturbated on her bare buttocks. The

  6. Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoek, F. J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    -destructive behaviour, but future research should substantiate these preliminary findings. Behaviour family therapy proved beneficial in terms of resolving family conflicts, but did not impact glycaemic control. Conclusions: Evidence to support the effect of psychological treatment in problematic diabetes is still......Background: In past decades clinicians have increasingly recognized the importance of psychological support for people with diabetes and their families, and many have recommended integrating psychological counselling into routine diabetes care. It is therefore important to consider whether...... psychological interventions in diabetes are effective in improving clinical outcomes. Methods: This review was limited to the literature reporting on the treatment of five common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management: depression, eating disorders, anxiety/stress, self...

  7. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  8. Proceedings of the AMEDD Clinical Psychology Short Course (1987): Military Applications of Neuropsychology and Health Psychology Held in San Francisco, California on 9-13 March 1987. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    If. I. Kaplan , & B. J. Sadock (Eds), Comprehensive textbook ofpsychiatry (Vol. 2, 2nd ed ). Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, 1975. Lipowski, Z. J...ratat ion was t hef vr t aormod. arcma~r>.a -Xtr lct-d whicn acca "Inted f ai b3 -a t.vranc- a" ’fa is t (:a01.’aa0 -a nt v",’,Sc Ca:11) isa a:, ta n...Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 17, 514-518. -- __ Hare-Must in, R. T., Marecek, J., Kaplan , G., & Liss-Levinson, N. (1979). Rights of

  9. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion.

  10. Martial arts and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J R

    1988-12-01

    The misleading public image of the martial arts masks a rich though esoteric psychological legacy containing informative parallels for contemporary psychotherapeutic concepts and practices. To date, empirical research on the martial arts has lacked sophistication in the questions it has posed and in the methodology adopted to answer them. Whilst not entirely consistent, findings from studies of martial artists' personalities, outlooks and behaviour have generally indicated positive psychological effects of training. Clinical and psychotherapeutic applications are at an exploratory stage but appear promising. As an exemplar the psychological facets of the art of Aikido are discussed, and prospective uses of martial arts principles as systemic or adjunctive therapies are considered.

  11. Annotated Bibliography on the Teaching of Psychology: 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David E.; Schroder, Simone I.

    1998-01-01

    Includes materials on: (1) abnormal and clinical psychology, and personality; (2) career issues; (3) cognition and learning; (4) educational technology; (5) faculty evaluation; (6) graduate education; (7) high school instruction; (8) history of psychology; (9) introductory psychology; (10) perception, and physiological and comparative psychology;…

  12. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  13. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  14. The psychology of autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In May 2016, right around the time that this issue of the Hastings Center Report should be published, The Hastings Center is holding a conference in New York City titled "Bioethics Meets Moral Psychology." The goal of the conference is to consider the lessons that bioethicists should learn from the raft of literature now accumulating on how the mental processes of perception, emotion, and thinking affect things that bioethicists care about, from the education of health care professionals to the conflicts that arise in clinical care, the "culture wars" over bioethical policy issues, the status of different cultures' value systems, and the very understanding of the values that are foundational in moral thinking. The articles in this issue simply provide more evidence that bioethics is meeting moral psychology. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  15. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  16. Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Scuteri, Damiana; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Rombolà, Laura; Avato, Pina Rosa; Bilia, Anna Rita; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Bagetta, Giacinto

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of agitation and aggression, typical Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), is one of the most complicated aspects of handling patients suffering from dementia. Currently, the management of these symptoms often associated with an increased pain perception, which notably reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL), relies on the employment of antipsychotic drugs. Unfortunately, the use of these pharmacological agents has some limit...

  17. Aplicación del modelo de situación clínica a la consulta psicológica The "Clinical situation" Model as applied to psychological consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A Menéndez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto se propone investigar la aplicación del modelo de situación clínica en la labor de consulta clínica psicológica. Por "situación clínica" entendemos la articulación de la diversidad de fenómenos que aparecen en la consulta. Supone semiología múltiple, epistemología convergente y actitud técnica dispuesta a la planificación y la interdisciplina. Corresponde al psicólogo clínico brindar una respuesta acorde a la consulta en términos comprensibles para el entrevistado. Se propone trabajar sobre lo volcado por los psicólogos clínicos (admisores y terapeutas en las entrevistas y en los informes correspondientes. Es éste un trabajo sobre las consecuencias que la comprensión en términos de"situación clínica" depara para quienes la aplican en la práctica por ellos reconocida en las admisiones y en el curso del proceso terapéutico. Es propósito de esta investigación trasladar los resultados a la actividad docente; situación clínica y consulta psicológica constituyen conceptos fundamentales de la técnica psicoterapéutica y de la actitud del profesional en su labor clínica.The present project delves into the applicability of the "Clinical Situation" model in the psychological consultation context. By "Clinical Situation" we mean articulation of the myriad phenomena appearing during consultation. It supposes a multiple semiology, converging epistemology and a technical attitude oriented towards planning and interdisciplinary work. The clinical psychologist must give a response that is in agreement with consultation, in terms that are understandable by the interviewed. We propose to work on direct transcriptions and reports of interviews by the clinical psychologists themselves, both on admissions and therapy. This means, this will be a report on the consequences that the understanding in terms of a "clinical situation" brings to those practicing it in admissions and during the therapeutic process. This

  18. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  19. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  20. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  1. Proceedings of the AMEDD (Army Medical Department) Clinical Psychology Short Course: Military Applications of Neuropsychology and Health Psychology Held in Presidio of San Francisco, California on 9-13 March 1987. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    syndrome. Medical Clinics of North America, 70, 708-719. Barnes, Deborah (1986) Grim projections for AIDS epidemic. Science, 232, 1589- 1590 . Bennett, J. A...65_ 96-97. Redfield, R. R., Wright, D. C. & Tramount, E. C. (1986) The Walter Reed staging classification for IfrLV-IIt/LAV Infection. The New England ... women with blood and cardiovascular findings. Circulation, 24, 1173-1184. Sackett, D., Taylor, D., Haynes, R., Johnson, A., Gibson, E., & Roberts, R

  2. [Psychiatry and psychology integrated in somatics is a profit for the clinic. Consultation liaison psychiatry important for the future of healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Lars; Blomdahl-Wetterholm, Margareta

    2015-10-06

    The mental health needs of patients receiving physical health care often remain undiagnosed and untreated, resulting in significant costs to the health care system. However, some countries have recently seen fast progress with the development of consultation liaison psychiatry. In Sweden, this service has developed quite slowly, but a breakthrough may be imminent. There is evidence that providing better support for co-morbid health problems may improve the psychological quality of care and reduce physical health care costs in acute hospitals. Consultation liaison psychiatry fits well with the current trends of value-based health care, personalized care, and an emphasis on networking in care.

  3. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  4. Gestalt Therapy: Its Inheritance from Gestalt Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontef, Gary M.

    When adequately elaborated, the basic method of Gestalt therapy can be traced to the phenomenological field theory of Gestalt psychology. Gestalt therapy differs from Gestalt psychology not because of a difference in philosophy or method, but because of different contexts; the clinical context has different demands than those of basic research.…

  5. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  6. Psychological stress in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L

    2012-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic illness associated with emotional and physical consequences which impact on quality of life. Although the impact of fatigue is well understood, emotional impacts of sarcoidosis are less commonly recognized and addressed in routine clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to highlight that sarcoidosis can result in considerable psychological distress. Not only is there a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in sarcoidosis, but clinical depressive and anxiety disorders are more common than seen in the general population. Patients with sarcoidosis have perceptions and beliefs about their disease that may impact on their willingness to engage in recommended therapies. They may also exhibit a disordered perception of their disease and a personality profile of neuroticism. Understanding the minimally important clinical difference in the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) and validation of the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) across different populations supports the use of these tools in routine clinical practice and clinical trials. Understanding the global impact of sarcoidosis is important for patients and clinicians, and use of validated instruments, such as the SHQ and FAS, allows for more comprehensive assessment of the disease and the impact of any interventions.

  7. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  8. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  9. Psychological aspects of cosmetic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, P

    1984-07-01

    This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.

  10. A longitudinal study of the impact of chronic psychological stress on health-related quality of life and clinical biomarkers: protocol for the Australian Healthy Aging of Women Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Whiteside, Eliza; Humphreys, Janice; Lee, Kathryn; Thomas, Patrick; Chopin, Lisa; Crisp, Gabrielle; O'Keeffe, Angela; Kimlin, Michael; Stacey, Andrew; Anderson, Debra

    2014-01-08

    Despite advancements in our understanding of the importance of stress reduction in achieving good health, we still only have limited insight into the impact of stress on cellular function. Recent studies have suggested that exposure to prolonged psychological stress may alter an individual's physiological responses, and contribute to morbidity and mortality. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol we are using to examine the impact of life stressors on lifestyle factors, health-related quality of life and novel and established biomarkers of stress in midlife and older Australian women.The primary aim of this study is to explore the links between chronic psychological stress on both subjective and objective health markers in midlife and older Australian women. The study examines the extent to which exposure frightening, upsetting or stressful events such as natural disasters, illness or death of a relative, miscarriage and relationship conflict is correlated with a variety of objective and subjective health markers. This study is embedded within the longitudinal Healthy Aging of Women's study which has collected data from midlife and older Australian women at 5 yearly intervals since 2001, and uses the Allostastic model of women's health by Groër and colleagues in 2010. The current study expands the focus of the HOW study and will assess the impact of life stressors on quality of life and clinical biomarkers in midlife and older Australian women to explain the impact of chronic psychological stress in women. The proposed study hypothesizes that women are at increased risk of exposure to multiple or repeated stressors, some being unique to women, and the frequency and chronicity of stressors increases women's risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to further our understanding of the relationships between stressful life experiences, perceived quality of life, stress biomarkers, chronic illness, and health status in women.

  11. The State of the Psychology Health Service Provider Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…

  12. Awaritefe Psychological Index (form x) in Yoruba Language and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for indigenous tools in Mental Health Research and Clinical Psychological Practice cannot be over emphasized. Awaritefe Psychological Index (API) is one of the most popular indigenous Psychological tools in Africa, API has been found to have acceptable psychometric properties by several previous Authors.

  13. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH) [de

  14. Delayed small intestinal transit in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus: investigation of the relationships with clinical features, gastric emptying, psychological distress, and nutritional parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mariza; Pavin, Elizabeth João; Parisi, Maria Cândida Ribeiro; Lorena, Sônia Letícia Silva; Brunetto, Sérgio Quirino; Ramos, Celso Dario; Pavan, Célia Regina; Mesquita, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Studies on small intestinal transit in type 1 diabetes mellitus have reported contradictory results. This study assessed the orocecal transit time (OCTT) in a group of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and its relationships with gastrointestinal symptoms, glycemic control, chronic complications of diabetes, anthropometric indices, gastric emptying, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and psychological distress. Twenty-eight patients with long-standing (>10 years) type 1 diabetes mellitus (22 women, six men; mean age, 39 ± 9 years) participated in the study. The lactulose hydrogen breath test was used to determine OCTT and the occurrence of SIBO. The presence of anxiety and depression was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Gastric emptying was measured by scintigraphy. Anthropometric indices included body mass index, percentage body fat, midarm circumference, and arm muscle area. There was a statistically significant increase in OCTT values in diabetes patients (79 ± 41 min) in comparison with controls (54 ± 17 min) (P=0.01). Individual analysis showed that OCTT was above the upper limit (mean+2 SD) in 30.8% of patients. All anthropometric parameters were significantly decreased (Pdiabetic retinopathy, glycated hemoglobin, delayed gastric emptying, SIBO, anxiety, or depression. Small bowel transit may be delayed in about one-third of patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus. This abnormality seems to have a negative effect on nutritional status in these patients.

  15. Does a "one-stop" gynecology screening clinic for women in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families have an impact on their psychological morbidity and perception of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, N J; Munot, S; Sheridan, E; Duffy, S R

    2008-01-01

    Screening programs can reduce the burden of disease, however, they can be associated with raised levels of anxiety. The risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer is increased in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). There is no prospective evidence to support screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC, however, current recommendations include the use of ultrasound and endometrial biopsy. This study assesses the impact of screening for gynecological cancer on self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and perceptions of health. Women from HNPCC families attending gynecological screening (n = 26) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the ShortForm36v2 questionnaires prior to screening with transvaginal ultrasound, outpatient/office hysteroscopy, endometrial biopsy, and ovarian tumor marker assessment (CA125). The same questionnaires were completed at 3 and 6 months following screening (15/26). Women in HNPCC families attending for gynecological screening did not have excess symptoms of anxiety or depression at baseline in subjective comparison to other populations. The process of screening and false positive screening results had no significant impact on symptoms of anxiety and depression or perceptions of health. We conclude that within the limitations of analysis in this small study group, screening for gynecological disease in HNPCC does not appear to be associated with any psychological morbidity.

  16. Associations between relationship support and psychological reactions of participants and partners to BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing in a clinic-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Audrain, Janet; Schwartz, Marc; Main, David; Finch, Clinton; Lerman, Caryn

    2004-12-01

    Despite the potential importance of communication about genetic testing between test participants and their significant others, little is known about social support and communication between women undergoing BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing and their partners. The aims of this longitudinal study were to examine communication about genetic testing during and following testing and to evaluate whether communication is associated with psychological distress reported by test participants and their partners. Participants were 153 women who were undergoing genetic testing and 118 partners of women undergoing testing. Relationship communication and distress were evaluated at the time of pretest education and 6 months postdisclosure. Overall, the decision to undergo testing was discussed by the majority of test participants and partners, and most couples felt their partners were supportive. Most women disclosed their results to their partners. Longitudinal analyses suggested that less support and protective buffering were associated with greater distress 6 months postdisclosure among test participants, whereas lower comfort in sharing concerns and partner support were associated with lower distress 6 months postdisclosure among partners. The results of this study suggest that the majority of couples respond supportively during the test experience, but for a small subset of couples the process can strain the relationship. Partner support during this process is important, particularly for test participants dealing with an uninformative test result.

  17. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  18. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories......The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  19. Clinical Pharmacopsychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fava, Giovanni A.; Tomba, Elena; Bech, Per

    2017-01-01

    of its most representative expressions and reference to current challenges of clinical research, with particular reference to clinimetrics. The domains of clinical pharmacopsychology encompass the clinical benefits of psychotropic drugs, the characteristics that predict responsiveness to treatment...... effects, (b) treatment-induced unwanted side effects, and (c) the patient's own personal experience of a change in terms of well-being and/or quality of life. Clinical pharmacopsychology offers a unifying framework for the understanding of clinical phenomena in medical and psychiatric settings. Research......The aim of this critical review was to outline emerging trends and perspectives of clinical pharmacopsychology, an area of clinical psychology that is concerned with the psychological effects of medications. The historical development of clinical pharmacopsychology is outlined, with discussion...

  20. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  1. A comorbidade entre transtornos alimentares e de personalidade e suas implicações clínicas Comorbidity in eating and psychological disorders and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Celeste de Oliveira Martins

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores revisam, de maneira breve, os estudos clínicos sobre comorbidade em transtornos alimentares. Aspectos gerais do tratamento nessas situações são discutidos.We briefly reviewed the clinical studies of comorbidity in eating disorders. general aspects of the treatment in these situations are discussed.

  2. Psychological mediators related to clinical outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for coronary heart disease: A sub-analysis from the SUPRIM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlund, Fredrika; Olsson, Erik Mg; Pingel, Ronnie; Held, Claes; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Gulliksson, Mats; Burell, Gunilla

    2017-06-01

    Background The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) was a randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioural therapy stress management programme for patients with coronary heart disease. The project was successful in reducing the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on self-rated stress, somatic anxiety, vital exhaustion and depression and to study the associations of these factors with the reduction in cardiovascular events. Methods A total of 362 patients were randomly assigned to intervention or usual care groups. The psychological outcomes were assessed five times during 24 months and analysed using linear mixed models. The mediating roles of the outcomes were analysed using joint modelling of the longitudinal and time to event data. Results The intervention had a positive effect on somatic anxiety ( p < 0.05), reflecting a beneficial development over time compared with the controls. Stress, vital exhaustion and depression did not differ between the groups over time. Mediator analysis suggested that somatic anxiety may have mediated the effect of treatment on cardiovascular events. Conclusions The intervention had a small positive effect on somatic anxiety, but did not affect stress, vital exhaustion or depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Somatic anxiety was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and might act as a partial mediator in the treatment effect on cardiovascular events. However, the mechanisms between the intervention and the protective cardiovascular outcome remain to be identified.

  3. Usefulness of the Reliable Change Index for psychology and psychiatry in clinical practice: a case report of cognitive-behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Souza Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The reliable change index (RCI is a simple statistical computation which estimate if changes in two psychometric measures are probably due to measurement error or can be accounted by other factor, as a clinical intervention. Despite its clinical usefulness, the method is underutilized by psychiatrists and psychologists. We consider the use of the RCI in clinical practice by a case report of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Method: a female patient of 40 years old sought cognitive-behavioral therapy due to symptoms of depression. We structured the intervention in 16 sessions and used Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II for the assessment of depressive symptoms and answered in each session. Using published data about the BDI-II reliability and its standard deviation, we calculated the RCI before and after the intervention. Results and conclusions: The patient started the treatment with moderate to severe symptoms of depression and showed almost a linear decrease of the symptoms along the sections. Although no reliable change could be associated with the first month of treatment, starting at the second month, we documented a reliable decrease in the depressive symptoms from session 4 to 16. The RCI index it’s a useful method to assess if changes in psychometric measures may represent real change or occur by measurement error.

  4. How do we know what makes for "best practice" in clinical supervision for psychological therapists? A content analysis of supervisory models and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Southward, Chloe; Waller, Glenn; Hardy, Gillian E

    2017-11-01

    Clinical supervision for psychotherapies is widely used in clinical and research contexts. Supervision is often assumed to ensure therapy adherence and positive client outcomes, but there is little empirical research to support this contention. Regardless, there are numerous supervision models, but it is not known how consistent their recommendations are. This review aimed to identify which aspects of supervision are consistent across models, and which are not. A content analysis of 52 models revealed 71 supervisory elements. Models focus more on supervisee learning and/or development (88.46%), but less on emotional aspects of work (61.54%) or managerial or ethical responsibilities (57.69%). Most models focused on the supervisee (94.23%) and supervisor (80.77%), rather than the client (48.08%) or monitoring client outcomes (13.46%). Finally, none of the models were clearly or adequately empirically based. Although we might expect clinical supervision to contribute to positive client outcomes, the existing models have limited client focus and are inconsistent. Therefore, it is not currently recommended that one should assume that the use of such models will ensure consistent clinician practice or positive therapeutic outcomes. There is little evidence for the effectiveness of supervision. There is a lack of consistency in supervision models. Services need to assess whether supervision is effective for practitioners and patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Historiography of Czech psychology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoskovcová, S.; Hoskovec, J.; Plháková, A.; Šebek, M.; Švancara, J.; Vobořil, Dalibor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 309-334 ISSN 1093-4510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Czech psychologists * Czechoslovak psychology * ideologic influences on psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2010

  6. Teachers and Psychological Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.

    The importance of the written psychological report is explored, and, in particular, its relationship to teachers' needs and requirements is discussed. Additionally, the characteristics of a "good" psychological report are listed, and teachers are advised to use these criteria in evaluating the psychological reports they are receiving. (Author)

  7. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  8. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  9. Some psychological aspects of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    1999-06-01

    Tinnitus rarely can be cured. The patient, however, needs help to avoid countless ineffective treatments and considerable cost. The clinical examination of patients with severe and chronic tinnitus must include associated psychological disturbances. After all medical and audiological treatments have failed, tinnitus patients often are advised to "learn to live with it." The aim of psychosocial treatment is assisting patients in the identification of aggravating factors in tinnitus and teaching them various coping skills.

  10. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan PO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor

  11. Do psychological and behavioral factors classified by the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (Swedish version) predict the early clinical course of low back pain in patients receiving chiropractic care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Erik A; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate if psychological and behavioral factors (as determined by the Swedish version of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, MPI-S) can predict the early clinical course of Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: MPI-S data from patients (18-65 years of age) seeking...... improvement. The chance of "definite improvement", expressed as relative risk (95 % CI) with the AC group as reference, was 1.05 (.87-1.27) for the ID and 1.10 (.93-1.31) for the DYS groups, respectively. The DYS and ID groups reported higher values in pain intensity both at the 1st and the 4th visit....... The proportion of subjects who reported an improvement in pain intensity of 30 % or more (clinically relevant) were 63.5 % AC, 72.0 % ID and 63.2 % DYS. Expressed as relative risk (95 % CI) with the AC group as reference, this corresponded to 1.26 (.91-1.76) for the ID and 1.09 (.78-1.51) for the DYS groups...

  12. Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew

    High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A brief screening tool for assessing psychological trauma in clinical practice: development and validation of the New York PTSD Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Kirchner, H Lester; Hoffman, Stuart N; Sartorius, Jennifer; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to develop a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening instrument that is useful in clinical practice, similar to the Framingham Risk Score used in cardiovascular medicine. We used data collected in New York City after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) and other trauma data to develop a new PTSD prediction tool--the New York PTSD Risk Score. We used diagnostic test methods to examine different clinical domains, including PTSD symptoms, trauma exposures, sleep disturbances, suicidal thoughts, depression symptoms, demographic factors and other measures to assess different PTSD prediction models. Using receiver operating curve (ROC) and bootstrap methods, five prediction domains, including core PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbance, access to care status, depression symptoms and trauma history, and five demographic variables, including gender, age, education, race and ethnicity, were identified. For the best prediction model, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.880 for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone (specificity=82.2%, sensitivity=93.7%). Adding care status, sleep disturbance, depression and trauma exposure increased the AUC to 0.943 (specificity=85.7%, sensitivity=93.1%), a significant ROC improvement (Pdevelopment and validation samples. The New York PTSD Risk Score is a multifactor prediction tool that includes the Primary Care PTSD Screen, depression symptoms, access to care, sleep disturbance, trauma history and demographic variables and appears to be effective in predicting PTSD among patients seen in healthcare settings. This prediction tool is simple to administer and appears to outperform other screening measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological and psychosexual aspects of vulvar vestibulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunns, D; Mandal, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To objectively assess the psychological and psychosexual morbidity of patients with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS: 30 patients with variable degrees of vulvar vestibulitis were recruited from a vulval clinic. Each patient underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. Friedrich's criteria were used for the diagnosis of vulvar vestibulitis. Standardised questionnaires to assess psychological and psychosexual function were completed by the patient before review. These questionnaires were the STAI and a modified psychosexual questionnaire introduced by Campion. RESULTS: Patients experienced considerable psychological dysfunction compared with controls. All aspects of psychosexual dysfunction were affected. CONCLUSIONS: When managing patients, psychosexual and psychological issues must be considered in addition to other conventional types of therapy. Vulvar vestibulitis may be a risk factor for developing psychosexual complications including vaginismus, low libido, and orgasmic dysfunction. Consideration of these factors must be an integral part of the management of patients with all chronic vulval conditions. PMID:9582478

  15. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Gill; Kelly, Lynsey; Lewis-Holmes, Elanor; Baio, Gianluca; Morris, Stephen; Patel, Nishma; Omar, Rumana Z; Katona, Cornelius; Cooper, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Agitation is common, persistent and distressing in dementia and is linked with care breakdown. Psychotropic medication is often ineffective or harmful, but the evidence regarding non-pharmacological interventions is unclear. We systematically reviewed and synthesised the evidence for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for reducing agitation in dementia, considering dementia severity, the setting, the person with whom the intervention is implemented, whether the effects are immediate or longer term, and cost-effectiveness. We searched twice using relevant search terms (9 August 2011 and 12 June 2012) in Web of Knowledge (incorporating MEDLINE); EMBASE; British Nursing Index; the Health Technology Assessment programme database; PsycINFO; NHS Evidence; System for Information on Grey Literature; The Stationery Office Official Documents website; The Stationery National Technical Information Service; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; and The Cochrane Library. We also searched Cochrane reviews of interventions for behaviour in dementia, included papers' references, and contacted authors about 'missed' studies. We included quantitative studies, evaluating non-pharmacological interventions for agitation in dementia, in all settings. We rated quality, prioritising higher-quality studies. We separated results by intervention type and agitation level. As we were unable to meta-analyse results except for light therapy, we present a qualitative evidence synthesis. In addition, we calculated standardised effect sizes (SESs) with available data, to compare heterogeneous interventions. In the health economic analysis, we reviewed economic studies, calculated the cost of effective interventions from the effectiveness review, calculated the incremental cost per unit improvement in agitation, used data from a cohort study to evaluate the relationship between health and social care costs and health-related quality

  16. Clinical and psychological features of children and adolescents diagnosed with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a pediatric tertiary care eating disorder program: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Megan; Lieberman, Melissa; Guimond, Tim; Katzman, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is an eating disorder first described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) [American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013]. Patients with ARFID do not fear gaining weight or have body image distortions. ARFID involves a persistent disturbance in feeding and eating that results in an inability to meet nutritional and/or energy needs with one of the following: weight loss or failure to achieve appropriate weight gain, nutritional deficiency, dependence on enteral feeding or nutritional supplements and significant interference with psychosocial functioning. To date, studies on patients with ARFID have retrospectively applied the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ARFID to reclassify patients diagnosed with DSM-IV eating disorders. A descriptive retrospective chart review was completed on patients less than 18-years diagnosed with ARFID after a comprehensive eating disorder assessment between May 2013 and March 2016. The data collected included demographics, anthropometrics, historical information, clinical features, co-morbid diagnoses, need for inpatient hospitalization and psychometric measures. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients were assessed for an eating disorder between May 2013 and March 2016. Of these, 31 (8.4%) received a DSM-5 diagnosis of ARFID. A full chart review was performed on 28 (90.3%) patients. Weight loss or failure to achieve appropriate weight gain was the reason for diagnosis in 96.4% (27/28). All of our patients had 2 or more physical symptoms at the time of diagnosis and 16 (57.1%) had a co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Twenty (71.4%) reported a specific trigger for their eating disturbance. Admission for inpatient hospitalization occurred in 57.1% (16/28) of patients. Thirteen (46.4%) patients had been previously assessed by another specialist for their eating disturbance. None of the patients had

  17. Supportive Group Factors, Course Pedagogy, and Multicultural Competency within Multicultural Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Michael Ryan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between course pedagogy and supportive group factors with variables of multicultural competency and multicultural counseling self-efficacy at the completion of a multicultural psychology course. The participants were students in graduate clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and school psychology programs…

  18. The Influence of Demographic, Clinical, Psychological and Functional Determinants on Post-stroke Cognitive Impairment at Day Care Stroke Center, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zulkifly, Mohd Faizal; Ghazali, Shazli Ezzat; Che Din, Normah; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to estimate the prevalence and explore the predictors for post-stroke cognitive impairment at the community level in Malaysia. Methods A total of 50 stroke patients aged 29 to 81–year-old were included in this study. A face to face interview was conducted to gather the demographic and clinical data. Subsequently, assessments including Barthel ADL Index (BI), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered to the subjects. Results The results showed that the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 76% among the studied populations. The subjects’ race (Fisher’s value= 9.56, P cognitive status. The depression score was significantly higher in cognitively impaired group [t (48) = −4.42, P cognitively impaired group (median = 18.00, P cognitive impairment (OR 2.03, 95% CI = 1.20–3.45). Conclusion In conclusion, the prevalence of cognitive impairment in this study was higher than other community based studies and depression was a risk factor for cognitive impairment. PMID:27547115

  19. Práticas da psicologia clínica em face do sofrimento psíquico causado pelo desemprego contemporâneo Prácticas de psicologia clinica frente al sufrimiento psíquico causado por el desempleo contemporáneo Psychology clinical practices towards psychological suffering caused by contemporary unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abs

    2010-06-01

    desempleo. Los enunciados destacaron la falta de operadores clínicos para lidar con ese fenómeno. Ese estudio concluyó que el desempleo es una temática de la Clínica Psicológica contemporánea, y que hay una necesidad de producirse operadores que den cuenta, en la clínica, de fenómenos contemporáneos que están emergiendo, como el desempleo, y que más estudios son necesarios acercándose a esta temática.This paper aims at understanding the practices of Clinical Psychology towards psychological suffering caused by contemporary unemployment. To this end, eight psychologists from Porto Alegre outskirts were interviewed. They were asked about their understanding of issues regarding work and unemployment and consequences to patients' subjectivity, intervention practices they used and the relationship of these interventions to theories and possible contributions of psychology towards the phenomenon under scrutiny. Content analysis was used to study the data collected during the interviews.Psychologists' utterances have been divided in four groups based on the following categories: work, unemployment, interventions towards unemployment and psychology's contributions to unemployment. The author concludes that clinical psychology needs to prepare professionals who are able to deal, in their clinical practices, with ever emerging contemporary phenomena such as unemployment. It is also highlighted that more investigations on this area of study are necessary.

  20. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A longitudinal study of perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    On two occasions separated by one year, Chinese adolescents (N = 2,758) responded to instruments measuring their perceived parental psychological control and psychological well-being, including hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. Pearson correlation analyses revealed that perceived parental psychological control was concurrently related to adolescent psychological well-being at Time 1 and Time 2. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the relationships between perceived parental psychological control and adolescent psychological well-being over time were bidirectional in nature. Regarding the differential contribution of paternal and maternal psychological control to adolescent psychological well-being over time, paternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction at Time 2, particularly for adolescent girls. On the other hand, maternal psychological control at Time 1 predicted changes in adolescent self-esteem at Time 2. Relative to those conditions in which one or none of the adolescents' parents was perceived to display high psychological control at Time 1, the psychological well-being of adolescents at Time 2 was poorer under the condition in which both parents were perceived to display high levels of psychological control at Time 1. The clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Future directions in psychological assessment: combining evidence-based medicine innovations with psychology's historical strengths to enhance utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstrom, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has been a historical strength of psychology, with sophisticated traditions of measurement, psychometrics, and theoretical underpinnings. However, training, reimbursement, and utilization of psychological assessment have been eroded in many settings. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) offers a different perspective on evaluation that complements traditional strengths of psychological assessment. EBM ties assessment directly to clinical decision making about the individual, uses simplified Bayesian methods explicitly to integrate assessment data, and solicits patient preferences as part of the decision-making process. Combining the EBM perspective with psychological assessment creates a hybrid approach that is more client centered, and it defines a set of applied research topics that are highly clinically relevant. This article offers a sequence of a dozen facets of the revised assessment process, along with examples of corollary research studies. An eclectic integration of EBM and evidence-based assessment generates a powerful hybrid that is likely to have broad applicability within clinical psychology and enhance the utility of psychological assessments.

  3. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  4. Psychology and criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Joanna R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  5. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  6. Enhancing Placebo Effects: Insights From Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLIWINSKI, JIM; ELKINS, GARY R.

    2012-01-01

    Placebo effects are widely recognized as having a potent impact upon treatment outcomes in both medical and psychological interventions, including hypnosis. In research utilizing randomized clinical trials, there is usually an effort to minimize or control placebo effects. However, in clinical practice there may be significant benefits in enhancing placebo effects. Prior research from the field of social psychology has identified three factors that may enhance placebo effects, namely: priming, client perceptions, and the theory of planned behavior. These factors are reviewed and illustrated via a case example. The consideration of social-psychological factors to enhance positive expectancies and beliefs has implications for clinical practice as well as future research into hypnotic interventions. PMID:23488251

  7. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  8. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. [Psychological aspects of pruritus and therapy options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A; Schut, C; Schneider, G

    2016-08-01

    Besides biological factors, which cause or influence chronic pruritus, more and more attention has recently also been paid to psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors which uphold the symptom. This review article gives an overview of the state of research regarding psychological and psychoneuroimmunological factors and the resulting therapeutic options. The article is based on a literature search in the PubMed database. Under experimental conditions, pruritus can be induced by verbal instructions and modulated by placebo and nocebo effects. Stressful life events can also induce pruritus or its exacerbation. This can also be demonstrated on a cellular level. The knowledge that pruritus intensity is modulated by cognitions, behavioral factors, and stress is important for the development and application of psychological interventions. More research should be done regarding psychological interventions in the treatment of chronic itch and they should be applied clinically more often.

  10. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  11. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  12. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  13. Editorial overview: Evolutionary psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangestad, S.W.; Tybur, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Functional approaches in psychology - which ask what behavior is good for - are almost as old as scientific psychology itself. Yet sophisticated, generative functional theories were not possible until developments in evolutionary biology in the mid-20th century. Arising in the last three decades,

  14. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  15. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  16. Psychological effects of nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickley, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report is divided into five parts. (1) Discussion of the psychological milieu before a nuclear confrontation. (2) Acute psychological reactions to nuclear warfare (some of which may reflect, in part, direct radiogenic alteration of nervous system functions). (3) Chronic psychological effects of a nuclear confrontation. (4) Issues concerning treatment of these psychological changes. (5) Prevention of adverse psychological reactions to nuclear warfare

  17. Assessment of psychological pain in suicidal veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reist, Christopher; Mee, Steven; Fujimoto, Ken; Rajani, Vivek; Bunney, William E; Bunney, Blynn G

    2017-01-01

    build upon our earlier findings and recent literature supporting psychological pain as a potentially important construct. Systematically evaluating psychological pain along with additional measures of suicidality could improve risk assessment and more effectively guide clinical resource allocation toward prevention.

  18. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  19. Barriers to health-care and psychological distress among mothers living with HIV in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Lebouché, Bertrand; Rodrigue, Carl; Lapointe, Normand; Otis, Joanne; Samson, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Health-care providers play a major role in providing good quality care and in preventing psychological distress among mothers living with HIV (MLHIV). The objectives of this study are to explore the impact of health-care services and satisfaction with care providers on psychological distress in MLHIV. One hundred MLHIV were recruited from community and clinical settings in the province of Quebec (Canada). Prevalence estimation of clinical psychological distress and univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to predict clinical psychological distress. Forty-five percent of the participants reported clinical psychological distress. In the multivariable regression, the following variables were significantly associated with psychological distress while controlling for sociodemographic variables: resilience, quality of communication with the care providers, resources, and HIV disclosure concerns. The multivariate results support the key role of personal, structural, and medical resources in understanding psychological distress among MLHIV. Interventions that can support the psychological health of MLHIV are discussed.

  20. Adolescents’ Pain Coping Profiles: Expectations for Treatment, Functional Outcomes and Adherence to Psychological Treatment Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Lewis Claar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore how adolescents’ pain coping profiles relate to their expectations regarding psychological treatment recommendations, and to examine patients’ functioning and engagement in psychological treatment three months following a multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation.

  1. Psychological functioning in headache sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, F; Blanchard, E B; Arena, J G; Teders, S J; Teevan, R C; Rodichok, L D

    1982-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological test responses of 99 headache sufferers and 30 matched nonheadache controls. Headache subjects were of four types: migraine (n = 26), muscle contraction (n = 39), combined migraine-muscle contract ion (n = 22), and cluster (n = 12). Measures consisted of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, a modified hostility scale derived from the MMPI, Back Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Autonomic Perception Questionnaire, Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist, Schalling-Sifneos Scale, Need for Achievement, and Hostile Press. Significant differences were found on five clinical scales of the MMPI--1, 2, 3, 6, and 7. Of the non-MMPI scales, only the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and Trait Anxiety Inventory were significant. Control subjects revealed no significant findings on any tests. The headache groups fell along a continuum, beginning with cluster subjects, who showed only minimal distress, continuing through migraine and combined migraine-muscle contraction, and ending with muscle contraction subjects, who revealed the greatest degree of psychological disturbance. However, none of the headache groups could be characterized by marked elevations on any of the psychological tests, which contrasts with past research findings. It is suggested that the present results may be more representative of the "typical" headache sufferer.

  2. Psychology or Psychological Science?: A Survey of Graduate Psychology Faculty Regarding Program Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collisson, Brian; Rusbasan, David

    2018-01-01

    The question of renaming graduate psychology programs to psychological science is a timely and contentious issue. To better understand why some programs, but not others, are changing names, we surveyed chairpersons (Study 1) and faculty (Study 2) within graduate psychology and psychological science programs. Within psychology programs, a name…

  3. Structural equation modeling in pediatric psychology: overview and review of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Aylward, Brandon S; Steele, Ric G

    2008-08-01

    To describe the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) in the Journal of Pediatric Psychology (JPP) and to discuss the usefulness of SEM applications in pediatric psychology research. The use of SEM in JPP between 1997 and 2006 was examined and compared to leading journals in clinical psychology, clinical child psychology, and child development. SEM techniques were used in psychology research, although investigations employing these methods are becoming more prevalent. Despite its infrequent use to date, SEM is a potentially useful tool for advancing pediatric psychology research with a number of advantages over traditional statistical methods.

  4. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  5. Thinking Psychology Today

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA ROBLEDO-GÓMEZ

    2008-01-01

    The inauguration text of the V Congress of Psychology at the Javeriana University, “Thinking the Present: Psychology, Criticism, and Globalization Times”, is presented. This event took place in April, 2008, in Bogotá, Colombia. These thoughts invite to see Psychology in the present, and to ask oneself about the forms of life that we are built of and that go through subjectivities in today’s World, within the framework of the Economical, Cultural, Social and Political conditions of our countri...

  6. Psychological response of accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.S.; Nikiforov, A.M.; Cheprasov, V.Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological status of rescuers of consequences of Chernobyl[s accidents, having planned stationary examination and treatment of common somatic diseases, has been examined. THe age of men represented the study group was 35-54 years old. The results of medical-psychological examination showed the development in rescuers of common dysadaptation and stress state, characterized by depressive-hypochondriac state with high anxiety. The course of psychotherapeutic activities made possible to improve essentionally the psychological status of the patients. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  8. Detecting referral and selection bias by the anonymous linkage of practice, hospital and clinic data using Secure and Private Record Linkage (SAPREL: case study from the evaluation of the Improved Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Glenys

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of demonstration sites set up to provide improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT comprised the study of all people identified as having common mental health problems (CMHP, those referred to the IAPT service, and a sample of attenders studied in-depth. Information technology makes it feasible to link practice, hospital and IAPT clinic data to evaluate the representativeness of these samples. However, researchers do not have permission to browse and link these data without the patients' consent. Objective To demonstrate the use of a mixed deterministic-probabilistic method of secure and private record linkage (SAPREL - to describe selection bias in subjects chosen for in-depth evaluation. Method We extracted, pseudonymised and used fuzzy logic to link multiple health records without the researcher knowing the patient's identity. The method can be characterised as a three party protocol mainly using deterministic algorithms with dynamic linking strategies; though incorporating some elements of probabilistic linkage. Within the data providers' safe haven we extracted: Demographic data, hospital utilisation and IAPT clinic data; converted post code to index of multiple deprivation (IMD; and identified people with CMHP. We contrasted the age, gender, ethnicity and IMD for the in-depth evaluation sample with people referred to IAPT, use hospital services, and the population as a whole. Results The in IAPT-in-depth group had a mean age of 43.1 years; CI: 41.0 - 45.2 (n = 166; the IAPT-referred 40.2 years; CI: 39.4 - 40.9 (n = 1118; and those with CMHP 43.6 years SEM 0.15. (n = 12210. Whilst around 67% of those with a CMHP were women, compared to 70% of those referred to IAPT, and 75% of those subject to in-depth evaluation (Chi square p Conclusions The sample studied in-depth were older, more likely female, and less deprived than people with CMHP, and fewer had recorded ethnic minority status. Anonymous

  9. Linked Psychology and Writing Courses across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Kima; Kalikoff, Beth

    2007-01-01

    To enhance student performance, prevent attrition, and build a learning community, two courses were linked together by requiring concurrent enrollment. "Writing Effectively," an upper-division composition course, was linked with "Abnormal Psychology," an upper-division clinical psychology course, requiring concurrent enrollment in both. In short,…

  10. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  11. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  12. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  13. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  15. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  16. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  17. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  18. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  19. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  20. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  1. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what......Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...

  2. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras , Harold

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  4. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  5. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  6. Psychological Risk Factors in Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by considering the role psychological (i.e., cognitive and affective) factors have in the development, course, and consequences of headache. The manuscript initially reviews evidence showing that neural circuits responsible for cognitive–affective phenomena are highly interconnected with the circuitry responsible for headache pain. The manuscript then reviews the influence cognitions (locus of control and self-efficacy) and negative affect (depression, anxiety, and anger) have on the development of headache attacks, perception of headache pain, adherence to prescribed treatment, headache treatment outcome, and headache-related disability. The manuscript concludes with a discussion of the clinical implications of considering psychological factors when treating headache. PMID:17371358

  7. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  8. [Brief discourse on development of psychology of modern traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinxia; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhen'e

    2014-05-01

    In 1980, Wang Miqu proposed the concept of "The Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Psychology)". In 1985, "The First National Symposium on Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine" was held, and the concept of TCM Psychology was put forward in the symposium, thus declaring the establishment of TCM Psychology, a new disciplinary branch. Since then, 12 national or international academic symposia of TCM Psychology were convened nationwide. Based on inheriting the original TCM, by means of exploring, sorting out and improving, and by combining and integrating with psychology and medical psychology, the theory of TCM Psychology was thus gradually innovated, and a systematic knowledge of TCM Psychology was set up and utilized in the clinical practice extensively.

  9. LGBT psychology and feminist psychology: bridging the divide

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we outline some of the similarities and differences between lesbian and gay psychology (more recently known as LGBT psychology) and feminist psychology. Both fields developed in response to the oppressive practices of psychology; however, lesbian and gay psychologists have been far more willing to using the theoretical and methodological tools of mainstream psychology than have feminist psychologists. Feminist psychologists have enthusiastically embraced qualitative and critica...

  10. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  11. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  12. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  13. Training family medicine residents to practice collaboratively with psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Fowler, Shannon L; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti; Kimbrough, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe a training curriculum for family medicine residents to practice collaboratively with psychology (doctoral) trainees at the Wayne State University/Crittenton Family Medicine Residency program. The collaborative care curriculum involves a series of patient care and educational activities that require collaboration between family medicine residents and psychology trainees. Activities include: (1) clinic huddle, (2) shadowing, (3) pull-ins and warm handoffs, (4) co-counseling, (5) shared precepting, (6) feedback from psychology trainees to family medicine residents regarding consults, brief interventions, and psychological testing, (7) lectures, (8) video-observation and feedback, (9) home visits, and (10) research. The activities were designed to teach the participants to work together as a team and to provide a reciprocal learning experience. In a brief three-item survey of residents at the end of their academic year, 83% indicated that they had learned new information or techniques from working with the psychology trainees for assessment and intervention purposes; 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their patient care; and 89% indicated that collaborating with psychology trainees enhanced their ability to work as part of a team. Informal interviews with the psychology trainees indicated that reciprocal learning had taken place. Family medicine residents can learn to work collaboratively with psychology trainees through a series of shared patient care and educational activities within a primary care clinic where an integrated approach to care is valued.

  14. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  15. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.

    2017-01-01

    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be

  16. Psychological distress in patients with morphea and eosinophilic fasciitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Evers, A.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of psychological distress and factors contributing to distress in patients with morphea or eosinophilic fasciitis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Of 120 patients with morphea or

  17. Adverse Consequences of Glucocorticoid Medication : Psychological, Cognitive, and Behavioral Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as

  18. Cultural Psychology and Its Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cultural Psychology is a radical new look in psychology that studies how persons and social-cultural worlds mutually constitute one another. With the increase of globalization and multicultural exchanges, cultural psychology becomes the psychological science for the 21st century. Encounters......’s revolutionary principle of ‘complementarity’ can contribute to the development of a cultural psychology that takes time, semiotics, and human feeling seriously. Commentators further discuss how complementarity can act as an epistemology for psychology; a number of new methodological strategies for incorporating...... culture and time into investigations; and what cultural psychology can contribute to our understanding of imagination, art, language and self-other relations....

  19. Psychological Distress in Norwegian Nurses and Teachers over Nine Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nerdrum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress have been found to be high and influence negatively nurses’ and teachers’ work. In this nine-year project, we present the first longitudinal study comparing psychological distress from 1467 students and young professionals in nursing and teaching. Psychological distress was measured with GHQ 12 at the start and the end of their studies and three and six years after graduation. Both descriptive statistics and estimated models were used to assess psychological distress over time. Psychological distress increased significantly in both groups during education. The reduction of psychological distress was significant among the nurses, and they clearly showed a “healthy worker effect” when coming into clinical work. The teachers had a small and non-significant reduction in the same period and did not show a positive effect after starting pedagogical work.

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND REHABILITATION OF RECIPIENTS OF DONOR ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the nature of psychological adaptation and rehabilitation of patients, recipients of solid organs. The results of the clinical and psychological work with patients, recipients of donor organs, carried out in theSverdlovskRegionalClinicalHospital№ 1 are shown. Special attention has been paid to the study of motivation as the main psychological factor in the process of adaptation and rehabilitation. We have also shown the infl uence of body image and self-evaluation on the emotional state of patients after the operation. Special stress is laid on the significance of psychological factors which improve the quality of the patient’s life. The main principles and the system of psychological rehabilitation are presented. 

  1. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  2. Society of Pediatric Psychology Diversity Award: Training Underrepresented Minority Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2016-01-01

    Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680

  3. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  4. Embodiment in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  6. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  8. Establishment of a Separate Psychology Service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Service report (Mleling, 1982) interviewed many military clinical psychologi-sts, optometrists, pharmacists , podiatrists, and physician assistants. There...Psychology x 7, Referrals back to Psychiatry x 8, Timely Psychology QA Minutes X 9. Assessment Response timeliness X Uti lization 10. Supply costs X 11

  9. Statistical Power of Psychological Research: What Have We Gained in 20 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated power for 6,155 statistical tests in 221 journal articles published in 1982 volumes of "Journal of Abnormal Psychology,""Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology," and "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology." Power to detect small, medium, and large effects was .17, .57, and .83, respectively. Concluded that power of…

  10. Using an Internship Opportunity to Expand Awareness of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisamore, Jennifer L.; Alexander, Evangeline

    2008-01-01

    The public perception of the field of psychology tends to be limited to the clinical area. Exposure to other areas of psychology through broad, introductory courses helps expand students' perspectives of psychology. This exposure may be too late, however, as many colleges cannot afford to devote entire courses to each of the many subfields of…

  11. International psychology and scientific psychology: at the crossroads for the future of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of psychology as a science and the newly emerging field of international psychology are at a crossroads in terms of a conflict that has developed in their views. By means of comparative analysis, this article examines how the proponents of international psychology describe their area, how that description conflicts with the concept of psychology as a science, and what that conflict means for the development of psychology as an overall discipline. The analysis reveals weaknesses...

  12. Lest we forget that industrial and organisational psychology is psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJW Strümpfer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The tie between industrial/organisational psychology (IOP and general psychology should be taken seriously. The origin of the split into separate academic departments is discussed. Four IOP topics are presented which are rooted in psychology or where the psychological quality is strong, making the tie-in clear: motivation, leadership, assessment, and appreciative inquiry; by way of illustration, proponents are referred to. Specialisation and professionalisation often bring undue emphasis on technology. IOP cannot be human resource management. Suggestions are made about bringing IOP and psychology closer within teaching programmes and internships. Appreciative images of what IOP, hand-in-hand with psychology, could be like, are put forward.

  13. An introduction to spiritual psychology: overview of the literature, east and west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovic, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the philosophical background to spiritual psychology and selectively reviews Western and Eastern literature on the subject. The world views of theism, atheism, and agnosticism are defined and critiqued, and the boundaries of scientific knowledge discussed. The views of James, Jung, and Freud are reviewed, and the contributions of humanistic psychology noted. Contemporary spiritual psychology is then summarized with reference to recent literature on theistic psychotherapy, Buddhist psychology, mind-body medicine, and transpersonal psychology. Sri Aurobindo's work is introduced as a modern Asian perspective on theistic psychology, and his model of the relationship between the "soul" and the unconscious described. Finally, a brief clinical vignette is given.

  14. The psychology of creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    The psychology of creativity is nowadays a thriving field of investigation, but also a discipline in crisis. This is the premise for the critical reading of past and present work within this area proposed here. The presentation follows the typical headings of a research article, beginning...... in order to help us develop a stronger psychology of creativity in the decades to come. In the end, six main points are placed on a hypothetical agenda for future (creative) creativity re-search. In this sense, a critical reading is actually the first step in the process of being constructive and calling...

  15. Neuroeconomics and business psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based on a meso......To determine parameters of the frontal power of executive integration for application in business, this paper reviewed neuroeconomic neuroimaging research and discussion in relation to business psychology. The results are that limbic system (L) is a centre of primary consciousness based...

  16. Psychology of programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hoc, J-M

    1991-01-01

    Psychology provides a backdrop for most of the study of human*b1computer interaction. In this volume the psychological issues that pertain to programming, rather than systems design, are examined in four sections: Theoretical and Methodological Issues; Language Design and Skill Acquisition; Expert Programming; and the Future.****The book was inspired by working groups in France and the United Kingdom but also includes work by major North American figures (such as Curtis and Soloway). It is the first comprehensive work on this topic since the early 1980s.

  17. Psychological lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    Up to the time of the disaster, the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant was regarded as one of the best in the USSR, and the city of Pripyat, housing the plant's staff, was rightly called one of the most comfortable. Also, the psychological climate of the plant provided no causes for worry. This was a worked-in team, composed of seasoned and knowledgeable experts. How can one then explain the events that happened in such an unlikely place. Isn't there a danger that the situation will repeat itself? The author considers the question and other psychological aspects of the Chernobyl incident

  18. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  19. On applying cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in the medial and lateral parietal cortices, the lateral temporal cortex, and the medial temporal lobe. Evidence from cognitive psychology and neuroscience implies distinct neural bases to abstract, flexible, contextualized representations (C-reps) and to inflexible, sensory-bound representations (S-reps). We revise our previous dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder to place it within a neural systems model of healthy memory and imagery. The revised model is used to explain how the different types of distressing visual intrusions associated with clinical disorders arise, in terms of the need for correct interaction between the neural systems supporting S-reps and C-reps via visuospatial working memory. Finally, we discuss the treatment implications of the new model and relate it to existing forms of psychological therapy. PMID:20063969

  2. The Psychological Assessment of Clerics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Alexander; Wilcox, Daniel T

    2018-01-01

    The psychological assessment of novice and experienced clerics is an important component of ordination, suitability, and risk evaluation to ensure that representatives of religious organizations are equipped, motivated, and safe for a life commitment to a faith vocation. It is the authors' opinion that such assessments should be conducted by skilled psychologists with expertise that covers occupational, clinical, and forensic domains. Further, the authors emphasize the importance of an objective and secular assessment to better inform the church about its role and responsibility for the oversight and spiritual development of the cleric. A thorough psychological assessment should incorporate a multimodal approach to information gathering, which includes a comprehensive review of background information and medical records, a personal history interview, a mental status examination, and administration of relevant psychometric measures and assessment tools. We also advise that, upon completion of the assessment, the requesting religious organization should be offered the opportunity to meet with the evaluating psychologist to discuss suitability issues and, if necessary, risk management planning.

  3. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  4. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Integrating positive psychology into health-related quality of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L

    2015-07-01

    Positive psychology is an increasingly influential force in theory and research within psychology and many related fields, including behavioral medicine, sociology, and public health. This article aims to review the ways in which positive psychology and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research currently interface and to suggest fruitful future directions. This article reviews the basic elements of positive psychology and provides an overview of conceptual and empirical links between positive psychology and HRQOL. The role of one central aspect of positive psychology (meaning) within HRQOL is highlighted, and unresolved issues (e.g., lack of definitional clarity) are discussed. Some research on HRQOL has taken a positive psychology perspective, demonstrating the usefulness of taking a positive psychology approach. However, many areas await integration. Once conceptual and methodological issues are resolved, positive psychology may profitably inform many aspects of HRQOL research and, perhaps, clinical interventions to promote HRQOL as well.

  6. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  7. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Psychological Stress and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death. How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? Emotional and social support can help patients ...

  9. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  10. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  11. Psychology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gretchen; Craig, Michelle L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an exhibition-based activity set that teaches important psychological processes such as attention (Interference), communication (Pattern Talk), and cooperation versus competition (Do Nice Guys Finish Last?). Activities follow the scientific method, and teachers can observe varying levels of skill and cognitive development in students of…

  12. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  13. A Psychology of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    William James, the turn of the century psychologist, philospher, and educator, was avidly interested in the relationship between psychology and teaching. This paper considers operant conditioning, timing of reinforcers, and programmed instruction--touchstones of B.F. Skinner in the teaching/learning milieu. Of course, materials not just methods…

  14. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  15. Family Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  16. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  17. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  18. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066 ...

  19. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science.

  20. Positive Psychology and old age Psychology. Theoretical Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Lombardo

    2015-01-01

    This article is a theoretical review of developments and research of the posi- tive psychology and of the psychology of aging. Some concepts that are in that intersection are: psychic capital, strengths, psychological wellbeing and emo- tional regulation. In all the cases they are positive psychic factors associated to the successful aging. Since the end of the 20th century, within the psychology of aging has been developing and achieved fundamental transformations in term of theoretical base...

  1. [Analysis of psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate by using psychological scales before and after psychological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Cai-xia; Zheng, Qian; Shi, Bing

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate, and to discuss the clinical psychological treatment methods of these parents. 100 parents of children with cleft lip and palate were selected as the parents of children with cleft lip and palate group, and 34 normal adults were selected as the control group. Two groups were tested by the life event scale (LES) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) to analyze their psychological states. After the study group was treated by psychological counseling, two groups were tested by the LES and SAS again. The LES total scores of the patients of children with cleft lip and palate had significant differences compared with the normal adults (P palate had no significant differences compared with the normal adults before and after psychological counseling (P > 0.05). Analyzing the psychological conditions of parents of children with cleft lip and palate by using psychological scales and then treating them by counseling, is an effective psychological treatment method.

  2. Core References in Introductory Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, George I., III; Smith, Stephanie H.; Losonczy-Marshall, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the core references in introductory textbooks in two sub-disciplines of psychology: social psychology and developmental psychology. One research question was the extent to which the common references in these textbooks present the trends in contemporary research in each sub-discipline. An analysis…

  3. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  4. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  5. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    psychological needs to issues of control. The sample only consisted of young women. Further research should explore how thwarting of psychological need satisfaction functions in men. Our clinical sample was small and diagnosis was not confirmed through clinical interview; therefore, those data should be interpreted with caution. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  7. African Journals Online: Psychology & Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... case studies that are community-based and inter/intra-cultural on human behaviour, ... education, health, religion, business, tourism, counselling and psychology.

  8. Clinical Observation on EEG Biofeedback combined with Psychological Treatment to Child Tic Disorder%生物反馈结合心理治疗儿童抽动障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 刘红英; 郭鑫

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨脑电生物反馈结合心理干预治疗儿童抽动障碍的疗效。方法对2012年1月-2014年8月我院儿童保健康复门诊的39例抽动障碍患儿进行脑电生物反馈和心理干预治疗,并采用耶鲁抽动症整体严重度量表(YGTSS)评分进行疗效评定。结果39例患儿经生物反馈结合心理治疗,显效12例,好转24例,无效3例,有效率达92.3%。结论脑电生物反馈结合心理干预是治疗儿童抽动障碍一种安全有效的治疗方法。%Objective To discuss the curative effect of EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment to 39 child tic disorder. Methods EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment was applied to children with tic disorder received by Children's health care and rehabilitation departments from Jan 2012 to Aug 2014, and therapeutic evaluation with YGTSS was made before and after the treatments. Result Among 39 children with EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment 12 cases were effective, 24 cases got better, 3 cases were of no effects, the total effective ratio was 92.3%.Conclusion EEG biofeedback combined with psychological treatment is a safe and effective method to cure child tic disorder.

  9. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alfonso Piña López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology is not a science of psychology, because it lacks a specific subject matter as well as conceptual categories that theoretically represent it. Even more, it is not built on the foundations of a theory that would make it possible to translate scientific knowledge into technological knowledge, applicable to social problems in which the psychological dimension is relevant. We conclude that positive psychology is more than just a “good fashion” or “sympathetic magic”; it is, in essence, an unwarranted and fruitless attempt to give life to a new and very different psychology. In short, it is a conspicuous example of the illogic of logic.

  11. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  12. Positive Psychology and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Positive psychology has been an influential movement within psychology in the early years of the twenty-first century. It is now timely to assess the value of its contribution to career education and guidance. This paper provides a critique of this perspective. Positive psychology can enrich approaches to career development. It can provide a…

  13. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  14. Realism, Relativism, and Evolutionary Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Against recent attempts to forge a reconciliation between constructionism and realism, I contend that, in psychology at least, stirring up conflict is a more fruitful strategy. To illustrate this thesis, I confront a school of psychology with strong realist leanings, evolutionary psychology, with

  15. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  16. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  17. Artificial Psychology: The Psychology of AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Crowder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Having artificially intelligent machines that think, learn, reason, experience, and can function autonomously, without supervision, is one of the most intriguing goals in all of Computer Science. As the types of problems we would like machines to solve get more complex, it is becoming a necessary goal as well. One of the many problems associated with this goal is that what learning and reasoning are have so many possible meanings that the solution can easily get lost in the sea of opinions and options. The goal of this paper is to establish some foundational principles, theory, and concepts that we feel are the backbone of real, autonomous Artificial Intelligence. With this fully autonomous, learning, reasoning, artificially intelligent system (an artificial brain, comes the need to possess constructs in its hardware and software that mimic processes and subsystems that exist within the human brain, including intuitive and emotional memory concepts. Presented here is a discussion of the psychological constructs of artificial intelligence and how they might play out in an artificial mind.

  18. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  19. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  20. The psychology of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2002-10-01

    The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identity issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolescence, through the mid- to late twenties.

  1. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental psychology matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental psychology examines transactions between individuals and their built and natural environments. This includes investigating behaviors that inhibit or foster sustainable, climate-healthy, and nature-enhancing choices, the antecedents and correlates of those behaviors, and interventions to increase proenvironmental behavior. It also includes transactions in which nature provides restoration or inflicts stress, and transactions that are more mutual, such as the development of place attachment and identity and the impacts on and from important physical settings such as home, workplaces, schools, and public spaces. As people spend more time in virtual environments, online transactions are coming under increasing research attention. Every aspect of human existence occurs in one environment or another, and the transactions with and within them have important consequences both for people and their natural and built worlds. Environmental psychology matters.

  3. A Social Psychological Perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Westerling, Allan

    2008-01-01

    and a longitudinal approach, differences and similarities in practices of care are identified. The care patterns are studied with a focus on young adults age 30-35. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are employed. By utilising in-depth qualitative interview data the paper explores the interplay between...... of agency with the changing societal structures and the diaspora context is confirmed. Key words: intergenerational care, individualisation, social network analysis, socio-cultural psychology, modernisation...

  4. Psychology of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    and logistic support. 160. Kfir, N. (2002). Understanding suicidal terror through humanistic and existential psychology. C. E. Stout (Ed), The...anomie or for an existential vacuum, which may drive other individuals to drifting or to entering the drug culture. - To understand the differences...any group of prisoners is by definition ‘survivalist’, yet that of the Red Brigades has evolved through three phases ‘social’, ‘ existential ’ and

  5. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  6. Subarachnoid hemorrhage as a psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Bernd-Otto; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, Ilonka

    2014-04-01

    Despite the progress made in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), many patients complain of persistent psychosocial and cognitive problems. The present study was performed to explore the significance of psychological traumatization by the bleeding with respect to psychosocial results after SAH. A series of 45 patients were examined in a cross-sectional study an average of 49.4 months after SAH by means of a quality-of-life questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the German version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES), and a clinical interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders) to make the diagnosis of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-nine patients underwent surgery for treatment of a ruptured aneurysm; the remaining 16 patients had SAH of unknown origin. Twelve patients (27%) exhibited PTSD, and almost two-thirds of the 45 patients in the study reported substantial fear of recurrent hemorrhage. Not only the presence of PTSD but the severity of psychological traumatization as assessed by the IES explained up to 40% of the variance of the self- and proxy-rated impairments. Multivariate analyses revealed psychological traumatization (IES) and neurological state on admission (Hunt and Hess grade) as substantial predictors of the self- and proxy-rated quality of life, explaining 31% and 42% of the variance, respectively. Even several years after SAH, the severity of psychological traumatization by the bleeding substantially determines the degree of psychosocial impairment. In the future, this issue should be addressed in the care of these patients. Furthermore, the development of psychological interventions is called for to prevent the emergence of PTSD after SAH.

  7. Psychological work characteristics, psychological workload and associated psychological and cognitive requirements of train drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, Ilona; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the psychological work characteristics and psychological workload of train drivers and to define the psychological and cognitive requirements of their work. A systematic literature search was performed, and expert interviews were conducted. The following work demands were

  8. [Placebo effect: a contribution of social psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balez, R; Leroyer, C; Couturaud, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews the psychosocial variables, which are of interest in the relationship between the patient and the physician. According to a classical model of social psychology, such a relationship might contribute to the placebo/nocebo effects. We develop herein various relational and contextual variables, taking into account four dimensions (intra-individual, interpersonal, positional and ideological) and their potential effects on therapeutic responses. This applies both in the setting of daily clinical practice and of clinical trials. The placebo effect offers an opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between social scientists and physicians.

  9. Bulimia: A Self-Psychological and Ego-Developmental View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner-Liss, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    Discusses key clinical issues in the treatment of bulimia with clinical examples from a self-psychological and ego-developmental point of view. Identifies three developmental issues for bulimia: self-regulatory, differentiation, and self-esteem. (Author/ABB)

  10. Youth Reactions to Participation in Psychological Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Lisa; DuBois, David L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates self-reported positive and negative reactions of youth to psychological assessment procedures. A community sample (COM) reported reactions to completing a self-report questionnaire of negative emotional states. A clinical sample (CL) reported reactions both to completion of the questionnaire and to a clinical intake.…

  11. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  12. The image of psychology programs: the value of the instrumental-symbolic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip; De Soete, Britt; Libbrecht, Nele; Schollaert, Eveline; Baligant, Dimphna

    2014-01-01

    As competition for funding and students intensifies, it becomes increasingly important for psychology programs to have an image that is attractive and makes them stand out from other programs. The current study uses the instrumental-symbolic framework from the marketing domain to determine the image of different master's programs in psychology and examines how these image dimensions relate to student attraction and competitor differentiation. The samples consist of both potential students (N = 114) and current students (N = 68) of three psychology programs at a Belgian university: industrial and organizational psychology, clinical psychology, and experimental psychology. The results demonstrate that both instrumental attributes (e.g., interpersonal activities) and symbolic trait inferences (e.g., sincerity) are key components of the image of psychology programs and predict attractiveness as well as differentiation. In addition, symbolic image dimensions seem more important for current students of psychology programs than for potential students.

  13. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. ISSLS PRIZE IN CLINICAL SCIENCE 2018: longitudinal analysis of inflammatory, psychological, and sleep-related factors following an acute low back pain episode-the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyne, David M; Barbe, Mary F; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W

    2018-04-01

    Prospective longitudinal study. To determine whether systemic cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) during an acute episode of low back pain (LBP) differ between individuals who did and did not recover by 6 months and to identify sub-groups based on patterns of inflammatory, psychological, and sleep features associated with recovery/non-recovery. Systemic inflammation is observed in chronic LBP and may contribute to the transition from acute to persistent LBP. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether changes present early or develop over time. Psychological and/or sleep-related factors may be related. Individuals within 2 weeks of onset of acute LBP (N = 109) and pain-free controls (N = 55) provided blood for assessment of CRP, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β, and completed questionnaires related to pain, disability, sleep, and psychological status. LBP participants repeated measurements at 6 months. Biomarkers were compared between LBP and control participants at baseline, and in longitudinal (baseline/6 months) analysis, between unrecovered (≥pain and disability), partially recovered (reduced pain and/or disability) and recovered (no pain and disability) participants at 6 months. We assessed baseline patterns of inflammatory, psychological, sleep, and pain data using hierarchical clustering and related the clusters to recovery (% change in pain) at 6 months. CRP was higher in acute LBP than controls at baseline. In LBP, baseline CRP was higher in the recovered than non-recovered groups. Conversely, TNF was higher at both time-points in the non-recovered than recovered groups. Two sub-groups were identified that associated with more ("inflammatory/poor sleep") or less ("high TNF/depression") recovery. This is the first evidence of a relationship between an "acute-phase" systemic inflammatory response and recovery at 6 months. High inflammation (CRP/IL-6) was associated with good recovery, but specific

  15. Psychological Processing in Chronic Pain: A Neural Systems Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Laura; Elman, Igor; Borsook, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of chronic pain involves complex brain circuits that include sensory, emotional, cognitive and interoceptive processing. The feed-forward interactions between physical (e.g., trauma) and emotional pain and the consequences of altered psychological status on the expression of pain have made the evaluation and treatment of chronic pain a challenge in the clinic. By understanding the neural circuits involved in psychological processes, a mechanistic approach to the implementati...

  16. Psychological trauma in professionals working with traumatised children

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Carol Ann; Huxley, Siona

    2018-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT: \\ud Purpose of this paper: Clinical professionals working with psychologically traumatised children in the care system can experience potential challenges maintaining their own positive psychological health, and when repeatedly being exposed to the traumatic histories of those in their care. The aim of this paper is to increase understanding of vicarious trauma and provide a guide for focusing future research.\\ud Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic literatur...

  17. Credentialing high school psychology teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Globalization and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-Yue; Kwan, Letty Yan-Yee

    2016-04-01

    In globalized societies, people often encounter symbols of diverse cultures in the same space at the same time. Simultaneous exposure to diverse cultures draws people's attention to cultural differences and promotes catergorical perceptions of culture. Local cultural identification and presence of cultural threat increase the likelihood of resisting inflow of foreign cultures (exclusionary reactions). When cultures are seen as intellectual resources, foreign cultural exposure affords intercultural learning and enhances individual creativity (integrative reactions). Psychological studies of globalization attest to the utility of treating cultures as evolving, interacting systems, rather than static, independent entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.